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  • 93
    Millipore xylazine hydrochloride
    Xylazine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/xylazine hydrochloride/product/Millipore
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    86
    Bayer AG xylazine
    Measured respiratory rate (breaths/min) over time. : Ketamine and <t>xylazine</t> combined anesthesia (K/X: 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B: 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg, atipamezole: 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction,5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; c, K/X and isoflurane groups; d, M/M/B and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups; and f, pentobarbital and isoflurane groups.
    Xylazine, supplied by Bayer AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/xylazine/product/Bayer AG
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    xylazine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
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    86
    Lloyd Laboratories xylazine
    Degree of photoreceptor preservation in retinas of rats injected with <t>xylazine</t> or clonidine and exposed to constant light. Preservation of photoreceptors was determined by weighing the overall thickness of the ONL and the integrity and organization of the inner and outer segments in a retina. The degree of the photoreceptor preservation for uninjected animals ( Uninj ) after 7 d of constant light exposure was estimated at 1.83 ± 0.60 (mean ± SD, n = 23) on a five point scale; the degree for animals receiving 10 d injections of xylazine ( 10-d xyl ) was 3.54 ± 0.63 ( n = 23), 3.08 ± 0.39 ( n = 18) for 4 d injection of xylazine ( 4-d xyl ), and 2.97 ± 0.55 ( n = 15) for 10 d injections of clonidine ( 10-d cln ). *** p
    Xylazine, supplied by Lloyd Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/xylazine/product/Lloyd Laboratories
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    xylazine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
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    86
    David Kopf Instruments xylazine
    Degree of photoreceptor preservation in retinas of rats injected with <t>xylazine</t> or clonidine and exposed to constant light. Preservation of photoreceptors was determined by weighing the overall thickness of the ONL and the integrity and organization of the inner and outer segments in a retina. The degree of the photoreceptor preservation for uninjected animals ( Uninj ) after 7 d of constant light exposure was estimated at 1.83 ± 0.60 (mean ± SD, n = 23) on a five point scale; the degree for animals receiving 10 d injections of xylazine ( 10-d xyl ) was 3.54 ± 0.63 ( n = 23), 3.08 ± 0.39 ( n = 18) for 4 d injection of xylazine ( 4-d xyl ), and 2.97 ± 0.55 ( n = 15) for 10 d injections of clonidine ( 10-d cln ). *** p
    Xylazine, supplied by David Kopf Instruments, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/xylazine/product/David Kopf Instruments
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    xylazine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
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    Image Search Results


    Measured respiratory rate (breaths/min) over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X: 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B: 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg, atipamezole: 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction,5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; c, K/X and isoflurane groups; d, M/M/B and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups; and f, pentobarbital and isoflurane groups.

    Journal: Experimental Animals

    Article Title: Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice

    doi: 10.1538/expanim.14-0050

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measured respiratory rate (breaths/min) over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X: 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B: 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg, atipamezole: 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction,5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; c, K/X and isoflurane groups; d, M/M/B and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups; and f, pentobarbital and isoflurane groups.

    Article Snippet: Anesthesia The anesthetic, sedative, and analgesic agents used in the present study were as follows: ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar, Sankyo Lifetech Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), xylazine (Celactar, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl, Kyoritsu Seiyaku Co., Ltd.), medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitol, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), midazolam (Dormicum, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan), butorphanol (Vetorphale, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd.), and isoflurane (Isoflu, DS Pharma Animal Health Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Measured SPO 2 percentage over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg, atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction,5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; b, K/X and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups.

    Journal: Experimental Animals

    Article Title: Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice

    doi: 10.1538/expanim.14-0050

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measured SPO 2 percentage over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg, atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction,5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; b, K/X and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups.

    Article Snippet: Anesthesia The anesthetic, sedative, and analgesic agents used in the present study were as follows: ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar, Sankyo Lifetech Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), xylazine (Celactar, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl, Kyoritsu Seiyaku Co., Ltd.), medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitol, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), midazolam (Dormicum, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan), butorphanol (Vetorphale, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd.), and isoflurane (Isoflu, DS Pharma Animal Health Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Measured heart rate (beats/min) over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg; atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction, 5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; b, K/X and pentobarbital groups c, K/X and isoflurane groups; d, M/M/B and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups.

    Journal: Experimental Animals

    Article Title: Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice

    doi: 10.1538/expanim.14-0050

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measured heart rate (beats/min) over time. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg; atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction, 5%; maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were significant differences between the groups as follows: a, K/X and M/M/B groups; b, K/X and pentobarbital groups c, K/X and isoflurane groups; d, M/M/B and pentobarbital groups; and e, M/M/B and isoflurane groups.

    Article Snippet: Anesthesia The anesthetic, sedative, and analgesic agents used in the present study were as follows: ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar, Sankyo Lifetech Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), xylazine (Celactar, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl, Kyoritsu Seiyaku Co., Ltd.), medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitol, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), midazolam (Dormicum, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan), butorphanol (Vetorphale, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd.), and isoflurane (Isoflu, DS Pharma Animal Health Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Measured core body temperature over time during each anesthetic protocol. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg; atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction, 5%, maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were no significant differences between the groups.

    Journal: Experimental Animals

    Article Title: Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice

    doi: 10.1538/expanim.14-0050

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measured core body temperature over time during each anesthetic protocol. : Ketamine and xylazine combined anesthesia (K/X, 80/8 mg/kg). : Medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined anesthesia with atipamezole (M/M/B, 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg; atipamezole, 0.3 mg/kg). : Pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg). : Isoflurane (induction, 5%, maintenance, 2%). Data are represented as means ± SD of 8 mice. There were no significant differences between the groups.

    Article Snippet: Anesthesia The anesthetic, sedative, and analgesic agents used in the present study were as follows: ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar, Sankyo Lifetech Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), xylazine (Celactar, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl, Kyoritsu Seiyaku Co., Ltd.), medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitol, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), midazolam (Dormicum, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan), butorphanol (Vetorphale, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd.), and isoflurane (Isoflu, DS Pharma Animal Health Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Degree of photoreceptor preservation in retinas of rats injected with xylazine or clonidine and exposed to constant light. Preservation of photoreceptors was determined by weighing the overall thickness of the ONL and the integrity and organization of the inner and outer segments in a retina. The degree of the photoreceptor preservation for uninjected animals ( Uninj ) after 7 d of constant light exposure was estimated at 1.83 ± 0.60 (mean ± SD, n = 23) on a five point scale; the degree for animals receiving 10 d injections of xylazine ( 10-d xyl ) was 3.54 ± 0.63 ( n = 23), 3.08 ± 0.39 ( n = 18) for 4 d injection of xylazine ( 4-d xyl ), and 2.97 ± 0.55 ( n = 15) for 10 d injections of clonidine ( 10-d cln ). *** p

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: α2-Adrenergic Agonists Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Expression in Photoreceptors In Vivo and Ameliorate Light Damage

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-19-05986.1996

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Degree of photoreceptor preservation in retinas of rats injected with xylazine or clonidine and exposed to constant light. Preservation of photoreceptors was determined by weighing the overall thickness of the ONL and the integrity and organization of the inner and outer segments in a retina. The degree of the photoreceptor preservation for uninjected animals ( Uninj ) after 7 d of constant light exposure was estimated at 1.83 ± 0.60 (mean ± SD, n = 23) on a five point scale; the degree for animals receiving 10 d injections of xylazine ( 10-d xyl ) was 3.54 ± 0.63 ( n = 23), 3.08 ± 0.39 ( n = 18) for 4 d injection of xylazine ( 4-d xyl ), and 2.97 ± 0.55 ( n = 15) for 10 d injections of clonidine ( 10-d cln ). *** p

    Article Snippet: Ketamine (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA), xylazine (either from Lloyd Laboratories, Shenandoah, IA, or Sigma, St. Louis, MO), or PBS was injected intramuscularly into the right hind leg.

    Techniques: Preserving, Injection

    Protection of photoreceptors by xylazine treatment. A , Normal retina of rat reared in cyclic light. The photoreceptor outer segments ( OS ) are apposed to the retinal pigment epithelium ( RPE ), distinct photoreceptor inner segments ( IS ) are seen, and the outer nuclear layer ( ONL ) consists of 10–11 rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei. B , Retina of rat exposed to 7 d of constant light without injection ( superior region). The ONL is reduced to 3–4 rows of nuclei, the inner segments are missing or are reduced to very short stumps, and the few remaining outer segments are in the form of large rounded or oblong profiles. C , Retina of rat that received 7 d of constant light exposure and a 10 d injection of xylazine ( superior region). The ONL shows 6–8 rows of nuclei; inner segments are present, albeit shorter than normal; the outer segments are better preserved but disorganized, many showing the rounded and oblong profiles. OPL , Outer plexiform layer; INL , inner nuclear layer. Toluidine blue stain was used. Scale bar, 20 μm.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: α2-Adrenergic Agonists Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Expression in Photoreceptors In Vivo and Ameliorate Light Damage

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-19-05986.1996

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protection of photoreceptors by xylazine treatment. A , Normal retina of rat reared in cyclic light. The photoreceptor outer segments ( OS ) are apposed to the retinal pigment epithelium ( RPE ), distinct photoreceptor inner segments ( IS ) are seen, and the outer nuclear layer ( ONL ) consists of 10–11 rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei. B , Retina of rat exposed to 7 d of constant light without injection ( superior region). The ONL is reduced to 3–4 rows of nuclei, the inner segments are missing or are reduced to very short stumps, and the few remaining outer segments are in the form of large rounded or oblong profiles. C , Retina of rat that received 7 d of constant light exposure and a 10 d injection of xylazine ( superior region). The ONL shows 6–8 rows of nuclei; inner segments are present, albeit shorter than normal; the outer segments are better preserved but disorganized, many showing the rounded and oblong profiles. OPL , Outer plexiform layer; INL , inner nuclear layer. Toluidine blue stain was used. Scale bar, 20 μm.

    Article Snippet: Ketamine (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA), xylazine (either from Lloyd Laboratories, Shenandoah, IA, or Sigma, St. Louis, MO), or PBS was injected intramuscularly into the right hind leg.

    Techniques: Injection, Staining

    Induction of bFGF mRNA expression in the retina by xylazine. Total RNA (20 μg/lane) was electrophoresed on a 1% formaldehyde denaturing gel. Northern blot hybridization was performed with 32 P-labeled probes complementary to mRNA encoding bFGF. A major bFGF transcript of 7.0 kb was detected in all blots. Then each blot was stripped and rehybridized with probes for 18s rRNA, which served as a control for RNA loading. Migration of 28s and 18s rRNA was indicated for each blot. A , Xylazine-induced bFGF expression. Animals were injected with either the ketamine–xylazine mixture ( Ket+Xyl ; ketamine, 40 mg/kg; xylazine, 6 mg/kg, i.m.), ketamine alone ( Ket ; 40 mg/kg, i.m.), xylazine alone ( Xyl ; 6 mg/kg, i.m.), or PBS (0.5 ml, i.m.). Control animals were uninjected. Retinas were collected 12 hr after injection. There was a 4.5-fold increase in bFGF signal in retinas from ketamine–xylazine-injected animals and also a 4.5-fold increase in retinas from xylazine-treated animals. No significant change occurred in bFGF mRNA in either ketamine- or PBS-treated retinas. B , Time course of xylazine-induced bFGF expression. Animals were injected with xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.), and retinas were collected 12, 24 , and 48 hr after the injection. Expression of bFGF mRNA increased 5.7-fold at 12 hr after xylazine injection, declined to twofold, and returned to the control level by 48 hr. C , Inhibition of xylazine effect by yohimbine. Animals were injected with PBS (0.5 ml, i.m.), xylazine ( Xyl ; 6 mg/kg, i.m.), or yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p., 20 min before xylazine) plus xylazine ( Yoh+Xyl ) or yohimbine alone ( Yoh ; 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Retinas were collected 12 hr after injection. There was a significant increase in bFGF expression in xylazine-treated animals. Pretreatment with yohimbine completely blocked the effect of xylazine. No significant change in bFGF expression occurred in either PBS or yohimbine-treated animals.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: α2-Adrenergic Agonists Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Expression in Photoreceptors In Vivo and Ameliorate Light Damage

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-19-05986.1996

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of bFGF mRNA expression in the retina by xylazine. Total RNA (20 μg/lane) was electrophoresed on a 1% formaldehyde denaturing gel. Northern blot hybridization was performed with 32 P-labeled probes complementary to mRNA encoding bFGF. A major bFGF transcript of 7.0 kb was detected in all blots. Then each blot was stripped and rehybridized with probes for 18s rRNA, which served as a control for RNA loading. Migration of 28s and 18s rRNA was indicated for each blot. A , Xylazine-induced bFGF expression. Animals were injected with either the ketamine–xylazine mixture ( Ket+Xyl ; ketamine, 40 mg/kg; xylazine, 6 mg/kg, i.m.), ketamine alone ( Ket ; 40 mg/kg, i.m.), xylazine alone ( Xyl ; 6 mg/kg, i.m.), or PBS (0.5 ml, i.m.). Control animals were uninjected. Retinas were collected 12 hr after injection. There was a 4.5-fold increase in bFGF signal in retinas from ketamine–xylazine-injected animals and also a 4.5-fold increase in retinas from xylazine-treated animals. No significant change occurred in bFGF mRNA in either ketamine- or PBS-treated retinas. B , Time course of xylazine-induced bFGF expression. Animals were injected with xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.), and retinas were collected 12, 24 , and 48 hr after the injection. Expression of bFGF mRNA increased 5.7-fold at 12 hr after xylazine injection, declined to twofold, and returned to the control level by 48 hr. C , Inhibition of xylazine effect by yohimbine. Animals were injected with PBS (0.5 ml, i.m.), xylazine ( Xyl ; 6 mg/kg, i.m.), or yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p., 20 min before xylazine) plus xylazine ( Yoh+Xyl ) or yohimbine alone ( Yoh ; 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Retinas were collected 12 hr after injection. There was a significant increase in bFGF expression in xylazine-treated animals. Pretreatment with yohimbine completely blocked the effect of xylazine. No significant change in bFGF expression occurred in either PBS or yohimbine-treated animals.

    Article Snippet: Ketamine (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA), xylazine (either from Lloyd Laboratories, Shenandoah, IA, or Sigma, St. Louis, MO), or PBS was injected intramuscularly into the right hind leg.

    Techniques: Expressing, Northern Blot, Hybridization, Labeling, Migration, Injection, Inhibition

    Localization of xylazine-induced bFGF expression. In situ hybridization was performed with a bFGF antisense RNA probe. Photomicrographs of Nomarski are shown in A , C , and E , and dark-field images of the same sections are shown in B , D , and F , respectively. A , B , A section of the superior retina from a normal control eye. C , D , A section of the superior retina from an animal 12 hr after injection of xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.). In the normal retina ( A , B ), there was a low level of bFGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium ( pe ), the inner segments of photoreceptors ( is ), the inner nuclear layer ( in ), and the ganglion cell layer ( gc ). After xylazine injection, the induced bFGF expression was found almost exclusively in the inner segments, with no significant change in bFGF mRNA in other regions of the retina. E , F , A section of superior retina from an animal 12 hr after injection of xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.). This section of retina had been hybridized with sense probe to serve as a nonspecific hybridization control. on , Outer nuclear layer. Scale bar, 100 μm.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: α2-Adrenergic Agonists Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Expression in Photoreceptors In Vivo and Ameliorate Light Damage

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-19-05986.1996

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Localization of xylazine-induced bFGF expression. In situ hybridization was performed with a bFGF antisense RNA probe. Photomicrographs of Nomarski are shown in A , C , and E , and dark-field images of the same sections are shown in B , D , and F , respectively. A , B , A section of the superior retina from a normal control eye. C , D , A section of the superior retina from an animal 12 hr after injection of xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.). In the normal retina ( A , B ), there was a low level of bFGF expression in the retinal pigment epithelium ( pe ), the inner segments of photoreceptors ( is ), the inner nuclear layer ( in ), and the ganglion cell layer ( gc ). After xylazine injection, the induced bFGF expression was found almost exclusively in the inner segments, with no significant change in bFGF mRNA in other regions of the retina. E , F , A section of superior retina from an animal 12 hr after injection of xylazine (6 mg/kg, i.m.). This section of retina had been hybridized with sense probe to serve as a nonspecific hybridization control. on , Outer nuclear layer. Scale bar, 100 μm.

    Article Snippet: Ketamine (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA), xylazine (either from Lloyd Laboratories, Shenandoah, IA, or Sigma, St. Louis, MO), or PBS was injected intramuscularly into the right hind leg.

    Techniques: Expressing, In Situ Hybridization, Injection, Hybridization