6 fam  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Name:
    6-FAM
    Description:
    The single isomer, 6-FAM, contains a carboxylic acid that can be used to react with primary amines via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acid. Fluorescein is the most common fluorescent derivatization reagent for labeling biomolecules. In addition to its relatively high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence quantum yield, and good water solubility, fluorescein has an excitation maximum that closely matches the 488 nm spectral line of the argon-ion laser.
    Catalog Number:
    C1360
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    Amine-Reactive Fluorophores|Cell Analysis|Labeling Amines|Protein Biology|Protein Labeling|Protein Labeling & Crosslinking|Protein and Antibody Labeling|Labeling Chemistry
    Conjugate:
    FITC (Fluorescein)
    Size:
    100 mg
    Category:
    Labeling & Detection Products, Labels & Labeling Kits, Amine-Reactive Fluorophores, Biotins, Quantum Dots, & Other Labels
    Score:
    85
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher 6 fam
    Confocal microscopy fluorescent images of LHRH receptor-positive (A2780) and LHRH receptor-negative (SKOV-3) ovarian cancer cells incubated for 24 h with non-targeted <t>(PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM</t> Green) and targeted (LHRH-PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM Green)
    The single isomer, 6-FAM, contains a carboxylic acid that can be used to react with primary amines via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acid. Fluorescein is the most common fluorescent derivatization reagent for labeling biomolecules. In addition to its relatively high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence quantum yield, and good water solubility, fluorescein has an excitation maximum that closely matches the 488 nm spectral line of the argon-ion laser.
    https://www.bioz.com/result/6 fam/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 32 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    6 fam - by Bioz Stars, 2019-12
    99/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery"

    Article Title: Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.06.019

    Confocal microscopy fluorescent images of LHRH receptor-positive (A2780) and LHRH receptor-negative (SKOV-3) ovarian cancer cells incubated for 24 h with non-targeted (PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM Green) and targeted (LHRH-PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM Green)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscopy fluorescent images of LHRH receptor-positive (A2780) and LHRH receptor-negative (SKOV-3) ovarian cancer cells incubated for 24 h with non-targeted (PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM Green) and targeted (LHRH-PEG-DTBP-PPI-siRNA-6-FAM Green)

    Techniques Used: Confocal Microscopy, Incubation

    Confocal microscope images of LHRH receptor-positive A2780 (A, B) and LHRH receptor-negative SKOV-3 (C, D) human ovarian cancer cells incubated with fluorescent labeled PEG-DTBP-PPI G5-siRNA-6-FAM Green (A, C) and LHRH-PEG-DTBP-PPI G5-siRNA-6-FAM Green
    Figure Legend Snippet: Confocal microscope images of LHRH receptor-positive A2780 (A, B) and LHRH receptor-negative SKOV-3 (C, D) human ovarian cancer cells incubated with fluorescent labeled PEG-DTBP-PPI G5-siRNA-6-FAM Green (A, C) and LHRH-PEG-DTBP-PPI G5-siRNA-6-FAM Green

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Incubation, Labeling

    Related Articles

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: Fungal community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting fungal ITS target DNA followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Sanger sequencing of clones. .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: A strong 'filter' effect of the East China Sea land bridge for East Asia's temperate plant species: inferences from molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of Platycrater arguta (Hydrangeaceae)
    Article Snippet: Fluorescently labelled PCR products (HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) were separated on a MegaBACE 1000 (GE Healthcare Biosciences, Pittsburgh, PA). .. Fluorescently labelled PCR products (HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) were separated on a MegaBACE 1000 (GE Healthcare Biosciences, Pittsburgh, PA).

    Amplification:

    Article Title: ISPD gene mutations are a common cause of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies
    Article Snippet: Quantitative fluorescent PCR analysis was performed as described previously ( ). .. A single quantitative fluorescent PCR assay was designed to determine the copy number of exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the ISPD gene by amplifying nine amplicons in a single 20-µl reaction using 6-FAM (Life Technologies) labelled forward primers and non-labelled reverse primers (primers and amplification conditions available on request). .. Fluorescent amplicons were analysed on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems), and the data were then analysed with GeneMarker (SoftGenetics).

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: Of the 18 microsatellites tested, 14 successfully amplified on our S. bovis samples and were thus used in the present study. .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ].

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: The complementary DNA (cDNA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was prepared from 1 μg total RNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) according to the provider’s instruction. .. Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: For both analyses, the PCR we used the ITS1f and ITS4 primer set to amplify ITS region of the rRNA in fungi [ ], and the specific amplification conditions by Gardes and Bruns [ ] and Looby et al . .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each specimen, each locus was amplified separately in a 20 μL PCR reaction that contained 1X GoTaq® Flexi Buffer (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin), 2.5 mm MgCl2 , 0.25 mm dNTPs, 0.20 mg/mL Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.20 μm of each primer, and 0.5 U GoTaq® Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California).

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100. .. Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100.

    Article Title: Ecological and evolutionary consequences of alternative sex-change pathways in fish
    Article Snippet: Samples were genotyped using microsatellite loci (Table ) run on ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer capillary sequencers (Applied Biosystems©). .. Markers were amplified using fluorescent primers labelled with 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC dyes (Applied Biosystems©). .. For S. aurata , we used 12 of the 15 loci used in the original study , since we removed three possible candidates for directional or balancing selection.

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Inner amplification was performed with the outer, reverse primer sequence of forward primers ( 5 = - AGCAGGATGGGTAGAACCTA-3 = ). .. Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase.

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and distribution of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under climate change scenarios in West Africa
    Article Snippet: The PCR was initially heated to 95°C for 15 min, followed by a 3-step touchdown cycling programme consisting of denaturation at 95 o C for 15 mins, annealing at 67 o C for 1.5 mins, extension at 72 o C for 1 min, followed by eight cycles of 94 o C for 30 s, 65 o C for 1.5 min with 2 o C decrease at each cycle, 72 o C for 1 min; 24 cycles at 94 o C for 30 s, 51 o C for 1.5 min, 72 o C for 1 min, and a final extension at 60 o C for 30 min. Amplification was carried out separately for each primer pair in a singleplex-PCR and combined for fragment analysis. .. PCR products were amplified using 6-FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labelled primers (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA). .. The touchdown cycling program was used on a Mastercycler 2050 model thermal cycler (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA).

    Article Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Disseminated Cells with TSC2 Loss of Heterozygosity in Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Article Snippet: Briefly, genomic DNA sequences were amplified at loci D16S291, Kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, and D16S521 on chromosome 16p13.3, and at loci D9S149, D9S1198, and D9S66 on chromosome 9q34. .. Antisense primers were labeled with 6-FAM (Invitrogen).

    Article Title: Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal
    Article Snippet: Each locus was amplified separately in a 20 μl PCR reaction that contained 1× GoTaq® Flexi Buffer (Promega, USA), 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 0.20 mg/ml Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.25 mM dNTPs, 0.20 μM of each primer and 0.5 U GoTaq® Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega, USA). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Positive Control:

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase. .. To exclude PCR contamination, water controls and negative DNA samples were included every five samples in each run.

    Synthesized:

    Article Title: Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery
    Article Snippet: The sequence of siRNA targeted to BCL2 mRNA custom synthesized by Ambion (Austin, TX), was: sense strand, 5′-GUG AAG UCA ACA UGC CUG C-dTdT-3′; antisense strand, 5′-GCA GGC AUG UUG ACU UCA C-dTdT-3′. .. 6-FAM (siGLO Green) and DY-547 (siGLO Red) labeled siRNA was obtained from Applied Biosystems (Ambion, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Since we used multiple probes in the same hybridization solution, the presence of secondary structures within a probe (self dimers) and between probes (cross dimers) was examined using the PCR Primer Stats module of the Sequence Manipulation Suite ( http://www.ualberta.ca/~stothard/javascript/index.html ), and the software Oligo ( http://www.oligo.net/ ). .. Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany). .. The viability of cells was tested by a modified DVC assay initially developed by Kogure et al. ( ).

    Quantitative RT-PCR:

    Article Title: Simultaneous detection of three pome fruit tree viruses by one-step multiplex quantitative RT-PCR
    Article Snippet: TaqMan MGB (Minor Groove Binder) probes and primers for RT-qPCR were designed using Primer Express Software v3.0.1 (Applied Biosystems). .. ApMV probe was VIC labelled at the 5΄end, ASPV probe was NED labelled and ASGV probe was 6-FAM labelled (Applied Biosystems).

    SYBR Green Assay:

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). .. The following genes were examined: Ribosomal protein 32 (rpl32 , Dm02151827_g1) as a reference gene; period (per , Dm01843683_g1); and Clock (Clk , Dm01795381_g1). cDNA, diluted 1:10, was used for quantitative PCR.

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: Q-PCR was carried out on a 7500 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Germany) using SYBR green as a fluorescent dye. .. The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection.

    In Silico:

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: In silico probe specificity ... Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany).

    Expressing:

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: The complementary DNA (cDNA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was prepared from 1 μg total RNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) according to the provider’s instruction. .. Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). .. The following genes were examined: Ribosomal protein 32 (rpl32 , Dm02151827_g1) as a reference gene; period (per , Dm01843683_g1); and Clock (Clk , Dm01795381_g1). cDNA, diluted 1:10, was used for quantitative PCR.

    Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism:

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: For both analyses, the PCR we used the ITS1f and ITS4 primer set to amplify ITS region of the rRNA in fungi [ ], and the specific amplification conditions by Gardes and Bruns [ ] and Looby et al . .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA). .. FAM-labeled PCR product was purified using the Ultra PCR Clean-Up Kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) prior to restriction digestion.

    Hybridization:

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Since we used multiple probes in the same hybridization solution, the presence of secondary structures within a probe (self dimers) and between probes (cross dimers) was examined using the PCR Primer Stats module of the Sequence Manipulation Suite ( http://www.ualberta.ca/~stothard/javascript/index.html ), and the software Oligo ( http://www.oligo.net/ ). .. Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany).

    Activation Assay:

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ]. .. PCRs were carried out according to the manufacturer’s standard microsatellite amplification protocol except for the final volume of 10 μl including 2.5 μl of DNA template.

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). .. PCR was performed in a BIO‐RAD MyCycler™ thermal cycler (Bio‐Rad Laboratories In., Hercules, CA, USA).

    Generated:

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Generated fluorescent amplicons were sized on an automatic DNA sequencer. .. Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase.

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery
    Article Snippet: The sequence of siRNA targeted to BCL2 mRNA custom synthesized by Ambion (Austin, TX), was: sense strand, 5′-GUG AAG UCA ACA UGC CUG C-dTdT-3′; antisense strand, 5′-GCA GGC AUG UUG ACU UCA C-dTdT-3′. .. 6-FAM (siGLO Green) and DY-547 (siGLO Red) labeled siRNA was obtained from Applied Biosystems (Ambion, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Since we used multiple probes in the same hybridization solution, the presence of secondary structures within a probe (self dimers) and between probes (cross dimers) was examined using the PCR Primer Stats module of the Sequence Manipulation Suite ( http://www.ualberta.ca/~stothard/javascript/index.html ), and the software Oligo ( http://www.oligo.net/ ). .. Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany).

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: Fungal community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting fungal ITS target DNA followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Sanger sequencing of clones. .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Detection of MMTV like env sequence by nested Fluorescence-PCR ... Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase.

    DNA Extraction:

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: DNA was extracted from the composited soil samples using the Power Soil DNA Isolation kit (MO BIO, Carlsbad, CA) and was stored at 4°C prior to downstream analysis. .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California).

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: Total soil DNA was extracted with PowerSoil™ DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories Inc., CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. .. The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection.

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: 2.6 DNA was extracted from wild collected fish (Table for sample sizes) using the Wizard® DNA extraction kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA). .. Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA).

    Fluorescence:

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: The DNA amplification products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gels. .. Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100. .. PCR products were run in multiplexes using capillary electrophoresis on an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer.

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Detection of MMTV like env sequence by nested Fluorescence-PCR ... Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase.

    Isolation:

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: RNA Isolation and qPCR ... Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Disseminated Cells with TSC2 Loss of Heterozygosity in Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood and unsorted or sorted cells using the QIAamp DNA Micro Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) and amplified ( ) to determine LOH. .. Antisense primers were labeled with 6-FAM (Invitrogen).

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci
    Article Snippet: For loci with high-quality and consistent amplification, the PCR was repeated on DNA template isolated from Symbiodinium strains (clade A to F identified based on 23S chloroplast rDNA, ) to identify coral specific loci and to exclude putative Symbiodinium specific loci. .. For the loci that are specific to Millepora , the forward primer was fluorescently labelled with the G5 dye set including 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Labeling:

    Article Title: Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery
    Article Snippet: The sequence of siRNA targeted to BCL2 mRNA custom synthesized by Ambion (Austin, TX), was: sense strand, 5′-GUG AAG UCA ACA UGC CUG C-dTdT-3′; antisense strand, 5′-GCA GGC AUG UUG ACU UCA C-dTdT-3′. .. 6-FAM (siGLO Green) and DY-547 (siGLO Red) labeled siRNA was obtained from Applied Biosystems (Ambion, Inc., Foster City, CA). .. Cy5.5 NHS ester was purchased from GE Healthcare Life Sciences (Piscataway, NJ). siRNA used as a negative control (sense strand, 5′-CCU CGG GCU GUG CUC UUU U-dTdT-3′; antisense strand, 5′-AAA AGA GCA CAG CCC GAG G -dTdT-3′) was received from Dharmacon Inc. (Lafayette, CO).

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: Microsatellite amplifications were performed using the Qiagen® Multiplex PCR kit, (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ]. .. PCRs were carried out according to the manufacturer’s standard microsatellite amplification protocol except for the final volume of 10 μl including 2.5 μl of DNA template.

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: The complementary DNA (cDNA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was prepared from 1 μg total RNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) according to the provider’s instruction. .. Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). .. The following genes were examined: Ribosomal protein 32 (rpl32 , Dm02151827_g1) as a reference gene; period (per , Dm01843683_g1); and Clock (Clk , Dm01795381_g1). cDNA, diluted 1:10, was used for quantitative PCR.

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: For both analyses, the PCR we used the ITS1f and ITS4 primer set to amplify ITS region of the rRNA in fungi [ ], and the specific amplification conditions by Gardes and Bruns [ ] and Looby et al . .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA). .. FAM-labeled PCR product was purified using the Ultra PCR Clean-Up Kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) prior to restriction digestion.

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each specimen, each locus was amplified separately in a 20 μL PCR reaction that contained 1X GoTaq® Flexi Buffer (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin), 2.5 mm MgCl2 , 0.25 mm dNTPs, 0.20 mg/mL Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.20 μm of each primer, and 0.5 U GoTaq® Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California). .. Thermocycling conditions included an initial denaturation step of 5 min at 96ºC, followed by 30 cycles each of 96ºC for 30 sec, annealing at 52ºC-56ºC (locus-dependent) for 30 sec and 72ºC for 30 sec. After a final extension step of 5 min at 72ºC, reactions were stopped at 4ºC.

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: The DNA amplification products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gels. .. Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100. .. PCR products were run in multiplexes using capillary electrophoresis on an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer.

    Article Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Disseminated Cells with TSC2 Loss of Heterozygosity in Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Article Snippet: Primer sequences were obtained from the UniSTS Database ( ). .. Antisense primers were labeled with 6-FAM (Invitrogen). .. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were analyzed on a 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: Samples were genotyped at seven microsatellite DNA loci: Abur16 , Abur46 (Sanetra, Henning, Fukamachi, & Meyer, ), Ppun5 , Ppun7 , Ppun21 , Ppun35 (Taylor et al., ), and TmoM5 (Zardoya et al., ). .. Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). .. All loci were amplified in the same multiplex reaction using the Qiagen multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands).

    Article Title: Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
    Article Snippet: Primers were grouped in multiplex pools according to their annealing temperature. .. Each primer in the PCR mix was 5’- labeled with one of the following fluorescent dyes: 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC (Applied Biosystems) ( ). .. Each PCR reaction contained 5 to 10 ng of genomic DNA as template in 15 μl mix containing 0.3 to 1.2 μM of each primer, 1X Terra Buffer (Ozyme), 0.5X Q-solution and 0.375 U Terra polymerase (Ozyme).

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: ISPD gene mutations are a common cause of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies
    Article Snippet: Quantitative fluorescent PCR analysis was performed as described previously ( ). .. A single quantitative fluorescent PCR assay was designed to determine the copy number of exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the ISPD gene by amplifying nine amplicons in a single 20-µl reaction using 6-FAM (Life Technologies) labelled forward primers and non-labelled reverse primers (primers and amplification conditions available on request). .. Fluorescent amplicons were analysed on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems), and the data were then analysed with GeneMarker (SoftGenetics).

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Since we used multiple probes in the same hybridization solution, the presence of secondary structures within a probe (self dimers) and between probes (cross dimers) was examined using the PCR Primer Stats module of the Sequence Manipulation Suite ( http://www.ualberta.ca/~stothard/javascript/index.html ), and the software Oligo ( http://www.oligo.net/ ). .. Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany).

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: Microsatellite amplifications were performed using the Qiagen® Multiplex PCR kit, (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ].

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: The complementary DNA (cDNA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was prepared from 1 μg total RNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) according to the provider’s instruction. .. Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: For both analyses, the PCR we used the ITS1f and ITS4 primer set to amplify ITS region of the rRNA in fungi [ ], and the specific amplification conditions by Gardes and Bruns [ ] and Looby et al . .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each specimen, each locus was amplified separately in a 20 μL PCR reaction that contained 1X GoTaq® Flexi Buffer (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin), 2.5 mm MgCl2 , 0.25 mm dNTPs, 0.20 mg/mL Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.20 μm of each primer, and 0.5 U GoTaq® Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California).

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection. .. The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection.

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: PCR cycling conditions for all primers were an initial step of 5 min at 94°C, followed by 30 cycles of 30 s at 94°C, 1 min at 54°C, and 1 min at 72°C, and concluding with 1 cycle of 7 min at 72°C. .. Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100.

    Article Title: Mouse mammary tumour virus-like env nucleotide and p14 signal peptide are present in feline mammary carcinomas, but not in neoplastic or dysplastic canine mammary lesions
    Article Snippet: Inner amplification was performed with the outer, reverse primer sequence of forward primers ( 5 = - AGCAGGATGGGTAGAACCTA-3 = ). .. Both PCRs were performed in 50 μ L containing 1x standard PCR buffer 1.5 mm MgCl2, 200 m each 2 = -deoxyribonucleoside 5 = -triphosphate, 0.5 nmol/L unlabeled reverse primer, 0.5 mol/L 6-FAM–labeled forward primer (Applied Biosystems, Milan, Italy), and 2.5 U Takara Ex Taq DNA polymerase. .. Input target template was 100-ng genomic DNA in the first-round PCR and 2 μl of first-round PCR product in the second round.

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and distribution of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under climate change scenarios in West Africa
    Article Snippet: The PCR was initially heated to 95°C for 15 min, followed by a 3-step touchdown cycling programme consisting of denaturation at 95 o C for 15 mins, annealing at 67 o C for 1.5 mins, extension at 72 o C for 1 min, followed by eight cycles of 94 o C for 30 s, 65 o C for 1.5 min with 2 o C decrease at each cycle, 72 o C for 1 min; 24 cycles at 94 o C for 30 s, 51 o C for 1.5 min, 72 o C for 1 min, and a final extension at 60 o C for 30 min. Amplification was carried out separately for each primer pair in a singleplex-PCR and combined for fragment analysis. .. PCR products were amplified using 6-FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labelled primers (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA). .. The touchdown cycling program was used on a Mastercycler 2050 model thermal cycler (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA).

    Article Title: Phenotypic Characterization of Disseminated Cells with TSC2 Loss of Heterozygosity in Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of LOH ... Antisense primers were labeled with 6-FAM (Invitrogen).

    Article Title: Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal
    Article Snippet: Each locus was amplified separately in a 20 μl PCR reaction that contained 1× GoTaq® Flexi Buffer (Promega, USA), 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 0.20 mg/ml Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.25 mM dNTPs, 0.20 μM of each primer and 0.5 U GoTaq® Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega, USA). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). .. The reaction contained 1 μl template DNA, 1 μl forward and reverse primer mix (2 pmol/L), 5 μl 2× Multiplex master mix (3 mmol/L MgCl2 ), and 3 μl RNase‐free water.

    Article Title: Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
    Article Snippet: Primers were grouped in multiplex pools according to their annealing temperature. .. Each primer in the PCR mix was 5’- labeled with one of the following fluorescent dyes: 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC (Applied Biosystems) ( ). .. Each PCR reaction contained 5 to 10 ng of genomic DNA as template in 15 μl mix containing 0.3 to 1.2 μM of each primer, 1X Terra Buffer (Ozyme), 0.5X Q-solution and 0.375 U Terra polymerase (Ozyme).

    Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Assay:

    Article Title: Surface-Engineered Targeted PPI Dendrimer for Efficient Intracellular and Intratumoral siRNA Delivery
    Article Snippet: Polypropylenimine tetrahexacontaamine Dendrimer Generation 5 (PPI G5), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBSA), Poly(methacrylic acid, sodium salt) solution (PMAA), and O-[2-(N-succinimidyloxycarbonyl)-ethyl]-O’-methylpolyethylene glycol 5000 (NHS-PEG(5000) OCH3 ) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Milwaukee, WI). .. 6-FAM (siGLO Green) and DY-547 (siGLO Red) labeled siRNA was obtained from Applied Biosystems (Ambion, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: A strong 'filter' effect of the East China Sea land bridge for East Asia's temperate plant species: inferences from molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of Platycrater arguta (Hydrangeaceae)
    Article Snippet: When the chromatogram quality did not permit this procedure, PCR products were cloned using a pMD18-T vector system (Takara Biotechnology, Dalian, Liaoning, China) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. .. Fluorescently labelled PCR products (HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) were separated on a MegaBACE 1000 (GE Healthcare Biosciences, Pittsburgh, PA).

    Software:

    Article Title: Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area
    Article Snippet: Since we used multiple probes in the same hybridization solution, the presence of secondary structures within a probe (self dimers) and between probes (cross dimers) was examined using the PCR Primer Stats module of the Sequence Manipulation Suite ( http://www.ualberta.ca/~stothard/javascript/index.html ), and the software Oligo ( http://www.oligo.net/ ). .. Oligonucleotides were synthesized and conjugated at their 5′ end with 6-FAM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Ulm, Germany).

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ]. .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ].

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA). .. Digested FAM-labeled PCR product was diluted 1:10 μL and then 1 μL of diluted PCR product was mixed with 1 μL GeneScan-500 LIZ size standard and Hi-Di Formamide to a final volume of 10 μL.

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California). .. Amplified products were separated by capillary electrophoresis in a genetic analyzer ABI3730 (Applied Biosystems) at Yale DNA Analysis Facility (USA).

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection. .. PCR products were digested by HaeIII (Takara, Japan) for 16S rRNA gene and HinfI (Takara, Japan) for ITS fragments.

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100. .. PCR products were run in multiplexes using capillary electrophoresis on an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer.

    Article Title: Simultaneous detection of three pome fruit tree viruses by one-step multiplex quantitative RT-PCR
    Article Snippet: TaqMan MGB (Minor Groove Binder) probes and primers for RT-qPCR were designed using Primer Express Software v3.0.1 (Applied Biosystems). .. ApMV probe was VIC labelled at the 5΄end, ASPV probe was NED labelled and ASGV probe was 6-FAM labelled (Applied Biosystems).

    Article Title: Ecological and evolutionary consequences of alternative sex-change pathways in fish
    Article Snippet: Markers were amplified using fluorescent primers labelled with 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC dyes (Applied Biosystems©). .. For S. aurata , we used 12 of the 15 loci used in the original study , since we removed three possible candidates for directional or balancing selection.

    Article Title: Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal
    Article Snippet: For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA). .. Amplified products were separated by capillary electrophoresis in a genetic analyser ABI3730 (Applied Biosystems, USA) at the DNA Analysis Facility on Science Hill, Yale University (USA).

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Interactions Between the Circadian Clock and Heme Oxygenase in the Retina of Drosophila melanogaster
    Article Snippet: The complementary DNA (cDNA) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was prepared from 1 μg total RNA using Superscript II reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies) according to the provider’s instruction. .. Gene expression was examined using TaqMan Gene Expression Assays labeled with 6′-FAM (Applied Biosystems) and 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). .. The following genes were examined: Ribosomal protein 32 (rpl32 , Dm02151827_g1) as a reference gene; period (per , Dm01843683_g1); and Clock (Clk , Dm01795381_g1). cDNA, diluted 1:10, was used for quantitative PCR.

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: Q-PCR was carried out on a 7500 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Germany) using SYBR green as a fluorescent dye. .. The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection.

    Multiplex Assay:

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: Microsatellite amplifications were performed using the Qiagen® Multiplex PCR kit, (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ].

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: Each specimen was identified to species by a multiplex PCR assay targeting species-specific polymorphisms in intron-2 of the ACE-2 gene using primers specific for Cx. pipiens , Cx. quinquefasciatus , and Cx. torrentium (Smith and Fonseca ). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California).

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and distribution of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under climate change scenarios in West Africa
    Article Snippet: The PCR mix contained a final volume of 10 μl with 5 μl of 2X Qiagen Multiplex PCR Master Mix, 1 μl of Primer mix (0.2 μM of each forward and reverse primers), 1 μl of Q-Solution, 1 μl of RNase free water and 2 μl of template DNA (10 ng/μl). .. PCR products were amplified using 6-FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labelled primers (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA).

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). .. All loci were amplified in the same multiplex reaction using the Qiagen multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands).

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci
    Article Snippet: PCRs were performed in a final volume of 10 µL including 5 µL Type-it Multiplex PCR Master Mix (1×) (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany), 3 µL RNase-free water, 1 µL primers (2 µM for both forward and reverse primers diluted in TE buffer) and 1 µL of template (10–50 ng/µL). .. For the loci that are specific to Millepora , the forward primer was fluorescently labelled with the G5 dye set including 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Positron Emission Tomography:

    Article Title: Population genetic structure of Schistosoma bovis in Cameroon
    Article Snippet: Microsatellite amplifications were performed using the Qiagen® Multiplex PCR kit, (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). .. The forward primers were fluorescently labeled using 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET dyes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) as per [ ]. .. PCRs were carried out according to the manufacturer’s standard microsatellite amplification protocol except for the final volume of 10 μl including 2.5 μl of DNA template.

    Article Title: Ecological and evolutionary consequences of alternative sex-change pathways in fish
    Article Snippet: Samples were genotyped using microsatellite loci (Table ) run on ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer capillary sequencers (Applied Biosystems©). .. Markers were amplified using fluorescent primers labelled with 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC dyes (Applied Biosystems©). .. For S. aurata , we used 12 of the 15 loci used in the original study , since we removed three possible candidates for directional or balancing selection.

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and distribution of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under climate change scenarios in West Africa
    Article Snippet: The PCR was initially heated to 95°C for 15 min, followed by a 3-step touchdown cycling programme consisting of denaturation at 95 o C for 15 mins, annealing at 67 o C for 1.5 mins, extension at 72 o C for 1 min, followed by eight cycles of 94 o C for 30 s, 65 o C for 1.5 min with 2 o C decrease at each cycle, 72 o C for 1 min; 24 cycles at 94 o C for 30 s, 51 o C for 1.5 min, 72 o C for 1 min, and a final extension at 60 o C for 30 min. Amplification was carried out separately for each primer pair in a singleplex-PCR and combined for fragment analysis. .. PCR products were amplified using 6-FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labelled primers (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California, USA). .. The touchdown cycling program was used on a Mastercycler 2050 model thermal cycler (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA).

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: Samples were genotyped at seven microsatellite DNA loci: Abur16 , Abur46 (Sanetra, Henning, Fukamachi, & Meyer, ), Ppun5 , Ppun7 , Ppun21 , Ppun35 (Taylor et al., ), and TmoM5 (Zardoya et al., ). .. Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA). .. All loci were amplified in the same multiplex reaction using the Qiagen multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands).

    Article Title: Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci
    Article Snippet: Symbiodinium strains were provided by the BURR laboratory at Buffalo, US (BURR; http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/Bio/burr/ ). .. For the loci that are specific to Millepora , the forward primer was fluorescently labelled with the G5 dye set including 6-FAM, VIC, NED and PET (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). .. Amplified fragments were visualised on an Applied Biosystems 3730 Sequencer using a GeneScan 500 LIZ ladder.

    Article Title: Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
    Article Snippet: Primers were grouped in multiplex pools according to their annealing temperature. .. Each primer in the PCR mix was 5’- labeled with one of the following fluorescent dyes: 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC (Applied Biosystems) ( ). .. Each PCR reaction contained 5 to 10 ng of genomic DNA as template in 15 μl mix containing 0.3 to 1.2 μM of each primer, 1X Terra Buffer (Ozyme), 0.5X Q-solution and 0.375 U Terra polymerase (Ozyme).

    Electrophoresis:

    Article Title: Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia
    Article Snippet: For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labeled (NED, HEX our 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California). .. Thermocycling conditions included an initial denaturation step of 5 min at 96ºC, followed by 30 cycles each of 96ºC for 30 sec, annealing at 52ºC-56ºC (locus-dependent) for 30 sec and 72ºC for 30 sec. After a final extension step of 5 min at 72ºC, reactions were stopped at 4ºC.

    Article Title: Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence
    Article Snippet: The 5′ end of the 27F primer was labelled with 6-FAM (5[6]-carboxy-fluorescein) (Invitrogen) for fluorescent detection. .. PCR products were digested by HaeIII (Takara, Japan) for 16S rRNA gene and HinfI (Takara, Japan) for ITS fragments.

    Article Title: Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)
    Article Snippet: Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100. .. Forward microsatellite primers were labeled with three fluorescence dyes including NED, VIC, and 6-FAM, and the size standard was ROX 400HD (Applied Biosystems) for the ABI PRISM 3100.

    Article Title: Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal
    Article Snippet: For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Article Title: Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
    Article Snippet: Each primer in the PCR mix was 5’- labeled with one of the following fluorescent dyes: 6-FAM, NED, PET and VIC (Applied Biosystems) ( ). .. PCR amplifications were performed in a Veriti Thermal Cycler (Applied Biosystems) using the following conditions: 2 min at 98°C for polymerase activation, followed by 25 cycles at 98°C for 10 s, annealing temperatures ranging from 64 to 68°C for 15 s , and 68°C for 1 min (except in one pool where elongation time was 2 min 30 s), and a final extension step at 68°C for 30 min. 1 μl of diluted amplicons was mixed with 0.1 μl of GeneScan-500 LIZ or 0.5 μl of GeneScan-1200 LIZ internal size standard (Applied Biosystems) and 10.9 μl or 10.5 μl of Hi-Di formamide (Sigma-Aldrich) (for GeneScan-500 LIZ and GeneScan-1200 LIZ, respectively).

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica
    Article Snippet: Concentration and purity (A260 /A280 ratio) of the extracted DNA were determined using a Nanodrop 2000/2000c (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). .. For T-RFLP, the ITS1f primer was fluorescently labeled with 6-FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA).

    Marker:

    Article Title: Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal
    Article Snippet: This marker, here denoted as CQ11FL, differentiates specimens of the pipiens form, that display a PCR product of 200 bp, from the molestus form (250 bp). .. For each locus, one of the primers was fluorescently labelled (NED, HEX or 6-FAM; Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization:

    Article Title: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera. Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera
    Article Snippet: 2.6 DNA was extracted from wild collected fish (Table for sample sizes) using the Wizard® DNA extraction kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA). .. Forward primers were labeled using 6‐FAM, NED, VIC, PET® fluorescent dyes (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA).

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  • 85
    Thermo Fisher copy number variation slc6a3 mm00401145 cn
    TRAPseq analysis in a mouse model of PD and regulatory network analysis (a) Time line for TRAPseq analysis of midbrain DA neurons after injection of <t>Dat</t> bacTRAP mice with MPTP (n=4) or saline (vehicle; n=4).(b) Comparative analysis of the translatome libraries obtained from unperturbed midbrain DA neurons in saline-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4) or from DA neurons under toxin-induced stress in MPTP-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4). Log2 fold change values were plotted against mean gene expression values. The center line represents equal expression. Green dots represent transcripts with a ≥1.5fold increased expression in MPTP-treated samples ( P
    Copy Number Variation Slc6a3 Mm00401145 Cn, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/copy number variation slc6a3 mm00401145 cn/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    copy number variation slc6a3 mm00401145 cn - by Bioz Stars, 2019-12
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    82
    Thermo Fisher gene exp fbxo7 mm00462692 m1
    <t>Fbxo7</t> tm1a mice have reduced circulating T cells with an altered phenotype and impaired T cell development. (A) Circulating T cell percentage in peripheral blood, (B) blood T cell effector percentage. (C) T cell percentage in the spleen and (D) splenic T cell effector percentage. (E) total thymus cell number and (F) T cell developmental stages in the thymus, DN = CD4/CD8 double negative, DP = CD4/CD8 double positive, CD4 SP = CD4 single positive and CD8 SP = CD8 single positive. All mice were female and 8 weeks old. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction except panel E which is from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction. All data representative of three independent experiments, each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.
    Gene Exp Fbxo7 Mm00462692 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 82/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    83
    Thermo Fisher gene exp ttpa hs00609398 m1
    Effect of oxidative stress on <t>TTPA</t> mRNA expression
    Gene Exp Ttpa Hs00609398 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 83/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher gene exp map3k8 hs00178297 m1
    Proposed model of the tumor-suppressive effects of TPL2 in the lung. TPL2 contributes to p53 response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents or oncogenic stress through JNK-dependent up-regulation of nucleophosmin. Genetic or epigenetic aberrations (e.g., loss of heterozygosity, overexpression of miR-370, or oncogenic RAS signaling) may independently induce TPL2 down-regulation, leading to diminished JNK and p53 responses, reduced cell death, and accelerated carcinogenesis.
    Gene Exp Map3k8 Hs00178297 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    TRAPseq analysis in a mouse model of PD and regulatory network analysis (a) Time line for TRAPseq analysis of midbrain DA neurons after injection of Dat bacTRAP mice with MPTP (n=4) or saline (vehicle; n=4).(b) Comparative analysis of the translatome libraries obtained from unperturbed midbrain DA neurons in saline-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4) or from DA neurons under toxin-induced stress in MPTP-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4). Log2 fold change values were plotted against mean gene expression values. The center line represents equal expression. Green dots represent transcripts with a ≥1.5fold increased expression in MPTP-treated samples ( P

    Journal: Nature neuroscience

    Article Title: Identification of Neurodegenerative Factors Using Translatome-Regulatory Network Analysis

    doi: 10.1038/nn.4070

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRAPseq analysis in a mouse model of PD and regulatory network analysis (a) Time line for TRAPseq analysis of midbrain DA neurons after injection of Dat bacTRAP mice with MPTP (n=4) or saline (vehicle; n=4).(b) Comparative analysis of the translatome libraries obtained from unperturbed midbrain DA neurons in saline-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4) or from DA neurons under toxin-induced stress in MPTP-treated Dat bacTRAP mice (n=4). Log2 fold change values were plotted against mean gene expression values. The center line represents equal expression. Green dots represent transcripts with a ≥1.5fold increased expression in MPTP-treated samples ( P

    Article Snippet: Analyses were carried out with Taqman Universal PCR Master Mix (Life Technologies, #4304437) and a Taqman Slc6a3 copy number assay (FAM) (Life Technologies, Mm00401145_cn).

    Techniques: Injection, Direct Antiglobulin Test, Mouse Assay, Expressing

    Analysis of MR expression patterns in midbrain DA neurons (a) MR expression levels in TRAPseq samples from either SNpc or VTA DA neurons obtained from Dat bacTRAP mice (n=6). P =0.862 ( Foxm1 ); P =0.042 ( Nr1d1 ); P =0.094 ( Olig1 ); P =0.014 ( Zdhhc13 ); P =0.0001 ( Elmsan1 ); P =0.740 ( Rax ); P =0.005 ( Tcf20 ); P =0.0004 ( Hcfc1 ); P =0.317 ( Snai1 ); P =0.214 ( Zfp341 ); P =0.210 ( Zfp612 ); P =0.002 ( Zfp473 ); P =0.754 ( Mecp2 ); P =0.003 ( Camta1 ); P =0.001 ( Dennd4a ); P =0.0001 ( Zdhhc2 ); P =0.186 ( Mef2a ); P =0.733 ( Zfp780b ); P =0.0001 ( Satb1 ). Paired t-test. FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million. (b) Coronal brain sections from WT mice stained for TH (red) and SATB1 (green). White lines indicate the border between SNpc and VTA. (c) SNpc DA neurons in WT mice stained for TH (red) and SATB1 (green) with DAPI counterstain (blue). (d) Coronal brain sections from WT mice stained for TH (red) and ZDHHC2 (green). White lines indicate the border between SNpc and VTA. (e) SNpc DA neurons in WT mice stained for TH (red), ZDHHC2 (green) and the Golgi marker GM130 (orange). White arrow heads indicate signal for ZDHHC2 that does not co-localize with that for TH. (f, g), Quantification of SATB1 and ZDHHC2 protein levels in midbrain from WT mice injected with either saline (n=4) or MPTP (n=4) according to Fig. 2a . GAPDH and β-tubulin, respectively, were used as loading controls. The molecular weight standard is shown on the right of the blot. SATB1: P =0.374; ZDHHC2: P =0.118. Unpaired t-test. Blot images are cropped. Full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure 9f-i . n-values indicate biological replicates. Data in (a) and (g) represent means ± SEM. Scale bars, 100 μm in (b) and (d) and 10 μm in (c) and (e). * P

    Journal: Nature neuroscience

    Article Title: Identification of Neurodegenerative Factors Using Translatome-Regulatory Network Analysis

    doi: 10.1038/nn.4070

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of MR expression patterns in midbrain DA neurons (a) MR expression levels in TRAPseq samples from either SNpc or VTA DA neurons obtained from Dat bacTRAP mice (n=6). P =0.862 ( Foxm1 ); P =0.042 ( Nr1d1 ); P =0.094 ( Olig1 ); P =0.014 ( Zdhhc13 ); P =0.0001 ( Elmsan1 ); P =0.740 ( Rax ); P =0.005 ( Tcf20 ); P =0.0004 ( Hcfc1 ); P =0.317 ( Snai1 ); P =0.214 ( Zfp341 ); P =0.210 ( Zfp612 ); P =0.002 ( Zfp473 ); P =0.754 ( Mecp2 ); P =0.003 ( Camta1 ); P =0.001 ( Dennd4a ); P =0.0001 ( Zdhhc2 ); P =0.186 ( Mef2a ); P =0.733 ( Zfp780b ); P =0.0001 ( Satb1 ). Paired t-test. FPKM, fragments per kilobase per million. (b) Coronal brain sections from WT mice stained for TH (red) and SATB1 (green). White lines indicate the border between SNpc and VTA. (c) SNpc DA neurons in WT mice stained for TH (red) and SATB1 (green) with DAPI counterstain (blue). (d) Coronal brain sections from WT mice stained for TH (red) and ZDHHC2 (green). White lines indicate the border between SNpc and VTA. (e) SNpc DA neurons in WT mice stained for TH (red), ZDHHC2 (green) and the Golgi marker GM130 (orange). White arrow heads indicate signal for ZDHHC2 that does not co-localize with that for TH. (f, g), Quantification of SATB1 and ZDHHC2 protein levels in midbrain from WT mice injected with either saline (n=4) or MPTP (n=4) according to Fig. 2a . GAPDH and β-tubulin, respectively, were used as loading controls. The molecular weight standard is shown on the right of the blot. SATB1: P =0.374; ZDHHC2: P =0.118. Unpaired t-test. Blot images are cropped. Full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure 9f-i . n-values indicate biological replicates. Data in (a) and (g) represent means ± SEM. Scale bars, 100 μm in (b) and (d) and 10 μm in (c) and (e). * P

    Article Snippet: Analyses were carried out with Taqman Universal PCR Master Mix (Life Technologies, #4304437) and a Taqman Slc6a3 copy number assay (FAM) (Life Technologies, Mm00401145_cn).

    Techniques: Expressing, Direct Antiglobulin Test, Mouse Assay, Staining, Marker, Injection, Molecular Weight

    Virus-mediated knockdown of SATB1 in SNpc DA neurons (a) Schematic illustration of bilateral stereotaxic AAV1 injections into the SNpc of WT mice using a Satb1 shRNA-EGFP construct (ipsilateral side) or a scrambled shRNA-EGFP construct (contralateral side; control). (b) Coronal brain section from WT mice two weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and EGFP autofluorescence (green). (c) Coronal brain section from WT mice two weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and SATB1 (orange) as well as EGFP autofluorescence (green). (d) Coronal brain section from WT mice three weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and EGFP autofluorescence (green). (e) GSEA of SATB1 target genes (vertical bars) on a ranked list of genes differentially expressed after Satb1 silencing in Dat bacTRAP mice according to (a) (n=3), sorted by their t-statistics. Genes that are downregulated after Satb1 silencing received high rank numbers and are displayed in the right part of the plot. The blue line in the upper part of the plot indicates the GSEA enrichment running score. Scale bars, 200 μm in (b) and (d) and 50 μm in (c). n-values indicate biological replicates .

    Journal: Nature neuroscience

    Article Title: Identification of Neurodegenerative Factors Using Translatome-Regulatory Network Analysis

    doi: 10.1038/nn.4070

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Virus-mediated knockdown of SATB1 in SNpc DA neurons (a) Schematic illustration of bilateral stereotaxic AAV1 injections into the SNpc of WT mice using a Satb1 shRNA-EGFP construct (ipsilateral side) or a scrambled shRNA-EGFP construct (contralateral side; control). (b) Coronal brain section from WT mice two weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and EGFP autofluorescence (green). (c) Coronal brain section from WT mice two weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and SATB1 (orange) as well as EGFP autofluorescence (green). (d) Coronal brain section from WT mice three weeks post-injection according to panel (a) showing staining for TH (red) and EGFP autofluorescence (green). (e) GSEA of SATB1 target genes (vertical bars) on a ranked list of genes differentially expressed after Satb1 silencing in Dat bacTRAP mice according to (a) (n=3), sorted by their t-statistics. Genes that are downregulated after Satb1 silencing received high rank numbers and are displayed in the right part of the plot. The blue line in the upper part of the plot indicates the GSEA enrichment running score. Scale bars, 200 μm in (b) and (d) and 50 μm in (c). n-values indicate biological replicates .

    Article Snippet: Analyses were carried out with Taqman Universal PCR Master Mix (Life Technologies, #4304437) and a Taqman Slc6a3 copy number assay (FAM) (Life Technologies, Mm00401145_cn).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, shRNA, Construct, Injection, Staining, Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Generation of Dat bacTRAP mice for the translational profiling of midbrain DA neurons (a) Sagittal brain section from a Dat bacTRAP mouse stained for TH (red) and EGFP (green) at the level of the SNpc. (b) Sagittal brain section from a Dat bacTRAP mouse stained for TH (red) and EGFP (green) at the level of the VTA. (c) Mean gene expression values obtained from whole midbrain total RNA samples (n=5) plotted against mean gene expression values from midbrain DA neuron TRAP samples (n=4). Lines to each side represent 1.5fold enrichment in either sample. The center line represents equal expression. Red dots represent transcripts enriched in the DA neuron TRAP samples by ≥1.5fold ( P

    Journal: Nature neuroscience

    Article Title: Identification of Neurodegenerative Factors Using Translatome-Regulatory Network Analysis

    doi: 10.1038/nn.4070

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Generation of Dat bacTRAP mice for the translational profiling of midbrain DA neurons (a) Sagittal brain section from a Dat bacTRAP mouse stained for TH (red) and EGFP (green) at the level of the SNpc. (b) Sagittal brain section from a Dat bacTRAP mouse stained for TH (red) and EGFP (green) at the level of the VTA. (c) Mean gene expression values obtained from whole midbrain total RNA samples (n=5) plotted against mean gene expression values from midbrain DA neuron TRAP samples (n=4). Lines to each side represent 1.5fold enrichment in either sample. The center line represents equal expression. Red dots represent transcripts enriched in the DA neuron TRAP samples by ≥1.5fold ( P

    Article Snippet: Analyses were carried out with Taqman Universal PCR Master Mix (Life Technologies, #4304437) and a Taqman Slc6a3 copy number assay (FAM) (Life Technologies, Mm00401145_cn).

    Techniques: Direct Antiglobulin Test, Mouse Assay, Staining, Expressing

    Fbxo7 tm1a mice have reduced circulating T cells with an altered phenotype and impaired T cell development. (A) Circulating T cell percentage in peripheral blood, (B) blood T cell effector percentage. (C) T cell percentage in the spleen and (D) splenic T cell effector percentage. (E) total thymus cell number and (F) T cell developmental stages in the thymus, DN = CD4/CD8 double negative, DP = CD4/CD8 double positive, CD4 SP = CD4 single positive and CD8 SP = CD8 single positive. All mice were female and 8 weeks old. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction except panel E which is from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction. All data representative of three independent experiments, each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fbxo7 tm1a mice have reduced circulating T cells with an altered phenotype and impaired T cell development. (A) Circulating T cell percentage in peripheral blood, (B) blood T cell effector percentage. (C) T cell percentage in the spleen and (D) splenic T cell effector percentage. (E) total thymus cell number and (F) T cell developmental stages in the thymus, DN = CD4/CD8 double negative, DP = CD4/CD8 double positive, CD4 SP = CD4 single positive and CD8 SP = CD8 single positive. All mice were female and 8 weeks old. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction except panel E which is from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction. All data representative of three independent experiments, each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Two Tailed Test

    Fbxo7 targeted mice present with anaemia and extramedullary haematopoiesis. (A) Red blood cell count (RBC); (B) haemoglobin; (C) haematocrit; (D) mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); (E) mean corpuscular volume (MCV); (F) red blood cell distribution width (RDW); (G) spleen weight; (H) characterisation of splenic erythrocyte development; and (I) circulating reticulocyte; from 15–17 week old Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a female mice. P values calculated from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction (A-G, I), or unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction (H). The data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments and each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation or standard error of the mean for panel H.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fbxo7 targeted mice present with anaemia and extramedullary haematopoiesis. (A) Red blood cell count (RBC); (B) haemoglobin; (C) haematocrit; (D) mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); (E) mean corpuscular volume (MCV); (F) red blood cell distribution width (RDW); (G) spleen weight; (H) characterisation of splenic erythrocyte development; and (I) circulating reticulocyte; from 15–17 week old Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a female mice. P values calculated from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction (A-G, I), or unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction (H). The data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments and each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation or standard error of the mean for panel H.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Cell Counting, Concentration Assay, Two Tailed Test, Standard Deviation

    Increased morbidity after infection of Fbxo7 tm1a mice with Salmonella typhimurium. (A) Survival curve of 4 female and 4 male Fbxo7 +/+ mice and 3 female and 4 male Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (B) body weight changes during the course of infection from mice shown in panel A. (C) spleen weights at day 6 post Salmonella infection of male mice, with 3 Fbxo7 +/+ and 4 Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (D) spleen and liver Salmonella counts at day 6 post infection of male mice, with 3 Fbxo7 +/+ and 4 Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (E) histopathological image of liver showing a typical necro-inflammatory focus with an oval nodule consisting of eosinophilic necrotic hepatocytes surrounded by a rim of inflammatory cells that are predominantly neutrophil leucocytes, from a male Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mouse at day 6. (F) body weight changes during course of infection for male mice deficient for Fbxo7 in T cells ( Fbxo7 tm1c/tm1c ;CD4-Cre + 8 mice) and littermate controls ( Fbxo7 tm1c/tm1c ;CD4-Cre— 5 mice). (G) spleen and liver Salmonella counts at day 14 post infection from irradiated female mice reconstituted with Fbxo7 +/+ (10 mice) or Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a bone marrow (9 mice). (H-L) plasma clinical chemistry parameters at day 6 post infection from male mice (5 mice/genotype) for plasma levels of amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and ferritin (P values calculated from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction). For panels C, D and G-L symbols represent individual mice with the line at the mean and error bars representing the standard error of the mean (D and G) or standard deviation (C, H-L). For panel F symbols represent the mean with error bars representing the standard error of the mean.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased morbidity after infection of Fbxo7 tm1a mice with Salmonella typhimurium. (A) Survival curve of 4 female and 4 male Fbxo7 +/+ mice and 3 female and 4 male Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (B) body weight changes during the course of infection from mice shown in panel A. (C) spleen weights at day 6 post Salmonella infection of male mice, with 3 Fbxo7 +/+ and 4 Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (D) spleen and liver Salmonella counts at day 6 post infection of male mice, with 3 Fbxo7 +/+ and 4 Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (E) histopathological image of liver showing a typical necro-inflammatory focus with an oval nodule consisting of eosinophilic necrotic hepatocytes surrounded by a rim of inflammatory cells that are predominantly neutrophil leucocytes, from a male Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mouse at day 6. (F) body weight changes during course of infection for male mice deficient for Fbxo7 in T cells ( Fbxo7 tm1c/tm1c ;CD4-Cre + 8 mice) and littermate controls ( Fbxo7 tm1c/tm1c ;CD4-Cre— 5 mice). (G) spleen and liver Salmonella counts at day 14 post infection from irradiated female mice reconstituted with Fbxo7 +/+ (10 mice) or Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a bone marrow (9 mice). (H-L) plasma clinical chemistry parameters at day 6 post infection from male mice (5 mice/genotype) for plasma levels of amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and ferritin (P values calculated from unpaired two-tailed students t tests with Welch’s correction). For panels C, D and G-L symbols represent individual mice with the line at the mean and error bars representing the standard error of the mean (D and G) or standard deviation (C, H-L). For panel F symbols represent the mean with error bars representing the standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Irradiation, AST Assay, Two Tailed Test, Standard Deviation

    Fbxo7 has a T cell intrinsic role in controlling T cell number in the periphery but not phenotype. (A) T cell developmental stages in the thymus, DN = CD4/CD8 double negative, DP = CD4/CD8 double positive, CD4 SP = CD4 single positive and CD8 SP = CD8 single positive. (B) T cell percentage in the spleen and (C) splenic T cell effector percentage. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction. All data representative of three independent experiments (spleen 16–20 week old female mice, thymus 12–14 week old male mice), each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fbxo7 has a T cell intrinsic role in controlling T cell number in the periphery but not phenotype. (A) T cell developmental stages in the thymus, DN = CD4/CD8 double negative, DP = CD4/CD8 double positive, CD4 SP = CD4 single positive and CD8 SP = CD8 single positive. (B) T cell percentage in the spleen and (C) splenic T cell effector percentage. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Holm-Sidak multiple testing correction. All data representative of three independent experiments (spleen 16–20 week old female mice, thymus 12–14 week old male mice), each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Two Tailed Test, Mouse Assay

    Defects in the testis and epididymis of Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (A) Image of epididymal spermatozoa smear stained with hemacolor from 12-14-week-old mice. (B) H E stained section of epididymis from 20-week-old mice. (C) testis weight from 18-19-week-old mice. (D) semithin toloudine blue stained section image of testis from 8-week-old mice. Images are representative of at least two mice per genotype, P value from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Welch’s correction with each symbol representing a testis, line is at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Defects in the testis and epididymis of Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a mice. (A) Image of epididymal spermatozoa smear stained with hemacolor from 12-14-week-old mice. (B) H E stained section of epididymis from 20-week-old mice. (C) testis weight from 18-19-week-old mice. (D) semithin toloudine blue stained section image of testis from 8-week-old mice. Images are representative of at least two mice per genotype, P value from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Welch’s correction with each symbol representing a testis, line is at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining, Two Tailed Test, Standard Deviation

    Anaemia in Fbxo7 targeted mice is regenerative with a shorter erythrocyte half-life that is haematopoietic intrinsic. (A) plasma bilirubin and (B) plasma iron from 15-17-week-old Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a female mice. (C) In vivo half-life of Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a erythrocytes, the P value indicated is for each time point. D-H) characterisation of erythrocyte indices from Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a bone marrow chimeras 10 weeks after reconstitution (female recipient mice). All data representative of three independent experiments, each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation, except for (C) where n = 6 for Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a with mean ± standard error of the mean. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Welch’s correction (A, B, D-H) or C two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc test for individual time points.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: FBXO7 sensitivity of phenotypic traits elucidated by a hypomorphic allele

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anaemia in Fbxo7 targeted mice is regenerative with a shorter erythrocyte half-life that is haematopoietic intrinsic. (A) plasma bilirubin and (B) plasma iron from 15-17-week-old Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a female mice. (C) In vivo half-life of Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a erythrocytes, the P value indicated is for each time point. D-H) characterisation of erythrocyte indices from Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a bone marrow chimeras 10 weeks after reconstitution (female recipient mice). All data representative of three independent experiments, each symbol represents an individual mouse with the line at the mean and error bars represent standard deviation, except for (C) where n = 6 for Fbxo7 +/+ and Fbxo7 tm1a/tm1a with mean ± standard error of the mean. P values from an unpaired two-tailed students t test with Welch’s correction (A, B, D-H) or C two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc test for individual time points.

    Article Snippet: Fbxo7 gene expression was assessed using FAM-conjugated TaqMan assays (Mm00462692_m1 for exons 3–4 spanning the inserted cassette for the tm1a allele or the downstream exon 5–6 assay Mm01240794_m1 for tm1b samples).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Standard Deviation, Two Tailed Test

    Effect of oxidative stress on TTPA mRNA expression

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of oxidative stress on TTPA mRNA expression

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Effect of common SNPs on the transcriptional activity of the TTPA promoter

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of common SNPs on the transcriptional activity of the TTPA promoter

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Modulators of TTPA transcription

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Modulators of TTPA transcription

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques:

    Transcriptional responses of the cloned TTPA promoter

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transcriptional responses of the cloned TTPA promoter

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques: Clone Assay

    CREB mediates transcriptional response of the TTPA gene to oxidative stress

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CREB mediates transcriptional response of the TTPA gene to oxidative stress

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques:

    Effects of common promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on transcription of TTPA gene

    Journal:

    Article Title: Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of common promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on transcription of TTPA gene

    Article Snippet: Taqman expression assays for Fam-labeled TTPA (Hs00609398_m1), MT1A (Hs00831826_s1) and 18s (Hs99999901_s1) were used in combination with Fast Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) in a 96 well format on a StepOnePlus real time PCR machine (Applied Biosystems).

    Techniques:

    Proposed model of the tumor-suppressive effects of TPL2 in the lung. TPL2 contributes to p53 response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents or oncogenic stress through JNK-dependent up-regulation of nucleophosmin. Genetic or epigenetic aberrations (e.g., loss of heterozygosity, overexpression of miR-370, or oncogenic RAS signaling) may independently induce TPL2 down-regulation, leading to diminished JNK and p53 responses, reduced cell death, and accelerated carcinogenesis.

    Journal:

    Article Title: TPL2 kinase is a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1215938110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed model of the tumor-suppressive effects of TPL2 in the lung. TPL2 contributes to p53 response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents or oncogenic stress through JNK-dependent up-regulation of nucleophosmin. Genetic or epigenetic aberrations (e.g., loss of heterozygosity, overexpression of miR-370, or oncogenic RAS signaling) may independently induce TPL2 down-regulation, leading to diminished JNK and p53 responses, reduced cell death, and accelerated carcinogenesis.

    Article Snippet: TaqMan gene expression assays for human COT [MAP3K8; ID Hs00178297_m1, FAM (6 - Carboxyfluorescein)-labeled] and β-actin (ACTB; 4326315E) as endogenous control (VIC-labeled), mouse Cdkn1a , (Mm04205640_g1), bax (Mm00432051_m1), and GAPD (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) assays were obtained from Applied Biosystems and used on an Applied Biosystems 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR Instrument.

    Techniques: Over Expression

    TPL2 levels are reduced in primary human lung carcinomas and correlate with poor patient survival. ( A ) Comparison of TPL2 mRNA expression in the 100 available pairs of NSCLCs (T) and adjacent nonmalignant (N) lung tissues by qPCR. Results were normalized to the housekeeping β-actin gene and are expressed as RQ values using the IMR-90 human fibroblast cell line as calibrator. Stars and circles in the box plot indicate outliers. ( B ) Kaplan–Meier survival plot showing the cumulative survival of lung cancer patients who displayed more than twofold reduction in  TPL2  mRNA levels in T compared with N and patients with less than twofold reduction in expression levels. Patients with low  TPL2  expression have median survival of 16.2 mo (95% confidence interval = 11.8–20.6) compared with patients with less than twofold reduction, who have median survival of 28.8 mo (95% confidence interval = 18.4–39.2,  P  = 0.009; log rank test). ( C ) Inverse correlation between  TPL2  mRNA levels and Ki67 expression in cancer subset of NSCLC samples within this study ( n  = 35) for which Ki67 data were available ( r  coefficient and  P  values obtained from Spearman correlation). ( D ) TPL2 protein levels are reduced in T compared with N. TPL2 is expressed as two isoforms (noted with arrows) generated by the use of alternative translation start sites at methionines 1 and 30. ( E ) Representative immunohistochemical analysis showing a marked down-regulation of TPL2 expression in malignant cells (arrowheads) compared with nonmalignant epithelium (arrows). (Final magnification: 400×; objective lens: 40×/0.65; scale bars: 200 μm.)

    Journal:

    Article Title: TPL2 kinase is a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1215938110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TPL2 levels are reduced in primary human lung carcinomas and correlate with poor patient survival. ( A ) Comparison of TPL2 mRNA expression in the 100 available pairs of NSCLCs (T) and adjacent nonmalignant (N) lung tissues by qPCR. Results were normalized to the housekeeping β-actin gene and are expressed as RQ values using the IMR-90 human fibroblast cell line as calibrator. Stars and circles in the box plot indicate outliers. ( B ) Kaplan–Meier survival plot showing the cumulative survival of lung cancer patients who displayed more than twofold reduction in TPL2 mRNA levels in T compared with N and patients with less than twofold reduction in expression levels. Patients with low TPL2 expression have median survival of 16.2 mo (95% confidence interval = 11.8–20.6) compared with patients with less than twofold reduction, who have median survival of 28.8 mo (95% confidence interval = 18.4–39.2, P = 0.009; log rank test). ( C ) Inverse correlation between TPL2 mRNA levels and Ki67 expression in cancer subset of NSCLC samples within this study ( n = 35) for which Ki67 data were available ( r coefficient and P values obtained from Spearman correlation). ( D ) TPL2 protein levels are reduced in T compared with N. TPL2 is expressed as two isoforms (noted with arrows) generated by the use of alternative translation start sites at methionines 1 and 30. ( E ) Representative immunohistochemical analysis showing a marked down-regulation of TPL2 expression in malignant cells (arrowheads) compared with nonmalignant epithelium (arrows). (Final magnification: 400×; objective lens: 40×/0.65; scale bars: 200 μm.)

    Article Snippet: TaqMan gene expression assays for human COT [MAP3K8; ID Hs00178297_m1, FAM (6 - Carboxyfluorescein)-labeled] and β-actin (ACTB; 4326315E) as endogenous control (VIC-labeled), mouse Cdkn1a , (Mm04205640_g1), bax (Mm00432051_m1), and GAPD (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) assays were obtained from Applied Biosystems and used on an Applied Biosystems 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR Instrument.

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated, Immunohistochemistry

    Proposed model of the tumor-suppressive effects of TPL2 in the lung. On the basis of the data presented in this paper, we propose that TPL2 suppresses lung carcinogenesis by contributing to p53 response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents or oncogenic stress through JNK-dependent NPM up-regulation. Genetic or epigenetic aberrations (LOH, overexpression of miR-370, or oncogenic RAS signaling) may independently induce TPL2 down-regulation, leading to diminished JNK and p53 responses, reduced cell death, and accelerated cell transformation.

    Journal:

    Article Title: TPL2 kinase is a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1215938110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed model of the tumor-suppressive effects of TPL2 in the lung. On the basis of the data presented in this paper, we propose that TPL2 suppresses lung carcinogenesis by contributing to p53 response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents or oncogenic stress through JNK-dependent NPM up-regulation. Genetic or epigenetic aberrations (LOH, overexpression of miR-370, or oncogenic RAS signaling) may independently induce TPL2 down-regulation, leading to diminished JNK and p53 responses, reduced cell death, and accelerated cell transformation.

    Article Snippet: TaqMan gene expression assays for human COT [MAP3K8; ID Hs00178297_m1, FAM (6 - Carboxyfluorescein)-labeled] and β-actin (ACTB; 4326315E) as endogenous control (VIC-labeled), mouse Cdkn1a , (Mm04205640_g1), bax (Mm00432051_m1), and GAPD (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) assays were obtained from Applied Biosystems and used on an Applied Biosystems 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR Instrument.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Transformation Assay