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1) Product Images from "Secondary metabolites from food-derived yeasts inhibit virulence of Candida albicans"
Article Title: Secondary metabolites from food-derived yeasts inhibit virulence of Candida albicans
Figure Legend Snippet: S. cerevisiae mutant analysis shows phenylethanol and tryptophol are required for beneficial activity in vitro and in vivo. (A) The neutralized secretome of aro8 aro9 double mutant (grey bar), that does not produce aromatic alcohols, was tested for its ability to prevent adhesion of C. albicans , compared to its isogenic wild type counterpart (white bar) or untreated controls (black bars), (n=4 assay replicates). (B.) Life span of C. elegans treated either with aro8 aro9 double mutant or its wild type counterpart. The double mutant (red curve) does not protect the nematode as well as its isogenic wild type control strain (blue curve) (n= 4 experimental replicates, 163 ± 11 nematodes). (C) Working model for the mechanism by which beneficial yeasts function to inhibit C. albicans virulence. Error bars represents means± standard deviations (SD). Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis tools by Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) tests were used for the C. elegans survival assay and statistical significance is expressed with respect to control.
Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Activity Assay, In Vitro, In Vivo, Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Phenylethanol and tryptophol are sufficient for beneficial activity in vitro and in vivo. (A) Varying concentration (100, 300 and 500 μM) of commercially procured aromatic alcohols, phenylethanol and tryptophol were exposed to C. albicans and biomass was measured with crystal violet (n = 5 experimental replicates). (B) Life span of C. elegans infected with C. albicans treated tryptophol (100 μM) (green curve) and phenylethanol (100 μM) (red curve) (n =3 experimental replicates, 82 ± 28 nematodes). (C) Representative images showing filamentation of C. albicans , upon phenylethanol and tryptophol treatment. Error bars represents means± standard deviations (SD). Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis tools by Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) tests were used for the C. elegans survival assay.
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, In Vitro, In Vivo, Concentration Assay, Infection, Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay
2) Product Images from "Bacterial bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase PheA increases flux into the yeast phenylalanine pathway and improves mandelic acid production"
Article Title: Bacterial bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase PheA increases flux into the yeast phenylalanine pathway and improves mandelic acid production
Journal: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Figure Legend Snippet: Using the bifunctional E. coli enzyme PheA fbr for mandelic acid production in an aro7Δ S. cerevisiae strain. A) Growth test with MRY36 (CEN.PK2-1C TRP1 Shik↑ aro10Δ aro8Δ pdc5Δ aro7Δ ) cells harboring different plasmid combinations on SMD with and without supplementation of aromatic amino acids. Cell dilutions of OD 600 1, 10 −1 , 10 −2 and 10 −3 (from left to right, respectively) were used. The picture was taken after 3d at 30 °C. EV, empty vector. B), C) and D) Production of mandelic acid (MA, B), hydroxymandelic acid (HMA, C) and phenylacetic acid + phenylethanol (PAA+PET, D) by the aro7Δ strain MRY36 expressing either pheA fbr and hmaS (red) or ARO7 fbr , PHA2 and hmaS (blue). E) Fermentation with the aro7Δ strain MRY36 harboring the hmaS-pheA fbr plasmid MRV144. MA, glucose and ethanol titers and OD 600 in SMD without supplementation of aromatic amino acids. The fermentations were performed in SMD (20 g/L glucose) without supplementation aromatic amino acids and with a starting OD 600 of 5. Error bars indicate standard deviation of biological duplicates (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).
Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Positron Emission Tomography, Expressing, Standard Deviation
Figure Legend Snippet: Applied modifications of the aromatic amino acid pathway of S. cerevisiae for mandelic acid production. The heterologous hydroxymandelate synthase (HmaS, red) converts the intermediates of the aromatic amino acid pathway phenylpyruvate (PPY) and hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) to mandelic acid (MA) and hydroxymandelic acid (HMA), respectively. Enzymes that were targeted to mitochondria/peroxisomes in our compartmentalization approach are marked with a star. The compartment (mitochondrion or peroxisome) containing the three consecutive enzymes Aro7 fbr , Pha2 and HmaS is depicted as a grey area surrounded by a dashed line. The bifunctional E. coli enzyme PheA fbr is indicated in orange (CM, chorismate mutase; PDT, prephenate dehydratase). Dashed arrows indicate multiple enzymatic steps. Enzymes whose genes were deleted in a part of the strains used in this work are labeled in grey. ANTH, anthranilate; Trp, tryptophan; PAC, phenylacetaldehyde; pPAC, p -hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde; Phe, phenylalanine; Tyr, tyrosine; PAA, phenylacetic acid; pPAA, p -hydroxyphenylacetic acid; PET, phenylethanol; pPET, p -hydroxyphenylethanol.
Techniques Used: Labeling, Positron Emission Tomography
Article Title: Volatile Compounds from Grape Skin, Juice and Wine from Five Interspecific HybridGrape Cultivars Grown in Québec (Canada) for Wine Production
Article Snippet: Acetoin, butyrolactone, β-citronellol, p -cymenene, β-damascenone, decanal, ethyl butanoate, ethyl cinnamate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate, ethyl-3-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, (−)-ethyl L-lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl (E )-2-butenoate, eugenol, fructose, geraniol, d -(+)-gluconic acid δ-lactone, glucose, (E ,E )-2,4-heptadienal, (E ,Z )-2,4-heptadienal, 1-heptanol, (E )-2-heptenal, (E ,E )-2,4-hexadienal, hexanal, hexanoic acid, hexanol, (Z )-3-hexenal, (E )-2- hexenal, (Z )-3-hexenol, (E )-2-hexenol, (E )-3-hexenol, hexyl acetate, α-ionol, α-ionone, β-ionone, isobutanol, isoamyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, linalool, (R )-(+)-limonene, nerol, (E ,Z )-2,6-nonadienal, γ-nonalactone, γ-octalactone, octanoic acid, 2-octanone, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, phenethyl acetate, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, α-terpineol, 2-undecanone, and
Article Title: Development of 2-phenylethanol plus acetic acid lures to monitor obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption
Article Snippet: Lure developmentSeveral types of release devices were prepared with 2-phenylethanol (99%) and
Article Title: Rational engineering of Kluyveromyces marxianus to create a chassis for the production of aromatic products
Article Snippet: The elution times of the metabolites of interest were as follows: shikimic acid, 2.32 minutes; tyrosine, 5.4 minutes; phenylalanine, 7.5 minutes; tyrosol/para-hydroxyphenylethanol, 10.22 minutes; para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 11.17 minutes; 2-phenylethanol, 17.2 minutes; phenylacetic acid; 17.86 minutes.