β glucan  (Millipore)

 
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Name:
    Beta Glucan
    Description:
    This product is provided as delivered and specified by the issuing Pharmacopoeia All information provided in support of this product including SDS and any product information leaflets have been developed and issued under the Authority of the issuing Pharmacopoeia For further information and support please go to the website of the issuing Pharmacopoeia
    Catalog Number:
    1048288
    Price:
    None
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Millipore β glucan
    Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of <t>β-glucan</t> training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p
    This product is provided as delivered and specified by the issuing Pharmacopoeia All information provided in support of this product including SDS and any product information leaflets have been developed and issued under the Authority of the issuing Pharmacopoeia For further information and support please go to the website of the issuing Pharmacopoeia
    https://www.bioz.com/result/β glucan/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β glucan - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer"

    Article Title: Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004485

    Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of β-glucan training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of β-glucan training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Aureobasidium pullulans produced β-glucan is effective to enhance Kurosengoku soybean extract induced Thrombospondin-1 expression"

    Article Title: Aureobasidium pullulans produced β-glucan is effective to enhance Kurosengoku soybean extract induced Thrombospondin-1 expression

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03053-9

    Soy isoflavones are involved in the induction of THBS1. ( A ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E, 20 μM Lunasin, or isoflavone mixture, saponin, and lecithin isolated from soybeans at the 1 or 10 μg/ml concentrations indicated in the Figure. ( B ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E, or 10 μg/ml isoflavone mixture of genistein, glycitein, and daidzein. All compounds are dissolved in 1 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and all cells including negative and positive (stimulation with KS-E) control cells were treated with 1 μl DMSO. ( C ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with hot water extracts prepared from whole beans as indicated in the Figure at 20-fold dilution, with or without AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 2 hours, the cells were harvested, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions were monitored using the real-time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in unstimulated control cells after normalization with GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Soy isoflavones are involved in the induction of THBS1. ( A ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E, 20 μM Lunasin, or isoflavone mixture, saponin, and lecithin isolated from soybeans at the 1 or 10 μg/ml concentrations indicated in the Figure. ( B ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E, or 10 μg/ml isoflavone mixture of genistein, glycitein, and daidzein. All compounds are dissolved in 1 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and all cells including negative and positive (stimulation with KS-E) control cells were treated with 1 μl DMSO. ( C ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with hot water extracts prepared from whole beans as indicated in the Figure at 20-fold dilution, with or without AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 2 hours, the cells were harvested, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions were monitored using the real-time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in unstimulated control cells after normalization with GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Concentration Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    The Syk and its downstream kinases are involved in the enhancement of the THBS1 induction after stimulation with KS-E. Mono Mac 6 cells were treated for 1 hour with piceatannol ( A ), SB203580 ( B ), or SP600125 ( C ) at the concentrations indicated in the figure. Subsequently, the cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E and AP-CF containing 100 μg/ml of β-glucan. After an additional 2-hour incubation period the cells were harvested, and the expressions of THBS1 mRNA in the cells were monitored using the real time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in the control cells after normalization with GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The Syk and its downstream kinases are involved in the enhancement of the THBS1 induction after stimulation with KS-E. Mono Mac 6 cells were treated for 1 hour with piceatannol ( A ), SB203580 ( B ), or SP600125 ( C ) at the concentrations indicated in the figure. Subsequently, the cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E and AP-CF containing 100 μg/ml of β-glucan. After an additional 2-hour incubation period the cells were harvested, and the expressions of THBS1 mRNA in the cells were monitored using the real time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in the control cells after normalization with GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    Aureobasidium pullulans -cultured fluid (AP-CF) enhances Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) expression after stimulation with hot water extracts of Kurosengoku soybeans (KS-E). ( A ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with AP-CF or AP-CF made with ground powder of Kurosengoku soybeans (kAP-CF) as a nitrogen source, at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, or the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution. ( B , C ) Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with or without 5 mM cycloheximide (CHX) for 30 min. Subsequently, the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution together with AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After the incubation period indicated in the figure, the cells were harvested, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions were measured using the real-time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression at the 0-hour time point after the normalization with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments. ( D ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution together with AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 24 hours, concentrations of THBS1 in the supernatant of a cultured medium of the cells were measured by ELISA. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments. The asterisk (*) and double asterisks (**) indicate p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Aureobasidium pullulans -cultured fluid (AP-CF) enhances Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) expression after stimulation with hot water extracts of Kurosengoku soybeans (KS-E). ( A ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with AP-CF or AP-CF made with ground powder of Kurosengoku soybeans (kAP-CF) as a nitrogen source, at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, or the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution. ( B , C ) Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with or without 5 mM cycloheximide (CHX) for 30 min. Subsequently, the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution together with AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After the incubation period indicated in the figure, the cells were harvested, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions were measured using the real-time RT-PCR method. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression at the 0-hour time point after the normalization with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments. ( D ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution together with AP-CF at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 24 hours, concentrations of THBS1 in the supernatant of a cultured medium of the cells were measured by ELISA. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments. The asterisk (*) and double asterisks (**) indicate p

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Expressing, Concentration Assay, Incubation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    β-glucan is involved in the enhancement of THBS1 expression after stimulation with KS-E. ( A ) THP-1 cells were stimulated with conventional AP-CF or AP-CF made using ground powder of Kurosengoku soybeans (kAP-CF) as a nitrogen source, at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, or the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution. The cells were harvested at the time points indicated in the figure, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions in the cells were measured using the real-time RT-PCR method. ( B ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with AP-CF, AP-PG, Krestin, or laminarin at concentrations of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, with or without 20-fold dilution of KS-E. ( C ) Mono Mac cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E from ground beans, whole raw beans, or whole roasted beans, with or without AP-CF at a concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 2 hours, the cells were harvested, and then the total RNA prepared from the cells was subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in unstimulated control cells after normalization with the GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-glucan is involved in the enhancement of THBS1 expression after stimulation with KS-E. ( A ) THP-1 cells were stimulated with conventional AP-CF or AP-CF made using ground powder of Kurosengoku soybeans (kAP-CF) as a nitrogen source, at the concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, or the cells were stimulated with KS-E at 20-fold dilution. The cells were harvested at the time points indicated in the figure, and the THBS1 mRNA expressions in the cells were measured using the real-time RT-PCR method. ( B ) Mono Mac 6 cells were stimulated with AP-CF, AP-PG, Krestin, or laminarin at concentrations of 100 μg/ml β-glucan, with or without 20-fold dilution of KS-E. ( C ) Mono Mac cells were stimulated with a 20-fold dilution of KS-E from ground beans, whole raw beans, or whole roasted beans, with or without AP-CF at a concentration of 100 μg/ml β-glucan. After 2 hours, the cells were harvested, and then the total RNA prepared from the cells was subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. The data are represented as relative values compared with the mRNA expression in unstimulated control cells after normalization with the GAPDH mRNA expression. Error bars indicate standard deviations calculated by three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Concentration Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR

    3) Product Images from "Nonopsonic Phagocytosis of Zymosan and Mycobacterium kansasii by CR3 (CD11b/CD18) Involves Distinct Molecular Determinants and Is or Is Not Coupled with NADPH Oxidase Activation"

    Article Title: Nonopsonic Phagocytosis of Zymosan and Mycobacterium kansasii by CR3 (CD11b/CD18) Involves Distinct Molecular Determinants and Is or Is Not Coupled with NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi:

    Inhibition by polysaccharides of CR3-mediated zymosan and M. kansasii phagocytosis. CR3-transfected CHO cells were preincubated as indicated with glucose- or mannose-containing polysaccharides or β-glucan plus mannan before incubation with either zymosan (A) or M. kansasii (B). The data are expressed as the percentage of phagocytosis reported compared to control values (100%, no polysaccharide). The values are means + SEM of three to four separate experiments performed in duplicate. Statistical differences were measured for cells pretreated with sugars compared to untreated cells. ∗, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibition by polysaccharides of CR3-mediated zymosan and M. kansasii phagocytosis. CR3-transfected CHO cells were preincubated as indicated with glucose- or mannose-containing polysaccharides or β-glucan plus mannan before incubation with either zymosan (A) or M. kansasii (B). The data are expressed as the percentage of phagocytosis reported compared to control values (100%, no polysaccharide). The values are means + SEM of three to four separate experiments performed in duplicate. Statistical differences were measured for cells pretreated with sugars compared to untreated cells. ∗, P

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Transfection, Incubation

    4) Product Images from "Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants"

    Article Title: Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

    doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20165281

    Serum antibody response of fish immunized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) combined with different adjuvants. A , Silver catfish were intraperitoneally injected with BSA alone (BSA+PBS, 200 µg/fish) or BSA adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) and Montanide; B , BSA alone or combined with CpG 1668, CpG 2102, CpG 2133 and CpG 2143; C , BSA alone or combined with Montanide, and β-glucan (0.02; 0.06 and 0.1%). Serum samples were collected prior to (day 0) or at 14, 28, and 42 days post-inoculation to evaluate anti-BSA antibodies by ELISA. Significant differences (P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Serum antibody response of fish immunized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) combined with different adjuvants. A , Silver catfish were intraperitoneally injected with BSA alone (BSA+PBS, 200 µg/fish) or BSA adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) and Montanide; B , BSA alone or combined with CpG 1668, CpG 2102, CpG 2133 and CpG 2143; C , BSA alone or combined with Montanide, and β-glucan (0.02; 0.06 and 0.1%). Serum samples were collected prior to (day 0) or at 14, 28, and 42 days post-inoculation to evaluate anti-BSA antibodies by ELISA. Significant differences (P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Injection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    5) Product Images from "C-Type Lectin in Chlamys farreri (CfLec-1) Mediating Immune Recognition and Opsonization"

    Article Title: C-Type Lectin in Chlamys farreri (CfLec-1) Mediating Immune Recognition and Opsonization

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017089

    Temporal expression of CfLec-1 mRNA relative to β-actin was analyzed by realtime PCR in scallop hemocytes after LPS, PGN, β-glucan and PBS challenge for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The values are shown as mean ± SE (N = 4). (*: P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Temporal expression of CfLec-1 mRNA relative to β-actin was analyzed by realtime PCR in scallop hemocytes after LPS, PGN, β-glucan and PBS challenge for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The values are shown as mean ± SE (N = 4). (*: P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    6) Product Images from "Oral microbe-host interactions: influence of β-glucans on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and metabolome profile"

    Article Title: Oral microbe-host interactions: influence of β-glucans on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and metabolome profile

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0946-1

    Cytotoxicity assay of cells treated with different doses of β-glucan: ( a ) OBA-9 cell (keratinocytes); ( b ) HGF-1 cell (fibroblasts). Cell viability was presented in percentage (%). n = 6
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytotoxicity assay of cells treated with different doses of β-glucan: ( a ) OBA-9 cell (keratinocytes); ( b ) HGF-1 cell (fibroblasts). Cell viability was presented in percentage (%). n = 6

    Techniques Used: Cytotoxicity Assay

    Relative expression of genes on OBA-9 cells (keratinocytes) by quantitative PCR: ( a ) interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1-α); ( b ) interleukin 18 (IL-18); ( c ) B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2); ( d ) adenovirus E1A-associated 300 kDa protein (EP 300); ( e ) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS-2). Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The control group has their mean expressed equal to 1 and treated groups have their mean relative to the control group. The results were expressed by mean followed standard deviation; n = 6 and P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative expression of genes on OBA-9 cells (keratinocytes) by quantitative PCR: ( a ) interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1-α); ( b ) interleukin 18 (IL-18); ( c ) B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2); ( d ) adenovirus E1A-associated 300 kDa protein (EP 300); ( e ) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS-2). Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The control group has their mean expressed equal to 1 and treated groups have their mean relative to the control group. The results were expressed by mean followed standard deviation; n = 6 and P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Relative expression of genes on HGF-1 cells (fibroblasts) by quantitative PCR: ( a ) interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1-α); ( b ) interleukin 18 (IL-18); ( c ) B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2); ( d ) adenovirus E1A-associated 300 kDa protein (EP 300); ( e ) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS-2). Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The control group has their mean expressed equal to 1 and treated groups have their mean relative to the control group. The results were expressed by mean followed standard deviation; n = 6 and P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative expression of genes on HGF-1 cells (fibroblasts) by quantitative PCR: ( a ) interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1-α); ( b ) interleukin 18 (IL-18); ( c ) B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2); ( d ) adenovirus E1A-associated 300 kDa protein (EP 300); ( e ) prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS-2). Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The control group has their mean expressed equal to 1 and treated groups have their mean relative to the control group. The results were expressed by mean followed standard deviation; n = 6 and P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Standard Deviation

    Dual-chamber model containing OBA-9 cell (keratinocytes) in the top layer (transwell insert) and HGF-1 cell (fibroblasts) in the bottom layer inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dual-chamber model containing OBA-9 cell (keratinocytes) in the top layer (transwell insert) and HGF-1 cell (fibroblasts) in the bottom layer inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan

    Techniques Used:

    Metabolites obtained of cell culture supernatant (HGF-1 and OBA-9 co-culture cells). ( a ) 4-aminobutyric acid; ( b ) 2-deoxytetronic acid NIST; ( c ) acetophenone NIST; ( d ) benzoic acid; ( e ) oxalic acid; ( f ) pinitol. Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The data is expressed in relative peak heights (mAU) from HPLC-MS analysis, which are unit-less (mean followed standard deviation); n = 4 and P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Metabolites obtained of cell culture supernatant (HGF-1 and OBA-9 co-culture cells). ( a ) 4-aminobutyric acid; ( b ) 2-deoxytetronic acid NIST; ( c ) acetophenone NIST; ( d ) benzoic acid; ( e ) oxalic acid; ( f ) pinitol. Dual-chamber model inoculated with A. actinomicetemcomitans and treated with different doses of β-glucan. The data is expressed in relative peak heights (mAU) from HPLC-MS analysis, which are unit-less (mean followed standard deviation); n = 4 and P

    Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Co-Culture Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Standard Deviation

    7) Product Images from "Structure Elucidation and Immunomodulatory Activity of A Beta Glucan from the Fruiting Bodies of Ganoderma sinense"

    Article Title: Structure Elucidation and Immunomodulatory Activity of A Beta Glucan from the Fruiting Bodies of Ganoderma sinense

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100380

    Cytokine productions of GSP-2-treated moDC. Culture supernatants were collected 48-2 and the cytokines concentrations were specifically determined by ELISA. Lines represented mean percentage ± S.E.M. of duplicates (n = 8). LPS and Beta-glucan from E. gracilis were used as positive control. Significant difference: *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine productions of GSP-2-treated moDC. Culture supernatants were collected 48-2 and the cytokines concentrations were specifically determined by ELISA. Lines represented mean percentage ± S.E.M. of duplicates (n = 8). LPS and Beta-glucan from E. gracilis were used as positive control. Significant difference: *, P

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Positive Control

    8) Product Images from "A Scallop Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) with Structure Similar to Neuronal NOS and Its Involvement in the Immune Defense"

    Article Title: A Scallop Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) with Structure Similar to Neuronal NOS and Its Involvement in the Immune Defense

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069158

    Temporal expression of CfNOS mRNA in scallop haemocytes after LPS, PGN, β-glucan and PBS challenge. The samples were collected after the treatments for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Data was expressed as the ratio of the CfNOS mRNA to the β-actin mRNA. The scallops injected with PBS were used as the control group. The value was shown as mean ± SD (N = 6) and bars with different letters were significantly different ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Temporal expression of CfNOS mRNA in scallop haemocytes after LPS, PGN, β-glucan and PBS challenge. The samples were collected after the treatments for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Data was expressed as the ratio of the CfNOS mRNA to the β-actin mRNA. The scallops injected with PBS were used as the control group. The value was shown as mean ± SD (N = 6) and bars with different letters were significantly different ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Injection

    9) Product Images from "Involvement of Capsaicin-Sensitive Lung Vagal Neurons and TRPA1 Receptors in Airway Hypersensitivity Induced by 1,3-β-D-Glucan in Anesthetized Rats"

    Article Title: Involvement of Capsaicin-Sensitive Lung Vagal Neurons and TRPA1 Receptors in Airway Hypersensitivity Induced by 1,3-β-D-Glucan in Anesthetized Rats

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21186845

    Effects of perineural capsaicin treatment (PCT) and perineural sham treatment (PST) on the enhancing effects of the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the baseline breathing pattern and apneic response to right-atrial injection of capsaicin in two groups of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. ( A , B ): effects of PCT and PST on the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the baseline frequency and V T , respectively; ( C , D ): effects of PCT and PST on the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the apneic responses to capsaicin injection, respectively. Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of perineural capsaicin treatment (PCT) and perineural sham treatment (PST) on the enhancing effects of the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the baseline breathing pattern and apneic response to right-atrial injection of capsaicin in two groups of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. ( A , B ): effects of PCT and PST on the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the baseline frequency and V T , respectively; ( C , D ): effects of PCT and PST on the intratracheal instillation of β-glucan on the apneic responses to capsaicin injection, respectively. Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Experimental records illustrating the potentiating effect of β-glucan on capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ transients and the role of Dectin-1 receptors in this potentiating effect of β-glucan in isolated CSLV neurons. ( A , B ): perfusion with vehicle (ECS; filled horizontal bar) or β-glucan (200 μg/mL, 40 min; filled horizontal bar), respectively. Capsaicin (Cap, 0.1 μM, 30 s; arrows) was applied before and 5 min after the β-glucan or its vehicle perfusion, and a KCl solution (60 mM, 30 s; arrows) was applied to test the cell viability at the end of the experiment. ( C ): treatment with Laminarin (100 μg/mL, 41 min; hatched horizontal bar) + β-glucan; Cap was applied before and 5 min after Laminarin + β-glucan. ( D ): the role of Dectin-1 receptors in the potentiating effect of β-glucan on capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ transients in isolated CSLV neurons. An increase in 340/380 ratio [∆Ratio (F340/F380)] was measured as the difference between the peak amplitude of Ca 2+ transients (4-s average) and the 30-s average at baseline. Data are means ± SE ( n = 22). Two-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from vehicle ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental records illustrating the potentiating effect of β-glucan on capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ transients and the role of Dectin-1 receptors in this potentiating effect of β-glucan in isolated CSLV neurons. ( A , B ): perfusion with vehicle (ECS; filled horizontal bar) or β-glucan (200 μg/mL, 40 min; filled horizontal bar), respectively. Capsaicin (Cap, 0.1 μM, 30 s; arrows) was applied before and 5 min after the β-glucan or its vehicle perfusion, and a KCl solution (60 mM, 30 s; arrows) was applied to test the cell viability at the end of the experiment. ( C ): treatment with Laminarin (100 μg/mL, 41 min; hatched horizontal bar) + β-glucan; Cap was applied before and 5 min after Laminarin + β-glucan. ( D ): the role of Dectin-1 receptors in the potentiating effect of β-glucan on capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ transients in isolated CSLV neurons. An increase in 340/380 ratio [∆Ratio (F340/F380)] was measured as the difference between the peak amplitude of Ca 2+ transients (4-s average) and the 30-s average at baseline. Data are means ± SE ( n = 22). Two-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from vehicle ( p

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    Effects of intratracheal instillation of β-glucan or its vehicle on the baseline breathing pattern and apneic response to right-atrial injection of capsaicin in two groups of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. ( A , B ): effects of intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan on the baseline frequency and V T , respectively; ( C , D ): effects of intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan on the apneic responses to capsaicin injection, respectively. The apneic ratio was defined as the apneic duration occurring during 20 s after the capsaicin injections divided by the baseline expiratory duration (T E ). Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before instillation ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of intratracheal instillation of β-glucan or its vehicle on the baseline breathing pattern and apneic response to right-atrial injection of capsaicin in two groups of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. ( A , B ): effects of intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan on the baseline frequency and V T , respectively; ( C , D ): effects of intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan on the apneic responses to capsaicin injection, respectively. The apneic ratio was defined as the apneic duration occurring during 20 s after the capsaicin injections divided by the baseline expiratory duration (T E ). Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before instillation ( p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Experimental records illustrating the effect of treatment with ( A ) vehicle or ( B ) Laminarin (10 mg/kg, iv) + HC (8 mg/kg, iv) on the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses triggered by capsaicin injection (Cap, 1 μg/kg; arrows) in two anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (vehicle: 340 g; Laminarin + HC: 325 g). V T , tidal volume; ABP, arterial blood pressure. See the legend of Figure 1 for further explanation. Please note that the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses was abolished with Laminarin + HC treatment. HC, HC-030031.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental records illustrating the effect of treatment with ( A ) vehicle or ( B ) Laminarin (10 mg/kg, iv) + HC (8 mg/kg, iv) on the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses triggered by capsaicin injection (Cap, 1 μg/kg; arrows) in two anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (vehicle: 340 g; Laminarin + HC: 325 g). V T , tidal volume; ABP, arterial blood pressure. See the legend of Figure 1 for further explanation. Please note that the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses was abolished with Laminarin + HC treatment. HC, HC-030031.

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Experimental records illustrating the pulmonary chemoreflex responses to right-atrial injection of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μg/kg; arrows) before, 45 min after, and 90 min after intratracheal instillation of ( A ) vehicle (isotonic saline) or ( B ) β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in two anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (vehicle: 305 g; β-glucan: 310 g). V T , tidal volume; ABP, arterial blood pressure. Please note that the pulmonary chemoreflex responses evoked by capsaicin were enhanced by the β-glucan instillation, but not altered by the vehicle instillation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental records illustrating the pulmonary chemoreflex responses to right-atrial injection of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μg/kg; arrows) before, 45 min after, and 90 min after intratracheal instillation of ( A ) vehicle (isotonic saline) or ( B ) β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in two anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (vehicle: 305 g; β-glucan: 310 g). V T , tidal volume; ABP, arterial blood pressure. Please note that the pulmonary chemoreflex responses evoked by capsaicin were enhanced by the β-glucan instillation, but not altered by the vehicle instillation.

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Experimental records illustrating the responses of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents to right-atrial injection of capsaicin (Cap, 0.75 μg/kg; arrows) before, 45 min after, and 90 min after intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. ( A , B ): intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in two anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats (vehicle: 350 g; β-glucan: 355 g), respectively. AP, action potential; ABP, arterial blood pressure. ( C , D ): the effects of vehicle and β-glucan on the baseline fiber activity of CSLV afferents, respectively. ( E , F ): the effects of vehicle and β-glucan on the responses of CSLV afferents to the capsaicin injection, respectively. FA, fiber activity; ∆FA, increase in the fiber activity was measured as the difference between peak FA (averaged over 3-s intervals) and the baseline FA (averaged over 10-s intervals) in each CSLV afferent. Data are means ± SE ( n = 8). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before instillation ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental records illustrating the responses of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents to right-atrial injection of capsaicin (Cap, 0.75 μg/kg; arrows) before, 45 min after, and 90 min after intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. ( A , B ): intratracheal instillation of vehicle or β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in two anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats (vehicle: 350 g; β-glucan: 355 g), respectively. AP, action potential; ABP, arterial blood pressure. ( C , D ): the effects of vehicle and β-glucan on the baseline fiber activity of CSLV afferents, respectively. ( E , F ): the effects of vehicle and β-glucan on the responses of CSLV afferents to the capsaicin injection, respectively. FA, fiber activity; ∆FA, increase in the fiber activity was measured as the difference between peak FA (averaged over 3-s intervals) and the baseline FA (averaged over 10-s intervals) in each CSLV afferent. Data are means ± SE ( n = 8). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before instillation ( p

    Techniques Used: Injection, Activity Assay

    Effects of treatment with ( A ) vehicle, ( B ) NAC (0.3 g/kg, iv), ( C ) HC (8 mg/kg, iv), ( D ) Laminarin (10 mg/kg, iv) and ( E ) Laminarin + HC on the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses triggered by capsaicin injection in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of treatment with ( A ) vehicle, ( B ) NAC (0.3 g/kg, iv), ( C ) HC (8 mg/kg, iv), ( D ) Laminarin (10 mg/kg, iv) and ( E ) Laminarin + HC on the β-glucan-induced enhancement of pulmonary chemoreflex responses triggered by capsaicin injection in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. Data are means ± SE ( n = 6). One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Experimental records illustrating the effects of treatment of vehicle or HC-030031 (HC, 8 mg/kg) on the β-glucan-induced potentiating on the responses of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents to capsaicin (Cap, 0.75 μg/kg; arrows) after intratracheal instillation of β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. ( A , B ): treatment with vehicle or HC in two anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats (vehicle: 300 g; β-glucan: 290 g), respectively. AP, action potential; ABP, arterial blood pressure. ( C , D ): the effects of vehicle and HC on the β-glucan-induced elevation of the baseline fiber activity of CSLV afferents, respectively. ( E , F ): the effect of vehicle and HC on the β-glucan-induced potentiating on the responses of CSLV afferents to the capsaicin injection, respectively. FA, fiber activity. Data are means ± SE ( n = 8). See the legend of Figure 6 for further explanation. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental records illustrating the effects of treatment of vehicle or HC-030031 (HC, 8 mg/kg) on the β-glucan-induced potentiating on the responses of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents to capsaicin (Cap, 0.75 μg/kg; arrows) after intratracheal instillation of β-glucan (5 mg/0.1 mL/rat) in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. ( A , B ): treatment with vehicle or HC in two anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats (vehicle: 300 g; β-glucan: 290 g), respectively. AP, action potential; ABP, arterial blood pressure. ( C , D ): the effects of vehicle and HC on the β-glucan-induced elevation of the baseline fiber activity of CSLV afferents, respectively. ( E , F ): the effect of vehicle and HC on the β-glucan-induced potentiating on the responses of CSLV afferents to the capsaicin injection, respectively. FA, fiber activity. Data are means ± SE ( n = 8). See the legend of Figure 6 for further explanation. One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post hoc test: *, significantly different from before β-glucan ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Injection

    10) Product Images from "Differential regulation of interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 production in human dendritic cells"

    Article Title: Differential regulation of interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 production in human dendritic cells

    Journal: The Journal of Experimental Medicine

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20071450

    TLR2-mediated inhibition of IL-12 p75. (A) mono-DCs treated with IFN-γ or left untreated were labeled with [ 35 S]methionine and stimulated with β-glucan, Pam2C, R848, and their combinations. After 18 h, supernatants were immunoprecipitated with anti–IL-12 p35, anti–IL-23 p19, or anti–IL-12/23 p40 mAbs and resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE. (B) Cytokine production was measured by ELISA in mono-DCs 18 h after stimulation with 10 ng/ml LPS+R848, 10 μg/ml β-glucan+R848, or 10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml Pam2C (each symbol represents a single donor). (C) mono-DCs were stimulated as indicated in B in the presence or absence of 0.5, 5, and 50 ng/ml Pam2C, and IL-12 p75 was measured by ELISA (mean ± SD from triplicate cultures). (D) IL-12 p75 production was assessed by ELISA (mean ± SD from triplicate cultures) in mono-DCs stimulated with 10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 or 10 μg/ml β-glucan+R848 without or with 2, 20, and 200 ng/ml Pam3C; 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml MALP-2; or 0.5, 5, and 50 ng/ml Pam2C. (E) mono-DCs were stimulated with10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 (left) or with 0.1 μg/ml β-glucan+R848 (right) in the absence (open column) or presence (gray column) of 30 μg/ml of the neutralizing anti–IL-10 mAb 19F1, with or without 50 ng/ml Pam2C. Cytokines were measured by ELISA (mean values from duplicate cultures in a representative experiment of six performed with similar results).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TLR2-mediated inhibition of IL-12 p75. (A) mono-DCs treated with IFN-γ or left untreated were labeled with [ 35 S]methionine and stimulated with β-glucan, Pam2C, R848, and their combinations. After 18 h, supernatants were immunoprecipitated with anti–IL-12 p35, anti–IL-23 p19, or anti–IL-12/23 p40 mAbs and resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE. (B) Cytokine production was measured by ELISA in mono-DCs 18 h after stimulation with 10 ng/ml LPS+R848, 10 μg/ml β-glucan+R848, or 10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml Pam2C (each symbol represents a single donor). (C) mono-DCs were stimulated as indicated in B in the presence or absence of 0.5, 5, and 50 ng/ml Pam2C, and IL-12 p75 was measured by ELISA (mean ± SD from triplicate cultures). (D) IL-12 p75 production was assessed by ELISA (mean ± SD from triplicate cultures) in mono-DCs stimulated with 10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 or 10 μg/ml β-glucan+R848 without or with 2, 20, and 200 ng/ml Pam3C; 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml MALP-2; or 0.5, 5, and 50 ng/ml Pam2C. (E) mono-DCs were stimulated with10 μg/ml zymosan+R848 (left) or with 0.1 μg/ml β-glucan+R848 (right) in the absence (open column) or presence (gray column) of 30 μg/ml of the neutralizing anti–IL-10 mAb 19F1, with or without 50 ng/ml Pam2C. Cytokines were measured by ELISA (mean values from duplicate cultures in a representative experiment of six performed with similar results).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, SDS Page, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Role of dectin-1 and TLR2 in IL-12 and IL-23 production in mono-DCs. mono-DCs treated with IFN-γ or left untreated were labeled with [ 35 S]methionine (A) or unlabeled (B–E) and stimulated with β-glucan or Pam2C, or with a combination of β-glucan+Pam2C, with or without R848. After 18 h, supernatants were immunoprecipitated with anti–IL-12 p35, anti–IL-23 p19, or anti–IL-12/23 p40 mAbs and resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE (A) and tested for IL-23, IL-12 p75, and IL-10 production by ELISA (B–D) and for mRNA accumulation using the QuantiGene multiplex assay (E). Results in A are representative of four independent experiments. Results in B are mean ± SE values from mono-DCs derived from 18 donors. Results in C represent individual IL-23 levels from mono-DCs derived from 21 different donors. Results in D are mean ± SE values from five experiments. Results in E are mean ± SD ( n = 3) mRNA accumulation in cells derived from three separate donors and lysed at 3 h (right column of each triplet), 6 h (middle column of each triplet), and 12 h (right column of each triplet). Inverted triangles indicate not done.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Role of dectin-1 and TLR2 in IL-12 and IL-23 production in mono-DCs. mono-DCs treated with IFN-γ or left untreated were labeled with [ 35 S]methionine (A) or unlabeled (B–E) and stimulated with β-glucan or Pam2C, or with a combination of β-glucan+Pam2C, with or without R848. After 18 h, supernatants were immunoprecipitated with anti–IL-12 p35, anti–IL-23 p19, or anti–IL-12/23 p40 mAbs and resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE (A) and tested for IL-23, IL-12 p75, and IL-10 production by ELISA (B–D) and for mRNA accumulation using the QuantiGene multiplex assay (E). Results in A are representative of four independent experiments. Results in B are mean ± SE values from mono-DCs derived from 18 donors. Results in C represent individual IL-23 levels from mono-DCs derived from 21 different donors. Results in D are mean ± SE values from five experiments. Results in E are mean ± SD ( n = 3) mRNA accumulation in cells derived from three separate donors and lysed at 3 h (right column of each triplet), 6 h (middle column of each triplet), and 12 h (right column of each triplet). Inverted triangles indicate not done.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Immunoprecipitation, SDS Page, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiplex Assay, Derivative Assay

    Induction of IL-17 and IFN-γ in human CD4 + T cells by supernatants of stimulated mono-DCs. Supernatants from differently stimulated mono-DCs were used to induce IL-17 and IFN-γ production from human CD4 + CD45RO − T lymphocytes stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. (A) Supernatants from IFN-γ–primed mono-DCs stimulated with 200 μg/ml zymosan or 1 μg/ml LPS+R848, or from unprimed mono-DCs stimulated with 10 μg/ml β-glucan, were evaluated by ELISA for IL-12, IL23, IL-6, and IL-1β production and for the capacity to induce IL-17 and IFN-γ in naive CD4 + T cells (mean ± SE from 10 independent experiments). (B) IL-17 and IFN-γ production was determined by ELISA in naive T cell cultures in the presence of supernatants from zymosan- or β-glucan–stimulated mono-DCs, and in the presence or absence of neutralizing anti–IL-12 p75 (20C2) or anti-p40 (C8.6) mAbs (mean ± SE from seven independent experiments). (C) Effect of neutralizing anti–TGF-β or anti–IL-6, or a mixture of both mAbs on IL-17 and IFN-γ production measured by ELISA in naive T cells cultured in the presence of supernatants from zymosan-stimulated mono-DCs. (D) Effect of 10 ng/ml IL-1β on IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as determined by ELISA in naive T cells cultured in the presence of IL-23 or an IL-12–depleted supernatant from LPS+R848–stimulated mono-DCs. Supernatants were diluted to contain IL-23 at a final concentration of 15 or 1.5 ng/ml (light and dark gray, respectively). Recombinant IL-23 was used at 15 or 1.5 ng/ml (light and dark gray, respectively). C and D show the mean ± SD from triplicate cultures. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of IL-17 and IFN-γ in human CD4 + T cells by supernatants of stimulated mono-DCs. Supernatants from differently stimulated mono-DCs were used to induce IL-17 and IFN-γ production from human CD4 + CD45RO − T lymphocytes stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. (A) Supernatants from IFN-γ–primed mono-DCs stimulated with 200 μg/ml zymosan or 1 μg/ml LPS+R848, or from unprimed mono-DCs stimulated with 10 μg/ml β-glucan, were evaluated by ELISA for IL-12, IL23, IL-6, and IL-1β production and for the capacity to induce IL-17 and IFN-γ in naive CD4 + T cells (mean ± SE from 10 independent experiments). (B) IL-17 and IFN-γ production was determined by ELISA in naive T cell cultures in the presence of supernatants from zymosan- or β-glucan–stimulated mono-DCs, and in the presence or absence of neutralizing anti–IL-12 p75 (20C2) or anti-p40 (C8.6) mAbs (mean ± SE from seven independent experiments). (C) Effect of neutralizing anti–TGF-β or anti–IL-6, or a mixture of both mAbs on IL-17 and IFN-γ production measured by ELISA in naive T cells cultured in the presence of supernatants from zymosan-stimulated mono-DCs. (D) Effect of 10 ng/ml IL-1β on IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as determined by ELISA in naive T cells cultured in the presence of IL-23 or an IL-12–depleted supernatant from LPS+R848–stimulated mono-DCs. Supernatants were diluted to contain IL-23 at a final concentration of 15 or 1.5 ng/ml (light and dark gray, respectively). Recombinant IL-23 was used at 15 or 1.5 ng/ml (light and dark gray, respectively). C and D show the mean ± SD from triplicate cultures. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Cell Culture, Concentration Assay, Recombinant

    11) Product Images from "DNA Synthesis Is Activated in Mosquitoes and Human Monocytes During the Induction of Innate Immune Memory"

    Article Title: DNA Synthesis Is Activated in Mosquitoes and Human Monocytes During the Induction of Innate Immune Memory

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02834

    (A) The number of genomic copies of TEP1 and PPO1 following the exposure of 250,000 and 500,000 cells to Plasmodium berghei during 3 or 6 h. (B) Human monocytes were incubated for 24 h in RPMI, β-glucan or LPS (the former being the control, the latter two the trained and tolerant cells, respectively). Subsequently, the cells were left for 5 days in RPMI medium with 10% human pooled serum, and then harvested. The DNA was isolated and qPCR was run with primers for the promoter regions of TNFA, IL6, HK , and PFKP . Expression in the RPMI control group was set at 1. Relative amount of DNA of the trained (β-glucan)this and immunotolerant (LPS) groups was determined. N = 6, Wilcoxon; * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) The number of genomic copies of TEP1 and PPO1 following the exposure of 250,000 and 500,000 cells to Plasmodium berghei during 3 or 6 h. (B) Human monocytes were incubated for 24 h in RPMI, β-glucan or LPS (the former being the control, the latter two the trained and tolerant cells, respectively). Subsequently, the cells were left for 5 days in RPMI medium with 10% human pooled serum, and then harvested. The DNA was isolated and qPCR was run with primers for the promoter regions of TNFA, IL6, HK , and PFKP . Expression in the RPMI control group was set at 1. Relative amount of DNA of the trained (β-glucan)this and immunotolerant (LPS) groups was determined. N = 6, Wilcoxon; * p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Isolation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    (A) Human monocytes were incubated for 24 h in RPMI, β-glucan or LPS. Whereas, the former was the control, the latter two treatments represent the trained and tolerant cells, respectively. Subsequently, the cells were left for 5 days in RPMI medium with 10% human pooled serum and BrdU. Upon completion of this period, the amount of BrdU (as a parameter of endoreplication) was quantified by a colorimetric assay, and raw OD data were recorded. N = 6, Wilcoxon; * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Human monocytes were incubated for 24 h in RPMI, β-glucan or LPS. Whereas, the former was the control, the latter two treatments represent the trained and tolerant cells, respectively. Subsequently, the cells were left for 5 days in RPMI medium with 10% human pooled serum and BrdU. Upon completion of this period, the amount of BrdU (as a parameter of endoreplication) was quantified by a colorimetric assay, and raw OD data were recorded. N = 6, Wilcoxon; * p

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Colorimetric Assay

    12) Product Images from "Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors"

    Article Title: Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9684

    Human myeloid DCs produce VEGF-A in response to a variety of pro-inflammatory stimuli, provided PGE 2 is present in the microenvironment A. , B. DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with TLR-ligands PAM 3 CSK 4 (TLR1/2, 100 ng/ml), FSL-1 (TLR2/6, 100 ng/ml), Poly I:C (TLR3, 25 μg/ml), LPS (TLR4, 100 ng/ml) and R848 (TLR7 and TLR8, 5 μg/ml), Heat-killed S.aureus (specific for TLR2; 1:10 DC/bacteria ratio), E. coli (specific for TLR4; 1:10 DC/bacteria ratio), β-glucan (10 μg/ml), Curdlan (10 μg/ml), heat-killed C.albicans (specific for C-type lectins; 1:10 DC/fungi ratio), IL-1β (20 ng/ml), TNF-α (20 ng/ml), and necrotic cells (1:2 DC/necrotic cells ratio) in the presence or absence of PGE 2 (10 μM). VEGF-A production was evaluated in cell-free supernatants by ELISA. Data are expressed as mean + SEM ( n = 4); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Human myeloid DCs produce VEGF-A in response to a variety of pro-inflammatory stimuli, provided PGE 2 is present in the microenvironment A. , B. DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with TLR-ligands PAM 3 CSK 4 (TLR1/2, 100 ng/ml), FSL-1 (TLR2/6, 100 ng/ml), Poly I:C (TLR3, 25 μg/ml), LPS (TLR4, 100 ng/ml) and R848 (TLR7 and TLR8, 5 μg/ml), Heat-killed S.aureus (specific for TLR2; 1:10 DC/bacteria ratio), E. coli (specific for TLR4; 1:10 DC/bacteria ratio), β-glucan (10 μg/ml), Curdlan (10 μg/ml), heat-killed C.albicans (specific for C-type lectins; 1:10 DC/fungi ratio), IL-1β (20 ng/ml), TNF-α (20 ng/ml), and necrotic cells (1:2 DC/necrotic cells ratio) in the presence or absence of PGE 2 (10 μM). VEGF-A production was evaluated in cell-free supernatants by ELISA. Data are expressed as mean + SEM ( n = 4); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    13) Product Images from "Evaluation of trained immunity by β-1, 3 (d)-glucan on murine monocytes in vitro and duration of response in vivo"

    Article Title: Evaluation of trained immunity by β-1, 3 (d)-glucan on murine monocytes in vitro and duration of response in vivo

    Journal: Immunology and Cell Biology

    doi: 10.1038/icb.2017.13

    Increased survival of β-glucan-trained macrophages determines increased TNFα and IL-6 levels in vitro . ( a ) Total and ( b ) live cell number normalised amount of TNFα released into cell supernatants by human macrophages after challenge with 10 ng ml −1 of LPS. ( c ) Total and ( d ) normalised murine TNFα released into supernatants. ( e ) Total and ( f ) normalised IL-6 was measured in the same supernatants. * P -values ⩽0.05.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Increased survival of β-glucan-trained macrophages determines increased TNFα and IL-6 levels in vitro . ( a ) Total and ( b ) live cell number normalised amount of TNFα released into cell supernatants by human macrophages after challenge with 10 ng ml −1 of LPS. ( c ) Total and ( d ) normalised murine TNFα released into supernatants. ( e ) Total and ( f ) normalised IL-6 was measured in the same supernatants. * P -values ⩽0.05.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro

    β-Glucan-trained macrophages express relatively low levels of phagocytic cell surface markers. Undifferentiated monocytes (Mo, day 0) or differentiated macrophages (day 7) were collected and stained with antibodies against CD11b, F4/80, MHC II and CD11c and subsequently assessed by flow cytometry. ( a ) Representative histogram plots showing the expression of the different cell surface markers in undifferentiated Mo (day 0) or day 7 differentiated macrophages initially primed with β-glucan (black), LPS (grey) or RPMI (white, control). ( b ) Percentage of positive cells for each of the four markers evaluated in monocytes and differentiated macrophages. Spleen monocytes from five mice were analysed in independent experiments for all makers. Bars and error bars represent average and s.e.m. values, respectively. * and ** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.01, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-Glucan-trained macrophages express relatively low levels of phagocytic cell surface markers. Undifferentiated monocytes (Mo, day 0) or differentiated macrophages (day 7) were collected and stained with antibodies against CD11b, F4/80, MHC II and CD11c and subsequently assessed by flow cytometry. ( a ) Representative histogram plots showing the expression of the different cell surface markers in undifferentiated Mo (day 0) or day 7 differentiated macrophages initially primed with β-glucan (black), LPS (grey) or RPMI (white, control). ( b ) Percentage of positive cells for each of the four markers evaluated in monocytes and differentiated macrophages. Spleen monocytes from five mice were analysed in independent experiments for all makers. Bars and error bars represent average and s.e.m. values, respectively. * and ** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.01, respectively.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    β-Glucan facilitates the survival of differentiating monocytes in vitro . ( a ) Fold change in live cells (normalised against control cells) after priming, differentiation and LPS challenge (day 7) in the murine in vitro assays ( n =6), and ( b ) healthy volunteers ( n =8) on days 1 and 6 under the same culture conditions and treatments. ( c ) Dot plots representing the apoptotic status of murine monocytes on day 0 (untreated) and treated monocytes on day 1. Cells were stained with FITC-conjugated AnnV and PI. Late apoptotic and/or necrotic cells are gated in the top right quadrant of each of the dot plots (AnnV + PI + ). ( d ) Combined AnnV + PI + data, ( e ) AnnV − PI − data and ( f ) AnnV + PI − data obtained from three independent experiments at different time points during the differentiation assays. Bars and error bars represent averages and s.e.m., respectively. * and ** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.01, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-Glucan facilitates the survival of differentiating monocytes in vitro . ( a ) Fold change in live cells (normalised against control cells) after priming, differentiation and LPS challenge (day 7) in the murine in vitro assays ( n =6), and ( b ) healthy volunteers ( n =8) on days 1 and 6 under the same culture conditions and treatments. ( c ) Dot plots representing the apoptotic status of murine monocytes on day 0 (untreated) and treated monocytes on day 1. Cells were stained with FITC-conjugated AnnV and PI. Late apoptotic and/or necrotic cells are gated in the top right quadrant of each of the dot plots (AnnV + PI + ). ( d ) Combined AnnV + PI + data, ( e ) AnnV − PI − data and ( f ) AnnV + PI − data obtained from three independent experiments at different time points during the differentiation assays. Bars and error bars represent averages and s.e.m., respectively. * and ** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.01, respectively.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Staining

    In vitro differentiation of murine and human monocytes after the addition of serum to cell culture media. Murine (top panels) and human monocytes (bottom panels) were isolated, treated and cultured following the schedule indicated in the timeline diagram (bottom), with images captured at day 0 (untreated) and 5 days later after priming with LPS, β-glucan or RPMI. All pictures were taken using the same magnification objective (× 40), and are representative of six others.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro differentiation of murine and human monocytes after the addition of serum to cell culture media. Murine (top panels) and human monocytes (bottom panels) were isolated, treated and cultured following the schedule indicated in the timeline diagram (bottom), with images captured at day 0 (untreated) and 5 days later after priming with LPS, β-glucan or RPMI. All pictures were taken using the same magnification objective (× 40), and are representative of six others.

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, Isolation

    The enhanced in vivo response in β-glucan-trained mice declines in the first 3 weeks. ( a ) Timeline of the β-glucan dosage schedule in the murine in vivo experiments. ( b ) Serum levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 in β-glucan- or PBS-treated mice in the short-term experiment and ( c ) in the long-term experiment. At least nine mice per group and two independent experiments were performed in all cases. Horizontal and error bars represent average and s.e.m. values. * and *** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.001, respectively.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The enhanced in vivo response in β-glucan-trained mice declines in the first 3 weeks. ( a ) Timeline of the β-glucan dosage schedule in the murine in vivo experiments. ( b ) Serum levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 in β-glucan- or PBS-treated mice in the short-term experiment and ( c ) in the long-term experiment. At least nine mice per group and two independent experiments were performed in all cases. Horizontal and error bars represent average and s.e.m. values. * and *** P -values ⩽0.05 and 0.001, respectively.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay

    Related Articles

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a "phagocytic synapse"
    Article Snippet: Active phospho-Syk (Y525/Y526), active phospho-Src family kinases (Y416) and inactive phospho-Lyn (Y507) antibodies were from Cell Signalling Technology. .. β-glucan immobilisation and CD45 co-immobilisation Soluble β-glucans were immobilised on tissue culture plates or large polystyrene latex beads (0.8 and 3 μm – Sigma) by incubation with PBS/EDTA containing 100 μg/ml soluble β-glucan for 1 h at 37°C. ..

    Inhibition:

    Article Title: Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer
    Article Snippet: After a resting period of 6 d in RPMI including 10% serum, cells were stimulated with E. coli LPS (10 ng/ml), C. albicans (1×106 /ml), B. burgdorferi (1×106 /ml), or RPMI for an additional 24 h. Supernatants were stored at −20°C until ELISA was performed. .. In the “inhibition” experiments, before training with BCG or β-glucan, the adherent monocytes were preincubated for 1 h with 10 mM 3-methyl adenine (3MA, Sigma). .. Cytokine measurements Concentrations of human IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined in duplicates using commercial ELISA kits (Sanquin, Amsterdam, or R & D Systems, Minneapolis), in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

    Purification:

    Article Title: Nonopsonic Phagocytosis of Zymosan and Mycobacterium kansasii by CR3 (CD11b/CD18) Involves Distinct Molecular Determinants and Is or Is Not Coupled with NADPH Oxidase Activation
    Article Snippet: .. Mannan, β-glucan from barley [a mixture of β(1,4)glucan and β(1,3)glucan], NADG, laminarin [β(1,3)glucan], glycogen, superoxide dismutase, ferricytochrome c , and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, Mo.). α-Glucan, purified from M. tuberculosis as previously described , was kindly provided by M. Daffé (Toulouse, France). .. 9- cis retinoic acid (RA) was from ICN (Orsay, France), and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3 ) was kindly provided by U. Fischer and P. Weber (Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland).

    Derivative Assay:

    Article Title: Aureobasidium pullulans produced β-glucan is effective to enhance Kurosengoku soybean extract induced Thrombospondin-1 expression
    Article Snippet: The purified β-glucan produced by A . pullulans (AP-PG) was prepared using ultrafiltration with a cut-off molecular weight of 20,000 followed by ethanol precipitation as previously described . .. A protein conjugated β-glucan derived from Trametes versicolor CM-101, Krestin (Kureha Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) and a Laminaria digitata -derived β-glucan, laminarin (Sigma-Aldrich) were purchased as commercially available products. .. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) To monitor the Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) mRNA expression, the total RNA was extracted from cultured cells using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA).

    Injection:

    Article Title: C-Type Lectin in Chlamys farreri (CfLec-1) Mediating Immune Recognition and Opsonization
    Article Snippet: .. Four groups receiving an injection of 50 µL phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 0.14 M sodium chloride, 3 mM potassium chloride, 8 mM disodium hydrogenphosphate dodecahydrate, 1.5 mM potassium phosphate monobasic, pH 7.4), LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 (Sigma-Aldrich, 0.5 mg ml−1 in PBS), PGN from Staphylococcus aureus (Sigma-Aldrich, 0.8 mg ml−1 in PBS), and β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sigma-Aldrich, 1.0 mg ml−1 in PBS), respectively. ..

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Millipore β glucan
    Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of <t>β-glucan</t> training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p
    β Glucan, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/β glucan/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β glucan - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore β 1 3 glucan
    Poacic acid targets <t>β-1,3-glucan.</t> ( A ) Poacic acid is fluorescent and accumulates on the cell wall. Poacic acid inhibits β-1,3-glucan in vivo as shown by ( B ) the decrease in signal from aniline blue staining (arrowheads) and ( C ) the incorporation
    β 1 3 Glucan, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/β 1 3 glucan/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β 1 3 glucan - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore glucan from barley
    <t>β-1,6-glucan</t> is required for efficient phagocytosis of Candida albicans , production of ROS, and expression of HSPs
    Glucan From Barley, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/glucan from barley/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    glucan from barley - by Bioz Stars, 2021-07
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier


    Image Search Results


    Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of β-glucan training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Role of autophagy for the training of monocytes. (a) Transcriptome profiling and pathway analysis of β-glucan training of monocytes compared to LPS stimulation. Factorial design analysis was performed on genes in each K-means cluster to assess significance of response differences elicited by LPS and β-glucan (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH)-adjusted p

    Article Snippet: In the “inhibition” experiments, before training with BCG or β-glucan, the adherent monocytes were preincubated for 1 h with 10 mM 3-methyl adenine (3MA, Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Poacic acid targets β-1,3-glucan. ( A ) Poacic acid is fluorescent and accumulates on the cell wall. Poacic acid inhibits β-1,3-glucan in vivo as shown by ( B ) the decrease in signal from aniline blue staining (arrowheads) and ( C ) the incorporation

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets β-1,3-glucan

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1410400112

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Poacic acid targets β-1,3-glucan. ( A ) Poacic acid is fluorescent and accumulates on the cell wall. Poacic acid inhibits β-1,3-glucan in vivo as shown by ( B ) the decrease in signal from aniline blue staining (arrowheads) and ( C ) the incorporation

    Article Snippet: The insoluble pellets were resuspended in 10 mM Tris⋅HCl, pH 7.5, containing 5 mg/mL zymolyase 100T (Seikagaku) and incubated at 37 °C for 18 h. After digestion, the zymolyase-resistant material was removed by centrifugation (15,000 × g for 15 min), and the zymolyase-degradation product (mostly β-1,3-glucan) was purified by ultrafiltration with a centrifugal filter membrane (Amicon Ultra 0.5 mL; molecular weight cutoff is 10,000; Millipore).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Staining

    β-1,6-glucan is required for efficient phagocytosis of Candida albicans , production of ROS, and expression of HSPs

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-1,6-glucan is required for efficient phagocytosis of Candida albicans , production of ROS, and expression of HSPs

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Elicitation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by pustulan is due to β-1,6-glucan

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Elicitation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by pustulan is due to β-1,6-glucan

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques:

    β-1,6-glucan stimulates phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-1,6-glucan stimulates phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques:

    C3 proteolytic fragments are deposited on β-1,6-glucan

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3 proteolytic fragments are deposited on β-1,6-glucan

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques:

    CR3 mediates β-1,6-glucan stimulation of neutrophils

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CR3 mediates β-1,6-glucan stimulation of neutrophils

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques:

    β-1,6-glucan stimulates expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in neutrophils

    Journal:

    Article Title: Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils is Stimulated by a Unique Fungal Cell Wall Component

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-1,6-glucan stimulates expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in neutrophils

    Article Snippet: Glucan from barley (Sigma) is composed of β-1,3-glucan (30%), and β-1,4-glucan (40%).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of select targets regulated by β-D-glucan in MCF-7 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle control), 10 nM E 2 , 100 nM 4-OHT or the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 24 h. qPCR for each target gene was normalized to 18S rRNA and values were compared to fold expression in vehicle (DMSO)-treated MCF-7 cells. Values are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment.

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of select targets regulated by β-D-glucan in MCF-7 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle control), 10 nM E 2 , 100 nM 4-OHT or the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 24 h. qPCR for each target gene was normalized to 18S rRNA and values were compared to fold expression in vehicle (DMSO)-treated MCF-7 cells. Values are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment.

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, Expressing

    β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO but not water inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in water or DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the mean ± SEM for 4 separate values in one experiment for β-D-glucan in water and 6 separate experiments (biological replicates) for β-D-glucan in DMSO. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO but not water inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in water or DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the mean ± SEM for 4 separate values in one experiment for β-D-glucan in water and 6 separate experiments (biological replicates) for β-D-glucan in DMSO. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Incubation, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography

    β-D-glucan increases apoptosis and cell death in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. (A) MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive and LCC9 tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO or DMSO as vehicle control for 24 h. BAX and BCL2 mRNA transcript expression was normalized by GAPDH (B) and the fold relative to DMSO (vehicle control) was set to one. (B) qPCR for GAPDH expression is given as CT values. For (A) and (B), the values are the average ± SEM of triplicate determinations within one experiment. (C) MCF-7 and LCC9 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO or DMSO as vehicle control for 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assay was performed as described in Materials and methods. Values are the % of dead cells measured by uptake of ethidium homodimer-1 and fluorescence emission at 645 nm. Values are the average of 4 replicates within one experiment. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan increases apoptosis and cell death in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. (A) MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive and LCC9 tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO or DMSO as vehicle control for 24 h. BAX and BCL2 mRNA transcript expression was normalized by GAPDH (B) and the fold relative to DMSO (vehicle control) was set to one. (B) qPCR for GAPDH expression is given as CT values. For (A) and (B), the values are the average ± SEM of triplicate determinations within one experiment. (C) MCF-7 and LCC9 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO or DMSO as vehicle control for 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assay was performed as described in Materials and methods. Values are the % of dead cells measured by uptake of ethidium homodimer-1 and fluorescence emission at 645 nm. Values are the average of 4 replicates within one experiment. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Incubation, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cytotoxicity Assay, Fluorescence

    Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of select targets regulated by β-D-glucan in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle), 10 nM E 2 , 100 nM 4-OHT or the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 24 h. qPCR for each target gene was normalized to 18S and values were compared to fold expression in vehicle (DMSO)-treated MCF-7 cells. Values are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment. (A) RASSF1, CTNNB1, IGFBP3, AR and NRF1 transcript expression in MCF-7 cells relative to DMSO control. (B) CTNNB1 , (C) IGFBP3 , (D) RASSF1 and (E) ESR2 (ERβ) transcript expression in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells relative to DMSO control.

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of select targets regulated by β-D-glucan in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle), 10 nM E 2 , 100 nM 4-OHT or the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 24 h. qPCR for each target gene was normalized to 18S and values were compared to fold expression in vehicle (DMSO)-treated MCF-7 cells. Values are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment. (A) RASSF1, CTNNB1, IGFBP3, AR and NRF1 transcript expression in MCF-7 cells relative to DMSO control. (B) CTNNB1 , (C) IGFBP3 , (D) RASSF1 and (E) ESR2 (ERβ) transcript expression in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells relative to DMSO control.

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, Expressing

    β-D-glucan inhibits MCF-10A but not HEK-293 cell proliferation. MCF-10A and HEK-293 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 4 separate values in one experiment. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan inhibits MCF-10A but not HEK-293 cell proliferation. MCF-10A and HEK-293 cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 4 separate values in one experiment. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Incubation, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, BrdU Incorporation Assay

    β-D-glucan inhibits the proliferation of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. LCC9 and LY2 endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells (A) and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells (B) were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 3 separate experiments. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan inhibits the proliferation of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. LCC9 and LY2 endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells (A) and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells (B) were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 3 separate experiments. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification, Incubation, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, BrdU Incorporation Assay

    β-D-glucan rapidly inhibits NRF1 expression in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 45 min. (A) qPCR for NRF1 mRNA expression was normalized to 18S rRNA. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan rapidly inhibits NRF1 expression in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC for 48 h prior to addition of the indicated concentrations of DMSO-dissolved β-D-glucan for 45 min. (A) qPCR for NRF1 mRNA expression was normalized to 18S rRNA. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Expressing, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    β-D-glucan does not synergize with 4-hydroxytamoxifen to inhibit cell proliferation. MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive and LY2 tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO, 1 μ M 4-OHT, or the combination of 1 μ M 4-OHT + 10 or 50 μ g/ml β-D-glucan, as indicated, for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 3 separate experiments. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan does not synergize with 4-hydroxytamoxifen to inhibit cell proliferation. MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive and LY2 tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells were incubated in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC and the indicated concentrations of β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO, 1 μ M 4-OHT, or the combination of 1 μ M 4-OHT + 10 or 50 μ g/ml β-D-glucan, as indicated, for a total of 72 h with a medium/treatment change after 48 h. Values are the BrdU incorporation absorbances normalized to DMSO (zero) and are the mean ± SEM for 3 separate experiments. Values of β-D-glucan in DMSO were corrected for the inhibitory effect of DMSO on cell proliferation. * p

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Incubation, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, BrdU Incorporation Assay

    β-D-glucan affects ERα expression in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC-stripped FBS for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle control) or 10 or 50 μ g/ml β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for 24 h. (A) ESR1 transcript levels were measured by qPCR relative to 18S and are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment. Values are relative to MCF-7 cells treated with DMSO showing that ERα mRNA expression is lower in LCC9 relative to MCF-7 cells. (B) Whole cell extracts (30 μ g protein) were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE gels and the resulting western blot was probed with ERα antibody and the full length 66 kDa ERα band is shown. The PVDF membrane was stripped and re-probed for β-actin for normalization. Values are the ERα/β-actin ratio.

    Journal: International Journal of Oncology

    Article Title: ?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression

    doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2294

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-D-glucan affects ERα expression in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. Cells were grown in phenol red-free IMEM + 5% DCC-stripped FBS for 48 h prior to addition of DMSO (vehicle control) or 10 or 50 μ g/ml β-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO for 24 h. (A) ESR1 transcript levels were measured by qPCR relative to 18S and are the average of triplicate determinations ± SEM within one experiment. Values are relative to MCF-7 cells treated with DMSO showing that ERα mRNA expression is lower in LCC9 relative to MCF-7 cells. (B) Whole cell extracts (30 μ g protein) were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE gels and the resulting western blot was probed with ERα antibody and the full length 66 kDa ERα band is shown. The PVDF membrane was stripped and re-probed for β-actin for normalization. Values are the ERα/β-actin ratio.

    Article Snippet: To obviate this issue, we purchased β-D-glucan purified from barley from Sigma and tested its activity in breast cancer cells.

    Techniques: Expressing, Droplet Countercurrent Chromatography, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, SDS Page, Western Blot