antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors  (Alomone Labs)


Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 93

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors
    Effects of <t>β2</t> adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p
    Antibody Against β2 Adrenergic Receptors, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Systemic administration of a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and suppresses the immune response to surgery in a rat model of persistent post-incisional hypersensitivity"

    Article Title: Systemic administration of a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and suppresses the immune response to surgery in a rat model of persistent post-incisional hypersensitivity

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    doi: 10.1177/1744806921997206

    Effects of β2 adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of β2 adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    Beta 2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of rats under naïve conditions and two days following plantar incision. Transverse section of L4 spinal cord of rat reacted with antibody against β2 adrenergic receptor ((a), β2-AR, green). There is a high density of immunoreactivity in cellular profiles throughout dorsal and ventral horn. There is also dense immunoreactivity in axon terminals within the lateral portion of the superficial laminae (arrow) and ependymal cells in the vicinity of the central canal (Arrowhead). Note lack of staining for β2-AR in motor neurons within the ventral horn (asterisk). Higher magnification confocal images show β2-AR-IR ((c), green) is present in a subpopulation of neurons ((d), NeuN, purple) in the dorsal spinal cord. Most β2-AR-IR cellular profiles colocalized with NeuN with the exception of a few non-neuronal profiles with morphology typical of microglia (arrows, (c)–(f)). β2-AR-IR non-neuronal cellular profiles in the spinal cord colocalized with the microglial marker IBA1 (red, (e) and (f)). Arrows in F indicate IBA1 negative neuronal cellular profiles. Representative images of β2 mRNA and DAPI in the dorsal spinal cord (g) with high power image showing colocalization with a subset of nuclei (h).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Beta 2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of rats under naïve conditions and two days following plantar incision. Transverse section of L4 spinal cord of rat reacted with antibody against β2 adrenergic receptor ((a), β2-AR, green). There is a high density of immunoreactivity in cellular profiles throughout dorsal and ventral horn. There is also dense immunoreactivity in axon terminals within the lateral portion of the superficial laminae (arrow) and ependymal cells in the vicinity of the central canal (Arrowhead). Note lack of staining for β2-AR in motor neurons within the ventral horn (asterisk). Higher magnification confocal images show β2-AR-IR ((c), green) is present in a subpopulation of neurons ((d), NeuN, purple) in the dorsal spinal cord. Most β2-AR-IR cellular profiles colocalized with NeuN with the exception of a few non-neuronal profiles with morphology typical of microglia (arrows, (c)–(f)). β2-AR-IR non-neuronal cellular profiles in the spinal cord colocalized with the microglial marker IBA1 (red, (e) and (f)). Arrows in F indicate IBA1 negative neuronal cellular profiles. Representative images of β2 mRNA and DAPI in the dorsal spinal cord (g) with high power image showing colocalization with a subset of nuclei (h).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Marker

    β2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity (β2AR-IR) in hindpaw of rats under naïve conditions and following plantar incision. Skin sections were obtained from the hind paw of naïve rats and incision rats two days following surgery. Sixteen-μm-thick sections were stained with antibodies against β2AR-IR (green, (a)–(c)), IBA1 (red, (d)–(f)) to label all monocytes/and macrophage, CD68 (blue, (g)–(i)) for activated M1 macrophage) and DAPI ((j) and (k)) to label all nuclei. β2-AR IR was present in keratinocytes of both naïve and incision rats. Two days following plantar incision there were increased β2-AR IR cellular profiles in predominantly the dermal layers of the skin. Higher magnification confocal images ((c), (f), (i), and (l)) indicate colocalization of β2-AR in IBA1 + cells and a subset of which express CD68-IR. Note in naïve skin IBA1-IR was primarily present at the epidermal/dermal interface and had reduced dermal cellularity (DAPI + cells) compared to skin adjacent to the wound in incision rats.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity (β2AR-IR) in hindpaw of rats under naïve conditions and following plantar incision. Skin sections were obtained from the hind paw of naïve rats and incision rats two days following surgery. Sixteen-μm-thick sections were stained with antibodies against β2AR-IR (green, (a)–(c)), IBA1 (red, (d)–(f)) to label all monocytes/and macrophage, CD68 (blue, (g)–(i)) for activated M1 macrophage) and DAPI ((j) and (k)) to label all nuclei. β2-AR IR was present in keratinocytes of both naïve and incision rats. Two days following plantar incision there were increased β2-AR IR cellular profiles in predominantly the dermal layers of the skin. Higher magnification confocal images ((c), (f), (i), and (l)) indicate colocalization of β2-AR in IBA1 + cells and a subset of which express CD68-IR. Note in naïve skin IBA1-IR was primarily present at the epidermal/dermal interface and had reduced dermal cellularity (DAPI + cells) compared to skin adjacent to the wound in incision rats.

    Techniques Used: Staining

    2) Product Images from "Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field"

    Article Title: Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2020.574130

    Expression of adrenergic receptors in FEF. From left to right: expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) in macaque FEF. Images show a cross-section of all layers of cortex and are oriented with the pial surface at the top and white matter at the bottom. The α2A and β2 adrenergic receptors had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, with little to no background labeling of processes. While the α1A and β1 adrenergic receptors also had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, there was also staining of the surrounding processes (dendrites and axons), which resulted in a higher amount of background signal. Scale bar = 100 μm for all panels.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors in FEF. From left to right: expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) in macaque FEF. Images show a cross-section of all layers of cortex and are oriented with the pial surface at the top and white matter at the bottom. The α2A and β2 adrenergic receptors had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, with little to no background labeling of processes. While the α1A and β1 adrenergic receptors also had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, there was also staining of the surrounding processes (dendrites and axons), which resulted in a higher amount of background signal. Scale bar = 100 μm for all panels.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Labeling

    Expression of adrenergic receptors on pyramidal neurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with pyramidal neuron markers (RP, neurogranin, and SMI-32) from left to right. RP and neurogranin are both putative general markers of pyramidal neurons and SMI-32 is a marker for putative long-range projecting pyramidal neurons. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all pyramidal neurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. All four adrenergic receptors were expressed significantly more highly on long-range projecting pyramidal neurons than either class of general pyramidal neuron. Significance levels are noted as *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors on pyramidal neurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with pyramidal neuron markers (RP, neurogranin, and SMI-32) from left to right. RP and neurogranin are both putative general markers of pyramidal neurons and SMI-32 is a marker for putative long-range projecting pyramidal neurons. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all pyramidal neurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. All four adrenergic receptors were expressed significantly more highly on long-range projecting pyramidal neurons than either class of general pyramidal neuron. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Marker, Labeling

    Expression of adrenergic receptors on inhibitory interneurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with inhibitory interneuron markers (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) from left to right. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all inhibitory interneurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. Lines above the bars show the significance of different comparisons. Black lines indicate significant differences between the expression of different receptors within a neuron class; gray lines indicate significant differences of expression of a specific receptor across different neuron classes. The shade of gray indicates which receptor class is being compared and matches the shading of the bars: from light to dark—α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R. Significance levels are noted as *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors on inhibitory interneurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with inhibitory interneuron markers (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) from left to right. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all inhibitory interneurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. Lines above the bars show the significance of different comparisons. Black lines indicate significant differences between the expression of different receptors within a neuron class; gray lines indicate significant differences of expression of a specific receptor across different neuron classes. The shade of gray indicates which receptor class is being compared and matches the shading of the bars: from light to dark—α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling

    Density of adrenergic receptors across different layers of the FEF. The number of neurons per mm 2 that express a given receptor across FEF layers. α2A adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) and β2 adrenergic receptors (β2Rs) are more abundant than either α1A adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) or β1 adrenergic receptors (β1Rs) across layers II through V. There are no obvious differences in expression across layers other than the predictably low expression of all receptor classes in layer I where there are few neurons.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Density of adrenergic receptors across different layers of the FEF. The number of neurons per mm 2 that express a given receptor across FEF layers. α2A adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) and β2 adrenergic receptors (β2Rs) are more abundant than either α1A adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) or β1 adrenergic receptors (β1Rs) across layers II through V. There are no obvious differences in expression across layers other than the predictably low expression of all receptor classes in layer I where there are few neurons.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    3) Product Images from "Bepridil up-regulates cardiac Na+ channels as a long-term effect by blunting proteasome signals through inhibition of calmodulin activity"

    Article Title: Bepridil up-regulates cardiac Na+ channels as a long-term effect by blunting proteasome signals through inhibition of calmodulin activity

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00174.x

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR experiments and expression of cardiac Na + channel proteins (Na v 1.5, Na v β1 and Na v β2) assessed by Western blots analysis. Bar graphs represent amount of Na v 1.5 mRNA or β-subunits mRNA. (A and B) mRNA for Na v 1.5 extracted from cardiomyocytes with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil (bep) treatment for 24 h (A) and 48 h (B). (C) mRNA for Na v 1.5 from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-Na v 1.5 cells with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil treatment for 24 h. (D) Comparison of four different β-subunits genes ( SCN1B , SCN2B , SCN3B and SCN4B ) level in cardiomyocytes treated with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil for 24 h. Representative PCR products are shown in inset with the reference gene GAPDH (below). Each mRNA product was normalized to that of GAPDH. Numbers of experiment are indicated in parentheses. (E) Examples of Na v 1.5, Na v β1, Na v β2 and actin protein expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. (F) Protein expression levels of Na v 1.5, Na v β1 and Na v β2 determined from the density of blotted bands in panel (E). Na + channel proteins extracted from cardiomyocytes treated with vehicle (vehi), 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil and 20 µmol·L −1 W-7 for 24 h. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR experiments and expression of cardiac Na + channel proteins (Na v 1.5, Na v β1 and Na v β2) assessed by Western blots analysis. Bar graphs represent amount of Na v 1.5 mRNA or β-subunits mRNA. (A and B) mRNA for Na v 1.5 extracted from cardiomyocytes with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil (bep) treatment for 24 h (A) and 48 h (B). (C) mRNA for Na v 1.5 from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-Na v 1.5 cells with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil treatment for 24 h. (D) Comparison of four different β-subunits genes ( SCN1B , SCN2B , SCN3B and SCN4B ) level in cardiomyocytes treated with or without 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil for 24 h. Representative PCR products are shown in inset with the reference gene GAPDH (below). Each mRNA product was normalized to that of GAPDH. Numbers of experiment are indicated in parentheses. (E) Examples of Na v 1.5, Na v β1, Na v β2 and actin protein expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. (F) Protein expression levels of Na v 1.5, Na v β1 and Na v β2 determined from the density of blotted bands in panel (E). Na + channel proteins extracted from cardiomyocytes treated with vehicle (vehi), 10 µmol·L −1 bepridil and 20 µmol·L −1 W-7 for 24 h. ** P

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Western Blot, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 93
    Alomone Labs antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors
    Effects of <t>β2</t> adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p
    Antibody Against β2 Adrenergic Receptors, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Effects of β2 adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: Systemic administration of a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and suppresses the immune response to surgery in a rat model of persistent post-incisional hypersensitivity

    doi: 10.1177/1744806921997206

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of β2 adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist on enhanced spinal microglia activation in a rat model of persistent postoperative pain. Sections of spinal cord were collected from rats 8 days following plantar incision and following treatment with DβH-saporin to deplete spinal noradrenergic terminals or control IgG-saporin. Rats were chronically administered clenbuterol (0.5 mg/kg, 2×/day, i.p.) or saline vehicle 6 days prior to and for 8 days after plantar incision. Depletion of spinal noradrenergic fibers was verified immunohistochemically with an antibody against dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH, (a)–(c)). Representative confocal images of IBA1-IR (blue, (d)–(f)) and phospho-p38 MAPK-IR (purple, (g)–(i)) in the ipsilateral spinal cord of incision rats. Localization of p38 MAPK in microglia was confirmed by colocalization with an antibody against the cell surface antigen CD11b (green, inset in (h)). Quantification of IBA1-IR in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord of rats with incision (j). Data represent mean ± SEM, n = 3 rats per group. Two way ANOVA indicated effect of group: p

    Article Snippet: We used a previously characterized antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors (AAR-016, β2-AR, 1:1000, rabbit anti-mouse, Alomone Labs; Jerusalem, Israel).

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Beta 2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of rats under naïve conditions and two days following plantar incision. Transverse section of L4 spinal cord of rat reacted with antibody against β2 adrenergic receptor ((a), β2-AR, green). There is a high density of immunoreactivity in cellular profiles throughout dorsal and ventral horn. There is also dense immunoreactivity in axon terminals within the lateral portion of the superficial laminae (arrow) and ependymal cells in the vicinity of the central canal (Arrowhead). Note lack of staining for β2-AR in motor neurons within the ventral horn (asterisk). Higher magnification confocal images show β2-AR-IR ((c), green) is present in a subpopulation of neurons ((d), NeuN, purple) in the dorsal spinal cord. Most β2-AR-IR cellular profiles colocalized with NeuN with the exception of a few non-neuronal profiles with morphology typical of microglia (arrows, (c)–(f)). β2-AR-IR non-neuronal cellular profiles in the spinal cord colocalized with the microglial marker IBA1 (red, (e) and (f)). Arrows in F indicate IBA1 negative neuronal cellular profiles. Representative images of β2 mRNA and DAPI in the dorsal spinal cord (g) with high power image showing colocalization with a subset of nuclei (h).

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: Systemic administration of a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and suppresses the immune response to surgery in a rat model of persistent post-incisional hypersensitivity

    doi: 10.1177/1744806921997206

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta 2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of rats under naïve conditions and two days following plantar incision. Transverse section of L4 spinal cord of rat reacted with antibody against β2 adrenergic receptor ((a), β2-AR, green). There is a high density of immunoreactivity in cellular profiles throughout dorsal and ventral horn. There is also dense immunoreactivity in axon terminals within the lateral portion of the superficial laminae (arrow) and ependymal cells in the vicinity of the central canal (Arrowhead). Note lack of staining for β2-AR in motor neurons within the ventral horn (asterisk). Higher magnification confocal images show β2-AR-IR ((c), green) is present in a subpopulation of neurons ((d), NeuN, purple) in the dorsal spinal cord. Most β2-AR-IR cellular profiles colocalized with NeuN with the exception of a few non-neuronal profiles with morphology typical of microglia (arrows, (c)–(f)). β2-AR-IR non-neuronal cellular profiles in the spinal cord colocalized with the microglial marker IBA1 (red, (e) and (f)). Arrows in F indicate IBA1 negative neuronal cellular profiles. Representative images of β2 mRNA and DAPI in the dorsal spinal cord (g) with high power image showing colocalization with a subset of nuclei (h).

    Article Snippet: We used a previously characterized antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors (AAR-016, β2-AR, 1:1000, rabbit anti-mouse, Alomone Labs; Jerusalem, Israel).

    Techniques: Staining, Marker

    β2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity (β2AR-IR) in hindpaw of rats under naïve conditions and following plantar incision. Skin sections were obtained from the hind paw of naïve rats and incision rats two days following surgery. Sixteen-μm-thick sections were stained with antibodies against β2AR-IR (green, (a)–(c)), IBA1 (red, (d)–(f)) to label all monocytes/and macrophage, CD68 (blue, (g)–(i)) for activated M1 macrophage) and DAPI ((j) and (k)) to label all nuclei. β2-AR IR was present in keratinocytes of both naïve and incision rats. Two days following plantar incision there were increased β2-AR IR cellular profiles in predominantly the dermal layers of the skin. Higher magnification confocal images ((c), (f), (i), and (l)) indicate colocalization of β2-AR in IBA1 + cells and a subset of which express CD68-IR. Note in naïve skin IBA1-IR was primarily present at the epidermal/dermal interface and had reduced dermal cellularity (DAPI + cells) compared to skin adjacent to the wound in incision rats.

    Journal: Molecular Pain

    Article Title: Systemic administration of a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist reduces mechanical allodynia and suppresses the immune response to surgery in a rat model of persistent post-incisional hypersensitivity

    doi: 10.1177/1744806921997206

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β2-adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity (β2AR-IR) in hindpaw of rats under naïve conditions and following plantar incision. Skin sections were obtained from the hind paw of naïve rats and incision rats two days following surgery. Sixteen-μm-thick sections were stained with antibodies against β2AR-IR (green, (a)–(c)), IBA1 (red, (d)–(f)) to label all monocytes/and macrophage, CD68 (blue, (g)–(i)) for activated M1 macrophage) and DAPI ((j) and (k)) to label all nuclei. β2-AR IR was present in keratinocytes of both naïve and incision rats. Two days following plantar incision there were increased β2-AR IR cellular profiles in predominantly the dermal layers of the skin. Higher magnification confocal images ((c), (f), (i), and (l)) indicate colocalization of β2-AR in IBA1 + cells and a subset of which express CD68-IR. Note in naïve skin IBA1-IR was primarily present at the epidermal/dermal interface and had reduced dermal cellularity (DAPI + cells) compared to skin adjacent to the wound in incision rats.

    Article Snippet: We used a previously characterized antibody against β2 adrenergic receptors (AAR-016, β2-AR, 1:1000, rabbit anti-mouse, Alomone Labs; Jerusalem, Israel).

    Techniques: Staining

    Expression of adrenergic receptors in FEF. From left to right: expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) in macaque FEF. Images show a cross-section of all layers of cortex and are oriented with the pial surface at the top and white matter at the bottom. The α2A and β2 adrenergic receptors had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, with little to no background labeling of processes. While the α1A and β1 adrenergic receptors also had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, there was also staining of the surrounding processes (dendrites and axons), which resulted in a higher amount of background signal. Scale bar = 100 μm for all panels.

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    Article Title: Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2020.574130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors in FEF. From left to right: expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) in macaque FEF. Images show a cross-section of all layers of cortex and are oriented with the pial surface at the top and white matter at the bottom. The α2A and β2 adrenergic receptors had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, with little to no background labeling of processes. While the α1A and β1 adrenergic receptors also had strong, punctate staining of cell bodies, there was also staining of the surrounding processes (dendrites and axons), which resulted in a higher amount of background signal. Scale bar = 100 μm for all panels.

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with Intercept Blocking Buffer (LiCor 927-70001) and then incubated overnight with anti-α1A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-015), anti-α2A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-020), anti-β1 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-023), or anti-β2 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-016) pre-incubated with peptide plus 1% BSA, or pre-incubated with 1% BSA alone.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining, Labeling

    Expression of adrenergic receptors on pyramidal neurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with pyramidal neuron markers (RP, neurogranin, and SMI-32) from left to right. RP and neurogranin are both putative general markers of pyramidal neurons and SMI-32 is a marker for putative long-range projecting pyramidal neurons. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all pyramidal neurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. All four adrenergic receptors were expressed significantly more highly on long-range projecting pyramidal neurons than either class of general pyramidal neuron. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    Article Title: Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2020.574130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors on pyramidal neurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with pyramidal neuron markers (RP, neurogranin, and SMI-32) from left to right. RP and neurogranin are both putative general markers of pyramidal neurons and SMI-32 is a marker for putative long-range projecting pyramidal neurons. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all pyramidal neurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. All four adrenergic receptors were expressed significantly more highly on long-range projecting pyramidal neurons than either class of general pyramidal neuron. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with Intercept Blocking Buffer (LiCor 927-70001) and then incubated overnight with anti-α1A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-015), anti-α2A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-020), anti-β1 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-023), or anti-β2 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-016) pre-incubated with peptide plus 1% BSA, or pre-incubated with 1% BSA alone.

    Techniques: Expressing, Marker, Labeling

    Expression of adrenergic receptors on inhibitory interneurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with inhibitory interneuron markers (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) from left to right. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all inhibitory interneurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. Lines above the bars show the significance of different comparisons. Black lines indicate significant differences between the expression of different receptors within a neuron class; gray lines indicate significant differences of expression of a specific receptor across different neuron classes. The shade of gray indicates which receptor class is being compared and matches the shading of the bars: from light to dark—α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    Article Title: Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2020.574130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of adrenergic receptors on inhibitory interneurons. (A) Panels show expression of α1A, α2A, β1, and β2 adrenergic receptors (α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R, respectively) from top to bottom with inhibitory interneuron markers (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) from left to right. All adrenergic receptors are labeled in green, and all inhibitory interneurons are labeled in magenta. (B) Quantification of the proportion of each neuron class that expressed each receptor class. Chi-squared tests were performed using pooled neuron counts across all animals. Lines above the bars show the significance of different comparisons. Black lines indicate significant differences between the expression of different receptors within a neuron class; gray lines indicate significant differences of expression of a specific receptor across different neuron classes. The shade of gray indicates which receptor class is being compared and matches the shading of the bars: from light to dark—α1AR, α2AR, β1R, and β2R. Significance levels are noted as *** p

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with Intercept Blocking Buffer (LiCor 927-70001) and then incubated overnight with anti-α1A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-015), anti-α2A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-020), anti-β1 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-023), or anti-β2 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-016) pre-incubated with peptide plus 1% BSA, or pre-incubated with 1% BSA alone.

    Techniques: Expressing, Labeling

    Density of adrenergic receptors across different layers of the FEF. The number of neurons per mm 2 that express a given receptor across FEF layers. α2A adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) and β2 adrenergic receptors (β2Rs) are more abundant than either α1A adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) or β1 adrenergic receptors (β1Rs) across layers II through V. There are no obvious differences in expression across layers other than the predictably low expression of all receptor classes in layer I where there are few neurons.

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    Article Title: Differences in Noradrenaline Receptor Expression Across Different Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2020.574130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Density of adrenergic receptors across different layers of the FEF. The number of neurons per mm 2 that express a given receptor across FEF layers. α2A adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) and β2 adrenergic receptors (β2Rs) are more abundant than either α1A adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) or β1 adrenergic receptors (β1Rs) across layers II through V. There are no obvious differences in expression across layers other than the predictably low expression of all receptor classes in layer I where there are few neurons.

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with Intercept Blocking Buffer (LiCor 927-70001) and then incubated overnight with anti-α1A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-015), anti-α2A adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-020), anti-β1 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-023), or anti-β2 adrenergic receptor (Alomone Labs AAR-016) pre-incubated with peptide plus 1% BSA, or pre-incubated with 1% BSA alone.

    Techniques: Expressing