lactobacillus gasseri fr4  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC lactobacillus gasseri fr4
    Lactobacillus <t>gasseri</t> encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).
    Lactobacillus Gasseri Fr4, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/lactobacillus gasseri fr4/product/ATCC
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    lactobacillus gasseri fr4 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-11
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice"

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    Journal: Foods

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Techniques Used:

    Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG AM. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG AM. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Techniques Used:

    Micrographs of Lactobacillus gasseri : ( a ) optical microscopy (100×); ( b ) scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Micrographs of Lactobacillus gasseri : ( a ) optical microscopy (100×); ( b ) scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Electron Microscopy

    Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG AM: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 21 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG AM: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 21 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Techniques Used:

    Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG UT: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 22 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG UT: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 22 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Antimicrobial and inflammatory properties of South African clinical Lactobacillus isolates and vaginal probiotics"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial and inflammatory properties of South African clinical Lactobacillus isolates and vaginal probiotics

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38253-4

    Inflammatory cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to Lactobacillus isolates. Cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to lactobacilli after a 24 h incubation period at 37 °C under 5% CO 2 was measured using Luminex. ( A ) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to group lactobacilli isolates according to inflammatory responses induced. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are shown as a heat map, with blue, through white, to red indicating low-high cytokine concentrations, respectively. Data was log 10 -transformed and scaled in R. Two clustering dendrograms are shown in the figure. The dendrogram above the heat map illustrates degrees of relatedness between different cytokines measured. The dendrogram on the left hand side of the heat map indicates relationships between the expression profiles of the analysed cytokines in response to different clinical Lactobacillus isolates. ( B ) Different isolates of the same species were grouped together and overall inflammatory responses to each species were determined by grouping all 9 inflammatory cytokines measured onto 1 factor and generating factor scores for the isolates. Species are ordered from most to least inflammatory; lines indicate medians, bars indicate interquartile ranges and error bars indicate ranges. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparisons between species; no significant differences in inflammatory responses were observed between species. ( C ) Overall inflammatory responses to each isolate. LA: Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic (n = 2); LC: Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 9); LCR: Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus probiotic (n = 1); LG: Lactobacillus gasseri (n = 2); LM: Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 4); LV: Lactobacillus vaginalis (n = 6); LJ: Lactobacillus jensenii (n = 6). *ATCC reference strains.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inflammatory cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to Lactobacillus isolates. Cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to lactobacilli after a 24 h incubation period at 37 °C under 5% CO 2 was measured using Luminex. ( A ) Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to group lactobacilli isolates according to inflammatory responses induced. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are shown as a heat map, with blue, through white, to red indicating low-high cytokine concentrations, respectively. Data was log 10 -transformed and scaled in R. Two clustering dendrograms are shown in the figure. The dendrogram above the heat map illustrates degrees of relatedness between different cytokines measured. The dendrogram on the left hand side of the heat map indicates relationships between the expression profiles of the analysed cytokines in response to different clinical Lactobacillus isolates. ( B ) Different isolates of the same species were grouped together and overall inflammatory responses to each species were determined by grouping all 9 inflammatory cytokines measured onto 1 factor and generating factor scores for the isolates. Species are ordered from most to least inflammatory; lines indicate medians, bars indicate interquartile ranges and error bars indicate ranges. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparisons between species; no significant differences in inflammatory responses were observed between species. ( C ) Overall inflammatory responses to each isolate. LA: Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic (n = 2); LC: Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 9); LCR: Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus probiotic (n = 1); LG: Lactobacillus gasseri (n = 2); LM: Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 4); LV: Lactobacillus vaginalis (n = 6); LJ: Lactobacillus jensenii (n = 6). *ATCC reference strains.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Luminex, Transformation Assay, Expressing, MANN-WHITNEY

    Lactobacilli-mediated changes in inflammatory cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to Gardnerella vaginalis . Cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to G. vaginalis alone and G. vaginalis following pre-incubation with lactobacilli. CaSki monolayers in 24 well plates were incubated with lactobacilli for 5 hours at 37 °C under 5% CO 2. G. vaginalis was then added to the cultures and incubated as above for a further 20 hours. Cytokine concentrations were measured using Luminex. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to group the co-cultures according to inflammatory responses induced. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are shown as a heat map, with blue, through white, to red indicating low-high cytokine concentrations, respectively. Data was log 10 -transformed and scaled in R. Two clustering dendrograms are shown in the figure. The dendrogram above the heat map illustrates degrees of relatedness between different cytokines measured. The dendrogram on the left hand side of the heat map indicates relationships between the expression profiles of the analysed cytokines in response to different clinical Lactobacillus isolates. GV: G . vaginalis ; LC: L. crispatus , LJ: L. jensenii ; LM: L. mucosae ; LG: L. gasseri ; LV: L. vaginalis .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lactobacilli-mediated changes in inflammatory cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to Gardnerella vaginalis . Cytokine production by CaSki cells in response to G. vaginalis alone and G. vaginalis following pre-incubation with lactobacilli. CaSki monolayers in 24 well plates were incubated with lactobacilli for 5 hours at 37 °C under 5% CO 2. G. vaginalis was then added to the cultures and incubated as above for a further 20 hours. Cytokine concentrations were measured using Luminex. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to group the co-cultures according to inflammatory responses induced. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are shown as a heat map, with blue, through white, to red indicating low-high cytokine concentrations, respectively. Data was log 10 -transformed and scaled in R. Two clustering dendrograms are shown in the figure. The dendrogram above the heat map illustrates degrees of relatedness between different cytokines measured. The dendrogram on the left hand side of the heat map indicates relationships between the expression profiles of the analysed cytokines in response to different clinical Lactobacillus isolates. GV: G . vaginalis ; LC: L. crispatus , LJ: L. jensenii ; LM: L. mucosae ; LG: L. gasseri ; LV: L. vaginalis .

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Luminex, Transformation Assay, Expressing

    Inhibition of Gardnerella vaginalis growth by Lactobacillus c ulture supernatants. ( A ) Growth of G. vaginalis was determined by measuring the optical density of cultures at a wavelength of 600 nm (OD 600 ), after culture with lactobacilli supernatants in duplicate within the same assay for 24 h at 37 °C. The fold change in growth of G. vaginalis only cultures was compared to those cultured with lactobacilli supernatants using an unpaired two-tailed t-test. ( B ) Colony forming units (CFU)/ml of G. vaginalis pretreated with lactobacilli supernatants on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar after incubation for 48 h at 37 °C were assessed in duplicate within the same assay. ( C , D ) L actobacillus jensenii (LJ)5, L. mucosae (LM)2 and L. gasseri (LG)1 were used to determine the mechanism underlying the inhibition of G. vaginalis by lactobacilli supernatant in triplicate within the same assay. ( C ) The effects of hydrogen peroxide reduction by catalase and ( D ) bacteriocin degradation by proteolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus culture supernatants on the growth of G. vaginalis . Lines indicate means and error bars indicate the standard deviations of technical replicates. Student’s t-tests were used for comparisons. ** Adjusted p-values
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of Gardnerella vaginalis growth by Lactobacillus c ulture supernatants. ( A ) Growth of G. vaginalis was determined by measuring the optical density of cultures at a wavelength of 600 nm (OD 600 ), after culture with lactobacilli supernatants in duplicate within the same assay for 24 h at 37 °C. The fold change in growth of G. vaginalis only cultures was compared to those cultured with lactobacilli supernatants using an unpaired two-tailed t-test. ( B ) Colony forming units (CFU)/ml of G. vaginalis pretreated with lactobacilli supernatants on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar after incubation for 48 h at 37 °C were assessed in duplicate within the same assay. ( C , D ) L actobacillus jensenii (LJ)5, L. mucosae (LM)2 and L. gasseri (LG)1 were used to determine the mechanism underlying the inhibition of G. vaginalis by lactobacilli supernatant in triplicate within the same assay. ( C ) The effects of hydrogen peroxide reduction by catalase and ( D ) bacteriocin degradation by proteolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus culture supernatants on the growth of G. vaginalis . Lines indicate means and error bars indicate the standard deviations of technical replicates. Student’s t-tests were used for comparisons. ** Adjusted p-values

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Cell Culture, Two Tailed Test, Incubation

    3) Product Images from "A Cell Surface Aggregation-Promoting Factor from Lactobacillus gasseri Contributes to Inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis Adhesion to Human Vaginal Ectocervical Cells"

    Article Title: A Cell Surface Aggregation-Promoting Factor from Lactobacillus gasseri Contributes to Inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis Adhesion to Human Vaginal Ectocervical Cells

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00907-17

    Surface molecules of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 contribute to inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. These adhesion assays were done under the protection mode, where bacteria or protein extracts were added to hVECs prior to addition of the parasites. (Top) Surface proteins of L. gasseri contribute to inhibition of parasite cytoadherence. Prior to the adhesion assays, lactobacilli were subjected to chemical and/or enzymatic treatments either to prepare protoplasts or to remove surface-associated molecules (see Materials and Methods). As indicated in the figure, samples were either protoplasts or lactobacilli treated with increasing concentrations of LiCl, proteinase K, or a combination of both. Mock-treated lactobacilli were used as controls (see Materials and Methods). The inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of mock-treated lactobacilli was considered 100% (dashed line). On the other hand, the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of treated lactobacilli was compared to that of their controls, and the relative inhibitory level was expressed as a percent change. All treatments caused a decrease in inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. For each type of treatment, the decrease in the relative inhibitory level was statistically significant compared to the result for the respective control ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Surface molecules of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 contribute to inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. These adhesion assays were done under the protection mode, where bacteria or protein extracts were added to hVECs prior to addition of the parasites. (Top) Surface proteins of L. gasseri contribute to inhibition of parasite cytoadherence. Prior to the adhesion assays, lactobacilli were subjected to chemical and/or enzymatic treatments either to prepare protoplasts or to remove surface-associated molecules (see Materials and Methods). As indicated in the figure, samples were either protoplasts or lactobacilli treated with increasing concentrations of LiCl, proteinase K, or a combination of both. Mock-treated lactobacilli were used as controls (see Materials and Methods). The inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of mock-treated lactobacilli was considered 100% (dashed line). On the other hand, the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of treated lactobacilli was compared to that of their controls, and the relative inhibitory level was expressed as a percent change. All treatments caused a decrease in inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. For each type of treatment, the decrease in the relative inhibitory level was statistically significant compared to the result for the respective control ( P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory toward T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. In this assay, lactobacilli were preincubated with hVECs, followed by addition of CMTMR-stained T. vaginalis . As a control, hVECs and stained T. vaginalis cells were incubated without bacteria. At the end of the incubation, unbound parasites were removed and bound parasites only were collected after trypsinization and counted by flow cytometry (see Materials and Methods). The number of hVEC-bound T. vaginalis cells in the presence of L. gasseri strain ATCC 9857 or ATCC 33323 (originally isolated from the human vagina and intestine, respectively) was compared to that for the control in order to determine the percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs. (A) Flow cytometry data depicting the separation of CMTMR-stained, hVEC-bound T. vaginalis (FL-2 channel) from a mixed population of unstained lactobacilli and/or hVECs. (B) Percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs by the two Lactobacillus strains. The differences between both samples and the control were statistically significant ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory toward T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. In this assay, lactobacilli were preincubated with hVECs, followed by addition of CMTMR-stained T. vaginalis . As a control, hVECs and stained T. vaginalis cells were incubated without bacteria. At the end of the incubation, unbound parasites were removed and bound parasites only were collected after trypsinization and counted by flow cytometry (see Materials and Methods). The number of hVEC-bound T. vaginalis cells in the presence of L. gasseri strain ATCC 9857 or ATCC 33323 (originally isolated from the human vagina and intestine, respectively) was compared to that for the control in order to determine the percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs. (A) Flow cytometry data depicting the separation of CMTMR-stained, hVEC-bound T. vaginalis (FL-2 channel) from a mixed population of unstained lactobacilli and/or hVECs. (B) Percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs by the two Lactobacillus strains. The differences between both samples and the control were statistically significant ( P

    Techniques Used: Staining, Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Isolation, Inhibition

    Expression of L. gasseri APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis enhances inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. (Inset) Heterologous expression of APF-2 of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 on the cell wall of L. lactis , as detected by Western blotting. A discrete band of the expected size (∼32 kDa) was seen in the cell wall extracts derived from nisin-induced apf-2 -transformed L. lactis (Lac/apf-2) but not from nontransformed L. lactis (Lac). Expression of APF-2 from L. lactis apf-2 was also detected in the absence of nisin (leaky expression) and increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml of nisin. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to hVECs was done in the presence of nontransformed L. lactis (white bars) and apf 2-transformed L. lactis (black bars) either induced or not induced with nisin. The fold changes in the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion were measured between cells and protoplasts for nontransformed L. lactis and for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Significant fold changes between cells and protoplasts were seen only for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Expression of APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis promotes inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs, which was more pronounced upon nisin induction at 1 ng/ml ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of L. gasseri APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis enhances inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. (Inset) Heterologous expression of APF-2 of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 on the cell wall of L. lactis , as detected by Western blotting. A discrete band of the expected size (∼32 kDa) was seen in the cell wall extracts derived from nisin-induced apf-2 -transformed L. lactis (Lac/apf-2) but not from nontransformed L. lactis (Lac). Expression of APF-2 from L. lactis apf-2 was also detected in the absence of nisin (leaky expression) and increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml of nisin. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to hVECs was done in the presence of nontransformed L. lactis (white bars) and apf 2-transformed L. lactis (black bars) either induced or not induced with nisin. The fold changes in the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion were measured between cells and protoplasts for nontransformed L. lactis and for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Significant fold changes between cells and protoplasts were seen only for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Expression of APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis promotes inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs, which was more pronounced upon nisin induction at 1 ng/ml ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Inhibition, Western Blot, Derivative Assay, Transformation Assay

    L. gasseri inhibits T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs in different ways. (A) Inhibition is achieved by L. gasseri ATCC 9857 cells or culture supernatant by different modes. When using bacterial cells, lactobacilli were added either before T. vaginalis was added (Protection), with T. vaginalis (Competition), or after T. vaginalis was added (Displacement). When using culture supernatant, cell-free medium recovered from lactobacilli only (Filtrate 1) or lactobacilli incubated with hVECs (Filtrate 2) was added to the adhesion assay mixtures prior to parasite addition. The results for all samples were compared to those for the controls, which consisted of hVECs incubated with T. vaginalis only (no bacteria or culture supernatant). Data are expressed as the percent inhibition of parasite adhesion to cells. The differences between all samples and their respective controls were statistically significant ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: L. gasseri inhibits T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs in different ways. (A) Inhibition is achieved by L. gasseri ATCC 9857 cells or culture supernatant by different modes. When using bacterial cells, lactobacilli were added either before T. vaginalis was added (Protection), with T. vaginalis (Competition), or after T. vaginalis was added (Displacement). When using culture supernatant, cell-free medium recovered from lactobacilli only (Filtrate 1) or lactobacilli incubated with hVECs (Filtrate 2) was added to the adhesion assay mixtures prior to parasite addition. The results for all samples were compared to those for the controls, which consisted of hVECs incubated with T. vaginalis only (no bacteria or culture supernatant). Data are expressed as the percent inhibition of parasite adhesion to cells. The differences between all samples and their respective controls were statistically significant ( P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Cell Adhesion Assay

    4) Product Images from "A Cell Surface Aggregation-Promoting Factor from Lactobacillus gasseri Contributes to Inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis Adhesion to Human Vaginal Ectocervical Cells"

    Article Title: A Cell Surface Aggregation-Promoting Factor from Lactobacillus gasseri Contributes to Inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis Adhesion to Human Vaginal Ectocervical Cells

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00907-17

    Surface molecules of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 contribute to inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. These adhesion assays were done under the protection mode, where bacteria or protein extracts were added to hVECs prior to addition of the parasites. (Top) Surface proteins of L. gasseri contribute to inhibition of parasite cytoadherence. Prior to the adhesion assays, lactobacilli were subjected to chemical and/or enzymatic treatments either to prepare protoplasts or to remove surface-associated molecules (see Materials and Methods). As indicated in the figure, samples were either protoplasts or lactobacilli treated with increasing concentrations of LiCl, proteinase K, or a combination of both. Mock-treated lactobacilli were used as controls (see Materials and Methods). The inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of mock-treated lactobacilli was considered 100% (dashed line). On the other hand, the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of treated lactobacilli was compared to that of their controls, and the relative inhibitory level was expressed as a percent change. All treatments caused a decrease in inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. For each type of treatment, the decrease in the relative inhibitory level was statistically significant compared to the result for the respective control ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Surface molecules of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 contribute to inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. These adhesion assays were done under the protection mode, where bacteria or protein extracts were added to hVECs prior to addition of the parasites. (Top) Surface proteins of L. gasseri contribute to inhibition of parasite cytoadherence. Prior to the adhesion assays, lactobacilli were subjected to chemical and/or enzymatic treatments either to prepare protoplasts or to remove surface-associated molecules (see Materials and Methods). As indicated in the figure, samples were either protoplasts or lactobacilli treated with increasing concentrations of LiCl, proteinase K, or a combination of both. Mock-treated lactobacilli were used as controls (see Materials and Methods). The inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of mock-treated lactobacilli was considered 100% (dashed line). On the other hand, the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs in the presence of treated lactobacilli was compared to that of their controls, and the relative inhibitory level was expressed as a percent change. All treatments caused a decrease in inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. For each type of treatment, the decrease in the relative inhibitory level was statistically significant compared to the result for the respective control ( P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory toward T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. In this assay, lactobacilli were preincubated with hVECs, followed by addition of CMTMR-stained T. vaginalis . As a control, hVECs and stained T. vaginalis cells were incubated without bacteria. At the end of the incubation, unbound parasites were removed and bound parasites only were collected after trypsinization and counted by flow cytometry (see Materials and Methods). The number of hVEC-bound T. vaginalis cells in the presence of L. gasseri strain ATCC 9857 or ATCC 33323 (originally isolated from the human vagina and intestine, respectively) was compared to that for the control in order to determine the percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs. (A) Flow cytometry data depicting the separation of CMTMR-stained, hVEC-bound T. vaginalis (FL-2 channel) from a mixed population of unstained lactobacilli and/or hVECs. (B) Percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs by the two Lactobacillus strains. The differences between both samples and the control were statistically significant ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory toward T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. In this assay, lactobacilli were preincubated with hVECs, followed by addition of CMTMR-stained T. vaginalis . As a control, hVECs and stained T. vaginalis cells were incubated without bacteria. At the end of the incubation, unbound parasites were removed and bound parasites only were collected after trypsinization and counted by flow cytometry (see Materials and Methods). The number of hVEC-bound T. vaginalis cells in the presence of L. gasseri strain ATCC 9857 or ATCC 33323 (originally isolated from the human vagina and intestine, respectively) was compared to that for the control in order to determine the percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs. (A) Flow cytometry data depicting the separation of CMTMR-stained, hVEC-bound T. vaginalis (FL-2 channel) from a mixed population of unstained lactobacilli and/or hVECs. (B) Percent inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs by the two Lactobacillus strains. The differences between both samples and the control were statistically significant ( P

    Techniques Used: Staining, Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Isolation, Inhibition

    Expression of L. gasseri APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis enhances inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. (Inset) Heterologous expression of APF-2 of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 on the cell wall of L. lactis , as detected by Western blotting. A discrete band of the expected size (∼32 kDa) was seen in the cell wall extracts derived from nisin-induced apf-2 -transformed L. lactis (Lac/apf-2) but not from nontransformed L. lactis (Lac). Expression of APF-2 from L. lactis apf-2 was also detected in the absence of nisin (leaky expression) and increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml of nisin. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to hVECs was done in the presence of nontransformed L. lactis (white bars) and apf 2-transformed L. lactis (black bars) either induced or not induced with nisin. The fold changes in the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion were measured between cells and protoplasts for nontransformed L. lactis and for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Significant fold changes between cells and protoplasts were seen only for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Expression of APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis promotes inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs, which was more pronounced upon nisin induction at 1 ng/ml ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of L. gasseri APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis enhances inhibition of T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs. (Inset) Heterologous expression of APF-2 of L. gasseri ATCC 9857 on the cell wall of L. lactis , as detected by Western blotting. A discrete band of the expected size (∼32 kDa) was seen in the cell wall extracts derived from nisin-induced apf-2 -transformed L. lactis (Lac/apf-2) but not from nontransformed L. lactis (Lac). Expression of APF-2 from L. lactis apf-2 was also detected in the absence of nisin (leaky expression) and increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml of nisin. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to hVECs was done in the presence of nontransformed L. lactis (white bars) and apf 2-transformed L. lactis (black bars) either induced or not induced with nisin. The fold changes in the inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion were measured between cells and protoplasts for nontransformed L. lactis and for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Significant fold changes between cells and protoplasts were seen only for apf 2-transformed L. lactis . Expression of APF-2 on the surface of L. lactis promotes inhibition of T. vaginalis adhesion to hVECs, which was more pronounced upon nisin induction at 1 ng/ml ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Inhibition, Western Blot, Derivative Assay, Transformation Assay

    L. gasseri inhibits T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs in different ways. (A) Inhibition is achieved by L. gasseri ATCC 9857 cells or culture supernatant by different modes. When using bacterial cells, lactobacilli were added either before T. vaginalis was added (Protection), with T. vaginalis (Competition), or after T. vaginalis was added (Displacement). When using culture supernatant, cell-free medium recovered from lactobacilli only (Filtrate 1) or lactobacilli incubated with hVECs (Filtrate 2) was added to the adhesion assay mixtures prior to parasite addition. The results for all samples were compared to those for the controls, which consisted of hVECs incubated with T. vaginalis only (no bacteria or culture supernatant). Data are expressed as the percent inhibition of parasite adhesion to cells. The differences between all samples and their respective controls were statistically significant ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: L. gasseri inhibits T. vaginalis B7RC2 adhesion to hVECs in different ways. (A) Inhibition is achieved by L. gasseri ATCC 9857 cells or culture supernatant by different modes. When using bacterial cells, lactobacilli were added either before T. vaginalis was added (Protection), with T. vaginalis (Competition), or after T. vaginalis was added (Displacement). When using culture supernatant, cell-free medium recovered from lactobacilli only (Filtrate 1) or lactobacilli incubated with hVECs (Filtrate 2) was added to the adhesion assay mixtures prior to parasite addition. The results for all samples were compared to those for the controls, which consisted of hVECs incubated with T. vaginalis only (no bacteria or culture supernatant). Data are expressed as the percent inhibition of parasite adhesion to cells. The differences between all samples and their respective controls were statistically significant ( P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Incubation, Cell Adhesion Assay

    5) Product Images from "CD44v6 increases gastric cancer malignant phenotype by modulating adipose stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling"

    Article Title: CD44v6 increases gastric cancer malignant phenotype by modulating adipose stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling

    Journal: Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macro

    doi: 10.1039/c7ib00179g

    CD44v6 alters tumor growth and architecture in vivo . (A) Schematic showing the establishment of a gastric cancer (GC) cell line stably expressing CD44v6 and study design for subcutaneous xenograft injections of GC cells individually in SCID mice. (B) Immunofluorescence images showing CD44v6 isoform expression and nuclei (DAPI) on MKN74 and CD44v6 cells. Scale bars = 50 μm. Inset bars = 20 μm. (C) Representative histograms of MKN74 and CD44v6 analysis by flow cytometry quantifying CD44v6 expression. (D) Tumor volume from MKN74 ( n = 3) and CD44v6 ( n = 8) subcutaneous xenografts over eight weeks of growth and representative gross images of explanted tumors at week 8. Scale bars = 5 mm. (E) Histological grading and representative photomicrographs of the desmoplastic response of MKN74 and CD44v6 subcutaneous xenografts on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H E) stained sections with confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome-stained sections after 8 weeks of subcutaneous injection. Arrows indicate fibrotic tissue. Scale bars = 25 μm, inset bars = 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CD44v6 alters tumor growth and architecture in vivo . (A) Schematic showing the establishment of a gastric cancer (GC) cell line stably expressing CD44v6 and study design for subcutaneous xenograft injections of GC cells individually in SCID mice. (B) Immunofluorescence images showing CD44v6 isoform expression and nuclei (DAPI) on MKN74 and CD44v6 cells. Scale bars = 50 μm. Inset bars = 20 μm. (C) Representative histograms of MKN74 and CD44v6 analysis by flow cytometry quantifying CD44v6 expression. (D) Tumor volume from MKN74 ( n = 3) and CD44v6 ( n = 8) subcutaneous xenografts over eight weeks of growth and representative gross images of explanted tumors at week 8. Scale bars = 5 mm. (E) Histological grading and representative photomicrographs of the desmoplastic response of MKN74 and CD44v6 subcutaneous xenografts on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H E) stained sections with confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome-stained sections after 8 weeks of subcutaneous injection. Arrows indicate fibrotic tissue. Scale bars = 25 μm, inset bars = 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Stable Transfection, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Injection

    Tumor-secreted soluble factors from CD44v6 expressing GC cells promote adipose-stromal cell (ASC) myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and desmoplasia in vivo . (A) Experimental setup showing collection of tumor-conditioned media (TCM) from GC cell lines and its incubation with ASCs. (B) Number of ASCs after culture in TCMs collected from Control, MKN74, and CD44v6 cells relative to Control ( n = 3 samples per condition). (C) Immunofluorescence analysis of BrdU incorporation in ASCs treated with the different TCMs ( n = 40 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (D) Immunofluorescence analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) of ASCs relative to Control (n = 20 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (E) Schematic of xenografting conditions. CD44v6 cells were injected into SCID mice either alone ( n = 8) or in combination with ASCs ( n = 7) and tumors were harvested after 8 weeks. Representative photomicrographs of H E-stained cross-sections and confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome stained sections. Corresponding histological scoring of desmoplasia based on H E sections. Tumors were harvested 8 weeks after injection. Scale bars = 25 μm, Inset bars = 50 μm. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tumor-secreted soluble factors from CD44v6 expressing GC cells promote adipose-stromal cell (ASC) myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and desmoplasia in vivo . (A) Experimental setup showing collection of tumor-conditioned media (TCM) from GC cell lines and its incubation with ASCs. (B) Number of ASCs after culture in TCMs collected from Control, MKN74, and CD44v6 cells relative to Control ( n = 3 samples per condition). (C) Immunofluorescence analysis of BrdU incorporation in ASCs treated with the different TCMs ( n = 40 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (D) Immunofluorescence analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) of ASCs relative to Control (n = 20 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (E) Schematic of xenografting conditions. CD44v6 cells were injected into SCID mice either alone ( n = 8) or in combination with ASCs ( n = 7) and tumors were harvested after 8 weeks. Representative photomicrographs of H E-stained cross-sections and confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome stained sections. Corresponding histological scoring of desmoplasia based on H E sections. Tumors were harvested 8 weeks after injection. Scale bars = 25 μm, Inset bars = 50 μm. * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, In Vitro, In Vivo, Incubation, Immunofluorescence, BrdU Incorporation Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Decellularized ECMs assembled by CD44v6-TCM treated ASCs promote GC phenotypes associated with malignancy. (A) Experimental setup to analyze the effect of different ASC-assembled, decellularized ECMs on GC cells (MKN74 and CD44v6 cells). (B) Number of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs relative to tissue culture plastic (TCPS) ( n = 4) * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Decellularized ECMs assembled by CD44v6-TCM treated ASCs promote GC phenotypes associated with malignancy. (A) Experimental setup to analyze the effect of different ASC-assembled, decellularized ECMs on GC cells (MKN74 and CD44v6 cells). (B) Number of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs relative to tissue culture plastic (TCPS) ( n = 4) * p

    Techniques Used:

    Decellularized CD44v6-associated ECMs increase GC cell proliferation and decrease cell clustering in an MMP-dependent manner. (A) Representative immunofluorescence images of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs assembled under different TCM culture conditions and TCPS in the presence and absence of MMPs inhibitor (batimastat). Scale bars = 20 μm. (B and C) BrdU incorporation by MKN74 cells (B) and CD44v6 cells (C) after culture on decellularized ECMs and TCPS in the presence and absence of batimastat as determined by immunofluorescence image analysis ( n = 15 images per condition) * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Decellularized CD44v6-associated ECMs increase GC cell proliferation and decrease cell clustering in an MMP-dependent manner. (A) Representative immunofluorescence images of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs assembled under different TCM culture conditions and TCPS in the presence and absence of MMPs inhibitor (batimastat). Scale bars = 20 μm. (B and C) BrdU incorporation by MKN74 cells (B) and CD44v6 cells (C) after culture on decellularized ECMs and TCPS in the presence and absence of batimastat as determined by immunofluorescence image analysis ( n = 15 images per condition) * p

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, BrdU Incorporation Assay

    6) Product Images from "CD44v6 increases gastric cancer malignant phenotype by modulating adipose stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling "

    Article Title: CD44v6 increases gastric cancer malignant phenotype by modulating adipose stromal cell-mediated ECM remodeling

    Journal: Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macro

    doi: 10.1039/c7ib00179g

    CD44v6 alters tumor growth and architecture in vivo . (A) Schematic showing the establishment of a gastric cancer (GC) cell line stably expressing CD44v6 and study design for subcutaneous xenograft injections of GC cells individually in SCID mice. (B) Immunofluorescence images showing CD44v6 isoform expression and nuclei (DAPI) on MKN74 and CD44v6 cells. Scale bars = 50 μm. Inset bars = 20 μm. (C) Representative histograms of MKN74 and CD44v6 analysis by flow cytometry quantifying CD44v6 expression. (D) Tumor volume from MKN74 ( n = 3) and CD44v6 ( n = 8) subcutaneous xenografts over eight weeks of growth and representative gross images of explanted tumors at week 8. Scale bars = 5 mm. (E) Histological grading and representative photomicrographs of the desmoplastic response of MKN74 and CD44v6 subcutaneous xenografts on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H E) stained sections with confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome-stained sections after 8 weeks of subcutaneous injection. Arrows indicate fibrotic tissue. Scale bars = 25 μm, inset bars = 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CD44v6 alters tumor growth and architecture in vivo . (A) Schematic showing the establishment of a gastric cancer (GC) cell line stably expressing CD44v6 and study design for subcutaneous xenograft injections of GC cells individually in SCID mice. (B) Immunofluorescence images showing CD44v6 isoform expression and nuclei (DAPI) on MKN74 and CD44v6 cells. Scale bars = 50 μm. Inset bars = 20 μm. (C) Representative histograms of MKN74 and CD44v6 analysis by flow cytometry quantifying CD44v6 expression. (D) Tumor volume from MKN74 ( n = 3) and CD44v6 ( n = 8) subcutaneous xenografts over eight weeks of growth and representative gross images of explanted tumors at week 8. Scale bars = 5 mm. (E) Histological grading and representative photomicrographs of the desmoplastic response of MKN74 and CD44v6 subcutaneous xenografts on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H E) stained sections with confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome-stained sections after 8 weeks of subcutaneous injection. Arrows indicate fibrotic tissue. Scale bars = 25 μm, inset bars = 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Stable Transfection, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Staining, Injection

    Tumor-secreted soluble factors from CD44v6 expressing GC cells promote adipose-stromal cell (ASC) myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and desmoplasia in vivo . (A) Experimental setup showing collection of tumor-conditioned media (TCM) from GC cell lines and its incubation with ASCs. (B) Number of ASCs after culture in TCMs collected from Control, MKN74, and CD44v6 cells relative to Control ( n = 3 samples per condition). (C) Immunofluorescence analysis of BrdU incorporation in ASCs treated with the different TCMs ( n = 40 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (D) Immunofluorescence analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) of ASCs relative to Control (n = 20 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (E) Schematic of xenografting conditions. CD44v6 cells were injected into SCID mice either alone ( n = 8) or in combination with ASCs ( n = 7) and tumors were harvested after 8 weeks. Representative photomicrographs of H E-stained cross-sections and confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome stained sections. Corresponding histological scoring of desmoplasia based on H E sections. Tumors were harvested 8 weeks after injection. Scale bars = 25 μm, Inset bars = 50 μm. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tumor-secreted soluble factors from CD44v6 expressing GC cells promote adipose-stromal cell (ASC) myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and desmoplasia in vivo . (A) Experimental setup showing collection of tumor-conditioned media (TCM) from GC cell lines and its incubation with ASCs. (B) Number of ASCs after culture in TCMs collected from Control, MKN74, and CD44v6 cells relative to Control ( n = 3 samples per condition). (C) Immunofluorescence analysis of BrdU incorporation in ASCs treated with the different TCMs ( n = 40 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (D) Immunofluorescence analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) of ASCs relative to Control (n = 20 images per condition). Scale bars = 20 μm. (E) Schematic of xenografting conditions. CD44v6 cells were injected into SCID mice either alone ( n = 8) or in combination with ASCs ( n = 7) and tumors were harvested after 8 weeks. Representative photomicrographs of H E-stained cross-sections and confirmation of collagen deposition (blue) via Masson’s Trichrome stained sections. Corresponding histological scoring of desmoplasia based on H E sections. Tumors were harvested 8 weeks after injection. Scale bars = 25 μm, Inset bars = 50 μm. * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, In Vitro, In Vivo, Incubation, Immunofluorescence, BrdU Incorporation Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay, Staining

    Decellularized ECMs assembled by CD44v6-TCM treated ASCs promote GC phenotypes associated with malignancy. (A) Experimental setup to analyze the effect of different ASC-assembled, decellularized ECMs on GC cells (MKN74 and CD44v6 cells). (B) Number of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs relative to tissue culture plastic (TCPS) ( n = 4) * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Decellularized ECMs assembled by CD44v6-TCM treated ASCs promote GC phenotypes associated with malignancy. (A) Experimental setup to analyze the effect of different ASC-assembled, decellularized ECMs on GC cells (MKN74 and CD44v6 cells). (B) Number of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs relative to tissue culture plastic (TCPS) ( n = 4) * p

    Techniques Used:

    Decellularized CD44v6-associated ECMs increase GC cell proliferation and decrease cell clustering in an MMP-dependent manner. (A) Representative immunofluorescence images of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs assembled under different TCM culture conditions and TCPS in the presence and absence of MMPs inhibitor (batimastat). Scale bars = 20 μm. (B and C) BrdU incorporation by MKN74 cells (B) and CD44v6 cells (C) after culture on decellularized ECMs and TCPS in the presence and absence of batimastat as determined by immunofluorescence image analysis ( n = 15 images per condition) * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Decellularized CD44v6-associated ECMs increase GC cell proliferation and decrease cell clustering in an MMP-dependent manner. (A) Representative immunofluorescence images of MKN74 and CD44v6 cells after 3 days of culture on decellularized ECMs assembled under different TCM culture conditions and TCPS in the presence and absence of MMPs inhibitor (batimastat). Scale bars = 20 μm. (B and C) BrdU incorporation by MKN74 cells (B) and CD44v6 cells (C) after culture on decellularized ECMs and TCPS in the presence and absence of batimastat as determined by immunofluorescence image analysis ( n = 15 images per condition) * p

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, BrdU Incorporation Assay

    7) Product Images from "Antimicrobial Compounds Produced by Vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus Are Able to Strongly Inhibit Candida albicans Growth, Hyphal Formation and Regulate Virulence-related Gene Expressions"

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Compounds Produced by Vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus Are Able to Strongly Inhibit Candida albicans Growth, Hyphal Formation and Regulate Virulence-related Gene Expressions

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00564

    Inhibition of growth and hyphal formation of C. albicans by CFS from L. crispatus , L. gasseri , and L. jensenii . (A) Growth inhibition rate (%) = (OD control – OD CFS )/OD control × 100, (B) Hyphae inhibition rate (%) = (Hyphae% control – Hyphae% CFS )/Hyphae% control × 100. Comparisons among three groups were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by LSD test. ∗ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition of growth and hyphal formation of C. albicans by CFS from L. crispatus , L. gasseri , and L. jensenii . (A) Growth inhibition rate (%) = (OD control – OD CFS )/OD control × 100, (B) Hyphae inhibition rate (%) = (Hyphae% control – Hyphae% CFS )/Hyphae% control × 100. Comparisons among three groups were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by LSD test. ∗ P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Inhibition effects of CFS from different Lactobacillus strains on C. albicans hyphal formation. (A) L. crispatus , (B) L. gasseri , (C) L. jensenii . Effect of the addition of CFS on the yeast-to-hyphae conversion induced by liquid RPMI 1640 + 10% FBS medium at 37°C for 4 h in microtiter wells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition effects of CFS from different Lactobacillus strains on C. albicans hyphal formation. (A) L. crispatus , (B) L. gasseri , (C) L. jensenii . Effect of the addition of CFS on the yeast-to-hyphae conversion induced by liquid RPMI 1640 + 10% FBS medium at 37°C for 4 h in microtiter wells.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Inhibition effects of CFS from different Lactobacillus strains on Candida albicans growth in YPD broth at 24 h after inoculation. (A) L. crispatus , (B) L. gasseri , (C) L. jensenii . Each bar is the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. ∗∗ P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition effects of CFS from different Lactobacillus strains on Candida albicans growth in YPD broth at 24 h after inoculation. (A) L. crispatus , (B) L. gasseri , (C) L. jensenii . Each bar is the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. ∗∗ P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    8) Product Images from "Fate of Ingested Clostridium difficile Spores in Mice"

    Article Title: Fate of Ingested Clostridium difficile Spores in Mice

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072620

    Stability of CamSA and taurocholate towards bile salt hydrolases. CamSA (white bar) and taurocholate (black bars) were incubated with cultures of B. longum or L gasseri . Percent conjugated bile salts were derived by dividing the intensity of TLC spots obtained at different times by the intensity of the TLC spot obtained at the beginning of incubation (time 0). Time 0 was set at 100% and is not shown for clarity. Standard deviations represent at least five independent measures.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Stability of CamSA and taurocholate towards bile salt hydrolases. CamSA (white bar) and taurocholate (black bars) were incubated with cultures of B. longum or L gasseri . Percent conjugated bile salts were derived by dividing the intensity of TLC spots obtained at different times by the intensity of the TLC spot obtained at the beginning of incubation (time 0). Time 0 was set at 100% and is not shown for clarity. Standard deviations represent at least five independent measures.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Derivative Assay, Thin Layer Chromatography

    9) Product Images from "Construction of vectors for inducible and constitutive gene expression in Lactobacillus"

    Article Title: Construction of vectors for inducible and constitutive gene expression in Lactobacillus

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7915.2010.00200.x

    Oxalate degradation by Lactobacillus cultures. Cultures were consecutively transferred in MRS containing 0.05% oxalate then transferred to MRS containing 0.1% oxalate. Cultures were assayed for oxalate at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the final transfer. A. Oxalate degrading activity of L. acidophilus cultures: (●) L. acidophilus NCFM + pTRK928 (NCK 1889), (○) L. acidophilus NCFM + pTRK882 (NCK 1895), (▾) L. acidophilus frc deletion + pTRK928 (NCK 1897), (▵) L. acidophilus frc deletion + pTRK882 (NCK 1899). B. Oxalate degrading activity of L. gasseri cultures: (●) L. gasseri ADH + pTRK928 (NCK 1967), (○) L. gasseri ADH + pTRK882 (NCK 1968), (▾) L. gasseri ATCC 33323 + pTRK928 (NCK 1969), (▵) L. gasseri ATCC 33323 + pTRK882 (NCK 1970). Error bars are standard deviations of means from triplicate measurements of three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Oxalate degradation by Lactobacillus cultures. Cultures were consecutively transferred in MRS containing 0.05% oxalate then transferred to MRS containing 0.1% oxalate. Cultures were assayed for oxalate at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the final transfer. A. Oxalate degrading activity of L. acidophilus cultures: (●) L. acidophilus NCFM + pTRK928 (NCK 1889), (○) L. acidophilus NCFM + pTRK882 (NCK 1895), (▾) L. acidophilus frc deletion + pTRK928 (NCK 1897), (▵) L. acidophilus frc deletion + pTRK882 (NCK 1899). B. Oxalate degrading activity of L. gasseri cultures: (●) L. gasseri ADH + pTRK928 (NCK 1967), (○) L. gasseri ADH + pTRK882 (NCK 1968), (▾) L. gasseri ATCC 33323 + pTRK928 (NCK 1969), (▵) L. gasseri ATCC 33323 + pTRK882 (NCK 1970). Error bars are standard deviations of means from triplicate measurements of three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    β ‐Glucurondiase activity of inducible vectors. GUS activity of (A) L. acidophilus and (B) L. gasseri harbouring pTRK888 (pFOS), pTRK889 (pLAC) and pTRK890 (pTRE) in inducing carbohydrate (black), fructose (light grey) and glucose (dark grey) at 1 h post induction. Inducing carbohydrates were as follows: pTRK888, FOS; pTRK889, lactose; pTRK890, trehalose. Error bars represent the SEM for three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β ‐Glucurondiase activity of inducible vectors. GUS activity of (A) L. acidophilus and (B) L. gasseri harbouring pTRK888 (pFOS), pTRK889 (pLAC) and pTRK890 (pTRE) in inducing carbohydrate (black), fructose (light grey) and glucose (dark grey) at 1 h post induction. Inducing carbohydrates were as follows: pTRK888, FOS; pTRK889, lactose; pTRK890, trehalose. Error bars represent the SEM for three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    β ‐Glucurondiase activity of constitutive vector. GUS activity of (A) L. acidophilus and (B) L. gasseri harbouring pTRK892 at 1 h post induction. Cultures were incubated in SSM + 1% carbohydrate or MRS. Error bars represent the SEM for three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β ‐Glucurondiase activity of constitutive vector. GUS activity of (A) L. acidophilus and (B) L. gasseri harbouring pTRK892 at 1 h post induction. Cultures were incubated in SSM + 1% carbohydrate or MRS. Error bars represent the SEM for three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Incubation

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    ATCC lactobacillus gasseri fr4
    Lactobacillus <t>gasseri</t> encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).
    Lactobacillus Gasseri Fr4, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/lactobacillus gasseri fr4/product/ATCC
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    94
    ATCC lactobacillus acidophilus atcc 4962
    Lactobacillus <t>gasseri</t> encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).
    Lactobacillus Acidophilus Atcc 4962, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/lactobacillus acidophilus atcc 4962/product/ATCC
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    Image Search Results


    Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG UT. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Article Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri was sub-cultured five times before being used in the study [ ], and the recommendations of the strain supplier (ATCC) were also considered.

    Techniques:

    Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG AM. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri encapsulated by ALG AM. Salivary phase (column ( a )), gastric phase (column ( b )), and intestinal phase (column ( c )).

    Article Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri was sub-cultured five times before being used in the study [ ], and the recommendations of the strain supplier (ATCC) were also considered.

    Techniques:

    Micrographs of Lactobacillus gasseri : ( a ) optical microscopy (100×); ( b ) scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Micrographs of Lactobacillus gasseri : ( a ) optical microscopy (100×); ( b ) scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    Article Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri was sub-cultured five times before being used in the study [ ], and the recommendations of the strain supplier (ATCC) were also considered.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Electron Microscopy

    Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG AM: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 21 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG AM: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 21 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Article Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri was sub-cultured five times before being used in the study [ ], and the recommendations of the strain supplier (ATCC) were also considered.

    Techniques:

    Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG UT: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 22 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice

    doi: 10.3390/foods11050740

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri (LG) encapsulated in apple juice with CO 2 by ALG UT: (column ( a )) 7 days, (column ( b )) 15 days, and (column ( c )) 22 days in refrigerated storage (4 °C).

    Article Snippet: Lactobacillus gasseri was sub-cultured five times before being used in the study [ ], and the recommendations of the strain supplier (ATCC) were also considered.

    Techniques: