violaxanthin  (Roche)


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    Structured Review

    Roche violaxanthin
    Schematic diagram of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; PSY , phytoene synthase; PDS , phytoene desaturase; ZDS , ζ-carotene desaturase; PTOX , plastid terminal oxidase; CRTISO , carotene isomerase; ε -LCY , lycopene ε-cyclase; β -LCY , lycopene β-cyclase; β-CHX , β-carotene hydroxylase; ε -CHX , ε-carotene hydroxylase; ZEP , zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE , <t>violaxanthin</t> de-epoxidase; NSY , neoxanthin synthase. Internal and external aspect of mature Navel orange ( Citrus sinensis ) and Star Ruby grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) used in this study, are located in the pathway side to the major carotenoid accumulating in the pulp of full-coloured fruit. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
    Violaxanthin, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 43 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/violaxanthin/product/Roche
    Average 89 stars, based on 43 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    violaxanthin - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    89/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation"

    Article Title: Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp048

    Schematic diagram of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; PSY , phytoene synthase; PDS , phytoene desaturase; ZDS , ζ-carotene desaturase; PTOX , plastid terminal oxidase; CRTISO , carotene isomerase; ε -LCY , lycopene ε-cyclase; β -LCY , lycopene β-cyclase; β-CHX , β-carotene hydroxylase; ε -CHX , ε-carotene hydroxylase; ZEP , zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE , violaxanthin de-epoxidase; NSY , neoxanthin synthase. Internal and external aspect of mature Navel orange ( Citrus sinensis ) and Star Ruby grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) used in this study, are located in the pathway side to the major carotenoid accumulating in the pulp of full-coloured fruit. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic diagram of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; PSY , phytoene synthase; PDS , phytoene desaturase; ZDS , ζ-carotene desaturase; PTOX , plastid terminal oxidase; CRTISO , carotene isomerase; ε -LCY , lycopene ε-cyclase; β -LCY , lycopene β-cyclase; β-CHX , β-carotene hydroxylase; ε -CHX , ε-carotene hydroxylase; ZEP , zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE , violaxanthin de-epoxidase; NSY , neoxanthin synthase. Internal and external aspect of mature Navel orange ( Citrus sinensis ) and Star Ruby grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) used in this study, are located in the pathway side to the major carotenoid accumulating in the pulp of full-coloured fruit. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women"

    Article Title: Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women

    Journal: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)

    doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.08.003

    Comparison of AUC of α-carotene and BC = β-carotene concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of AUC of α-carotene and BC = β-carotene concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma

    Techniques Used:

    Figure 3A. β-Carotene concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma after fortified gari ingestion
    Figure Legend Snippet: Figure 3A. β-Carotene concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma after fortified gari ingestion

    Techniques Used:

    retinyl palmitate concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma after fortified gari ingestion
    Figure Legend Snippet: retinyl palmitate concentrations in triacylglycerol-rich plasma after fortified gari ingestion

    Techniques Used:

    Comparison of retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma for each treatment group
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma for each treatment group

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation"

    Article Title: Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp048

    Schematic diagram of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; PSY , phytoene synthase; PDS , phytoene desaturase; ZDS , ζ-carotene desaturase; PTOX , plastid terminal oxidase; CRTISO , carotene isomerase; ε -LCY , lycopene ε-cyclase; β -LCY , lycopene β-cyclase; β-CHX , β-carotene hydroxylase; ε -CHX , ε-carotene hydroxylase; ZEP , zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE , violaxanthin de-epoxidase; NSY , neoxanthin synthase. Internal and external aspect of mature Navel orange ( Citrus sinensis ) and Star Ruby grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) used in this study, are located in the pathway side to the major carotenoid accumulating in the pulp of full-coloured fruit. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic diagram of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. GGPP, geranylgeranyl diphosphate; PSY , phytoene synthase; PDS , phytoene desaturase; ZDS , ζ-carotene desaturase; PTOX , plastid terminal oxidase; CRTISO , carotene isomerase; ε -LCY , lycopene ε-cyclase; β -LCY , lycopene β-cyclase; β-CHX , β-carotene hydroxylase; ε -CHX , ε-carotene hydroxylase; ZEP , zeaxanthin epoxidase; VDE , violaxanthin de-epoxidase; NSY , neoxanthin synthase. Internal and external aspect of mature Navel orange ( Citrus sinensis ) and Star Ruby grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) used in this study, are located in the pathway side to the major carotenoid accumulating in the pulp of full-coloured fruit. (This figure is available in colour at JXB online.)

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments"

    Article Title: A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert260

    Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mutagenesis

    Transcript levels of the CCD4b1 gene and the accumulation of the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin, in the peel and pulp of Navel sweet orange (A), Clementine mandarin, and the hybrid Fortune mandarin (B) during fruit development and ripening. Changes in the concentration of the putative precursors of β-citraurin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, are also shown, and for comparative purposes the same scale for both xanthophylls is used. The stages of fruit development and ripening are: IG, immature green; M1 and M2, mature green; B1 and B2, breaker; C, coloured; and FC, fully coloured fruit, as described in Alquézar et al . (2008 b ). Expression values are relative to transcript levels obtained in the peel of sweet orange at the IG stage which was arbitrarily set to 1. Data of carotenoid content and transcripts accumulation are means ±SD of three replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transcript levels of the CCD4b1 gene and the accumulation of the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin, in the peel and pulp of Navel sweet orange (A), Clementine mandarin, and the hybrid Fortune mandarin (B) during fruit development and ripening. Changes in the concentration of the putative precursors of β-citraurin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, are also shown, and for comparative purposes the same scale for both xanthophylls is used. The stages of fruit development and ripening are: IG, immature green; M1 and M2, mature green; B1 and B2, breaker; C, coloured; and FC, fully coloured fruit, as described in Alquézar et al . (2008 b ). Expression values are relative to transcript levels obtained in the peel of sweet orange at the IG stage which was arbitrarily set to 1. Data of carotenoid content and transcripts accumulation are means ±SD of three replicates.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Expressing

    HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).
    Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).

    Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, In Vitro, Activity Assay, Incubation, Expressing

    5) Product Images from "A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments"

    Article Title: A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert260

    Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mutagenesis

    HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).
    Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).

    Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, In Vitro, Activity Assay, Incubation, Expressing

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    Article Snippet: .. Xanthophyll peaks were detected at 450 nm and quantified by using zeaxanthin from Roche (Basel) and violaxanthin and antheraxanthin prepared by thin-layer chromatography. .. A leaf disc electrode unit (LD 2, Hansatech) with a high-intensity light source (LS 2, Hansatech) and a heat filter (Melles Griot, Irvine, CA) was used to measure the O2 evolution by leaf discs at 25°C according to .

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    Roche β apo 8 carotenal
    Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, <t>β-apo-8′-carotenal)</t> and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).
    β Apo 8 Carotenal, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/β apo 8 carotenal/product/Roche
    Average 88 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    β apo 8 carotenal - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    88/100 stars
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    Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert260

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of the main C 30 apocarotenoids identified in citrus fruits (A, β-citraurin; B, β-apo-8′-carotenal) and the potential in vivo precursors (C, zeaxanthin; D, β-carotene; E, β-cryptoxanthin). The asymmetric cleavage site at the 7′,8′ double bonds is indicated. In (F), the different coloration of three different mandarin fruits with a similar C 40 carotenoid composition in the peel but displaying marked difference in the C 30 apocarotenoid β-citraurin content is shown: null content, a clementine mutant (39E7, Rios et al. , 2010 ); medium content, a clementine ( Gross, 1987 ; Rios et al. , 2010 ); high content, a mandarin hybrid (Fortune; Saunt, 2000 ).

    Article Snippet: The carotenoid peaks were integrated at their individual maximal wavelength and their content was calculated using calibration curves of β-apo-8′-carotenal and β-citraurin (a gift from Hoffmann-LaRoche); β-carotene (Sigma) for α- and β-carotene; β-cryptoxanthin (Extrasynthese); lutein (Sigma) for lutein and violaxanthin isomers; and zeaxanthin (Extrasynthese) for zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mutagenesis

    HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert260

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HPLC analysis of the in vitro enzymatic activity of Citrus CCD4b1. Assays were incubated for 1h, except for lycopene which was incubated for 6h. The crude lysate of thioredoxin-CCD4b1-expressing E.coli cells (CCD4b1) converted (A) β-carotene into β-apo-8′-carotenal (P1), (B) β-cryptoxanthin into P1 and β-citraurin (P2), (C) zeaxanthin into P2, (D) lutein into 3-OH-ε-apo-8′-carotenal (α-citraurin) (P3), and (E) lycopene into apo-8′-lycopenal (P4) and apo-10′-lycopenal (P5). UV-Vis spectra of obtained products are depicted in the insets. No conversion was observed with the corresponding controls corresponding to crude lysates of thioredoxin-overexpressing cells (Con).

    Article Snippet: The carotenoid peaks were integrated at their individual maximal wavelength and their content was calculated using calibration curves of β-apo-8′-carotenal and β-citraurin (a gift from Hoffmann-LaRoche); β-carotene (Sigma) for α- and β-carotene; β-cryptoxanthin (Extrasynthese); lutein (Sigma) for lutein and violaxanthin isomers; and zeaxanthin (Extrasynthese) for zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin.

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, In Vitro, Activity Assay, Incubation, Expressing