β butyrolactone  (Millipore)


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    Name:
    beta Butyrolactone
    Description:
    β Butyrolactone undergoes ring opening polymerization in the presence of ethoxy bridged dinuclear indium catalyst to yield biodegradable polyester poly hydroxybutyrate Polymerization of racemic β butyrolactone in the presence of chiral initiators has been reported It is versatile building block for organic synthesis
    Catalog Number:
    219126
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    β-Butyrolactone was used in the preparation of (3-O-[oligo-(3-hydroxybutyrate ester)] fluorescein, fluorescein derivative of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) via anionic polymerization.
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    Structured Review

    Millipore β butyrolactone
    beta Butyrolactone
    β Butyrolactone undergoes ring opening polymerization in the presence of ethoxy bridged dinuclear indium catalyst to yield biodegradable polyester poly hydroxybutyrate Polymerization of racemic β butyrolactone in the presence of chiral initiators has been reported It is versatile building block for organic synthesis
    https://www.bioz.com/result/β butyrolactone/product/Millipore
    Average 93 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β butyrolactone - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    93/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electrospun Pectin-Polyhydroxybutyrate Nanofibers for Retinal Tissue Engineering"

    Article Title: Electrospun Pectin-Polyhydroxybutyrate Nanofibers for Retinal Tissue Engineering

    Journal: ACS Omega

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.7b01604

    Ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone using pectin as initiator to yield pec-PHB.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone using pectin as initiator to yield pec-PHB.

    Techniques Used:

    Related Articles

    other:

    Article Title: Electrospun Pectin-Polyhydroxybutyrate Nanofibers for Retinal Tissue Engineering
    Article Snippet: 4 Materials and Methods Pectin (from apple), β-butyrolactone, tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Article Title: Synthesis, physicochemical properties and ocular pharmacokinetics of thermosensitive in situ hydrogels for ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis treatment
    Article Snippet: Materials d,l -Lactide (LA, 99.5%) was purchased from Jinan Daigang Biotechnology Co. Ltd (Jinan, China). β -Butyrolactone (β-BL, ≥98%), PEG1500 and stannous 2-ethylhexanoate (stannous octoate, 95%) were purchased from Sigma (Shanghai, China).

    Article Title: The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains
    Article Snippet: Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, 4-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, and [R,S ]-β-butyrolactone were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH (Steinheim, Germany).

    Purification:

    Article Title: Polyhydroxybutyrate Targets Mammalian Mitochondria and Increases Permeability of Plasmalemmal and Mitochondrial Membranes
    Article Snippet: .. Uranine (fluorescein sodium salt) (Cat # 28803 Fluka) was used as purchased. β-butyrolactone (98%) (Cat # 219126 Sigma Aldrich) was purified and dried just before using as described previously . .. Confocal Microscopy HeLa cells were incubated with 25 nM TMRM for 30 minutes in a HEPES-buffered salt solution (HBSS) composed of (mM): 156 NaCl, 3 KCl, 2 MgSO4 , 1.25 KH2 PO4 , 2 CaCl2 , 10 glucose and 10 HEPES; pH adjusted to 7.35 with NaOH and then the different reagents were added at different concentrations.

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    Millipore β amyloid immune complexes
    ELISA determination of <t>β-amyloid</t> immune complexes (Aβ-IgG) and free Aβ-autoantibodies in human serum. (A) Sandwich ELISA to determine Aβ-IgG immune complexes: mAb 6E10, recognizing Aβ(3–8) epitope, is first coated on the ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, human serum containing β-amyloid immune complexes is added. The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody. (B) Indirect ELISA to determine free Aβ-autoantibodies: Biotin-G 5 -Aβ(12–40) is immobilized on streptavidin coated ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, the addition of serum containing free Aβ-autoantibodies leads to their binding to Aβ(12–40). The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody.
    β Amyloid Immune Complexes, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 85 stars, based on 6 article reviews
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    85
    Millipore beta cell mass morphometry
    <t>Beta</t> cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.
    Beta Cell Mass Morphometry, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    86
    Millipore aβ1 42 regulated ng2
    Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein <t>NG2</t> in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched <t>Aβ1–42</t> preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p
    Aβ1 42 Regulated Ng2, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    aβ1 42 regulated ng2 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    86
    Millipore microglial sa β gal activity
    Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase <t>(SA-β-gal)</t> activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p
    Microglial Sa β Gal Activity, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/microglial sa β gal activity/product/Millipore
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    microglial sa β gal activity - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    86/100 stars
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    Image Search Results


    ELISA determination of β-amyloid immune complexes (Aβ-IgG) and free Aβ-autoantibodies in human serum. (A) Sandwich ELISA to determine Aβ-IgG immune complexes: mAb 6E10, recognizing Aβ(3–8) epitope, is first coated on the ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, human serum containing β-amyloid immune complexes is added. The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody. (B) Indirect ELISA to determine free Aβ-autoantibodies: Biotin-G 5 -Aβ(12–40) is immobilized on streptavidin coated ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, the addition of serum containing free Aβ-autoantibodies leads to their binding to Aβ(12–40). The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Antigen-Bound and Free ?-Amyloid Autoantibodies in Serum of Healthy Adults

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044516

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ELISA determination of β-amyloid immune complexes (Aβ-IgG) and free Aβ-autoantibodies in human serum. (A) Sandwich ELISA to determine Aβ-IgG immune complexes: mAb 6E10, recognizing Aβ(3–8) epitope, is first coated on the ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, human serum containing β-amyloid immune complexes is added. The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody. (B) Indirect ELISA to determine free Aβ-autoantibodies: Biotin-G 5 -Aβ(12–40) is immobilized on streptavidin coated ELISA plates. After blocking with BSA, the addition of serum containing free Aβ-autoantibodies leads to their binding to Aβ(12–40). The detection is performed with a labeled anti-IgG antibody.

    Article Snippet: Using the optimized ELISA protocol described in Materials and Methods, we investigated the presence of β-amyloid immune complexes in two IgG preparations: (1) human serum IgG from Calbiochem, commercialized for research purposes only and (2) intravenous immune globuline (IVIgG; Gamunex® 10%) from Talecris Biotherapeutics (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), in use for treatment of different infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. β-amyloid immune complexes were detected in both preparations, slightly higher levels being observed in the product from Calbiochem ( , supporting information).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Sandwich ELISA, Blocking Assay, Labeling, Indirect ELISA, Binding Assay

    Beta cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell adaptation in islets grafts from different pancreatic regions transplanted in syngeneic diabetic mice. A. Average islet size per transplant. B. Blood glucose concentrations of STZ-induced diabetic mice followed up to 10 days after transplantation (n = 6–8 mice per region) of DR, GR or SR islets. C. AUC blood glucose concentrations post-transplantation corrected for pre-transplantation glucose concentration (n = 6–8 mice per region). D. Image of proliferating beta-cells, positive for both BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) in islets transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice. Scale bar = 20 µm. E. Beta cell proliferation in the islet grafts 10 days after transplantation, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6–7 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, AUC = area under the curve.

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Concentration Assay, Labeling

    Beta cell mass morphometry in control and HFD mice. A. Beta cell mass in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). B. Beta cell mass by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). C. Beta cell cluster area in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell cluster area by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). E. Islet density in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). F. Islet density by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). G. Beta cell area in the entire pancreas after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice). H. Beta cell area by pancreatic region after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry in control and HFD mice. A. Beta cell mass in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). B. Beta cell mass by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). C. Beta cell cluster area in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell cluster area by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). E. Islet density in the entire pancreas after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice). F. Islet density by pancreatic region after 6 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). G. Beta cell area in the entire pancreas after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice). H. Beta cell area by pancreatic region after 12 weeks (n = 6 mice per region). DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Beta cell proliferation in control and HFD mice after 6 weeks. A. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), Ki67 (green), insulin (red) and DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 50 µm. B. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) per pancreatic region in control and HFD mice. Mice received BrdU during the final 7 days. Scale bar = 50 µm. C. Beta cell proliferation in the entire pancreas, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell proliferation by pancreatic region, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice per region). E. Cyclin D1 mRNA expression by pancreatic region, control = 1. DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056922

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beta cell proliferation in control and HFD mice after 6 weeks. A. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), Ki67 (green), insulin (red) and DAPI (blue). Scale bar = 50 µm. B. Image of proliferating beta-cells (arrowheads), BrdU (brown) and insulin (red) per pancreatic region in control and HFD mice. Mice received BrdU during the final 7 days. Scale bar = 50 µm. C. Beta cell proliferation in the entire pancreas, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice). D. Beta cell proliferation by pancreatic region, BrdU labeling during the final 7 days (n = 6 mice per region). E. Cyclin D1 mRNA expression by pancreatic region, control = 1. DR = duodenal region, GR = gastric region, SR = splenic region, HFD = high-fat diet. * p

    Article Snippet: Beta cell mass morphometry and proliferation For the identification of beta cells, sections were immunostained with guinea-pig anti-insulin IgG (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) or rabbit anti-insulin IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for 1 hour followed by HRP- or AP- conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Labeling, Expressing

    Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein NG2 in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p

    Journal: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

    Article Title: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Amyloid-? 1-42-Induced Shedding of the Pericyte Proteoglycan NG2

    doi: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000084

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bar graphs demonstrating alterations in the levels of the pericyte protein NG2 in cell culture supernatants and lysates from HBVPs after exposure to 10 μmol/L oligomer- or fibril-enriched Aβ 1–42 preparations for 24 hours in the presence or in the absence of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT. (A) No alterations in NG2 levels were found in HBVP lysates after exposure to either fibril- or oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations. (B) Exposure to fibrillar Aβ1–42 significantly decreased, whereas oligomeric Aβ1–42 significantly increased, the levels of sNG2 (% of vehicle). (C) The increased levels of sNG2 in HBVP cell culture supernatants observed after exposure to oligomer-enriched Aβ1–42 preparations were inhibited in the presence of SB-3CT. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. * Significant difference at p

    Article Snippet: Potential involvement of MMP-9 in Aβ1–42–regulated NG2 shedding was analyzed by adding 10 μmol/L of the MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor SB-3CT (Calbiochem, Billerica, MA) to HBVPs exposed to vehicles, 10 μmol/L Aβ1–42 fibril-enriched preparations, or 10 μmol/L Aβ1–42 oligomer-enriched preparations.

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    Article Title: Microglia change from a reactive to an age-like phenotype with the time in culture

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microglia aged in culture display signs of senescence, including increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and microRNA (miR)-146a expression. Microglial cells were kept in culture for 2 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Activity of SA-β-gal was determined using a commercial kit. (A) Representative images of 2 and 16 DIV microglia showing SA-β-gal staining. (B) SA-β-gal-positive cells were counted and results expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. (C) miR-146a expression was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Results are expressed in graph bars as mean ± SEM. Cultures, n = 4 per group. t -test, * p

    Article Snippet: Microglial SA-β-gal activity was determined using the Cellular senescence assay kit (Millipore), according to the manufacturer instructions.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing, In Vitro, Staining, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction