β myrcene  (Millipore)


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    Name:
    beta Myrcene solution
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    crm42262
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    Structured Review

    Millipore β myrcene
    Representative structural formulae of the monoterpenoids used. 1, ( R )-(+)-limonene; 2, (+)-limonene oxide; 3, (+)-α-pinene oxide; 4, α-pinene; 5, (−)-β-pinene; 6, γ-terpinene; 7, α-terpinene; 8, α-terpineol; 9, <t>β-myrcene;</t> 10, linalool.

    https://www.bioz.com/result/β myrcene/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β myrcene - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Effect of Selected Monoterpenes on Methane Oxidation, Denitrification, and Aerobic Metabolism by Bacteria in Pure Culture"

    Article Title: Effect of Selected Monoterpenes on Methane Oxidation, Denitrification, and Aerobic Metabolism by Bacteria in Pure Culture

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    doi:

    Representative structural formulae of the monoterpenoids used. 1, ( R )-(+)-limonene; 2, (+)-limonene oxide; 3, (+)-α-pinene oxide; 4, α-pinene; 5, (−)-β-pinene; 6, γ-terpinene; 7, α-terpinene; 8, α-terpineol; 9, β-myrcene; 10, linalool.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative structural formulae of the monoterpenoids used. 1, ( R )-(+)-limonene; 2, (+)-limonene oxide; 3, (+)-α-pinene oxide; 4, α-pinene; 5, (−)-β-pinene; 6, γ-terpinene; 7, α-terpinene; 8, α-terpineol; 9, β-myrcene; 10, linalool.

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times"

    Article Title: Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms12106635

    GC-MS-SIM Chromatogram of standard solution ( A ), volatile oils of ST leaves ( B ), volatile oils of ST spikes ( C ). Peak ( 1 ): 1-octen-3-ol; ( 2 ): 3-octanone; ( 3 ): β-myrcene; ( 4 ): (−)-limonene; ( 5 ): (−)-menthone; ( 6 ): (+)-menthofuran; ( 7 ): (+)-pulegone; ( 8 ): β-caryophyllene; IS1: n -decane; IS2: naphthalene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: GC-MS-SIM Chromatogram of standard solution ( A ), volatile oils of ST leaves ( B ), volatile oils of ST spikes ( C ). Peak ( 1 ): 1-octen-3-ol; ( 2 ): 3-octanone; ( 3 ): β-myrcene; ( 4 ): (−)-limonene; ( 5 ): (−)-menthone; ( 6 ): (+)-menthofuran; ( 7 ): (+)-pulegone; ( 8 ): β-caryophyllene; IS1: n -decane; IS2: naphthalene.

    Techniques Used: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    3) Product Images from "Terpene Composition Complexity Controls Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields from Scots Pine Volatile Emissions"

    Article Title: Terpene Composition Complexity Controls Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields from Scots Pine Volatile Emissions

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21045-1

    Organic aerosol enhancement from terpene complexity. Box model results illustrated enhancement of condensed organic aerosol formed for two cases. Enhancements calculated as the ratio of each case to the “α-pinene only base case”. Case 1: sesquiterpenes included and phase-partitioning was based on β-caryophyllene measurements. Case 2: monoterpene phase-partitioning was based on the β-myrcene Odum fit from measurements shown in Fig. 6c . Middle line denotes average, box edges denote 25 th and 75 th percentiles and bars denote 10 th and 90 th percentiles of enhancements calculated from MEGAN emissions using ICOS Sweden meteorological data May-August 2013 and 2014.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Organic aerosol enhancement from terpene complexity. Box model results illustrated enhancement of condensed organic aerosol formed for two cases. Enhancements calculated as the ratio of each case to the “α-pinene only base case”. Case 1: sesquiterpenes included and phase-partitioning was based on β-caryophyllene measurements. Case 2: monoterpene phase-partitioning was based on the β-myrcene Odum fit from measurements shown in Fig. 6c . Middle line denotes average, box edges denote 25 th and 75 th percentiles and bars denote 10 th and 90 th percentiles of enhancements calculated from MEGAN emissions using ICOS Sweden meteorological data May-August 2013 and 2014.

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "Biological Activity of Humulus lupulus (L.) Essential Oil and Its Main Components against Sitophilus granarius (L.)"

    Article Title: Biological Activity of Humulus lupulus (L.) Essential Oil and Its Main Components against Sitophilus granarius (L.)

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom10081108

    The anticholinesterase activity of hop EO and its main compounds. Mean values (± SE) of AChE activity obtained either in the absence or in the presence of different volumes of α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and hop EO. Values (3 for each concentration) were calculated as % of the control (enzyme activity measured in the absence of compound/EO). Density values were 0.889, 0.902, 0.801, and 0.875 g/mL for α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and hop EO, respectively. Different symbols indicate a significant difference (P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The anticholinesterase activity of hop EO and its main compounds. Mean values (± SE) of AChE activity obtained either in the absence or in the presence of different volumes of α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and hop EO. Values (3 for each concentration) were calculated as % of the control (enzyme activity measured in the absence of compound/EO). Density values were 0.889, 0.902, 0.801, and 0.875 g/mL for α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and hop EO, respectively. Different symbols indicate a significant difference (P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

    5) Product Images from "Odor Uniformity among Tomato Individuals in Response to Herbivore Depends on Insect Species"

    Article Title: Odor Uniformity among Tomato Individuals in Response to Herbivore Depends on Insect Species

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077199

    Volatile organic compound blend profile (relative concentration) emitted by three selected tomato individuals before (black bars) and after (white bars) different damage treatments. Footnote of Figure 4. Bars represent the concentration percent of each compound in a blend relative to the sum of the absolute concentration of all compounds in that blend. VOCs: 3-hexanol (1), α-pinene (2), o-cymene (3), β-myrcene (4), (+)-4-carene (5), α-phellandrene (6), α-terpinene (7), p -cymene (8), β-phellandrene (9), nonanal (10), and decanal (11)..
    Figure Legend Snippet: Volatile organic compound blend profile (relative concentration) emitted by three selected tomato individuals before (black bars) and after (white bars) different damage treatments. Footnote of Figure 4. Bars represent the concentration percent of each compound in a blend relative to the sum of the absolute concentration of all compounds in that blend. VOCs: 3-hexanol (1), α-pinene (2), o-cymene (3), β-myrcene (4), (+)-4-carene (5), α-phellandrene (6), α-terpinene (7), p -cymene (8), β-phellandrene (9), nonanal (10), and decanal (11)..

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    6) Product Images from "Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation"

    Article Title: Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23112866

    The chemical structures of β-myrcene and α-humulene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The chemical structures of β-myrcene and α-humulene.

    Techniques Used:

    The chromatogram of β-myrcene and α-humulene by UPC 2 (ultra-performance convergence chromatography) on HSS C18 SB (100 mm × 3.0 mm; 1.8 μm) column; 35 °C, ABPR (automated back pressure regulator): 12.6 MPa; pure CO 2 ; isocratic elution.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The chromatogram of β-myrcene and α-humulene by UPC 2 (ultra-performance convergence chromatography) on HSS C18 SB (100 mm × 3.0 mm; 1.8 μm) column; 35 °C, ABPR (automated back pressure regulator): 12.6 MPa; pure CO 2 ; isocratic elution.

    Techniques Used: Chromatography

    7) Product Images from "A herbivore-induced plant volatile interferes with host plant and mate location in moths through suppression of olfactory signalling pathways"

    Article Title: A herbivore-induced plant volatile interferes with host plant and mate location in moths through suppression of olfactory signalling pathways

    Journal: BMC Biology

    doi: 10.1186/s12915-015-0188-3

    Ca 2+ responses of female ordinary glomeruli to each single plant odorant (10 μg) mixed with DMNT (0.1–1.0 μg). a. β-myrcene, b. ( R )-(+)-limonene, c. ocimene, d. ( Z )-(3)-hexenyl acetate, e. nonanal. DMNT significantly suppressed the Ca 2+ response to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate responding glomeruli except for glomerulus 3. Responses to other odorants were not suppressed by DMNT. Bars represent the mean values of maximum relative Ca 2+ response (+SE) of each identified glomeruli. Different letters denote significantly different calcium responses within odorants and glomeruli (lme, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ca 2+ responses of female ordinary glomeruli to each single plant odorant (10 μg) mixed with DMNT (0.1–1.0 μg). a. β-myrcene, b. ( R )-(+)-limonene, c. ocimene, d. ( Z )-(3)-hexenyl acetate, e. nonanal. DMNT significantly suppressed the Ca 2+ response to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate responding glomeruli except for glomerulus 3. Responses to other odorants were not suppressed by DMNT. Bars represent the mean values of maximum relative Ca 2+ response (+SE) of each identified glomeruli. Different letters denote significantly different calcium responses within odorants and glomeruli (lme, P

    Techniques Used:

    8) Product Images from "Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil Solid Formulation: Chemical Profile and Spasmolytic and Antimicrobial Effects"

    Article Title: Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil Solid Formulation: Chemical Profile and Spasmolytic and Antimicrobial Effects

    Journal: Biomolecules

    doi: 10.3390/biom10060860

    Capillary electrochromatography coupled to diode array detection (CEC-DAD) electrochromatogram obtained from the analysis of a Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil sample under the optimised conditions: 1, borneol; 2, linalool; 3, α-terpineol; 4, thymol; 5, carvacrol; 6, p-cymene; 7, β-pinene; 8, α-terpinene; 9, β-myrcene; 10, β-Cariophyllene; 11, γ-terpinene; 12, limonene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Capillary electrochromatography coupled to diode array detection (CEC-DAD) electrochromatogram obtained from the analysis of a Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil sample under the optimised conditions: 1, borneol; 2, linalool; 3, α-terpineol; 4, thymol; 5, carvacrol; 6, p-cymene; 7, β-pinene; 8, α-terpinene; 9, β-myrcene; 10, β-Cariophyllene; 11, γ-terpinene; 12, limonene.

    Techniques Used: Capillary Electrochromatography

    9) Product Images from "Airborne host–plant manipulation by whiteflies via an inducible blend of plant volatiles"

    Article Title: Airborne host–plant manipulation by whiteflies via an inducible blend of plant volatiles

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1818599116

    Compounds identified in blends emitted by whitefly-infested, caterpillar-infested, or pathogen-infected tomato plants. ( A ) Volatile compounds induced by B. tabaci whiteflies (WF) ( n = 6–7). ( B ) Volatile compounds induced by S. exigua caterpillars ( n = 6). ( C ) Volatile compounds induced by Pst DC3000 bacterial infection ( n = 5). Compound numbers represent: 1, ( Z )-3-hexenol; 2, 1-hexanol; 3, α-pinene; 4, β-myrcene; 5, γ-terpinene; 6, α-terpinene; 7, ρ-cymene; 8, ( E )-β-ocimene; 9, unknown sesquiterpene; 10, linalool; 11, methyl isonicotinate; 12, methyl salicylate; 13, α-cubebene; 14, β-cedrene; 15, β-caryophyllene; 16, 4-carene; 17, β-phellandrene. Error bars correspond to SEs. For individual volatiles, see SI Appendix , Tables S2–S4 . Asterisks indicate significant differences from control plants ( * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Compounds identified in blends emitted by whitefly-infested, caterpillar-infested, or pathogen-infected tomato plants. ( A ) Volatile compounds induced by B. tabaci whiteflies (WF) ( n = 6–7). ( B ) Volatile compounds induced by S. exigua caterpillars ( n = 6). ( C ) Volatile compounds induced by Pst DC3000 bacterial infection ( n = 5). Compound numbers represent: 1, ( Z )-3-hexenol; 2, 1-hexanol; 3, α-pinene; 4, β-myrcene; 5, γ-terpinene; 6, α-terpinene; 7, ρ-cymene; 8, ( E )-β-ocimene; 9, unknown sesquiterpene; 10, linalool; 11, methyl isonicotinate; 12, methyl salicylate; 13, α-cubebene; 14, β-cedrene; 15, β-caryophyllene; 16, 4-carene; 17, β-phellandrene. Error bars correspond to SEs. For individual volatiles, see SI Appendix , Tables S2–S4 . Asterisks indicate significant differences from control plants ( * P

    Techniques Used: Infection

    10) Product Images from "Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation"

    Article Title: Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules23112866

    The chemical structures of β-myrcene and α-humulene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The chemical structures of β-myrcene and α-humulene.

    Techniques Used:

    The chromatogram of β-myrcene and α-humulene by UPC 2 (ultra-performance convergence chromatography) on HSS C18 SB (100 mm × 3.0 mm; 1.8 μm) column; 35 °C, ABPR (automated back pressure regulator): 12.6 MPa; pure CO 2 ; isocratic elution.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The chromatogram of β-myrcene and α-humulene by UPC 2 (ultra-performance convergence chromatography) on HSS C18 SB (100 mm × 3.0 mm; 1.8 μm) column; 35 °C, ABPR (automated back pressure regulator): 12.6 MPa; pure CO 2 ; isocratic elution.

    Techniques Used: Chromatography

    Related Articles

    Injection:

    Article Title: Odor Uniformity among Tomato Individuals in Response to Herbivore Depends on Insect Species
    Article Snippet: .. Standards for β-myrcene and nonanal (Aldrich), and α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and decanal (Sigma) were injected for further identification confirmation. .. The absolute concentration of individual VOCs was calculated from their peak areas.

    other:

    Article Title: Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times
    Article Snippet: Chemical standards of 3-octanone, β-myrcene, (+)-menthofuran, and were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Vienna, Austria); (−)-menthone and (+)-pulegone were purchased from National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (Beijing, China); 3-octen-1-ol, (−)-limonene and β-caryophyllene were purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industural Co., Ltd (Tokyo, Japan).

    Article Title: Volatile Composition in Two Pummelo Cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) from Different Cultivation Regions in China
    Article Snippet: Chemicals and Standards Volatile compound standards, including hexanal, 2-hexenal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, pentanol, hexanol, Z -3-hexen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hexanol,2-ethyl-, octanol, p -cymene, 2-heptanone, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, β-myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, α-lonone, cis -linalool oxide, linalool, α-terpineol, geraniol, citral and geranylacetone, were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Article Title: A herbivore-induced plant volatile interferes with host plant and mate location in moths through suppression of olfactory signalling pathways
    Article Snippet: We selected five of these components to prepare an attractive synthetic mixture (Mix-5; amounts in Additional file ): β-myrcene (95 %, Fluka), nonanal (95 %, Sigma-Aldrich), (R )-(+)-limonene (97 %, Sigma-Aldrich), (E )-β-ocimene (racemic, 90 %, Fluka), and (Z )-3-hexenyl acetate (98 %, Sigma-Aldrich).

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    Millipore β amyloid immune complexes
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    β Amyloid Immune Complexes, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore beta cell mass morphometry
    <t>Beta</t> cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.
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    Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein <t>NG2</t> in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched <t>Aβ1–42</t> preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p
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    Millipore microglial sa β gal activity
    Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase <t>(SA-β-gal)</t> activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p
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    Image Search Results


    ELISA determination of β-amyloid immune complexes (Aβ-IgG) and free Aβ-autoantibodies in human serum. (A) Sandwich ELISA to determine Aβ-IgG immune complexes: mAb 6E10, recognizing Aβ(3–8) epitope, is first coated on the ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, human serum containing β-amyloid immune complexes is added. The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody. (B) Indirect ELISA to determine free Aβ-autoantibodies: Biotin-G 5 -Aβ(12–40) is immobilized on streptavidin coated ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, the addition of serum containing free Aβ-autoantibodies leads to their binding to Aβ(12–40). The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Antigen-Bound and Free ?-Amyloid Autoantibodies in Serum of Healthy Adults

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044516

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ELISA determination of β-amyloid immune complexes (Aβ-IgG) and free Aβ-autoantibodies in human serum. (A) Sandwich ELISA to determine Aβ-IgG immune complexes: mAb 6E10, recognizing Aβ(3–8) epitope, is first coated on the ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, human serum containing β-amyloid immune complexes is added. The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody. (B) Indirect ELISA to determine free Aβ-autoantibodies: Biotin-G 5 -Aβ(12–40) is immobilized on streptavidin coated ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, the addition of serum containing free Aβ-autoantibodies leads to their binding to Aβ(12–40). The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody.

    Article Snippet: Using the optimized ELISA protocol described in Materials and Methods, we investigated the presence of β-amyloid immune complexes in two IgG preparations: (1) human serum IgG from Calbiochem, commercialized for research purposes only and (2) intravenous immune globuline (IVIgG; Gamunex® 10%) from Talecris Biotherapeutics (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), in use for treatment of different infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. β-amyloid immune complexes were detected in both preparations, slightly higher levels being observed in the product from Calbiochem ( , supporting information).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Sandwich ELISA, Blocking Assay, Labeling, Indirect ELISA, Binding Assay

    Beta cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Concentration Assay, Labeling

    Beta cell mass morphometry in control and HFD mice. A. Beta cell mass in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). B. Beta cell mass by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). C. Beta cell cluster area in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell cluster area by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). E. Islet density in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). F. Islet density by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). G. Beta cell area in the entire pancreas after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice). H. Beta cell area by pancreatic region after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry in control and HFD mice. A. Beta cell mass in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). B. Beta cell mass by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). C. Beta cell cluster area in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell cluster area by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). E. Islet density in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). F. Islet density by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). G. Beta cell area in the entire pancreas after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice). H. Beta cell area by pancreatic region after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Beta cell proliferation in control and HFD mice after 6 weeks. A. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), Ki67 (green), insulin (red) and DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 50 µm. B. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) per pancreatic region in control and HFD mice. Mice received BrdU during the final 7 days. Scale bar = 50 µm. C. Beta cell proliferation in the entire pancreas, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell proliferation by pancreatic region, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice per region). E. Cyclin D1 mRNA expression by pancreatic region, control = 1. DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell proliferation in control and HFD mice after 6 weeks. A. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), Ki67 (green), insulin (red) and DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 50 µm. B. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) per pancreatic region in control and HFD mice. Mice received BrdU during the final 7 days. Scale bar = 50 µm. C. Beta cell proliferation in the entire pancreas, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell proliferation by pancreatic region, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice per region). E. Cyclin D1 mRNA expression by pancreatic region, control = 1. DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Labeling, Expressing

    Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein NG2 in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p

    Journal: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

    Article Title: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Amyloid-? 1-42-Induced Shedding of the Pericyte Proteoglycan NG2

    doi: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000084

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein NG2 in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p

    Article Snippet: Potential involvement of MMP-9 in Aβ1–42–regulated NG2 shedding was analyzed by adding 10 μmol/L of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT (Calbiochem, Billerica, MA) to HBVPs exposed to vehicles, 10 μmol/L Aβ1–42 fibril-enriched preparations, or 10 μmol/L Aβ1–42 oligomer-enriched preparations.

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    Article Title: Microglia change from a reactive to an age-like phenotype with the time in culture

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p

    Article Snippet: Microglial SA-β-gal activity was determined using the Cellular senescence assay kit (Millipore), according to the manufacturer instructions.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing, In Vitro, Staining, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction