c3ar hycult 14d4 hm1123 dy  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech c3ar hycult 14d4 hm1123 dy
    C3ar Hycult 14d4 Hm1123 Dy, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    c3ar hycult 14d4 hm1123 dy  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech c3ar hycult 14d4 hm1123 dy
    C3ar Hycult 14d4 Hm1123 Dy, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    14d4  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech 14d4
    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
    14d4, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    14d4 - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
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    1) Product Images from "Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes"

    Article Title: Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-023-01583-0

    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
    Figure Legend Snippet: List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Techniques Used:

    hm1123  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech hm1123
    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
    Hm1123, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes"

    Article Title: Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-023-01583-0

    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
    Figure Legend Snippet: List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Techniques Used:

    rat anti c3ar  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c3ar
    Activation of complement <t>C3-C3aR/ITGAM</t> pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.
    Rat Anti C3ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion"

    Article Title: Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion

    Journal: Theranostics

    doi: 10.7150/thno.35841

    Activation of complement C3-C3aR/ITGAM pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Activation of complement C3-C3aR/ITGAM pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Western Blot

    Genetic deletion of C3ar1 attenuates microglia activation and reverses white matter injury in BCAS mice. A Representative images and quantification of C3aR (green) and Iba-1 (red) double-positive cells and microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=25 μm. B Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, MBP and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=50 μm. D Western blots of total- and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. E and F Quantification of total STAT3/ β-actin ( E ) and phospho-STAT3/STAT3 ( F ) levels in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. n = 3-4 animals in each genotype group. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Genetic deletion of C3ar1 attenuates microglia activation and reverses white matter injury in BCAS mice. A Representative images and quantification of C3aR (green) and Iba-1 (red) double-positive cells and microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=25 μm. B Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, MBP and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=50 μm. D Western blots of total- and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. E and F Quantification of total STAT3/ β-actin ( E ) and phospho-STAT3/STAT3 ( F ) levels in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. n = 3-4 animals in each genotype group. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Western Blot

    C3aR inhibition suppresses microglial activation and microglia redistribution to myelin in BCCAO rats. A Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, and β-actin in the striatum of the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-6 in each group. B Representative images of microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) contacting with myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. Scare bar=50 μm. n= 3-4 in each group. C-D Quantification of the proportion of microglia cells adhered to myelin relative to the number of myelin fibers ( C ) and the number of microglia cells ( D ). The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C3aR inhibition suppresses microglial activation and microglia redistribution to myelin in BCCAO rats. A Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, and β-actin in the striatum of the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-6 in each group. B Representative images of microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) contacting with myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. Scare bar=50 μm. n= 3-4 in each group. C-D Quantification of the proportion of microglia cells adhered to myelin relative to the number of myelin fibers ( C ) and the number of microglia cells ( D ). The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activation Assay, Western Blot

    C3aR inhibition prevents behavioral deficits and white matter injury in BCCAO rats. A Five-day spatial learning performance measured as the latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test in sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n= 12-15 animals for each group. B Spatial memory performance measured as the number of entries into the platform quadrant and the percentage of time spent in the platform quadrant in the Morris water maze test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups, n = 12-15 animals in each group. C Spatial memory performance measured as discrimination time in the new object recognition test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 4-6 animals for each group. D Western blots and quantification for myelin basic protein (MBP) and β-actin in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. E - F Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) ( E ) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) ( F ) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-4 animals in each group. Scale bar=50 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C3aR inhibition prevents behavioral deficits and white matter injury in BCCAO rats. A Five-day spatial learning performance measured as the latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test in sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n= 12-15 animals for each group. B Spatial memory performance measured as the number of entries into the platform quadrant and the percentage of time spent in the platform quadrant in the Morris water maze test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups, n = 12-15 animals in each group. C Spatial memory performance measured as discrimination time in the new object recognition test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 4-6 animals for each group. D Western blots and quantification for myelin basic protein (MBP) and β-actin in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. E - F Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) ( E ) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) ( F ) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-4 animals in each group. Scale bar=50 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Western Blot

    anti mouse c3ar antibody  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Hycult Biotech anti mouse c3ar antibody
    A. WT and <t>C3ar-/-</t> BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.
    Anti Mouse C3ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti mouse c3ar antibody/product/Hycult Biotech
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    anti mouse c3ar antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2024-07
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    1) Product Images from "Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages"

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan (30 min, MOI5) in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs (2h, MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). C-D. Prolonged or intense heat-treatment and zymosan treatment eliminates the phagocytosis-stimulating properties of serum. C. Macrophage phagocytosis of Hc (MOI5, 45 min, n = 3 biological replicates) was assessed in media supplemented with 10% FBS that had been subjected to heat treatment (C) at 56°C for up to 2h, at 65°C for 30 min, or that had been pre-treated with zymosan (D) (1X10 8 particles/mL, 60 min at 37°C). Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry. E. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI = 5, 60min) in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice and phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). F. BMDMs in serum-free media were infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). H-J. Normal human serum (NHS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc yeast. H. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5, 60 min) in media supplemented with 5% untreated, heat-inactivated, or C3-depleted (C3d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). I. Hc was opsonized with 10% untreated or C3d NHS, used to infect BMDMs in serum-free media (MOI5, 60 min), and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates) J. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% untreated or C5-depleted (C5d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). K-L. Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast and release of C3a via multiple pathways. Hc was incubated in 10% serum from WT, C3-/- , or DBA2 mice for 30 min at 37°C. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. K. Supernatants were harvested following incubation, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA (n = 3 biological replicates). L. Yeast were stained with a FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan (30 min, MOI5) in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs (2h, MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). C-D. Prolonged or intense heat-treatment and zymosan treatment eliminates the phagocytosis-stimulating properties of serum. C. Macrophage phagocytosis of Hc (MOI5, 45 min, n = 3 biological replicates) was assessed in media supplemented with 10% FBS that had been subjected to heat treatment (C) at 56°C for up to 2h, at 65°C for 30 min, or that had been pre-treated with zymosan (D) (1X10 8 particles/mL, 60 min at 37°C). Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry. E. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI = 5, 60min) in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice and phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). F. BMDMs in serum-free media were infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). H-J. Normal human serum (NHS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc yeast. H. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5, 60 min) in media supplemented with 5% untreated, heat-inactivated, or C3-depleted (C3d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). I. Hc was opsonized with 10% untreated or C3d NHS, used to infect BMDMs in serum-free media (MOI5, 60 min), and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates) J. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% untreated or C5-depleted (C5d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). K-L. Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast and release of C3a via multiple pathways. Hc was incubated in 10% serum from WT, C3-/- , or DBA2 mice for 30 min at 37°C. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. K. Supernatants were harvested following incubation, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA (n = 3 biological replicates). L. Yeast were stained with a FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates).

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes (A) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes (B). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI = 5, n = 2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. Enlarged views of insets outlined in panels A and B by a white box. Scale bar = 20 μm. D. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes, **** p<0.0001, **p<0.01 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The line represents the median phagosomal C3aR intensity.
    Figure Legend Snippet: C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes (A) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes (B). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI = 5, n = 2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. Enlarged views of insets outlined in panels A and B by a white box. Scale bar = 20 μm. D. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes, **** p<0.0001, **p<0.01 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The line represents the median phagosomal C3aR intensity.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Two Tailed Test

    J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature-and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. Scale bar = 20 μm. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures (C-E) (n = 2 biological replicates, >50 tracks per replicate), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series (C), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast (D), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track (E) (**** p<0.0001 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). The line represents the median measurement.
    Figure Legend Snippet: J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature-and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. Scale bar = 20 μm. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures (C-E) (n = 2 biological replicates, >50 tracks per replicate), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series (C), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast (D), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track (E) (**** p<0.0001 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). The line represents the median measurement.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Confocal Microscopy, Two Tailed Test

    A-B C3ar-/- mice (n≥10) and age-matched WT C57BL/6 mice (n≥10) were infected intranasally with varying doses of Hc yeast to initiate either a sub-lethal (A) or lethal (B) infection. D. C3-/- mice and age-matched WT mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of Hc yeast. Susceptibility is illustrated by a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. ns = not significant, *p < 0.05 by logrank test. C,E. The indicated mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of Hc . The fungal burden in lung and spleen homogenates was determined by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) at the indicated time points (n≥5). X-axis label for C is the same as that indicated for E.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A-B C3ar-/- mice (n≥10) and age-matched WT C57BL/6 mice (n≥10) were infected intranasally with varying doses of Hc yeast to initiate either a sub-lethal (A) or lethal (B) infection. D. C3-/- mice and age-matched WT mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of Hc yeast. Susceptibility is illustrated by a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. ns = not significant, *p < 0.05 by logrank test. C,E. The indicated mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of Hc . The fungal burden in lung and spleen homogenates was determined by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) at the indicated time points (n≥5). X-axis label for C is the same as that indicated for E.

    Techniques Used: Infection

    We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote local activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE. In the presence of C5-containing serum, the C5 convertase can similarly catalyze the cleavage of C5 at the fungal surface, leading to release of C5a and activation of C5aR, which may also drive local chemotaxis and activation of phagocytic integrins to promote phagocytosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote local activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE. In the presence of C5-containing serum, the C5 convertase can similarly catalyze the cleavage of C5 at the fungal surface, leading to release of C5a and activation of C5aR, which may also drive local chemotaxis and activation of phagocytic integrins to promote phagocytosis.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay, Chemotaxis Assay

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    Hycult Biotech anti mouse c3ar antibody
    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or <t>C3ar</t> in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
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    1) Product Images from "Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages"

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.

    Techniques Used: Lysis, Infection, Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay, Expressing, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Selection, FACS, Clone Assay, Activity Assay, CRISPR, Mutagenesis, dsDNA Assay, Negative Control, Passaging

    A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.
    Figure Legend Snippet: BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence

    WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).
    Figure Legend Snippet: WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).

    Techniques Used: Infection

    A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).

    Techniques Used: Infection, Flow Cytometry

    Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).

    Techniques Used: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence

    A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.

    Techniques Used: Chemotaxis Assay, Migration, Staining, Microscopy, Expressing, Transduction, Transwell Migration Assay

    J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Confocal Microscopy

    We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay

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    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or <t>C3ar</t> in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
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    1) Product Images from "Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages"

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.

    Techniques Used: Lysis, Infection, Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay, Expressing, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Selection, FACS, Clone Assay, Activity Assay, CRISPR, Mutagenesis, dsDNA Assay, Negative Control, Passaging

    A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.
    Figure Legend Snippet: BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence

    WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).
    Figure Legend Snippet: WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).

    Techniques Used: Infection

    A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).

    Techniques Used: Infection, Flow Cytometry

    Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).
    Figure Legend Snippet: C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).

    Techniques Used: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence

    A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.

    Techniques Used: Chemotaxis Assay, Migration, Staining, Microscopy, Expressing, Transduction, Transwell Migration Assay

    J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.
    Figure Legend Snippet: J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Confocal Microscopy

    We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.
    Figure Legend Snippet: We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    c3ar  (Hycult Biotech)


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    Rat Monoclonal Anti C3ar Antibody Hycult Biotech Cat, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hycult Biotech anti mouse c3ar
    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and <t>C3aR−/−</t> (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.
    Anti Mouse C3ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression"

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    Journal: Nature cancer

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.

    Techniques Used: Two Tailed Test

    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma growth curves (left panels) or mean tumor volume (± SEM, right panels) in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n=8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. (i) Representative H&E staining of 3-MCA tumor tissues of wt, C3−/−, MBL1/2−/−, C4−/− and C3aR−/− mice. One experiment performed, three representative fields have been acquired for each group (n=4 mice in each group). Scale bar: 100μm. (j-q) FS6 tumor incidences in C3−/− (j, n= 4 wt, n=8 ko); MBL1/2−/− (k, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C4-/ (l, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C3aR−/− (m, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C1q−/− (n, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (o, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); C5aR1−/− (p, n=12 wt, n=5 ko) and C5aR2−/− (q, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (r-u) FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) (r, t) and incidences (s, u) in MBL1/2±/− (r-s, n=12 he, n=8 ko) and C3aR±/− (t-u, n=21 he, n=12 ko) littermates. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e, f, j and k) or one (c, g, h, l, n, p, q, r, s, t and u) performed is shown. o, m: two pooled experiments. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels p, q and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel m. Two-tailed Mann Whitney test (r) or unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (t). Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (j-q, s and u).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma growth curves (left panels) or mean tumor volume (± SEM, right panels) in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n=8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. (i) Representative H&E staining of 3-MCA tumor tissues of wt, C3−/−, MBL1/2−/−, C4−/− and C3aR−/− mice. One experiment performed, three representative fields have been acquired for each group (n=4 mice in each group). Scale bar: 100μm. (j-q) FS6 tumor incidences in C3−/− (j, n= 4 wt, n=8 ko); MBL1/2−/− (k, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C4-/ (l, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C3aR−/− (m, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C1q−/− (n, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (o, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); C5aR1−/− (p, n=12 wt, n=5 ko) and C5aR2−/− (q, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (r-u) FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) (r, t) and incidences (s, u) in MBL1/2±/− (r-s, n=12 he, n=8 ko) and C3aR±/− (t-u, n=21 he, n=12 ko) littermates. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e, f, j and k) or one (c, g, h, l, n, p, q, r, s, t and u) performed is shown. o, m: two pooled experiments. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels p, q and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel m. Two-tailed Mann Whitney test (r) or unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (t). Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (j-q, s and u).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-p) MN/MCA1 and FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) in C3−/− (a, n=5 mice in each group) and (b, n=14 wt, n=8 ko); C4−/− (c, n=10 wt, n=9 ko) and (d, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C1q−/− (e, n=9 mice in each group) and (f, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (g, n=6 wt; n=4 ko) and (h, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); MBL1/2−/− (i, n=7 mice in each group) and (j, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C3aR−/− (k, n=9 wt, n=9 he, n=8 ko) and (l, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C5aR1−/− (m, n=7 wt, n=6 ko) and (n, n=12 wt, n=5 ko); C5aR2−/− (o, n=7 wt, n=4 ko) and (p, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (q) Primary tumor volume and number of lung metastasis 27 days after MN/MCA1 tumor cell im injection in wt and C3−/− (mean ± SEM, n=10 wt, n=7 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of 15 (a), 8 (k), two (b, c, g, i, j, m and q) or one (d, f, n, o and p) performed is shown. e: Four pooled experiments performed with co-housed wt and heterozygous littermates. h, l: two pooled experiments. k: one out of 8 experiments was performed with co-housed littermates. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels i and m or for panels n, p and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel l. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. Exact p values at the day of sacrifice are: a: p=0.0003; b: p=0.0014; c: p=0.025; d: p=0.0033; e: p=0.0218; j: p=0.0008; k: p<0.0001; l: p=0.0215; q left: p=0.0097; q right: p=0.0104. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (a: 16 and 21 days; c: 18 and 21 days; e; f; g; h; k: 16 days; m; o; q: 20 and 26 days) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a: 12 and 19 days; c: 15 days; d; i; j; k: 19 and 21 days; l; n; p; q: 24 days).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a-p) MN/MCA1 and FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) in C3−/− (a, n=5 mice in each group) and (b, n=14 wt, n=8 ko); C4−/− (c, n=10 wt, n=9 ko) and (d, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C1q−/− (e, n=9 mice in each group) and (f, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (g, n=6 wt; n=4 ko) and (h, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); MBL1/2−/− (i, n=7 mice in each group) and (j, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C3aR−/− (k, n=9 wt, n=9 he, n=8 ko) and (l, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C5aR1−/− (m, n=7 wt, n=6 ko) and (n, n=12 wt, n=5 ko); C5aR2−/− (o, n=7 wt, n=4 ko) and (p, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (q) Primary tumor volume and number of lung metastasis 27 days after MN/MCA1 tumor cell im injection in wt and C3−/− (mean ± SEM, n=10 wt, n=7 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of 15 (a), 8 (k), two (b, c, g, i, j, m and q) or one (d, f, n, o and p) performed is shown. e: Four pooled experiments performed with co-housed wt and heterozygous littermates. h, l: two pooled experiments. k: one out of 8 experiments was performed with co-housed littermates. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels i and m or for panels n, p and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel l. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. Exact p values at the day of sacrifice are: a: p=0.0003; b: p=0.0014; c: p=0.025; d: p=0.0033; e: p=0.0218; j: p=0.0008; k: p<0.0001; l: p=0.0215; q left: p=0.0097; q right: p=0.0104. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (a: 16 and 21 days; c: 18 and 21 days; e; f; g; h; k: 16 days; m; o; q: 20 and 26 days) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a: 12 and 19 days; c: 15 days; d; i; j; k: 19 and 21 days; l; n; p; q: 24 days).

    Techniques Used: Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-b) Correlation plot between C3AR1 expression level and macrophage (a) or monocyte (b) quantification scores. Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals (n = 263 patients). (c-d) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of TCGA sarcoma patients divided based on the median enrichment scores of C3 deficiency-associated signatures of macrophages (n=60 increasing genes) (c) and monocytes (n=85 increasing genes) (d) (n=262 patients in total, n = 131 patients in each group, the patient corresponding to the median value has been excluded by the analysis). Shaded areas of Kaplan-Meier survival curves represent 95% upper and lower confidence intervals. (e-f) Correlation plot between C3 deficiency-associated signature of macrophages (e) or monocytes (f) and a M1-like macrophage signature (n=263 patients). Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals. (a-f) Exact p value of two-sided Log-rank test (for survival curves) and correlation test (Spearman correlation for scatterplots) are reported.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a-b) Correlation plot between C3AR1 expression level and macrophage (a) or monocyte (b) quantification scores. Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals (n = 263 patients). (c-d) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of TCGA sarcoma patients divided based on the median enrichment scores of C3 deficiency-associated signatures of macrophages (n=60 increasing genes) (c) and monocytes (n=85 increasing genes) (d) (n=262 patients in total, n = 131 patients in each group, the patient corresponding to the median value has been excluded by the analysis). Shaded areas of Kaplan-Meier survival curves represent 95% upper and lower confidence intervals. (e-f) Correlation plot between C3 deficiency-associated signature of macrophages (e) or monocytes (f) and a M1-like macrophage signature (n=263 patients). Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals. (a-f) Exact p value of two-sided Log-rank test (for survival curves) and correlation test (Spearman correlation for scatterplots) are reported.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    (a) C3aR mRNA expression in MN/MCA1 (left panel) (n=3 independent experiments) or 3-MCA derived (right panel) (n=9 independent experiments) tumor cells and in leukocytes sorted from MN/MCA1 (left panel) or 3-MCA-induced (right panel) tumors of wt mice (n=5 or 6 mice; mean ± SEM). (b) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in wt peritoneal macrophages, used as positive control, and MN/MCA1 tumor cells. One experiment performed with two technical replicates for each cell culture, two-three fields have been acquired for each replicate. Scale bar: 10μm. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in tumor infiltrating macrophages (Iba-1+ cells) in wt derived MN/MCA1 tumor tissues. One experiment performed (n=5 mice), two-three fields have been acquired for each mouse. Scale bar: 50μm. (d, e) Analysis by FACS of macrophage (F4/80+) (d) and monocyte (Ly6C+) (e) frequency among living cells (Aqua−) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3−/− (n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR1−/− (n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (f-i) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+/CD206+) (f, h) and of the expression of selected M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (g, i) in wt and C3−/− (f, g, n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR−/− (h, i, n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (j-l) Frequency of macrophages (F4/80+) and monocytes (Ly6C+) (j), M2 macrophages (F4/80+/CD206+) (k) and expression of M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (l) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3aR−/− (n=15 in each group) mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3). d and e left panels, f and g: two experiments performed; d and e right panels, h and i: three experiments performed; j and l: one experiment performed. d-l: mean is shown. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (d; e; g: CD11c, CD80 and CD86 panels; h; i; j: F4/80+ panel; l:CD11c, MHCII and CD86 panels) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (f, g: MHCII panel; j: Ly6C+ panel; k; l: CD80 panel).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) C3aR mRNA expression in MN/MCA1 (left panel) (n=3 independent experiments) or 3-MCA derived (right panel) (n=9 independent experiments) tumor cells and in leukocytes sorted from MN/MCA1 (left panel) or 3-MCA-induced (right panel) tumors of wt mice (n=5 or 6 mice; mean ± SEM). (b) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in wt peritoneal macrophages, used as positive control, and MN/MCA1 tumor cells. One experiment performed with two technical replicates for each cell culture, two-three fields have been acquired for each replicate. Scale bar: 10μm. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in tumor infiltrating macrophages (Iba-1+ cells) in wt derived MN/MCA1 tumor tissues. One experiment performed (n=5 mice), two-three fields have been acquired for each mouse. Scale bar: 50μm. (d, e) Analysis by FACS of macrophage (F4/80+) (d) and monocyte (Ly6C+) (e) frequency among living cells (Aqua−) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3−/− (n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR1−/− (n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (f-i) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+/CD206+) (f, h) and of the expression of selected M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (g, i) in wt and C3−/− (f, g, n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR−/− (h, i, n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (j-l) Frequency of macrophages (F4/80+) and monocytes (Ly6C+) (j), M2 macrophages (F4/80+/CD206+) (k) and expression of M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (l) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3aR−/− (n=15 in each group) mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3). d and e left panels, f and g: two experiments performed; d and e right panels, h and i: three experiments performed; j and l: one experiment performed. d-l: mean is shown. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (d; e; g: CD11c, CD80 and CD86 panels; h; i; j: F4/80+ panel; l:CD11c, MHCII and CD86 panels) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (f, g: MHCII panel; j: Ly6C+ panel; k; l: CD80 panel).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Immunofluorescence, Positive Control, Cell Culture, Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of selected M1 marker (CD11c, MHC II, measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3−/− mice sacrificed 27 days after im MN/MCA1 tumor cell injection (n=6 wt mice, n=5 ko mice, mean ± SEM). (b) Analysis by FACS of monocyte (Ly6C+), macrophage (F4/80+), M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of CD86 (measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). (c) Quantitation of vessel density, vascular area and vascular coverage by pericytes in 3-MCA-derived tumors of wt and C3−/− mice (n=7 mice in each group; mean ± SEM). (d) Frequency of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). a-d: one experiment performed. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a-d).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of selected M1 marker (CD11c, MHC II, measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3−/− mice sacrificed 27 days after im MN/MCA1 tumor cell injection (n=6 wt mice, n=5 ko mice, mean ± SEM). (b) Analysis by FACS of monocyte (Ly6C+), macrophage (F4/80+), M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of CD86 (measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). (c) Quantitation of vessel density, vascular area and vascular coverage by pericytes in 3-MCA-derived tumors of wt and C3−/− mice (n=7 mice in each group; mean ± SEM). (d) Frequency of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). a-d: one experiment performed. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a-d).

    Techniques Used: Injection, Marker, Expressing, Quantitation Assay, Derivative Assay, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a) FACS analysis of helper T cell (CD3+/CD4+) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors (left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice). (b) Analysis by RT-PCR of selected Th1 markers of CD4+ T cells sorted from MN/MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=5 mice per group). (c-e) Frequency of CD4+Tbet+ and CD4+Eomes+ (c, n=9 wt mice, n=7 C3−/− mice; d, n=7 mice in each group), CD3+CD8+ (e, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) (f, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) in MN/MCA1 tumors. (g) CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cell (CD8+/CD44+/CD62L−) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors of mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3) (n=15 mice in each group). a-g: mean is shown. (h) Local IFNγ in MN-MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=28 wt, n=16 C3−/−, n=9 C3aR−/− mice from 4 pooled experiments). (i, j) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume in mice treated with anti-CD8 (n=12 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 wt mice + anti-CD8, n=11 ko mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 ko mice + anti-CD8) (i), anti-IFNγ (n=10 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=10 wt or ko mice + anti- IFNγ, n=9 ko mice + ctrl IgG) (j) or ctrl IgG. (k) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 sc injection in mice (n=9 mice in each group) treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. (l) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume and lung metastasis in mice treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG, (n=6 mice in each group). (m, n) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 (n=6 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=7 mice vehicle + anti-PD1, n=9 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG, n=8 mice C3aRa + anti-PD1) (m) or FS6 (n=8 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=9 mice vehicle or C3aRa + anti-PD1, n=8 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG) (n) sc injection in wt mice treated with C3aRa or vehicle, and anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. i-n: mean ± SEM is shown. a, e and f left panels: three experiments performed; a, e and f right panels: four experiments performed; c, d: two experiments performed; b, g, j, k, l, m and n: one experiment performed; i: two pooled experiments. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (b: for Stat4, Eomes, Ifng and Tnfa; c: left panel; d; e; f: right panel; g; h) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a; b: for Tbet and Il2; c: right panel; f: left panel), Kruskal Wallis [p=0.0008 (i), p=0.0042 (k), p=0.0111 (l left panel), p=0.0033 (l right panel), p=0.0009 (m) and p=0.0194 (n left panel)] or Ordinary one-way Anova (p<0.0001) (j) with unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney U-test as post-hoc tests (i-n) and two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (n, right panel).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) FACS analysis of helper T cell (CD3+/CD4+) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors (left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice). (b) Analysis by RT-PCR of selected Th1 markers of CD4+ T cells sorted from MN/MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=5 mice per group). (c-e) Frequency of CD4+Tbet+ and CD4+Eomes+ (c, n=9 wt mice, n=7 C3−/− mice; d, n=7 mice in each group), CD3+CD8+ (e, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) (f, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) in MN/MCA1 tumors. (g) CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cell (CD8+/CD44+/CD62L−) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors of mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3) (n=15 mice in each group). a-g: mean is shown. (h) Local IFNγ in MN-MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=28 wt, n=16 C3−/−, n=9 C3aR−/− mice from 4 pooled experiments). (i, j) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume in mice treated with anti-CD8 (n=12 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 wt mice + anti-CD8, n=11 ko mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 ko mice + anti-CD8) (i), anti-IFNγ (n=10 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=10 wt or ko mice + anti- IFNγ, n=9 ko mice + ctrl IgG) (j) or ctrl IgG. (k) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 sc injection in mice (n=9 mice in each group) treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. (l) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume and lung metastasis in mice treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG, (n=6 mice in each group). (m, n) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 (n=6 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=7 mice vehicle + anti-PD1, n=9 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG, n=8 mice C3aRa + anti-PD1) (m) or FS6 (n=8 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=9 mice vehicle or C3aRa + anti-PD1, n=8 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG) (n) sc injection in wt mice treated with C3aRa or vehicle, and anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. i-n: mean ± SEM is shown. a, e and f left panels: three experiments performed; a, e and f right panels: four experiments performed; c, d: two experiments performed; b, g, j, k, l, m and n: one experiment performed; i: two pooled experiments. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (b: for Stat4, Eomes, Ifng and Tnfa; c: left panel; d; e; f: right panel; g; h) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a; b: for Tbet and Il2; c: right panel; f: left panel), Kruskal Wallis [p=0.0008 (i), p=0.0042 (k), p=0.0111 (l left panel), p=0.0033 (l right panel), p=0.0009 (m) and p=0.0194 (n left panel)] or Ordinary one-way Anova (p<0.0001) (j) with unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney U-test as post-hoc tests (i-n) and two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (n, right panel).

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-d) Representative magnification images (20X) of immunostaining analysis for C1q (a), C4d (b), C3c (c) and C3aR (d) in UPS tissue sections. One experiment performed (n=19 patients), 10 representative fields have been acquired for each patient. Representative images for patients showing negative (0% IRA, left panel) or positive (>0% IRA, central and right panels) staining for C3aR expression (d). Scale bar: 100μm. (e-f) Kaplan-Meier survival curves representing the DFS (e) and the metastasis-free survival (f) for patients showing negative (n=5 patients) or positive (n=14 patients) staining for C3aR expression. Exact p value of Log-rank test for survival curves, Hazard ratio (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) are indicated in the figures (e, f).
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a-d) Representative magnification images (20X) of immunostaining analysis for C1q (a), C4d (b), C3c (c) and C3aR (d) in UPS tissue sections. One experiment performed (n=19 patients), 10 representative fields have been acquired for each patient. Representative images for patients showing negative (0% IRA, left panel) or positive (>0% IRA, central and right panels) staining for C3aR expression (d). Scale bar: 100μm. (e-f) Kaplan-Meier survival curves representing the DFS (e) and the metastasis-free survival (f) for patients showing negative (n=5 patients) or positive (n=14 patients) staining for C3aR expression. Exact p value of Log-rank test for survival curves, Hazard ratio (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) are indicated in the figures (e, f).

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing, Immunostaining, Staining

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    Hycult Biotech c3ar hycult 14d4 hm1123 dy
    C3ar Hycult 14d4 Hm1123 Dy, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
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    Hycult Biotech hm1123
    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals
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    Hycult Biotech rat anti c3ar
    Activation of complement <t>C3-C3aR/ITGAM</t> pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.
    Rat Anti C3ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hycult Biotech anti mouse c3ar antibody
    A. WT and <t>C3ar-/-</t> BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.
    Anti Mouse C3ar Antibody, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hycult Biotech c3ar antibody
    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or <t>C3ar</t> in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
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    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or <t>C3ar</t> in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
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    Hycult Biotech rat monoclonal anti c3ar antibody hycult biotech cat
    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or <t>C3ar</t> in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.
    Rat Monoclonal Anti C3ar Antibody Hycult Biotech Cat, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Hycult Biotech anti mouse c3ar
    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and <t>C3aR−/−</t> (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.
    Anti Mouse C3ar, supplied by Hycult Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-023-01583-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Article Snippet: 4 , C3aR , Hycult , 14D4 , HM1123 , Dy , 161.

    Techniques:

    List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    Article Title: Mass cytometric analysis of the immune cell landscape after traumatic brain injury elucidates the role of complement and complement receptors in neurologic outcomes

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-023-01583-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: List of CyTOF antibodies and their conjugated heavy metals

    Article Snippet: 4 , C3aR , Hycult , 14D4 , HM1123 , Dy , 161.

    Techniques:

    Activation of complement C3-C3aR/ITGAM pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion

    doi: 10.7150/thno.35841

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of complement C3-C3aR/ITGAM pathway in BCCAO rats. A Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of C1qa, C1qb, C4b, C3 , C3ar , and Itgam in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after BCCAO surgery. The values are normalized to those of the control group. n = 3-7 in each group. B Western blots and quantification for C3, C3aR, ITGAM, and β-actin in the striatum of control and BCCAO rats at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of complement C3 puncta (red) deposition on myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of BCCAO and control rats. n = 3-4 animals in each group at day 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Scale bar=10 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. the control group.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-MBP (Abcam, ab7349, 1:400), mouse anti-SMI32 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, 801701, 1:100), rabbit anti-APC (Abcam, ab72040, 1:50), rabbit anti-Iba-1 (Wako, Richmond, VA, 019-19741, 1:300), rabbit anti-CD86 (Abcam, ab112490, 1:200), mouse anti-CD68 (AbD Serotec, MCA341, 1:200), rabbit anti-C3 (Abcam, ab200999, 1:200), mouse anti-ITGAM (AbD Serotec, Oxford, UK, MCA618, 1:100), rat anti-C3aR (Hycult Biotech, Uden, Netherlands, HM1123, 1:100) antibodies were used.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Western Blot

    Genetic deletion of C3ar1 attenuates microglia activation and reverses white matter injury in BCAS mice. A Representative images and quantification of C3aR (green) and Iba-1 (red) double-positive cells and microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=25 μm. B Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, MBP and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=50 μm. D Western blots of total- and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. E and F Quantification of total STAT3/ β-actin ( E ) and phospho-STAT3/STAT3 ( F ) levels in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. n = 3-4 animals in each genotype group. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant.

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion

    doi: 10.7150/thno.35841

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genetic deletion of C3ar1 attenuates microglia activation and reverses white matter injury in BCAS mice. A Representative images and quantification of C3aR (green) and Iba-1 (red) double-positive cells and microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=25 μm. B Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, MBP and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. C Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. Scale bar=50 μm. D Western blots of total- and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and β-actin in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. E and F Quantification of total STAT3/ β-actin ( E ) and phospho-STAT3/STAT3 ( F ) levels in the striatum of WT, C3aR-KO, BCAS, and BCAS/C3aR-KO mice at day 28 after surgery. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. n = 3-4 animals in each genotype group. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-MBP (Abcam, ab7349, 1:400), mouse anti-SMI32 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, 801701, 1:100), rabbit anti-APC (Abcam, ab72040, 1:50), rabbit anti-Iba-1 (Wako, Richmond, VA, 019-19741, 1:300), rabbit anti-CD86 (Abcam, ab112490, 1:200), mouse anti-CD68 (AbD Serotec, MCA341, 1:200), rabbit anti-C3 (Abcam, ab200999, 1:200), mouse anti-ITGAM (AbD Serotec, Oxford, UK, MCA618, 1:100), rat anti-C3aR (Hycult Biotech, Uden, Netherlands, HM1123, 1:100) antibodies were used.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot

    C3aR inhibition suppresses microglial activation and microglia redistribution to myelin in BCCAO rats. A Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, and β-actin in the striatum of the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-6 in each group. B Representative images of microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) contacting with myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. Scare bar=50 μm. n= 3-4 in each group. C-D Quantification of the proportion of microglia cells adhered to myelin relative to the number of myelin fibers ( C ) and the number of microglia cells ( D ). The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion

    doi: 10.7150/thno.35841

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3aR inhibition suppresses microglial activation and microglia redistribution to myelin in BCCAO rats. A Western blots and quantification for CD86, iNOS, and β-actin in the striatum of the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-6 in each group. B Representative images of microglia cells (Iba-1 + cells, red) contacting with myelin (MBP + , green) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. Scare bar=50 μm. n= 3-4 in each group. C-D Quantification of the proportion of microglia cells adhered to myelin relative to the number of myelin fibers ( C ) and the number of microglia cells ( D ). The data are shown as the mean ± SD. ***, p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; NS, not significant; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-MBP (Abcam, ab7349, 1:400), mouse anti-SMI32 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, 801701, 1:100), rabbit anti-APC (Abcam, ab72040, 1:50), rabbit anti-Iba-1 (Wako, Richmond, VA, 019-19741, 1:300), rabbit anti-CD86 (Abcam, ab112490, 1:200), mouse anti-CD68 (AbD Serotec, MCA341, 1:200), rabbit anti-C3 (Abcam, ab200999, 1:200), mouse anti-ITGAM (AbD Serotec, Oxford, UK, MCA618, 1:100), rat anti-C3aR (Hycult Biotech, Uden, Netherlands, HM1123, 1:100) antibodies were used.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activation Assay, Western Blot

    C3aR inhibition prevents behavioral deficits and white matter injury in BCCAO rats. A Five-day spatial learning performance measured as the latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test in sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n= 12-15 animals for each group. B Spatial memory performance measured as the number of entries into the platform quadrant and the percentage of time spent in the platform quadrant in the Morris water maze test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups, n = 12-15 animals in each group. C Spatial memory performance measured as discrimination time in the new object recognition test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 4-6 animals for each group. D Western blots and quantification for myelin basic protein (MBP) and β-actin in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. E - F Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) ( E ) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) ( F ) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-4 animals in each group. Scale bar=50 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: Microglia exacerbate white matter injury via complement C3/C3aR pathway after hypoperfusion

    doi: 10.7150/thno.35841

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3aR inhibition prevents behavioral deficits and white matter injury in BCCAO rats. A Five-day spatial learning performance measured as the latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test in sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n= 12-15 animals for each group. B Spatial memory performance measured as the number of entries into the platform quadrant and the percentage of time spent in the platform quadrant in the Morris water maze test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups, n = 12-15 animals in each group. C Spatial memory performance measured as discrimination time in the new object recognition test in the sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 4-6 animals for each group. D Western blots and quantification for myelin basic protein (MBP) and β-actin in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. E - F Representative images and quantification of damaged axon (SMI32 + , red) relative to myelin (MBP + , green) ( E ) and mature oligodendrocyte (APC + cells, red) ( F ) in the striatum of sham+vehicle, sham+C3aR antagonist, BCCAO+vehicle, and BCCAO+C3aR antagonist groups. n = 3-4 animals in each group. Scale bar=50 μm. The data are shown as the mean ± SD. **, p < 0.01; *, p < 0.05; the BCCAO group vs. control group. C3aRA: C3aR antagonist.

    Article Snippet: Rat anti-MBP (Abcam, ab7349, 1:400), mouse anti-SMI32 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, 801701, 1:100), rabbit anti-APC (Abcam, ab72040, 1:50), rabbit anti-Iba-1 (Wako, Richmond, VA, 019-19741, 1:300), rabbit anti-CD86 (Abcam, ab112490, 1:200), mouse anti-CD68 (AbD Serotec, MCA341, 1:200), rabbit anti-C3 (Abcam, ab200999, 1:200), mouse anti-ITGAM (AbD Serotec, Oxford, UK, MCA618, 1:100), rat anti-C3aR (Hycult Biotech, Uden, Netherlands, HM1123, 1:100) antibodies were used.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Western Blot

    A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast (MOI2), and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc (MOI2) and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ) (MOI3). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n = 2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca . D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia (MOI1), and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n = 3 biological replicates, 200–400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E . coli bioparticles (MOI4) and the E . coli -association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads (MOI2), and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (MOI5, n = 3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs (J-L). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry following C3aR surface staining (n = 2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan (30 min, MOI5) in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs (2h, MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). C-D. Prolonged or intense heat-treatment and zymosan treatment eliminates the phagocytosis-stimulating properties of serum. C. Macrophage phagocytosis of Hc (MOI5, 45 min, n = 3 biological replicates) was assessed in media supplemented with 10% FBS that had been subjected to heat treatment (C) at 56°C for up to 2h, at 65°C for 30 min, or that had been pre-treated with zymosan (D) (1X10 8 particles/mL, 60 min at 37°C). Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry. E. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI = 5, 60min) in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice and phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). F. BMDMs in serum-free media were infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). H-J. Normal human serum (NHS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc yeast. H. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5, 60 min) in media supplemented with 5% untreated, heat-inactivated, or C3-depleted (C3d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). I. Hc was opsonized with 10% untreated or C3d NHS, used to infect BMDMs in serum-free media (MOI5, 60 min), and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates) J. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% untreated or C5-depleted (C5d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). K-L. Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast and release of C3a via multiple pathways. Hc was incubated in 10% serum from WT, C3-/- , or DBA2 mice for 30 min at 37°C. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. K. Supernatants were harvested following incubation, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA (n = 3 biological replicates). L. Yeast were stained with a FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates).

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan (30 min, MOI5) in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs (2h, MOI2). Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). C-D. Prolonged or intense heat-treatment and zymosan treatment eliminates the phagocytosis-stimulating properties of serum. C. Macrophage phagocytosis of Hc (MOI5, 45 min, n = 3 biological replicates) was assessed in media supplemented with 10% FBS that had been subjected to heat treatment (C) at 56°C for up to 2h, at 65°C for 30 min, or that had been pre-treated with zymosan (D) (1X10 8 particles/mL, 60 min at 37°C). Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry. E. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI = 5, 60min) in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice and phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). F. BMDMs in serum-free media were infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). G. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometry (n = 2 biological replicates). H-J. Normal human serum (NHS) stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of Hc yeast. H. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5, 60 min) in media supplemented with 5% untreated, heat-inactivated, or C3-depleted (C3d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). I. Hc was opsonized with 10% untreated or C3d NHS, used to infect BMDMs in serum-free media (MOI5, 60 min), and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates) J. BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI5) in media supplemented with 5% untreated or C5-depleted (C5d) NHS, and phagocytosis was monitored by flow cytometry (n = 3 biological replicates). K-L. Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast and release of C3a via multiple pathways. Hc was incubated in 10% serum from WT, C3-/- , or DBA2 mice for 30 min at 37°C. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. K. Supernatants were harvested following incubation, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA (n = 3 biological replicates). L. Yeast were stained with a FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates).

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes (A) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes (B). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI = 5, n = 2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. Enlarged views of insets outlined in panels A and B by a white box. Scale bar = 20 μm. D. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes, **** p<0.0001, **p<0.01 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The line represents the median phagosomal C3aR intensity.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes (A) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes (B). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI = 5, n = 2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. Enlarged views of insets outlined in panels A and B by a white box. Scale bar = 20 μm. D. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes, **** p<0.0001, **p<0.01 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The line represents the median phagosomal C3aR intensity.

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Two Tailed Test

    J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature-and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. Scale bar = 20 μm. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures (C-E) (n = 2 biological replicates, >50 tracks per replicate), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series (C), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast (D), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track (E) (**** p<0.0001 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). The line represents the median measurement.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature-and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. Scale bar = 20 μm. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures (C-E) (n = 2 biological replicates, >50 tracks per replicate), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series (C), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast (D), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track (E) (**** p<0.0001 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). The line represents the median measurement.

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Expressing, Confocal Microscopy, Two Tailed Test

    A-B C3ar-/- mice (n≥10) and age-matched WT C57BL/6 mice (n≥10) were infected intranasally with varying doses of Hc yeast to initiate either a sub-lethal (A) or lethal (B) infection. D. C3-/- mice and age-matched WT mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of Hc yeast. Susceptibility is illustrated by a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. ns = not significant, *p < 0.05 by logrank test. C,E. The indicated mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of Hc . The fungal burden in lung and spleen homogenates was determined by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) at the indicated time points (n≥5). X-axis label for C is the same as that indicated for E.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A-B C3ar-/- mice (n≥10) and age-matched WT C57BL/6 mice (n≥10) were infected intranasally with varying doses of Hc yeast to initiate either a sub-lethal (A) or lethal (B) infection. D. C3-/- mice and age-matched WT mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of Hc yeast. Susceptibility is illustrated by a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. ns = not significant, *p < 0.05 by logrank test. C,E. The indicated mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of Hc . The fungal burden in lung and spleen homogenates was determined by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) at the indicated time points (n≥5). X-axis label for C is the same as that indicated for E.

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Infection

    We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote local activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE. In the presence of C5-containing serum, the C5 convertase can similarly catalyze the cleavage of C5 at the fungal surface, leading to release of C5a and activation of C5aR, which may also drive local chemotaxis and activation of phagocytic integrins to promote phagocytosis.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote local activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE. In the presence of C5-containing serum, the C5 convertase can similarly catalyze the cleavage of C5 at the fungal surface, leading to release of C5a and activation of C5aR, which may also drive local chemotaxis and activation of phagocytic integrins to promote phagocytosis.

    Article Snippet: Coverslips were blocked with PBS + 5% FBS for 1 h at RT, and stained with an anti-mouse C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:1000) overnight at 4°C in 5% FBS.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay, Chemotaxis Assay

    A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Characterization of Hc- mediated lysis in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. J774A.1 cells were infected with WT Hc, or Hc with a disruption in a gene, CBP1 , that is required for Hc to lyse macrophages. Lysis over time was measured using the LDH release assay. B. Validation and clonal expansion of Cas9-expressing J774A.1 cells. Cells were transduced with an Ef1a-Cas9-Blast expression vector and grown under blasticidin selection to generate a population of Cas9-expressing cells. These were subjected to single-cell sorting and clonal expansion to generate Cas9-expressing J774A.1 clones with high Cas9 activity. Cas9 activity was measured by transducing J774A.1 cells with a guide RNA vector that co-expressed EGFP with a sgRNA targeting EGFP. Cas9 activity leads to silencing of the GFP following puromycin selection. Cas9 clone 9 was chosen for the large-scale CRISPR screens due to its high-efficiency GFP silencing. C-D. Characterizing lysis and recovery from infection with uracil pulses during infection with a Ura5-deficient Hc . J774A.1 macrophages were infected with ura5 mutant Hc in the presence or absence of exogenous uracil (0.4ug/mL). Uracil-containing cells were washed and media was replaced with uracil-poor media after 2d of lysis, which allowed the macrophages to recover. Recovery was assessed using LDH release quantification to assess lysis, and the confluency of viable cells in the wells was estimated using the pico-green dsDNA assay kit following lysis of macrophages with water. E. macrophages that had been recovered from lysis by removal of uracil from culture media were passaged for several days, and uracil was added to selected wells. Macrophage lysis over time was monitored by assessing LDH release over time to determine whether dormant yeast would be able to re-activate upon introduction of uracil. F. Reproducibility of the casTLE score across two replicates of the screens. G. Histograms comparing the distribution of negative control sgRNAs and sgRNAs targeting Gnb2 or C3ar in the H. capsulatum infected pool compared to the uninfected pool. H. Analysis of essential gene behavior during J7 library growth. Scatter plot showing the gene effect resulting from passaging of J7s, either going from the plasmid pool to the T0 pool, or the T0 pool to the uninfected pool. Genes annotated as “essential” or “non-essential” were plotted to determine whether essential genes appeared more likely to drop out of the uninfected pools.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Lysis, Infection, Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay, Expressing, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Selection, FACS, Clone Assay, Activity Assay, CRISPR, Mutagenesis, dsDNA Assay, Negative Control, Passaging

    A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with live and PFA-killed mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and the phagocytosis rate was monitored over-time using flow-cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled zymosan or mCherry-expressing Hc and the phagocytosis rate infected cells was monitored using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). C. BMDMs were infected with Candida albicans ( Ca ). Cells were imaged using confocal microscopy to quantify phagocytosis (n=2 biological replicates, >350 cells/replicate). CFW staining was used to exclude extracellular Ca. D. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled Coccidioides posadasii ( Cp ) arthroconidia, and extracellular conidia were labelled with calcofluor white. BMDM infection rates were determined using confocal microscopy (n=3 biological replicates, 200-400 cells/rep). E. BMDMs were infected with FITC-labelled E. coli bioparticles and the E. coli- association with BMDMs was monitored via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). F. BMDMs were infected with 2 μm or 0.5 μm red fluorescent latex beads, and the rate of BMDM association with the beads was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). G. BMDMs were treated with a C3aR antagonist (1 μM SB290157) and infected with Hc yeast. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). H. BMDMs were pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μg/mL pertussis toxin (Ptx), which inhibits Gαi, and infected with Hc (n=3 biological replicates). I. BMDMs were pre-treated for 90 min with 10 μg/mL CD18 blocking antibody (GAME-46) and infected with Hc yeast (n=3 biological replicates) Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry. Emc1 is required for C3aR expression in BMDMs ( J-L ). J. Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs and control sgRNA transduced BMDMs were stained with an anti-C3aR antibody, and C3aR levels were measured via flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). K. Histogram of C3aR levels in control and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. L. Frequency of C3aR+ cells in the indicated BMDMs. M. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the C3aR signal in the indicated BMDMs.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Staining, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BMDMs from C3ar-/- and WT mice, in addition to BMDMs expressing Cas9 and control or Emc1- targeting sgRNAs, were stained with anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). A. Representative histograms showing CD11b and CD18 levels in control, C3ar-/- , and Emc1 CRISPRKO BMDMs. The percentage of CD11b ( B ) and CD18 ( D ) positive macrophages was analyzed. The mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b ( C ) and CD18 ( D ) were also measured.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence

    WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were infected with Hc (MOI=5 for 6 h), and TNFα levels in macrophage supernatants were measured using the BD Cytometric Bead Array kit (n=3 biological replicates).

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Infection

    A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. FBS stimulates macrophage phagocytosis of fungi in a C3aR-dependent manner. BMDMs were infected with mCherry-expressing Hc or FITC-labelled zymosan in the presence or absence of 20% heat-treated FBS (FBS). Phagocytosis was assessed via flow cytometry (n=3 biological replicates). B. FBS does not promote macrophage phagocytosis of Hc via opsonization. Hc and zymosan particles were pre-incubated with 10% heat-treated FBS for 30 min at 37°C, washed, and used to infect BMDMs. Phagocytosis was measured using flow cytometry (n=2 biological replicates). C. Normal mouse serum (NMS) stimulates BMDM phagocytosis of fungi in a C3-dependenent manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in serum-free media or media supplemented with 5% FBS, 5% NMS from WT mice, 5% NMS from C3-/- mice, or 5% heat-inactivated NMS (hiNMS) from WT mice. BMDMs in serum-free media were also infected with Hc opsonized with 10% WT or C3-/- NMS. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=3 biological replicates). D. C5-deficient serum promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Hc in a C3aR-dependant manner. BMDMs were infected with Hc yeast in media supplemented with 5% NMS from C57BL/6 mice or DBA2 (C5-deficient) mice. Phagocytosis was measured as described above (n=2 biological replicates). E-F . Mouse serum promotes complement opsonization of yeast via multiple pathways. Hc ( E ) or Zymosan ( F ) were incubated in PBS with 10% sera from WT or C3-/- mice. 10 mM EGTA or EDTA were added to the reactions to chelate Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , respectively. Yeast were stained with FITC conjugated anti-mouse C3, and imaged using confocal microscopy (representative slices are shown from 2 biological replicates). G. Incubation of Hc with mouse serum leads to C3a release. Supernatants were harvested following incubation of mouse serum with Hc or zymosan, and mouse C3a levels were measured by ELISA.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Infection, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A-C ) BMDMs from WT and C3ar-/- mice were infected with Hc in the presence of 20% FBS from three different lots from 2 separate suppliers. In addition, WT BMDMs differentiated in different lots of serum were treated with 10 µM of the C3aR antagonist and infected with Hc ( B ). Phagocytosis of Hc was measured by flow cytometry as described previously (n=2 biological replicates).

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Infection, Flow Cytometry

    Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Uninfected WT and C3ar-/- BMDMs were stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using confocal microscopy and optical sectioning. Representative slices of 2 biological replicates are shown. The antibody specifically detects C3aR, as staining was not observed in C3ar-/- BMDMs. C3aR exhibits punctate localization near the plasma membrane in WT BMDMs.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Staining, Confocal Microscopy

    C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3aR localizes to Hc -containing phagosomes ( A ) to a greater extent than latex bead-containing phagosomes ( B ). BMDMs were infected with the indicated particles (MOI=5, n=2 biological replicates per time point). Cells were then stained with a C3aR-specific antibody and imaged using optical sectioning with a confocal microscope. Representative images from a single slice are shown. C. The mean fluorescence intensity of C3aR in the particle-containing phagosomes was quantified using ImageJ (N>91 phagosomes).

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence

    A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Hc stimulates chemotaxis of J774A.1 macrophage-like cells. H. capsulatum yeast were seeded into multiple-well plates at varying concentrations, and WT J774A.1 cells were seeded onto transwell permeable supports with 5 μm pores. Serum-free media supplemented with 0.25% BSA was used as the diluent in both the chamber and well unless otherwise indicated. After 3 h of migration, transwells were stained with crystal violet, and non-migratory cells were wiped off of the upper side of the transwell using a Q-tip. The number of migratory cells in each condition was quantified by microscopy (n=2 biogical replicates, 3 fields/biological replicate). B. Migration towards Hc is Gai-dependent. J774A.1 cells with or without pre-treatment with 1 µg/mL pertussis toxin (PTX) for 2 h were seeded into transwell permeable supports and migration towards 1e5 Hc/uL was quantified as described above. The number of migrating cells was quantified as described. C. The C3aR antagonist does not inhibit macrophage migration towards Hc. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 1 µM SB290157, a C3aR antagonist, and migration towards H. capsulatum was assessed as described. D. C3aR-deficiency moderately impacts migration of J774A.1 cells towards Hc. Cas9-expressing J774A.1 macrophages transduced with non-targeting or C3aR-targeting sgRNAs were assessed for their ability to migrate towards Hc as described previously. E. Hc- dependent migration is abolished in the presence of FBS. The transwell migration assay was performed with media supplemented with BSA or 10% FBS to determine whether FBS affected the migration of macrophage-like cells towards Hc yeast.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Chemotaxis Assay, Migration, Staining, Microscopy, Expressing, Transduction, Transwell Migration Assay

    J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: J774A.1 cells were engineered to express Lifeact-mEGFP to label F-actin, co-cultured with mCherry-expressing Hc yeast, and subjected to live-cell confocal microscopy in a temperature- and-CO 2 controlled chamber in media supplemented with 10% FBS. Cells were treated with a C3aR antagonist (10 μM SB290157) or a vehicle control. A. Representative images from a confocal time series showing a macrophage extending an F-actin-rich protrusion towards an mCherry expressing Hc yeast, followed by phagocytosis and formation of an actin-rich phagosome. The corresponding DIC images are shown below. B. A similar time series of macrophages treated with SB290157 showing a failure to initiate formation of a membrane protrusion and much slower capture of Hc yeast. The movement of membrane structures that successfully caputured yeast were analyzed using MtrackJ to quantify the behaviors of these structures ( C-E ), including the phagocytosis rate, quantified as the time required for the macrophage to successfully engulf the yeast divided by the distance of the yeast to the macrophage at the start of the series ( C ), the mean velocity of the membrane structure closest to the yeast ( D ), and the outreach ratio quantified as the max displacement of the track divided by the length of the track ( E ). These metrics demonstrate that macrophages treated with the C3aR antagonist are defective at the extension of membrane protrusions in the direction of Hc yeast that facilitate phagocytosis.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Expressing, Confocal Microscopy

    We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Genome-scale CRISPR screening reveals that C3aR signaling is critical for rapid capture of fungi by macrophages

    doi: 10.1101/2021.12.30.474615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: We propose the following model for the role of complement and C3aR in macrophage recognition of Hc : C3, derived from serum, reacts with the Hc cell-wall, leading to C3b/iC3b deposition on the cell-wall, and release of C3a, which diffuses away from the yeast surface leading to a concentration gradient emanating from the yeast cell-wall. C3a activates C3aR, which signals through Gαi and Gβ2 to promote the formation and directional movement of actin-rich membrane protrusions, and possibly to promote activation or increased motility of the integrin receptor CR3. Active CR3 can then recognize C3b/iC3b or other features of the Hc cell-wall. C3aR and/or CR3 activation then coordinates actin polymerization and phagocytic cup formation by regulating the activity of actin polymerization regulators Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE.

    Article Snippet: Cells were blocked for 20min with PBS5 (PBS+5% FBS) and stained with a C3aR antibody (Clone 14D4, Hycult, 1:500) in PBS5 for 20min on ice.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma incidence in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n= 8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e and f) or one (c, g and h) performed is shown. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test.

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Two Tailed Test

    (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma growth curves (left panels) or mean tumor volume (± SEM, right panels) in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n=8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. (i) Representative H&E staining of 3-MCA tumor tissues of wt, C3−/−, MBL1/2−/−, C4−/− and C3aR−/− mice. One experiment performed, three representative fields have been acquired for each group (n=4 mice in each group). Scale bar: 100μm. (j-q) FS6 tumor incidences in C3−/− (j, n= 4 wt, n=8 ko); MBL1/2−/− (k, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C4-/ (l, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C3aR−/− (m, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C1q−/− (n, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (o, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); C5aR1−/− (p, n=12 wt, n=5 ko) and C5aR2−/− (q, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (r-u) FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) (r, t) and incidences (s, u) in MBL1/2±/− (r-s, n=12 he, n=8 ko) and C3aR±/− (t-u, n=21 he, n=12 ko) littermates. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e, f, j and k) or one (c, g, h, l, n, p, q, r, s, t and u) performed is shown. o, m: two pooled experiments. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels p, q and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel m. Two-tailed Mann Whitney test (r) or unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (t). Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (j-q, s and u).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a-h) 3-MCA-induced sarcoma growth curves (left panels) or mean tumor volume (± SEM, right panels) in C3−/− (a, n=20 wt, n=18 ko), MBL1/2−/− (b, n=10 wt, n=14 ko), C4−/− (c, n=10 mice in each group), C1q−/− (d, n=7 wt, n=8 ko), fB−/− (e, n=9 wt, n=12 ko), C5aR1−/− (f, n=10 wt, n=19 ko), C5aR2−/− (g, n=14 wt, n=10 ko) and C3aR−/− (h, n=14 wt, n=16 ko) mice. Experiment of panel d was performed using wt littermates. (i) Representative H&E staining of 3-MCA tumor tissues of wt, C3−/−, MBL1/2−/−, C4−/− and C3aR−/− mice. One experiment performed, three representative fields have been acquired for each group (n=4 mice in each group). Scale bar: 100μm. (j-q) FS6 tumor incidences in C3−/− (j, n= 4 wt, n=8 ko); MBL1/2−/− (k, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C4-/ (l, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C3aR−/− (m, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C1q−/− (n, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (o, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); C5aR1−/− (p, n=12 wt, n=5 ko) and C5aR2−/− (q, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (r-u) FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) (r, t) and incidences (s, u) in MBL1/2±/− (r-s, n=12 he, n=8 ko) and C3aR±/− (t-u, n=21 he, n=12 ko) littermates. One representative experiment out of three (a), two (b, d, e, f, j and k) or one (c, g, h, l, n, p, q, r, s, t and u) performed is shown. o, m: two pooled experiments. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels p, q and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel m. Two-tailed Mann Whitney test (r) or unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (t). Exact p values are reported, two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (j-q, s and u).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Staining, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-p) MN/MCA1 and FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) in C3−/− (a, n=5 mice in each group) and (b, n=14 wt, n=8 ko); C4−/− (c, n=10 wt, n=9 ko) and (d, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C1q−/− (e, n=9 mice in each group) and (f, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (g, n=6 wt; n=4 ko) and (h, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); MBL1/2−/− (i, n=7 mice in each group) and (j, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C3aR−/− (k, n=9 wt, n=9 he, n=8 ko) and (l, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C5aR1−/− (m, n=7 wt, n=6 ko) and (n, n=12 wt, n=5 ko); C5aR2−/− (o, n=7 wt, n=4 ko) and (p, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (q) Primary tumor volume and number of lung metastasis 27 days after MN/MCA1 tumor cell im injection in wt and C3−/− (mean ± SEM, n=10 wt, n=7 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of 15 (a), 8 (k), two (b, c, g, i, j, m and q) or one (d, f, n, o and p) performed is shown. e: Four pooled experiments performed with co-housed wt and heterozygous littermates. h, l: two pooled experiments. k: one out of 8 experiments was performed with co-housed littermates. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels i and m or for panels n, p and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel l. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. Exact p values at the day of sacrifice are: a: p=0.0003; b: p=0.0014; c: p=0.025; d: p=0.0033; e: p=0.0218; j: p=0.0008; k: p<0.0001; l: p=0.0215; q left: p=0.0097; q right: p=0.0104. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (a: 16 and 21 days; c: 18 and 21 days; e; f; g; h; k: 16 days; m; o; q: 20 and 26 days) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a: 12 and 19 days; c: 15 days; d; i; j; k: 19 and 21 days; l; n; p; q: 24 days).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a-p) MN/MCA1 and FS6 tumor volumes (mean ± SEM) in C3−/− (a, n=5 mice in each group) and (b, n=14 wt, n=8 ko); C4−/− (c, n=10 wt, n=9 ko) and (d, n=11 wt, n=10 ko); C1q−/− (e, n=9 mice in each group) and (f, n=15 wt, n=8 ko); fB−/− (g, n=6 wt; n=4 ko) and (h, n=9 wt, n=4 ko); MBL1/2−/− (i, n=7 mice in each group) and (j, n=10 wt, n=9 ko); C3aR−/− (k, n=9 wt, n=9 he, n=8 ko) and (l, n=15 wt, n=12 ko); C5aR1−/− (m, n=7 wt, n=6 ko) and (n, n=12 wt, n=5 ko); C5aR2−/− (o, n=7 wt, n=4 ko) and (p, n=12 wt, n=8 ko) mice. (q) Primary tumor volume and number of lung metastasis 27 days after MN/MCA1 tumor cell im injection in wt and C3−/− (mean ± SEM, n=10 wt, n=7 ko) mice. One representative experiment out of 15 (a), 8 (k), two (b, c, g, i, j, m and q) or one (d, f, n, o and p) performed is shown. e: Four pooled experiments performed with co-housed wt and heterozygous littermates. h, l: two pooled experiments. k: one out of 8 experiments was performed with co-housed littermates. The same wt mice were used simultaneously as control mice of experiments of panels i and m or for panels n, p and one out of the two pooled experiments of panel l. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001. Exact p values at the day of sacrifice are: a: p=0.0003; b: p=0.0014; c: p=0.025; d: p=0.0033; e: p=0.0218; j: p=0.0008; k: p<0.0001; l: p=0.0215; q left: p=0.0097; q right: p=0.0104. Unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (a: 16 and 21 days; c: 18 and 21 days; e; f; g; h; k: 16 days; m; o; q: 20 and 26 days) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a: 12 and 19 days; c: 15 days; d; i; j; k: 19 and 21 days; l; n; p; q: 24 days).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-b) Correlation plot between C3AR1 expression level and macrophage (a) or monocyte (b) quantification scores. Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals (n = 263 patients). (c-d) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of TCGA sarcoma patients divided based on the median enrichment scores of C3 deficiency-associated signatures of macrophages (n=60 increasing genes) (c) and monocytes (n=85 increasing genes) (d) (n=262 patients in total, n = 131 patients in each group, the patient corresponding to the median value has been excluded by the analysis). Shaded areas of Kaplan-Meier survival curves represent 95% upper and lower confidence intervals. (e-f) Correlation plot between C3 deficiency-associated signature of macrophages (e) or monocytes (f) and a M1-like macrophage signature (n=263 patients). Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals. (a-f) Exact p value of two-sided Log-rank test (for survival curves) and correlation test (Spearman correlation for scatterplots) are reported.

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a-b) Correlation plot between C3AR1 expression level and macrophage (a) or monocyte (b) quantification scores. Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals (n = 263 patients). (c-d) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of TCGA sarcoma patients divided based on the median enrichment scores of C3 deficiency-associated signatures of macrophages (n=60 increasing genes) (c) and monocytes (n=85 increasing genes) (d) (n=262 patients in total, n = 131 patients in each group, the patient corresponding to the median value has been excluded by the analysis). Shaded areas of Kaplan-Meier survival curves represent 95% upper and lower confidence intervals. (e-f) Correlation plot between C3 deficiency-associated signature of macrophages (e) or monocytes (f) and a M1-like macrophage signature (n=263 patients). Blue line: linear model interpolating curve; darker bands: linear model confidence intervals. (a-f) Exact p value of two-sided Log-rank test (for survival curves) and correlation test (Spearman correlation for scatterplots) are reported.

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Expressing

    (a) C3aR mRNA expression in MN/MCA1 (left panel) (n=3 independent experiments) or 3-MCA derived (right panel) (n=9 independent experiments) tumor cells and in leukocytes sorted from MN/MCA1 (left panel) or 3-MCA-induced (right panel) tumors of wt mice (n=5 or 6 mice; mean ± SEM). (b) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in wt peritoneal macrophages, used as positive control, and MN/MCA1 tumor cells. One experiment performed with two technical replicates for each cell culture, two-three fields have been acquired for each replicate. Scale bar: 10μm. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in tumor infiltrating macrophages (Iba-1+ cells) in wt derived MN/MCA1 tumor tissues. One experiment performed (n=5 mice), two-three fields have been acquired for each mouse. Scale bar: 50μm. (d, e) Analysis by FACS of macrophage (F4/80+) (d) and monocyte (Ly6C+) (e) frequency among living cells (Aqua−) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3−/− (n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR1−/− (n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (f-i) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+/CD206+) (f, h) and of the expression of selected M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (g, i) in wt and C3−/− (f, g, n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR−/− (h, i, n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (j-l) Frequency of macrophages (F4/80+) and monocytes (Ly6C+) (j), M2 macrophages (F4/80+/CD206+) (k) and expression of M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (l) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3aR−/− (n=15 in each group) mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3). d and e left panels, f and g: two experiments performed; d and e right panels, h and i: three experiments performed; j and l: one experiment performed. d-l: mean is shown. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (d; e; g: CD11c, CD80 and CD86 panels; h; i; j: F4/80+ panel; l:CD11c, MHCII and CD86 panels) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (f, g: MHCII panel; j: Ly6C+ panel; k; l: CD80 panel).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) C3aR mRNA expression in MN/MCA1 (left panel) (n=3 independent experiments) or 3-MCA derived (right panel) (n=9 independent experiments) tumor cells and in leukocytes sorted from MN/MCA1 (left panel) or 3-MCA-induced (right panel) tumors of wt mice (n=5 or 6 mice; mean ± SEM). (b) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in wt peritoneal macrophages, used as positive control, and MN/MCA1 tumor cells. One experiment performed with two technical replicates for each cell culture, two-three fields have been acquired for each replicate. Scale bar: 10μm. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of C3aR expression in tumor infiltrating macrophages (Iba-1+ cells) in wt derived MN/MCA1 tumor tissues. One experiment performed (n=5 mice), two-three fields have been acquired for each mouse. Scale bar: 50μm. (d, e) Analysis by FACS of macrophage (F4/80+) (d) and monocyte (Ly6C+) (e) frequency among living cells (Aqua−) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3−/− (n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR1−/− (n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (f-i) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+/CD206+) (f, h) and of the expression of selected M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (g, i) in wt and C3−/− (f, g, n=9 wt, n=8 ko) or C3aR−/− (h, i, n=6 wt, n=8 ko) mice sacrificed 21 days after tumor cell injection. (j-l) Frequency of macrophages (F4/80+) and monocytes (Ly6C+) (j), M2 macrophages (F4/80+/CD206+) (k) and expression of M1 markers (CD11c, MHC II, CD80 and CD86) gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) (l) in MN/MCA1 tumors in wt and C3aR−/− (n=15 in each group) mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3). d and e left panels, f and g: two experiments performed; d and e right panels, h and i: three experiments performed; j and l: one experiment performed. d-l: mean is shown. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (d; e; g: CD11c, CD80 and CD86 panels; h; i; j: F4/80+ panel; l:CD11c, MHCII and CD86 panels) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (f, g: MHCII panel; j: Ly6C+ panel; k; l: CD80 panel).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Immunofluorescence, Positive Control, Cell Culture, Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of selected M1 marker (CD11c, MHC II, measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3−/− mice sacrificed 27 days after im MN/MCA1 tumor cell injection (n=6 wt mice, n=5 ko mice, mean ± SEM). (b) Analysis by FACS of monocyte (Ly6C+), macrophage (F4/80+), M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of CD86 (measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). (c) Quantitation of vessel density, vascular area and vascular coverage by pericytes in 3-MCA-derived tumors of wt and C3−/− mice (n=7 mice in each group; mean ± SEM). (d) Frequency of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). a-d: one experiment performed. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a-d).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Analysis by FACS of M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of selected M1 marker (CD11c, MHC II, measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3−/− mice sacrificed 27 days after im MN/MCA1 tumor cell injection (n=6 wt mice, n=5 ko mice, mean ± SEM). (b) Analysis by FACS of monocyte (Ly6C+), macrophage (F4/80+), M2 macrophage frequency (F4/80+CD206+) and of CD86 (measured as MFI) expression gated on total macrophages (F4/80+) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). (c) Quantitation of vessel density, vascular area and vascular coverage by pericytes in 3-MCA-derived tumors of wt and C3−/− mice (n=7 mice in each group; mean ± SEM). (d) Frequency of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) in wt and C3aR−/− mice sacrificed 34 days after FS6 tumor cell injection (n=9 wt mice, n=4 ko mice; mean ± SEM). a-d: one experiment performed. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a-d).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Injection, Marker, Expressing, Quantitation Assay, Derivative Assay, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a) FACS analysis of helper T cell (CD3+/CD4+) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors (left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice). (b) Analysis by RT-PCR of selected Th1 markers of CD4+ T cells sorted from MN/MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=5 mice per group). (c-e) Frequency of CD4+Tbet+ and CD4+Eomes+ (c, n=9 wt mice, n=7 C3−/− mice; d, n=7 mice in each group), CD3+CD8+ (e, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) (f, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) in MN/MCA1 tumors. (g) CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cell (CD8+/CD44+/CD62L−) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors of mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3) (n=15 mice in each group). a-g: mean is shown. (h) Local IFNγ in MN-MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=28 wt, n=16 C3−/−, n=9 C3aR−/− mice from 4 pooled experiments). (i, j) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume in mice treated with anti-CD8 (n=12 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 wt mice + anti-CD8, n=11 ko mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 ko mice + anti-CD8) (i), anti-IFNγ (n=10 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=10 wt or ko mice + anti- IFNγ, n=9 ko mice + ctrl IgG) (j) or ctrl IgG. (k) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 sc injection in mice (n=9 mice in each group) treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. (l) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume and lung metastasis in mice treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG, (n=6 mice in each group). (m, n) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 (n=6 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=7 mice vehicle + anti-PD1, n=9 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG, n=8 mice C3aRa + anti-PD1) (m) or FS6 (n=8 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=9 mice vehicle or C3aRa + anti-PD1, n=8 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG) (n) sc injection in wt mice treated with C3aRa or vehicle, and anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. i-n: mean ± SEM is shown. a, e and f left panels: three experiments performed; a, e and f right panels: four experiments performed; c, d: two experiments performed; b, g, j, k, l, m and n: one experiment performed; i: two pooled experiments. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (b: for Stat4, Eomes, Ifng and Tnfa; c: left panel; d; e; f: right panel; g; h) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a; b: for Tbet and Il2; c: right panel; f: left panel), Kruskal Wallis [p=0.0008 (i), p=0.0042 (k), p=0.0111 (l left panel), p=0.0033 (l right panel), p=0.0009 (m) and p=0.0194 (n left panel)] or Ordinary one-way Anova (p<0.0001) (j) with unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney U-test as post-hoc tests (i-n) and two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (n, right panel).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) FACS analysis of helper T cell (CD3+/CD4+) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors (left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice). (b) Analysis by RT-PCR of selected Th1 markers of CD4+ T cells sorted from MN/MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=5 mice per group). (c-e) Frequency of CD4+Tbet+ and CD4+Eomes+ (c, n=9 wt mice, n=7 C3−/− mice; d, n=7 mice in each group), CD3+CD8+ (e, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) and activated effector/effector memory T cells (CD8+CD44+CD62L−) (f, left, n=9 wt mice, n=8 C3−/− mice; right, n=6 wt mice, n=7 C3aR−/− mice) in MN/MCA1 tumors. (g) CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and activated effector/effector memory T cell (CD8+/CD44+/CD62L−) frequency in MN/MCA1 tumors of mice sacrificed at similar tumor volume (2cm3) (n=15 mice in each group). a-g: mean is shown. (h) Local IFNγ in MN-MCA1 tumors (mean ± SEM; n=28 wt, n=16 C3−/−, n=9 C3aR−/− mice from 4 pooled experiments). (i, j) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume in mice treated with anti-CD8 (n=12 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 wt mice + anti-CD8, n=11 ko mice + ctrl IgG, n=9 ko mice + anti-CD8) (i), anti-IFNγ (n=10 wt mice + ctrl IgG, n=10 wt or ko mice + anti- IFNγ, n=9 ko mice + ctrl IgG) (j) or ctrl IgG. (k) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 sc injection in mice (n=9 mice in each group) treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. (l) MN/MCA1 primary tumor volume and lung metastasis in mice treated with anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG, (n=6 mice in each group). (m, n) Primary tumor volume after MN/MCA1 (n=6 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=7 mice vehicle + anti-PD1, n=9 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG, n=8 mice C3aRa + anti-PD1) (m) or FS6 (n=8 mice vehicle + ctrl IgG, n=9 mice vehicle or C3aRa + anti-PD1, n=8 mice C3aRa + ctrl IgG) (n) sc injection in wt mice treated with C3aRa or vehicle, and anti-PD-1 or ctrl IgG. i-n: mean ± SEM is shown. a, e and f left panels: three experiments performed; a, e and f right panels: four experiments performed; c, d: two experiments performed; b, g, j, k, l, m and n: one experiment performed; i: two pooled experiments. Exact p values are reported, unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test (b: for Stat4, Eomes, Ifng and Tnfa; c: left panel; d; e; f: right panel; g; h) or two-tailed Mann Whitney test (a; b: for Tbet and Il2; c: right panel; f: left panel), Kruskal Wallis [p=0.0008 (i), p=0.0042 (k), p=0.0111 (l left panel), p=0.0033 (l right panel), p=0.0009 (m) and p=0.0194 (n left panel)] or Ordinary one-way Anova (p<0.0001) (j) with unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test or two-tailed Mann Whitney U-test as post-hoc tests (i-n) and two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (n, right panel).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Injection, Two Tailed Test, MANN-WHITNEY

    (a-d) Representative magnification images (20X) of immunostaining analysis for C1q (a), C4d (b), C3c (c) and C3aR (d) in UPS tissue sections. One experiment performed (n=19 patients), 10 representative fields have been acquired for each patient. Representative images for patients showing negative (0% IRA, left panel) or positive (>0% IRA, central and right panels) staining for C3aR expression (d). Scale bar: 100μm. (e-f) Kaplan-Meier survival curves representing the DFS (e) and the metastasis-free survival (f) for patients showing negative (n=5 patients) or positive (n=14 patients) staining for C3aR expression. Exact p value of Log-rank test for survival curves, Hazard ratio (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) are indicated in the figures (e, f).

    Journal: Nature cancer

    Article Title: Complement activation promoted by the lectin pathway mediates C3aR-dependent sarcoma progression and immunosuppression

    doi: 10.1038/s43018-021-00173-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a-d) Representative magnification images (20X) of immunostaining analysis for C1q (a), C4d (b), C3c (c) and C3aR (d) in UPS tissue sections. One experiment performed (n=19 patients), 10 representative fields have been acquired for each patient. Representative images for patients showing negative (0% IRA, left panel) or positive (>0% IRA, central and right panels) staining for C3aR expression (d). Scale bar: 100μm. (e-f) Kaplan-Meier survival curves representing the DFS (e) and the metastasis-free survival (f) for patients showing negative (n=5 patients) or positive (n=14 patients) staining for C3aR expression. Exact p value of Log-rank test for survival curves, Hazard ratio (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) are indicated in the figures (e, f).

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies and final concentrations were used: anti-mouse C3aR (Hycult Biotech, clone 14D4, 1 μg/ml), anti-mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c (Hycult Biotech, clone 2/11, 5 μg/ml), anti-CD31 (Millipore, clone 2H8, 1 μg/ml), anti-CD45 (Abcam, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml), anti-Iba-1 (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation, rabbit polyclonal, 2 μg/ml), and anti-NG2 (Millipore, rabbit polyclonal, 5 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing, Immunostaining, Staining