s a toxins ω conotoxin gvia  (Alomone Labs)


Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 93

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs s a toxins ω conotoxin gvia
    S A Toxins ω Conotoxin Gvia, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/s a toxins ω conotoxin gvia/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 93 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    s a toxins ω conotoxin gvia - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    93/100 stars

    Images

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Alomone Labs ω conotoxin gvia
    ω Conotoxin Gvia, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ω conotoxin gvia/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ω conotoxin gvia - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Alomone Labs nav1 2
    Reduced expression of <t>NaV1.6</t> and paranode morphology in experimental nerves. Confocal micrographs of longitudinal optic nerve sections in mice subjected to saline- and microbead injection or sham surgery and ONC. ( A ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.6 within nodes of Ranvier (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing example node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( B ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.2 (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing representative node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( C, left ) Compared with nerves from naïve mice, NaV1.6 immunolabelling decreased in nerves from all experimental animals ( P
    Nav1 2, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/nav1 2/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    nav1 2 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Alomone Labs cyclic nucleotide gate cation channels hcn4
    3-Dimensional Images of the Cholinergic and Adrenergic Neuronal Plexus Gradients Within the <t>HCN4</t> + Immunoreactive Pacemaker Cell Meshwork Mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic neuronal fibers normalized to maximum measured in 7 Z-stacks from 3 SAN preparations immunolabeled to VAChT (green) and TH (cyan) plotted against the SAN tissue deepness. The x-axes indicate tissue depth starting from 0 μm at the endocardial side and ends 300 μm at the epicardial site at. (A) Sharp gradient in which density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum near the endocardial site to its minimum within a distance of ~50 μm. (B) Linear gradient in which the density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum at the endocardial side to its minimum within a distance of ~100 μm. (C to E) Three-dimensional panoramic images of the SAN with triple immunolabeling of pacemaker cells HCN4 (red) , cholinergic VAChT (green) , and adrenergic TH (cyan) neuronal plexus separated in 3 <t>channels.</t> In C to E , the 3-dimensional virtual slice for Image 1 was taken at 1,000 μm from the root of the SVC, Image 2 at 1,250 μm, and Image 3 at 1,500 μm. Red arrows point to the endocardial site and black arrows point to the epicardial side of the SAN. SEPT indicates the site of septum; CRT above the yellow or red broken line indicates location of the crista terminalis; and RA indicates the right auricle. F summarizes the mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic innervation together near endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) sites within the SAN (red bars) and within the RA (blue bars) . At the 0.05 certainty level, the mean neuronal plexus density per 0.001 mm 3 (50 μm by 100 μm by 200 μm) volume has higher density at the endocardial side of the SAN than in the auricle as tested by one-way analysis of variance. Asterisk highlights compared datasets that had showed higher density of neuronal plexus. Other abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2 .
    Cyclic Nucleotide Gate Cation Channels Hcn4, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cyclic nucleotide gate cation channels hcn4/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cyclic nucleotide gate cation channels hcn4 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Reduced expression of NaV1.6 and paranode morphology in experimental nerves. Confocal micrographs of longitudinal optic nerve sections in mice subjected to saline- and microbead injection or sham surgery and ONC. ( A ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.6 within nodes of Ranvier (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing example node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( B ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.2 (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing representative node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( C, left ) Compared with nerves from naïve mice, NaV1.6 immunolabelling decreased in nerves from all experimental animals ( P

    Journal: Brain Communications

    Article Title: Axon hyperexcitability in the contralateral projection following unilateral optic nerve crush in mice

    doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcac251

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduced expression of NaV1.6 and paranode morphology in experimental nerves. Confocal micrographs of longitudinal optic nerve sections in mice subjected to saline- and microbead injection or sham surgery and ONC. ( A ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.6 within nodes of Ranvier (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing example node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( B ) Immunostaining of Caspr1-labelled paranodes and Na V 1.2 (scale bar = 15 µm). Insets are higher magnification micrographs showing representative node-paranode complexes (scale bar = 5 µm). ( C, left ) Compared with nerves from naïve mice, NaV1.6 immunolabelling decreased in nerves from all experimental animals ( P

    Article Snippet: Sections were incubated overnight at 4°C with primary antibodies Caspr1 (1:300; Millipore, Norwood, OH, USA), NaV1.6 (1:200; Millipore, Norwood, OH, USA) or NaV1.2 (1:300; Alomone Labs, Israel) followed by incubation with appropriate secondary antibodies for 2 h at room temperature.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection, Immunostaining

    3-Dimensional Images of the Cholinergic and Adrenergic Neuronal Plexus Gradients Within the HCN4 + Immunoreactive Pacemaker Cell Meshwork Mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic neuronal fibers normalized to maximum measured in 7 Z-stacks from 3 SAN preparations immunolabeled to VAChT (green) and TH (cyan) plotted against the SAN tissue deepness. The x-axes indicate tissue depth starting from 0 μm at the endocardial side and ends 300 μm at the epicardial site at. (A) Sharp gradient in which density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum near the endocardial site to its minimum within a distance of ~50 μm. (B) Linear gradient in which the density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum at the endocardial side to its minimum within a distance of ~100 μm. (C to E) Three-dimensional panoramic images of the SAN with triple immunolabeling of pacemaker cells HCN4 (red) , cholinergic VAChT (green) , and adrenergic TH (cyan) neuronal plexus separated in 3 channels. In C to E , the 3-dimensional virtual slice for Image 1 was taken at 1,000 μm from the root of the SVC, Image 2 at 1,250 μm, and Image 3 at 1,500 μm. Red arrows point to the endocardial site and black arrows point to the epicardial side of the SAN. SEPT indicates the site of septum; CRT above the yellow or red broken line indicates location of the crista terminalis; and RA indicates the right auricle. F summarizes the mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic innervation together near endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) sites within the SAN (red bars) and within the RA (blue bars) . At the 0.05 certainty level, the mean neuronal plexus density per 0.001 mm 3 (50 μm by 100 μm by 200 μm) volume has higher density at the endocardial side of the SAN than in the auricle as tested by one-way analysis of variance. Asterisk highlights compared datasets that had showed higher density of neuronal plexus. Other abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3-Dimensional Images of the Cholinergic and Adrenergic Neuronal Plexus Gradients Within the HCN4 + Immunoreactive Pacemaker Cell Meshwork Mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic neuronal fibers normalized to maximum measured in 7 Z-stacks from 3 SAN preparations immunolabeled to VAChT (green) and TH (cyan) plotted against the SAN tissue deepness. The x-axes indicate tissue depth starting from 0 μm at the endocardial side and ends 300 μm at the epicardial site at. (A) Sharp gradient in which density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum near the endocardial site to its minimum within a distance of ~50 μm. (B) Linear gradient in which the density of cholinergic innervation declines from its maximum at the endocardial side to its minimum within a distance of ~100 μm. (C to E) Three-dimensional panoramic images of the SAN with triple immunolabeling of pacemaker cells HCN4 (red) , cholinergic VAChT (green) , and adrenergic TH (cyan) neuronal plexus separated in 3 channels. In C to E , the 3-dimensional virtual slice for Image 1 was taken at 1,000 μm from the root of the SVC, Image 2 at 1,250 μm, and Image 3 at 1,500 μm. Red arrows point to the endocardial site and black arrows point to the epicardial side of the SAN. SEPT indicates the site of septum; CRT above the yellow or red broken line indicates location of the crista terminalis; and RA indicates the right auricle. F summarizes the mean density of adrenergic and cholinergic innervation together near endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) sites within the SAN (red bars) and within the RA (blue bars) . At the 0.05 certainty level, the mean neuronal plexus density per 0.001 mm 3 (50 μm by 100 μm by 200 μm) volume has higher density at the endocardial side of the SAN than in the auricle as tested by one-way analysis of variance. Asterisk highlights compared datasets that had showed higher density of neuronal plexus. Other abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: Immunolabeling

    Fibrous “Cotton” Type of Anatomical Interaction Between S100B + Interstitial Cells and HCN4 + Pacemaker Cells (A) Three-dimensional image (15 μm deep) illustrates 2 unipolar S100B + cells (cyan) projecting tapered spicula that bifurcated on the HCN4-immunoreactive cells (red) . These spicula adhered so close to the HCN4 + cell that extracellular space could not be detected by optical confocal microscopy. 4’,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining highlights nuclei (blue) . The soma of the unipolar S100B + cell and the bifurcations of their spicula are indicated by yellow arrows . (B) Two-dimensional image that illustrates unipolar S100B + cell, indicated by yellow arrow , connected to several HCN4 + pacemaker cells by one bifurcating spiculum. Groups of cells (yellow star) or clusters of S100B + somata (2 yellow stars) attached to HCN4 + cells and were interconnected by short extensions in a “nodal”-like net cytoarchitecture. S100B + cells from this “nodal”-like net extended long spicula to adjacent HCN4 + cells. (C) Two-dimensional image that illustrates the spiculum of an S100B + cell (cyan) that dilated in an “endfoot”-like structure, indicated by an arrow, adhering to HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) . The 2 pacemaker cells interconnected by one bipolar S100B + interstitial cell also have a point of direct contact. (D) Three-dimensional image, 20 μm thick, that illustrates composite fibrous “cotton” connections that include the spicula, “endfeet,” and “nodal”-like net of S100B + (cyan) cells within the meshwork of HCN4 + cells (red) . Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fibrous “Cotton” Type of Anatomical Interaction Between S100B + Interstitial Cells and HCN4 + Pacemaker Cells (A) Three-dimensional image (15 μm deep) illustrates 2 unipolar S100B + cells (cyan) projecting tapered spicula that bifurcated on the HCN4-immunoreactive cells (red) . These spicula adhered so close to the HCN4 + cell that extracellular space could not be detected by optical confocal microscopy. 4’,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining highlights nuclei (blue) . The soma of the unipolar S100B + cell and the bifurcations of their spicula are indicated by yellow arrows . (B) Two-dimensional image that illustrates unipolar S100B + cell, indicated by yellow arrow , connected to several HCN4 + pacemaker cells by one bifurcating spiculum. Groups of cells (yellow star) or clusters of S100B + somata (2 yellow stars) attached to HCN4 + cells and were interconnected by short extensions in a “nodal”-like net cytoarchitecture. S100B + cells from this “nodal”-like net extended long spicula to adjacent HCN4 + cells. (C) Two-dimensional image that illustrates the spiculum of an S100B + cell (cyan) that dilated in an “endfoot”-like structure, indicated by an arrow, adhering to HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) . The 2 pacemaker cells interconnected by one bipolar S100B + interstitial cell also have a point of direct contact. (D) Three-dimensional image, 20 μm thick, that illustrates composite fibrous “cotton” connections that include the spicula, “endfeet,” and “nodal”-like net of S100B + (cyan) cells within the meshwork of HCN4 + cells (red) . Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: Confocal Microscopy, Staining

    Anatomical Interaction Between Amoeboid-Like S100B + Interstitial Cells and HCN4 + Pacemaker Cells (A to C) Amoeboid S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) with flattened cellular extensions. Flattened S100B + extensions, or pseudopodia, were 1 to 2 μm wide and manifested dilations. S100B + pseudopodia could fold, changing the initial direction of their projection, or bifurcate and produce branches as indicated by yellow asterisks. The “plier”-like terminal dilation of an S100B + pseudopodium, enclosing an appendage from an HCN4 + pacemaker cell (red) , is indicated on A by a yellow arrow . The “patch”-like dilation of an S100B + pseudopodium that encircled a “patch” of the membrane of an HCN4 + cell is indicated by a white arrow . (D) S100B + immunoreactive cells enwrapping a group of HCN4 + pacemaker cells with a wide “ribbon”-like pseudopodium. Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anatomical Interaction Between Amoeboid-Like S100B + Interstitial Cells and HCN4 + Pacemaker Cells (A to C) Amoeboid S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) with flattened cellular extensions. Flattened S100B + extensions, or pseudopodia, were 1 to 2 μm wide and manifested dilations. S100B + pseudopodia could fold, changing the initial direction of their projection, or bifurcate and produce branches as indicated by yellow asterisks. The “plier”-like terminal dilation of an S100B + pseudopodium, enclosing an appendage from an HCN4 + pacemaker cell (red) , is indicated on A by a yellow arrow . The “patch”-like dilation of an S100B + pseudopodium that encircled a “patch” of the membrane of an HCN4 + cell is indicated by a white arrow . (D) S100B + immunoreactive cells enwrapping a group of HCN4 + pacemaker cells with a wide “ribbon”-like pseudopodium. Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques:

    3-Dimensional Images of the Cholinergic and Adrenergic Neuronal Plexus Gradients Within the HCN4 + Immunoreactive Pacemaker Cell Meshwork (A) Two-dimensional central image of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4–positive (HCN4 + ) (red) pacemaker cells and neuronal plexus. The 2 side images represent reconstructed virtual cuts of the SAN tissue from the endocardial to the epicardial side. The x-axis (pink broken line) and the y-axis (yellow broken line) on the 2-dimensional central image show the lines where the virtual cuts in the pink and yellow frames were taken. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (green) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (cyan) immunoreactive varicosities are co-localized with HCN4 + immunoreactive (red) pacemaker cells. (B to E) Three-dimensional images reconstructed from the series of 2-dimensional images, an example of which is shown in the central image of A. The endocardial side is on the top of the images of C to E. B displays a 3-dimensional HCN4 + meshwork (red) of the pacemaker cells seen from the endocardial side and the neuronal plexus of VAChT (green) and TH (cyan) immunoreactive neuronal fibers. In the center of the 3-dimensional image, the neuronal plexus has higher innervation than in the lower right and upper left corners. C illustrates a 3-dimensional image of the endo-epicardial gradient of cholinergic nerves. D illustrates the adrenergic innervation from the endocardial to the epicardial side. E image illustrates overlapping of the adrenergic and cholinergic innervation from the endocardial to the epicardial side. (F and G) Illustration of the meshwork of HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) from 2 different whole-mount SAN preparations, and their associated adrenergic and cholinergic neuronal plexuses. F1 and G1 show the HCN4 + meshwork (red), F2 and G2 show the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) and TH + neuronal plexus (cyan), F3 and G3 show the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) and VAChT + neuronal plexus (green) , and F4 and G4 show the HCN4 + meshwork (red) , TH + neuronal plexus (cyan) , and VAChT + neuronal plexus (green) .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3-Dimensional Images of the Cholinergic and Adrenergic Neuronal Plexus Gradients Within the HCN4 + Immunoreactive Pacemaker Cell Meshwork (A) Two-dimensional central image of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4–positive (HCN4 + ) (red) pacemaker cells and neuronal plexus. The 2 side images represent reconstructed virtual cuts of the SAN tissue from the endocardial to the epicardial side. The x-axis (pink broken line) and the y-axis (yellow broken line) on the 2-dimensional central image show the lines where the virtual cuts in the pink and yellow frames were taken. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (green) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (cyan) immunoreactive varicosities are co-localized with HCN4 + immunoreactive (red) pacemaker cells. (B to E) Three-dimensional images reconstructed from the series of 2-dimensional images, an example of which is shown in the central image of A. The endocardial side is on the top of the images of C to E. B displays a 3-dimensional HCN4 + meshwork (red) of the pacemaker cells seen from the endocardial side and the neuronal plexus of VAChT (green) and TH (cyan) immunoreactive neuronal fibers. In the center of the 3-dimensional image, the neuronal plexus has higher innervation than in the lower right and upper left corners. C illustrates a 3-dimensional image of the endo-epicardial gradient of cholinergic nerves. D illustrates the adrenergic innervation from the endocardial to the epicardial side. E image illustrates overlapping of the adrenergic and cholinergic innervation from the endocardial to the epicardial side. (F and G) Illustration of the meshwork of HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) from 2 different whole-mount SAN preparations, and their associated adrenergic and cholinergic neuronal plexuses. F1 and G1 show the HCN4 + meshwork (red), F2 and G2 show the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) and TH + neuronal plexus (cyan), F3 and G3 show the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) and VAChT + neuronal plexus (green) , and F4 and G4 show the HCN4 + meshwork (red) , TH + neuronal plexus (cyan) , and VAChT + neuronal plexus (green) .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques:

    3-Dimensional Image of the Whole-Mount SAN Preparation Showing S100B + /GFAP − Cells Three-dimensional reconstruction of the SAN from the SVC (right) to the IVC (left) and from the septum (SPT) (bottom) to the right auricle (RA) (top) 4.5 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, and 250 μm deep. Novel S100B + (cyan) /GFAP − (green) cells were detected within the HCN4 + meshwork (red) . The RA lacks S100B + (cyan) /GFAP − (green) interstitial cells. Dotted line indicates the border of crista terminalis (CT). Abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 4 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3-Dimensional Image of the Whole-Mount SAN Preparation Showing S100B + /GFAP − Cells Three-dimensional reconstruction of the SAN from the SVC (right) to the IVC (left) and from the septum (SPT) (bottom) to the right auricle (RA) (top) 4.5 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, and 250 μm deep. Novel S100B + (cyan) /GFAP − (green) cells were detected within the HCN4 + meshwork (red) . The RA lacks S100B + (cyan) /GFAP − (green) interstitial cells. Dotted line indicates the border of crista terminalis (CT). Abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 4 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: Single-particle Tracking

    2-Dimensional Images of the Whole-Mount SAN Preparations With Triple Immunolabeling Illustrating PGCs and SAN Pacemaker Cells Imaged by Optical Slicing (A) Tiled panoramic 2-dimensional image (4 mm by 1.2 mm), illustrating the cytoarchitecture of the HCN4-immunoreactive meshwork from the SVC to the IVC; the approximate border of crista terminalis (CT) is indicated by the yellow broken line . Glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive (GFAP + ) (green) and S100 calcium-binding protein B–positive (S100B + ) (cyan) cells are scattered between HCN4-immunoreactive cells (red color) across the SAN. (B to E) Peripheral glial cells (PGCs) immunoreactive to GFAP and to S100B among HCN4 + cells, imaged with high optical magnification. GFAP + was detected in higher levels than S100B + within the branch PGCs. (E) Web of PGCs near the lumen of the blood vessels. Abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2-Dimensional Images of the Whole-Mount SAN Preparations With Triple Immunolabeling Illustrating PGCs and SAN Pacemaker Cells Imaged by Optical Slicing (A) Tiled panoramic 2-dimensional image (4 mm by 1.2 mm), illustrating the cytoarchitecture of the HCN4-immunoreactive meshwork from the SVC to the IVC; the approximate border of crista terminalis (CT) is indicated by the yellow broken line . Glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive (GFAP + ) (green) and S100 calcium-binding protein B–positive (S100B + ) (cyan) cells are scattered between HCN4-immunoreactive cells (red color) across the SAN. (B to E) Peripheral glial cells (PGCs) immunoreactive to GFAP and to S100B among HCN4 + cells, imaged with high optical magnification. GFAP + was detected in higher levels than S100B + within the branch PGCs. (E) Web of PGCs near the lumen of the blood vessels. Abbreviations as in Figures 1 and 2 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: Immunolabeling, Binding Assay

    Variability in the Number of Detected S100B + Interstitial Cells in the Head, Body, and Tail of the SAN (A) Area near the root of the SVC, known as a “head,” of the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) , from 3 different SAN preparations. (B) S100B cell populations in the “body” of the SAN between the SVC and the IVC. (C) Area close to the IVC known as the “tail” of the SAN. In all 3 panels, the upper images illustrate examples of SANs in which > 110 S100B + cells were identified, the middle images illustrate meshworks exhibiting ~60 S100B + cells, and the lower images show SANs with

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Variability in the Number of Detected S100B + Interstitial Cells in the Head, Body, and Tail of the SAN (A) Area near the root of the SVC, known as a “head,” of the HCN4 + meshwork of pacemaker cells (red) , from 3 different SAN preparations. (B) S100B cell populations in the “body” of the SAN between the SVC and the IVC. (C) Area close to the IVC known as the “tail” of the SAN. In all 3 panels, the upper images illustrate examples of SANs in which > 110 S100B + cells were identified, the middle images illustrate meshworks exhibiting ~60 S100B + cells, and the lower images show SANs with

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques:

    2-Dimensional Images of a Whole-Mount Preparation of SAN Tissue With Triple Immunolabeling for S100B, HCN4, and TH or VAChT (A to C) Two-dimensional images of SAN tissue with triple immunolabeling for S100B + cells (cyan) , HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) , and TH + adrenergic fibers (green) illustrate anatomical interactions between pacemaker cells, adrenergic nerves, and interstitial cells. (D to F) Two-dimensional images of SAN tissue with triple immunolabeling for S100B + cells (cyan) , HCN4 immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) , and VAChT + cholinergic fibers (green) illustrate anatomical relations between pacemaker cells, adrenergic nerves, and interstitial cells. Pink stars in any panel indicate the nuclei of peripheral glial cells. S100B + spicula extended from “octopus”-like cells in A, C, and E ended on TH + varicosities (A and C) or on VAChT + varicosities (E) . Yellow arrows indicate the S100B + “endfeet.” An adrenergic neurite on A , indicated by a white star , overlaps with the spiculum of an “octopus”-like S100Bþ cell. An amoeboid-like S100B + cell in the upper right corner of C receives adrenergic innervation. Images on C (adrenergic nerves) and D (cholinergic nerves) illustrate uneven innervation of S100B + cells. (F) Composite point of contact between 3 cells: one S100B-immunoreactive cell, an HCN4-immunoreactive cell, and fibers from the neuronal plexus. A white arrow indicates the region where cellular extensions from an intertwined couple of S100B + cells, an HCN4 + pacemaker cell, and a cholinergic neurite co-localize within 1 μm of each other. A white star indicates the point of contact between an S100B + cell and a cholinergic nerve, whereas a white triangle marks the point of contact between a cholinergic nerve and an HCN4 + pacemaker cell. Abbreviations as in Figures 1 , 3 , and 4 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2-Dimensional Images of a Whole-Mount Preparation of SAN Tissue With Triple Immunolabeling for S100B, HCN4, and TH or VAChT (A to C) Two-dimensional images of SAN tissue with triple immunolabeling for S100B + cells (cyan) , HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) , and TH + adrenergic fibers (green) illustrate anatomical interactions between pacemaker cells, adrenergic nerves, and interstitial cells. (D to F) Two-dimensional images of SAN tissue with triple immunolabeling for S100B + cells (cyan) , HCN4 immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) , and VAChT + cholinergic fibers (green) illustrate anatomical relations between pacemaker cells, adrenergic nerves, and interstitial cells. Pink stars in any panel indicate the nuclei of peripheral glial cells. S100B + spicula extended from “octopus”-like cells in A, C, and E ended on TH + varicosities (A and C) or on VAChT + varicosities (E) . Yellow arrows indicate the S100B + “endfeet.” An adrenergic neurite on A , indicated by a white star , overlaps with the spiculum of an “octopus”-like S100Bþ cell. An amoeboid-like S100B + cell in the upper right corner of C receives adrenergic innervation. Images on C (adrenergic nerves) and D (cholinergic nerves) illustrate uneven innervation of S100B + cells. (F) Composite point of contact between 3 cells: one S100B-immunoreactive cell, an HCN4-immunoreactive cell, and fibers from the neuronal plexus. A white arrow indicates the region where cellular extensions from an intertwined couple of S100B + cells, an HCN4 + pacemaker cell, and a cholinergic neurite co-localize within 1 μm of each other. A white star indicates the point of contact between an S100B + cell and a cholinergic nerve, whereas a white triangle marks the point of contact between a cholinergic nerve and an HCN4 + pacemaker cell. Abbreviations as in Figures 1 , 3 , and 4 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: Immunolabeling

    2-Dimensional Images of S100B + /GFAP − Interstitial Cells and PGCs Embedded Within the HCN4 + Meshwork Pink arrows indicate S100B + /GFAP − interstitial cells, and yellow arrows indicate S100B + /GFAP + PGCs. (A to D) S100B + /GFAP − interstitial cells (cyan) between, and in close proximity to, HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) . Higher levels of GFAP (green) than S100B were detected in the extensions of PGCs. (E) A 2-dimensional image of the radiating branches of adrenergic TH + (green) fibers as well as S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) , among HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) . (F) A 2-dimensional image of the radiating branches of cholinergic VAChT + (green) fibers and S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) , among HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) . Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Journal: JACC. Clinical electrophysiology

    Article Title: The Heart’s Pacemaker Mimics Brain Cytoarchitecture and Function

    doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.07.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2-Dimensional Images of S100B + /GFAP − Interstitial Cells and PGCs Embedded Within the HCN4 + Meshwork Pink arrows indicate S100B + /GFAP − interstitial cells, and yellow arrows indicate S100B + /GFAP + PGCs. (A to D) S100B + /GFAP − interstitial cells (cyan) between, and in close proximity to, HCN4 + pacemaker cells (red) . Higher levels of GFAP (green) than S100B were detected in the extensions of PGCs. (E) A 2-dimensional image of the radiating branches of adrenergic TH + (green) fibers as well as S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) , among HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) . (F) A 2-dimensional image of the radiating branches of cholinergic VAChT + (green) fibers and S100B + interstitial cells (cyan) , among HCN4-immunoreactive pacemaker cells (red) . Abbreviations as in Figures 2 and 4 .

    Article Snippet: HCN4+ cells were identified by rabbit polyclonal antibodies for cyclic nucleotide-gate cation channels HCN4 (1:300; Alomone Labs).

    Techniques: