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  • 86
    Thermo Fisher rantes
    Cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in the lung. Gene expression in the lung was examined 48 h after the last intratracheal administration by RT-PCR analysis. (A) Il4. (B) Il5. (C) Il13. (D) Il33. (E) eotaxin. (F) Mcp1, (G) <t>Mip1a.</t> (H) <t>Rantes.</t> The relative intensity was normalized to Hprt1. Data were expressed as mean ± SE for 3–7 animals per group. ** P
    Rantes, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 346 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore rantes
    CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity and cytok ine secretion in buccal and gingival tissues. Activity levels of CYP1A1/1B1 were measured at 24 h post-exposure to CS (17.9 and 40.7%) in the buccal (A) and gingival (B) tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Positive control tests are shown (right side of each panel) using TCDD as an inducer of CYP1A1/1B1 activity. Inflammatory mediators (C) and the corresponding gene expression (D) were measured at 24 h post-exposure of CS compared with the air-exposed tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Columns are representing different tissues as indicated in the label under the heatmap. Fold changes were obtained by taking the log2 ratio of the cytokine abundance (C) or of the gene expression (D) between the CS group and air-exposed exposure group for every tissue. Welch’s t -test was performed to test the null hypothesis that cytokine abundance (C) or log2-based gene expression (D) in the CS (19.7 and 40.7%) groups and air-exposed group was equivalent. Fold change was set to be zero for the p > 0.05. Blue and red colors indicate negative or positive fold-changes in the CS-exposed tissues as compared to the air-exposed tissues, respectively. Abbreviations: CCL, CC chemokine ligand; CS, cigarette smoke; CYP, cytochrome; G-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon gamma inducible protein 10; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; SEM, standard error of the mean; <t>RANTES,</t> regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; RLU, raw luminescence unit; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin; <t>VEGF,</t> vascular endothelial growth factor; PE, post-exposure.
    Rantes, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 171 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    R&D Systems ccl5 rantes
    ECTV infection alters cytokine and chemokine production by GM-BM. Culture supernatants from mock-, uvi-ECTV- or ECTV-infected GM-BM untreated or treated with LPS for 12 and 24 h were analyzed for the presence of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-12p40 (C), IL-12p70 (D), IL-10 (E), CCL2/MCP-1 (F), CCL3/MIP-1α (G) and <t>CCL5/RANTES</t> (H). Data are shown as mean ± SD from at least three independent experiments (paired Student’s t -test; * P
    Ccl5 Rantes, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 368 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Biacore 5p12 rantes
    <t>5P12-RANTES</t> released at each time point from polymers containing different GAGs. Heparin/BSA (○) disks showed the highest level of sustained release. CSB/BSA ( ) disks also showed substantial and sustained levels of release. CSA/BSA (♦) disks resulted in release profiles with the lowest sustained release, similar to the release in BSA-only control disks (not shown). Error bars represent standard deviation of means.
    5p12 Rantes, supplied by Biacore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 60 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Promega rantes promoter
    <t>NLK</t> interaction with KLF13 and phosphorylation of histone proteins at the <t>RANTES</t> promoter. (A) Western blot analysis of NLK. HeLa cells were used as a positive control. Actinin was used as a protein loading control with the graph showing the ratio of
    Rantes Promoter, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 89 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    R&D Systems met rantes
    Effect of <t>Met‐RANTES</t> on total leucocyte numbers and accumulation of selected leucocyte subsets in the peritoneal cavity during herpes simplex virus type 2 <t>(HSV‐2)</t> infection. (A–L) Representative example of flow cytometric data on peritoneal cells (PCs) harvested day 1 after infection and stained with isotype control (A–C), anti‐CD3 (D–F), anti‐NK‐1.1 (G–I) or anti‐Ly‐6G (J–L). (M) Total number of PCs after intraperitoneal HSV‐2 infection. (N–P) Accumulative flow cytometric data on PCs harvested at the indicated time points after infection. (N) Anti‐NK‐1.1. (O) Anti‐Ly‐6G. (P) Anti‐CD3. Results are shown as mean ± SEM. * P
    Met Rantes, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 112 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Serono met rantes
    <t>Met-RANTES</t> treatment at different doses modulate pro- and anti- inflammatory <t>cytokine</t> levels in experimental periodontal disease. C57Bl/6 mice were infected orally with AA , treated with met-RANTES at 0.5 and 5 mg doses or (V) veicule, (-) non treated and (C) control non-infected mice, sacrificed at day 30 post-infection and evaluated for levels of A) IL-1β; B) TNF-α; C) IL-6 and D) IL-10 cytokines. Different italic low case letters represent statistically significant differences among the doses in the same experimental group (P
    Met Rantes, supplied by Serono, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 50 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Bachem met rantes
    Antagonizing <t>RANTES</t> within CNS extends the survival of mice after TBEV infection. Mice were treated with Met-RANTES, vehicle, anti-RANTES <t>mAb,</t> or isotype-matched control Ab daily from day 2 to 8 after a primary TBEV infection. a Met-RANTES-treated mice exhibited a delay in mortality following lethal TBEV challenge. Mortality in each group was monitored daily for 14 days. Data were pooled from three independent experiments (total of approximately 18 mice per group). Statistical differences were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier test for mortality. * P
    Met Rantes, supplied by Bachem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Mimetics rantes induced migration
    Antagonizing <t>RANTES</t> within CNS extends the survival of mice after TBEV infection. Mice were treated with Met-RANTES, vehicle, anti-RANTES <t>mAb,</t> or isotype-matched control Ab daily from day 2 to 8 after a primary TBEV infection. a Met-RANTES-treated mice exhibited a delay in mortality following lethal TBEV challenge. Mortality in each group was monitored daily for 14 days. Data were pooled from three independent experiments (total of approximately 18 mice per group). Statistical differences were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier test for mortality. * P
    Rantes Induced Migration, supplied by Mimetics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Abcam anti rantes antibody
    Fluorescent microscopy of thyroid gland tissue. Dyes: DAPI—nucleus; <t>Alexa488—HHV-6</t> gp82/105 (closed tip arrows (bold)); <t>Alexa647—RANTES</t> (opened tip arrows (sharp)); TD—transmitted light. Channels Alexa488 and Alexa647 are shown in greyscale for better contrast. Row A—part of a thyroid lobule of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row B—limitrophe zone of two separate thyroid follicles of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row C—control patient’s (with adenoma) thyroid lobule; Row D—staining control (secondary antibodies and DAPI only).
    Anti Rantes Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    R&D Systems recombinant human ccl5
    CD8, <t>CCL5,</t> PCNA expression in clinical samples with Finasteride treatment. ( A ) IHC staining for CD8, CCL5, PCNA in serial paraffin sections of tissue specimens from 31 BPH patients treated with Finasteride at least six months; scale bar: 200 μ m, 100 μ m and 50 μ m. Compared to the area of less CD8+ T cells infiltration (left panel), the CCL5 and PCNA expression showed higher in the BPH epithelial cells where surrounded by more CD8+ T cells infiltration (right panel). ( B ) Spearman rank correlation showed there was a positive correlation between the degree of CD8+ T cells infiltration and the expression of PCNA (r = 0.678, P
    Recombinant Human Ccl5, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 63 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Bio-Rad rantes ccl5
    Decreased expression of M2 macrophage-associated mediators in ST2-deficient mice. Expression in lung of the chemokine CCL17/TARC in lungs was measured by ELISA (A) . Data are representative of three independent experiments. In addition expression in lung of the chemokine <t>CCL5/RANTES</t> (B) and of the cytokines IL-4 in lung (C) and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (D) and IL-5 (E) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) in BALF (F) and lung (G) , IL-10 (H) , IL-13 (I) , and IFN-γ (J) in lungs were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Rad). Experiments are expressed as mean values ± SEM ( n = 4–6 mice per group, * p
    Rantes Ccl5, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology rantes
    Upregulation of early growth response factor 1 <t>(Egr-1),</t> <t>RANTES,</t> monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in ischaemia reperfusion (IR) gut. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to analyse the relative expression of Egr-1 in the IR (IR) and sham operation (sham) gut of the 30/60 minute (30′/60′) IR and 45/60 minute (45′/60′) IR groups (A). Weak expression of Egr-1 mRNA was detected in control jejunum (control) and sham operation jejunum. A marked increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 30/60 minute IR jejunum and a moderate increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum were detected. Relative expression of Egr-1 to β - actin was determined in each group and is shown next to the gel picture of RT-PCR. *Significant difference between the IR and sham jejunum. Protein levels of Egr-1, RANTES, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 in the jejunum of different IR groups were analysed by western blotting (B). Actin was used as a loading control for each lane. Elevated levels of Egr-1, RANTES, and MCP-1 were detected in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum. Immunoreactivity of ICAM-1 was detected in villi (C), but only expressed in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum in endothelial cells (arrows) of blood capillaries.
    Rantes, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology ccl5 rantes
    Localization of <t>CCL5/RANTES</t> in NPC/GPCs in vitro and in vivo. Cultured cells were immunostained (A-C) at 5 days in vitro. In vivo staining (D-E) was done in adult striatum. A and B: NPC/GPCs were immunostained with an antibody to Olig2 (A) to identify oligodendroglial precursors, and an antibody to CCL-5/RANTES (B) to determine which cells are producing this chemokine. Of the five Olig2 + cells in this field, two show CCL-5/RANTES expression in their cytoplasm (arrows indicate double-labeled cells). Three other cells that are Olig2 + (asterisks) do not express detectable levels of CCL5/RANTES. For (C-E), Z stacked images (AxioVision software, version 4, Carl Zeiss, Inc.) were taken through the entire depth of the cell layer (C) or section (D-E), then optimized for deconvolution microscopy (AutoQuant X Version 2, Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) in order to better demonstrate sub-cellular details of Sox2 and CCL5/RANTES co-localization. C. Cells in the same NPC/GPC cultured stained for Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red). The Sox2 + cells are a mixture of CCL5 + (asterisks) and CCL5 − (arrows). Note also that many CCL5 + cells are Sox2 − (arrowheads). Hoechst staining (blue) identifies the nuclei of all cells in the field. D-E: Co-localization of Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red) in the adult mouse striatum in situ. Hoechst staining (blue) identifies nuclei of all cells in the field. Since CCL5 is a secreted, soluble chemokine, it is difficult to associate specific cell boundaries with CCL5 immunostaining. However, it can be appreciated from panel D that Sox2 + cells (asterisks) in the striatum are frequently associated with significant CCL5 immunostaining. The region shown in E has a high density of Sox2- cells, as indicated by the Hoechst staining, and little CCL5 signal.
    Ccl5 Rantes, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    R&D Systems human ccl5 rantes antibody
    Localization of <t>CCL5/RANTES</t> in NPC/GPCs in vitro and in vivo. Cultured cells were immunostained (A-C) at 5 days in vitro. In vivo staining (D-E) was done in adult striatum. A and B: NPC/GPCs were immunostained with an antibody to Olig2 (A) to identify oligodendroglial precursors, and an antibody to CCL-5/RANTES (B) to determine which cells are producing this chemokine. Of the five Olig2 + cells in this field, two show CCL-5/RANTES expression in their cytoplasm (arrows indicate double-labeled cells). Three other cells that are Olig2 + (asterisks) do not express detectable levels of CCL5/RANTES. For (C-E), Z stacked images (AxioVision software, version 4, Carl Zeiss, Inc.) were taken through the entire depth of the cell layer (C) or section (D-E), then optimized for deconvolution microscopy (AutoQuant X Version 2, Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) in order to better demonstrate sub-cellular details of Sox2 and CCL5/RANTES co-localization. C. Cells in the same NPC/GPC cultured stained for Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red). The Sox2 + cells are a mixture of CCL5 + (asterisks) and CCL5 − (arrows). Note also that many CCL5 + cells are Sox2 − (arrowheads). Hoechst staining (blue) identifies the nuclei of all cells in the field. D-E: Co-localization of Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red) in the adult mouse striatum in situ. Hoechst staining (blue) identifies nuclei of all cells in the field. Since CCL5 is a secreted, soluble chemokine, it is difficult to associate specific cell boundaries with CCL5 immunostaining. However, it can be appreciated from panel D that Sox2 + cells (asterisks) in the striatum are frequently associated with significant CCL5 immunostaining. The region shown in E has a high density of Sox2- cells, as indicated by the Hoechst staining, and little CCL5 signal.
    Human Ccl5 Rantes Antibody, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 34 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Mimetics rantes peptide mimetics
    Localization of <t>CCL5/RANTES</t> in NPC/GPCs in vitro and in vivo. Cultured cells were immunostained (A-C) at 5 days in vitro. In vivo staining (D-E) was done in adult striatum. A and B: NPC/GPCs were immunostained with an antibody to Olig2 (A) to identify oligodendroglial precursors, and an antibody to CCL-5/RANTES (B) to determine which cells are producing this chemokine. Of the five Olig2 + cells in this field, two show CCL-5/RANTES expression in their cytoplasm (arrows indicate double-labeled cells). Three other cells that are Olig2 + (asterisks) do not express detectable levels of CCL5/RANTES. For (C-E), Z stacked images (AxioVision software, version 4, Carl Zeiss, Inc.) were taken through the entire depth of the cell layer (C) or section (D-E), then optimized for deconvolution microscopy (AutoQuant X Version 2, Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) in order to better demonstrate sub-cellular details of Sox2 and CCL5/RANTES co-localization. C. Cells in the same NPC/GPC cultured stained for Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red). The Sox2 + cells are a mixture of CCL5 + (asterisks) and CCL5 − (arrows). Note also that many CCL5 + cells are Sox2 − (arrowheads). Hoechst staining (blue) identifies the nuclei of all cells in the field. D-E: Co-localization of Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red) in the adult mouse striatum in situ. Hoechst staining (blue) identifies nuclei of all cells in the field. Since CCL5 is a secreted, soluble chemokine, it is difficult to associate specific cell boundaries with CCL5 immunostaining. However, it can be appreciated from panel D that Sox2 + cells (asterisks) in the striatum are frequently associated with significant CCL5 immunostaining. The region shown in E has a high density of Sox2- cells, as indicated by the Hoechst staining, and little CCL5 signal.
    Rantes Peptide Mimetics, supplied by Mimetics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    Thermo Fisher rantes mouse instant elisa kit
    Pulmonary inflammation is alleviative following H7N9 virus infection in RIP3−/− mice A . H E sections through bronchioles showing edema, infiltration with inflammatory cells, and alveolar collapses. Images shown are representative of 6 mice per genotype per time point collected from three independent experiments. Scale bar indicates 100μm. B . IL-1β, IL-6, <t>RANTES</t> and MIP-1 secreted in BALF were detected by using <t>ELISA.</t> C . IFN-α and IFN-γ expression of lung tissues were measured by qPCR. Data collected from three independent experiments was shown as mean±SEM. (* p
    Rantes Mouse Instant Elisa Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson rantes
    Colonic tissue from TLR2 −/− mice recruit inflammatory cells that have reduced NO production and fail to mount an adequate defense against tumor growth in early CAC. (A) Chemokines concentrations quantified by ELISA in colon homogenates in WT and TLR2 −/− mice at day 14 of AOM-DSS treatment were measured by ELISA. KC (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), <t>MIP-2</t> (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), MCP-1 (n = 6 WT, n = 4 TLR2−/−), <t>RANTES</t> (n = 4 WT, n = 10 TLR2−/−). (B) Immunofluorescent staining for nitrotyrosine in proximal (top panels) and distal (bottom panels) colon section of WT (left panels) and TLR2 −/− (right panels) mice treated for 14 days with the AOM-DSS regimen. Original magnification 100x. (C) Quantification of nitrotyrosine positive cells normalized by area (mm 2 ) from greater than five focus fields in at least four slides per animal (n = 5 WT and n = 5 TLR2 −/− ).
    Rantes, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 170 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc rantes
    CCN3 induce the remodeling of HSC with elevation of cytokines relating to HCC malignancy. The significantly changed cytokines expression profiles were found in CCN3 treated LX2 by cytokines array ( a ). <t>RANTES,</t> TGFβ and TIMP-2 were selected for immunoblotting, and <t>NFκB</t> was proved as one of the control signaling pathway ( b ). The reduced migration and inhibited proliferation of LX2 were proved in the CM from NFκB inhibitor EVP4593 treated MHCC97H ( c )
    Rantes, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    RayBiotech rantes
    SBL subdues macrophage susceptibility to HIV by enhancing C-C chemokine expression. (A) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h. The CCR5 expression was measured by flow cytometry. (B and C) Macrophages were treated with the indicated concentrations of SBL for 6 h (B) or 24 h (C), and the expression of the C-C chemokines <t>MIP-1β</t> and <t>RANTES</t> at the mRNA (B) and protein (C) levels was measured. (D) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h, and the culture supernatants without SBL (Ctrl/SN) or with SBL (SBL/SN) were collected for treatment of autologous macrophages. In addition, SBL/SN was incubated with 20 μg/ml control IgG (Ctrl/IgG) or a mixture of neutralization antibodies to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES for 1 h and then added to the macrophages for an additional 1 h prior to infection with DNase I-treated HIV (Bal). HIV strong-stop DNA was quantified at 3 h postinfection. The number of copies was normalized to the control (100%). The data are expressed as the means and SD of the results of three independent experiments (*, P
    Rantes, supplied by RayBiotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 61 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in the lung. Gene expression in the lung was examined 48 h after the last intratracheal administration by RT-PCR analysis. (A) Il4. (B) Il5. (C) Il13. (D) Il33. (E) eotaxin. (F) Mcp1, (G) Mip1a. (H) Rantes. The relative intensity was normalized to Hprt1. Data were expressed as mean ± SE for 3–7 animals per group. ** P

    Journal: Toxicology Reports

    Article Title: Oral exposure to low dose bisphenol A aggravates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.11.012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in the lung. Gene expression in the lung was examined 48 h after the last intratracheal administration by RT-PCR analysis. (A) Il4. (B) Il5. (C) Il13. (D) Il33. (E) eotaxin. (F) Mcp1, (G) Mip1a. (H) Rantes. The relative intensity was normalized to Hprt1. Data were expressed as mean ± SE for 3–7 animals per group. ** P

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA using a High-Capacity RNA-to-cDNA™ Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). mRNA expressions of interleukin-4 (Il4 ), Il5, Il13, Il33, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp1 ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (Mip1a ), eotaxin, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (Rantes ), estrogen receptor alpha (Era ), estrogen receptor beta (Erb ), androgen receptor (Ar ), and Muc5ac were quantified using the StepOne Plus™ Real-time PCR System (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity and cytok ine secretion in buccal and gingival tissues. Activity levels of CYP1A1/1B1 were measured at 24 h post-exposure to CS (17.9 and 40.7%) in the buccal (A) and gingival (B) tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Positive control tests are shown (right side of each panel) using TCDD as an inducer of CYP1A1/1B1 activity. Inflammatory mediators (C) and the corresponding gene expression (D) were measured at 24 h post-exposure of CS compared with the air-exposed tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Columns are representing different tissues as indicated in the label under the heatmap. Fold changes were obtained by taking the log2 ratio of the cytokine abundance (C) or of the gene expression (D) between the CS group and air-exposed exposure group for every tissue. Welch’s t -test was performed to test the null hypothesis that cytokine abundance (C) or log2-based gene expression (D) in the CS (19.7 and 40.7%) groups and air-exposed group was equivalent. Fold change was set to be zero for the p > 0.05. Blue and red colors indicate negative or positive fold-changes in the CS-exposed tissues as compared to the air-exposed tissues, respectively. Abbreviations: CCL, CC chemokine ligand; CS, cigarette smoke; CYP, cytochrome; G-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon gamma inducible protein 10; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; SEM, standard error of the mean; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; RLU, raw luminescence unit; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PE, post-exposure.

    Journal: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

    Article Title: In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures

    doi: 10.3109/15376516.2014.943441

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CYP1A1/1B1 enzyme activity and cytok ine secretion in buccal and gingival tissues. Activity levels of CYP1A1/1B1 were measured at 24 h post-exposure to CS (17.9 and 40.7%) in the buccal (A) and gingival (B) tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Positive control tests are shown (right side of each panel) using TCDD as an inducer of CYP1A1/1B1 activity. Inflammatory mediators (C) and the corresponding gene expression (D) were measured at 24 h post-exposure of CS compared with the air-exposed tissues ( N = 3 inserts following a single exposure run). Columns are representing different tissues as indicated in the label under the heatmap. Fold changes were obtained by taking the log2 ratio of the cytokine abundance (C) or of the gene expression (D) between the CS group and air-exposed exposure group for every tissue. Welch’s t -test was performed to test the null hypothesis that cytokine abundance (C) or log2-based gene expression (D) in the CS (19.7 and 40.7%) groups and air-exposed group was equivalent. Fold change was set to be zero for the p > 0.05. Blue and red colors indicate negative or positive fold-changes in the CS-exposed tissues as compared to the air-exposed tissues, respectively. Abbreviations: CCL, CC chemokine ligand; CS, cigarette smoke; CYP, cytochrome; G-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon gamma inducible protein 10; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; SEM, standard error of the mean; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; RLU, raw luminescence unit; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PE, post-exposure.

    Article Snippet: Secretion of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), eotaxin, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (Milliplex MAP Human cytokine/chemokine magnetic bead panel, HCYTOMAG-60K, Millipore) and MMP-1 and MMP-9 (Milliplex MAP Human MMP magnetic bead panel 2, HMMP2MAG-55K, Millipore) were measured by Luminex-based technology following the technical recommendations of Milliplex (Millipore).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Positive Control, Expressing, Activation Assay

    ECTV infection alters cytokine and chemokine production by GM-BM. Culture supernatants from mock-, uvi-ECTV- or ECTV-infected GM-BM untreated or treated with LPS for 12 and 24 h were analyzed for the presence of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-12p40 (C), IL-12p70 (D), IL-10 (E), CCL2/MCP-1 (F), CCL3/MIP-1α (G) and CCL5/RANTES (H). Data are shown as mean ± SD from at least three independent experiments (paired Student’s t -test; * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Functional paralysis of GM-CSF–derived bone marrow cells productively infected with ectromelia virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179166

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ECTV infection alters cytokine and chemokine production by GM-BM. Culture supernatants from mock-, uvi-ECTV- or ECTV-infected GM-BM untreated or treated with LPS for 12 and 24 h were analyzed for the presence of TNF-α (A), IL-6 (B), IL-12p40 (C), IL-12p70 (D), IL-10 (E), CCL2/MCP-1 (F), CCL3/MIP-1α (G) and CCL5/RANTES (H). Data are shown as mean ± SD from at least three independent experiments (paired Student’s t -test; * P

    Article Snippet: Chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES were detected using Quantikine ELISA Kits (R & D Systems).

    Techniques: Infection

    Modulation of US28-induced inositol phosphate (PI) turnover and CREB activity by various CC chemokines and CX 3 CL. (A) Effects of a 100 nM concentration of the chemokine domain of fractalkine/CX 3 CL1 (black bar) and RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7, and vMIP-II/vCCL2 (grey bars) on the basal inositol phosphate turnover in COS-7 cells transfected with US28. The asterisk indicates a statistically significant difference ( P

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Murine Cytomegalovirus (CMV) M33 and Human CMV US28 Receptors Exhibit Similar Constitutive Signaling Activities

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.76.16.8161-8168.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Modulation of US28-induced inositol phosphate (PI) turnover and CREB activity by various CC chemokines and CX 3 CL. (A) Effects of a 100 nM concentration of the chemokine domain of fractalkine/CX 3 CL1 (black bar) and RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7, and vMIP-II/vCCL2 (grey bars) on the basal inositol phosphate turnover in COS-7 cells transfected with US28. The asterisk indicates a statistically significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: CX3 CL1 (i.e., the chemokine domain corresponding to amino acids 1 through 69 of fractalkine) and RANTES/CCL5 were purchased from R & D Systems.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay, Transfection

    5P12-RANTES released at each time point from polymers containing different GAGs. Heparin/BSA (○) disks showed the highest level of sustained release. CSB/BSA ( ) disks also showed substantial and sustained levels of release. CSA/BSA (♦) disks resulted in release profiles with the lowest sustained release, similar to the release in BSA-only control disks (not shown). Error bars represent standard deviation of means.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5P12-RANTES released at each time point from polymers containing different GAGs. Heparin/BSA (○) disks showed the highest level of sustained release. CSB/BSA ( ) disks also showed substantial and sustained levels of release. CSA/BSA (♦) disks resulted in release profiles with the lowest sustained release, similar to the release in BSA-only control disks (not shown). Error bars represent standard deviation of means.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    5P12-RANTES release from polymers containing incremental heparin fractions - BSA only (no heparin) (♦), 2.5% heparin ( ), 5% heparin ( ), 15% heparin (×) and 25% heparin ( ). All the release curves are characterized by an initial burst phase, and then followed by a sustained release. In the burst phase, an increase in heparin content appears to decrease the burst effect, whereas in the sustained release, increases in heparin content corresponded with increases in release at each time point. Error bars represent standard deviation of means.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5P12-RANTES release from polymers containing incremental heparin fractions - BSA only (no heparin) (♦), 2.5% heparin ( ), 5% heparin ( ), 15% heparin (×) and 25% heparin ( ). All the release curves are characterized by an initial burst phase, and then followed by a sustained release. In the burst phase, an increase in heparin content appears to decrease the burst effect, whereas in the sustained release, increases in heparin content corresponded with increases in release at each time point. Error bars represent standard deviation of means.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    CCR5 blocking capacity of stock 5P12-RANTES as determined by monoclonal antibody (clone 2D7) binding. In samples where 5P12-RANTES concentrations were greater than 100ng/ml, 2D7% presentation was less than 1%, indicating good CCR5 blocking. In samples where 5P12-RANTES concentrations were below 0.8ng/ml, 2D7% presentation was at or greater than 20%, suggesting little to no CCR5 blocking (this level is similar to that of no 5P12-RANTES, the negative control). Insets show FACS histograms of 2D7 presentation on the studied PBMCs at low and high 5P12-RANTES concentrations.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CCR5 blocking capacity of stock 5P12-RANTES as determined by monoclonal antibody (clone 2D7) binding. In samples where 5P12-RANTES concentrations were greater than 100ng/ml, 2D7% presentation was less than 1%, indicating good CCR5 blocking. In samples where 5P12-RANTES concentrations were below 0.8ng/ml, 2D7% presentation was at or greater than 20%, suggesting little to no CCR5 blocking (this level is similar to that of no 5P12-RANTES, the negative control). Insets show FACS histograms of 2D7 presentation on the studied PBMCs at low and high 5P12-RANTES concentrations.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Binding Assay, Negative Control, FACS

    SPR concentration analysis of heparin/5P12-RANTES interactions. Overlayed sensorgrams showing initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of heparin at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µM for the next 1.5min, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of heparin from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SPR concentration analysis of heparin/5P12-RANTES interactions. Overlayed sensorgrams showing initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of heparin at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µM for the next 1.5min, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of heparin from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: SPR Assay, Concentration Assay, Injection

    SPR concentration analysis of CSB/5P12-RANTES interactions. Overlayed sensorgrams showing initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of heparin at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µM for the next 1.5mins, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of CSB from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SPR concentration analysis of CSB/5P12-RANTES interactions. Overlayed sensorgrams showing initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of heparin at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µM for the next 1.5mins, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of CSB from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: SPR Assay, Concentration Assay, Injection

    SPR analysis of GAGs (heparin, CSA and CSB) interactions with immobilized 5P12-RANTES. Overlayed sensorgrams show initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of GAG solution and association of GAGs with the immobilized 5P12-RANTES on the chip surface over the following 1.5min, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of GAGs from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SPR analysis of GAGs (heparin, CSA and CSB) interactions with immobilized 5P12-RANTES. Overlayed sensorgrams show initial background wash (1min), followed by injection of GAG solution and association of GAGs with the immobilized 5P12-RANTES on the chip surface over the following 1.5min, and then subsequent washing (dissociation) of GAGs from the surface for the remaining 4.5min.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: SPR Assay, Injection, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

    CCR5 blocking activity of the released aliquots from GAG/BSA polymers. Release aliquots from BSA and 25% heparin disks at 3 time points (6h, 265h and 650h) were evaluated. Protein concentration were previously determined using ELISA, and samples were diluted to concentrations both one order of magnitude above and below the CCR5 blocking threshold. Each symbol represents that release sample at all of its tested dilution concentrations. Release samples at or above the blocking threshold concentration showed good blocking, while samples diluted to below the blocking threshold concentration showed poor blocking, comparable to that of stock 5P12-RANTES.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: USING GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN/CHEMOKINE INTERACTIONS FOR THE LONG-TERM DELIVERY OF 5P12-RANTES IN HIV PREVENTION

    doi: 10.1021/mp3007242

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CCR5 blocking activity of the released aliquots from GAG/BSA polymers. Release aliquots from BSA and 25% heparin disks at 3 time points (6h, 265h and 650h) were evaluated. Protein concentration were previously determined using ELISA, and samples were diluted to concentrations both one order of magnitude above and below the CCR5 blocking threshold. Each symbol represents that release sample at all of its tested dilution concentrations. Release samples at or above the blocking threshold concentration showed good blocking, while samples diluted to below the blocking threshold concentration showed poor blocking, comparable to that of stock 5P12-RANTES.

    Article Snippet: Heparin sodium, CSA and CSB samples at various concentrations (ranging from 0.25µM to 20µM) were examined for real-time affinity interaction with 5P12-RANTES.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Activity Assay, Protein Concentration, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Concentration Assay

    NLK interaction with KLF13 and phosphorylation of histone proteins at the RANTES promoter. (A) Western blot analysis of NLK. HeLa cells were used as a positive control. Actinin was used as a protein loading control with the graph showing the ratio of

    Journal:

    Article Title: Dynamic Interplay of Transcriptional Machinery and Chromatin Regulates "Late" Expression of the Chemokine RANTES in T Lymphocytes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.01071-06

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NLK interaction with KLF13 and phosphorylation of histone proteins at the RANTES promoter. (A) Western blot analysis of NLK. HeLa cells were used as a positive control. Actinin was used as a protein loading control with the graph showing the ratio of

    Article Snippet: This suggests that NLK can be recruited to the RANTES promoter in activated T lymphocytes.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Positive Control

    Schematic model of the mechanism of late RANTES expression in T lymphocytes. In resting T lymphocytes, RANTES is not expressed. After activation of T lymphocytes, KLF13 binds to a core binding element on the RANTES promoter (day 1). At this time, NLK

    Journal:

    Article Title: Dynamic Interplay of Transcriptional Machinery and Chromatin Regulates "Late" Expression of the Chemokine RANTES in T Lymphocytes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.01071-06

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic model of the mechanism of late RANTES expression in T lymphocytes. In resting T lymphocytes, RANTES is not expressed. After activation of T lymphocytes, KLF13 binds to a core binding element on the RANTES promoter (day 1). At this time, NLK

    Article Snippet: This suggests that NLK can be recruited to the RANTES promoter in activated T lymphocytes.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activation Assay, Binding Assay

    Effect of Met‐RANTES on total leucocyte numbers and accumulation of selected leucocyte subsets in the peritoneal cavity during herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV‐2) infection. (A–L) Representative example of flow cytometric data on peritoneal cells (PCs) harvested day 1 after infection and stained with isotype control (A–C), anti‐CD3 (D–F), anti‐NK‐1.1 (G–I) or anti‐Ly‐6G (J–L). (M) Total number of PCs after intraperitoneal HSV‐2 infection. (N–P) Accumulative flow cytometric data on PCs harvested at the indicated time points after infection. (N) Anti‐NK‐1.1. (O) Anti‐Ly‐6G. (P) Anti‐CD3. Results are shown as mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

    Article Title: Blocking CC Chemokine Receptor (CCR) 1 and CCR5 During Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection In Vivo Impairs Host Defence and Perturbs the Cytokine Response

    doi: 10.1111/j.0300-9475.2004.01399.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Met‐RANTES on total leucocyte numbers and accumulation of selected leucocyte subsets in the peritoneal cavity during herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV‐2) infection. (A–L) Representative example of flow cytometric data on peritoneal cells (PCs) harvested day 1 after infection and stained with isotype control (A–C), anti‐CD3 (D–F), anti‐NK‐1.1 (G–I) or anti‐Ly‐6G (J–L). (M) Total number of PCs after intraperitoneal HSV‐2 infection. (N–P) Accumulative flow cytometric data on PCs harvested at the indicated time points after infection. (N) Anti‐NK‐1.1. (O) Anti‐Ly‐6G. (P) Anti‐CD3. Results are shown as mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: We, therefore, harvested PCs on day 1 from mice infected with HSV‐2 in the presence or absence of co‐treatment with Met‐RANTES and assayed for NK cell cytotoxic activity towards YAC‐1 cells.

    Techniques: Infection, Staining

    Met-RANTES treatment at different doses modulate pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine levels in experimental periodontal disease. C57Bl/6 mice were infected orally with AA , treated with met-RANTES at 0.5 and 5 mg doses or (V) veicule, (-) non treated and (C) control non-infected mice, sacrificed at day 30 post-infection and evaluated for levels of A) IL-1β; B) TNF-α; C) IL-6 and D) IL-10 cytokines. Different italic low case letters represent statistically significant differences among the doses in the same experimental group (P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Dose-Response Met-RANTES Treatment of Experimental Periodontitis: A Narrow Edge between the Disease Severity Attenuation and Infection Control

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Met-RANTES treatment at different doses modulate pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine levels in experimental periodontal disease. C57Bl/6 mice were infected orally with AA , treated with met-RANTES at 0.5 and 5 mg doses or (V) veicule, (-) non treated and (C) control non-infected mice, sacrificed at day 30 post-infection and evaluated for levels of A) IL-1β; B) TNF-α; C) IL-6 and D) IL-10 cytokines. Different italic low case letters represent statistically significant differences among the doses in the same experimental group (P

    Article Snippet: The distinct dose-response modulation of cytokine milieu in periodontal tissues by met-RANTES In order to determine the mechanisms underlying the differential response to 0.5 and 5 mg met-RANTES doses, we next analyzed the levels of several cytokines in periodontal tissues of mice by ELISA ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Met-RANTES treatment at different doses modulate Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokine and osteclastogenic factor RANKL levels in experimental periodontitis. C57Bl/6 mice were infected orally with AA , treated with met-RANTES at 0.5 and 5 mg doses or (V) veicule, (-) non treated and (C) control non-infected mice, sacrificed at day 30 post-infection and evaluated for levels of A) IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine; B) IL-4, a Th2 cytokine; C) IL-17A, a Th17 cytokine and D) the major osteoclastogenic factor RANKL. Different italic low case letters represent statistically significant differences among the doses in the same experimental group (P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Dose-Response Met-RANTES Treatment of Experimental Periodontitis: A Narrow Edge between the Disease Severity Attenuation and Infection Control

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022526

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Met-RANTES treatment at different doses modulate Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokine and osteclastogenic factor RANKL levels in experimental periodontitis. C57Bl/6 mice were infected orally with AA , treated with met-RANTES at 0.5 and 5 mg doses or (V) veicule, (-) non treated and (C) control non-infected mice, sacrificed at day 30 post-infection and evaluated for levels of A) IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine; B) IL-4, a Th2 cytokine; C) IL-17A, a Th17 cytokine and D) the major osteoclastogenic factor RANKL. Different italic low case letters represent statistically significant differences among the doses in the same experimental group (P

    Article Snippet: The distinct dose-response modulation of cytokine milieu in periodontal tissues by met-RANTES In order to determine the mechanisms underlying the differential response to 0.5 and 5 mg met-RANTES doses, we next analyzed the levels of several cytokines in periodontal tissues of mice by ELISA ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Antagonizing RANTES within CNS extends the survival of mice after TBEV infection. Mice were treated with Met-RANTES, vehicle, anti-RANTES mAb, or isotype-matched control Ab daily from day 2 to 8 after a primary TBEV infection. a Met-RANTES-treated mice exhibited a delay in mortality following lethal TBEV challenge. Mortality in each group was monitored daily for 14 days. Data were pooled from three independent experiments (total of approximately 18 mice per group). Statistical differences were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier test for mortality. * P

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Tick-borne encephalitis virus induces chemokine RANTES expression via activation of IRF-3 pathway

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-016-0665-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antagonizing RANTES within CNS extends the survival of mice after TBEV infection. Mice were treated with Met-RANTES, vehicle, anti-RANTES mAb, or isotype-matched control Ab daily from day 2 to 8 after a primary TBEV infection. a Met-RANTES-treated mice exhibited a delay in mortality following lethal TBEV challenge. Mortality in each group was monitored daily for 14 days. Data were pooled from three independent experiments (total of approximately 18 mice per group). Statistical differences were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier test for mortality. * P

    Article Snippet: As shown in Fig. , all infected vehicle, Met-RANTES, isotype control mAb, and anti-RANTES mAb-treated mice eventually succumbed to TBEV infection.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    Fluorescent microscopy of thyroid gland tissue. Dyes: DAPI—nucleus; Alexa488—HHV-6 gp82/105 (closed tip arrows (bold)); Alexa647—RANTES (opened tip arrows (sharp)); TD—transmitted light. Channels Alexa488 and Alexa647 are shown in greyscale for better contrast. Row A—part of a thyroid lobule of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row B—limitrophe zone of two separate thyroid follicles of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row C—control patient’s (with adenoma) thyroid lobule; Row D—staining control (secondary antibodies and DAPI only).

    Journal: Viruses

    Article Title: HHV-6 Infection and Chemokine RANTES Signaling Pathway Disturbance in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    doi: 10.3390/v12060689

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescent microscopy of thyroid gland tissue. Dyes: DAPI—nucleus; Alexa488—HHV-6 gp82/105 (closed tip arrows (bold)); Alexa647—RANTES (opened tip arrows (sharp)); TD—transmitted light. Channels Alexa488 and Alexa647 are shown in greyscale for better contrast. Row A—part of a thyroid lobule of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row B—limitrophe zone of two separate thyroid follicles of a patient with Grave’s disease; Row C—control patient’s (with adenoma) thyroid lobule; Row D—staining control (secondary antibodies and DAPI only).

    Article Snippet: For immunostaining, mouse monoclonal antibody against HHV-6 gp82/105 antigen (dilution 1:100, sc-65448, Santa Cruz, Dallas, TX, USA) and goat polyclonal anti-RANTES (CCL5) antibodies (dilution 1:100, ab10590, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) were used as primary antibodies.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Staining

    TWEAK enhances the production of proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation. PAM212 keratinocytes were cultured in vitro and received UVB irradiation or stimulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or TWEAK. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression levels of Fn14 (A) , regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (B) , monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (C) , and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (D) in keratinocytes. Data were from three independent experiments. Data points and error bars represent mean ± SEM. * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: TWEAK/Fn14 Activation Participates in Ro52-Mediated Photosensitization in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00651

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TWEAK enhances the production of proinflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation. PAM212 keratinocytes were cultured in vitro and received UVB irradiation or stimulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or TWEAK. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression levels of Fn14 (A) , regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (B) , monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (C) , and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (D) in keratinocytes. Data were from three independent experiments. Data points and error bars represent mean ± SEM. * p

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-Fn14 (clone #EPR3179) or RANTES (catalog #ab9679) IgG (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) and rabbit anti-TWEAK (catalog #sc-5558) or Ro52 (catalog #sc-20960) IgG (Santa Cruz, Dallas, TX, USA) were used as primary antibodies (4 µg/ml, overnight at 4°C).

    Techniques: Irradiation, Cell Culture, In Vitro, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Activation Assay

    TWEAK and Fn14 expression increases in skin lesions of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (A) By immunohistochemistry, the expression of TWEAK and Fn14 was determined in paraffin sections. (B) The stained sections were quantitated for the positivity percentage per square millimeter values. (C) The mRNA expression levels of TWEAK and Fn14 were determined in fresh tissues. (D) The mRNA levels of regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) were also determined in these tissues. (E) Confocal microscopy was performed for Ro52 and Fn14 expression in lesional skin. Number of normal samples = 10, number of non-lesional samples = 15, number of lesional samples = 15. Data points and error bars represent mean ± SEM. Representative images are shown. Bar = 50 µm. * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: TWEAK/Fn14 Activation Participates in Ro52-Mediated Photosensitization in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00651

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TWEAK and Fn14 expression increases in skin lesions of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (A) By immunohistochemistry, the expression of TWEAK and Fn14 was determined in paraffin sections. (B) The stained sections were quantitated for the positivity percentage per square millimeter values. (C) The mRNA expression levels of TWEAK and Fn14 were determined in fresh tissues. (D) The mRNA levels of regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) were also determined in these tissues. (E) Confocal microscopy was performed for Ro52 and Fn14 expression in lesional skin. Number of normal samples = 10, number of non-lesional samples = 15, number of lesional samples = 15. Data points and error bars represent mean ± SEM. Representative images are shown. Bar = 50 µm. * p

    Article Snippet: Rabbit anti-Fn14 (clone #EPR3179) or RANTES (catalog #ab9679) IgG (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) and rabbit anti-TWEAK (catalog #sc-5558) or Ro52 (catalog #sc-20960) IgG (Santa Cruz, Dallas, TX, USA) were used as primary antibodies (4 µg/ml, overnight at 4°C).

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Activation Assay, Confocal Microscopy

    CD8, CCL5, PCNA expression in clinical samples with Finasteride treatment. ( A ) IHC staining for CD8, CCL5, PCNA in serial paraffin sections of tissue specimens from 31 BPH patients treated with Finasteride at least six months; scale bar: 200 μ m, 100 μ m and 50 μ m. Compared to the area of less CD8+ T cells infiltration (left panel), the CCL5 and PCNA expression showed higher in the BPH epithelial cells where surrounded by more CD8+ T cells infiltration (right panel). ( B ) Spearman rank correlation showed there was a positive correlation between the degree of CD8+ T cells infiltration and the expression of PCNA (r = 0.678, P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep42893

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CD8, CCL5, PCNA expression in clinical samples with Finasteride treatment. ( A ) IHC staining for CD8, CCL5, PCNA in serial paraffin sections of tissue specimens from 31 BPH patients treated with Finasteride at least six months; scale bar: 200 μ m, 100 μ m and 50 μ m. Compared to the area of less CD8+ T cells infiltration (left panel), the CCL5 and PCNA expression showed higher in the BPH epithelial cells where surrounded by more CD8+ T cells infiltration (right panel). ( B ) Spearman rank correlation showed there was a positive correlation between the degree of CD8+ T cells infiltration and the expression of PCNA (r = 0.678, P

    Article Snippet: The reagents used in the in vitro experiment included recombinant human CCL5 (rhCCL5), anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and Pimozide were purchased from R & D systems (278-RN, MAB678, 0937 Minneapolis, MN, USA). rhCCL5 was reconstituted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adjusted to a final concentration of 2, 20, 100 ng/ml.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    CD8+ T cells promoted the proliferation of BECs via increased secretion of CCL5 in low androgen level. ( A ) Q-PCR analysis of cytokine/chemokine expression in Bph-1 cells at days 2. In the co-culture group, CCL5 and CCR5 mRNA were up-regulated in Bph-1 cells compared to the mono-culture group. **P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep42893

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CD8+ T cells promoted the proliferation of BECs via increased secretion of CCL5 in low androgen level. ( A ) Q-PCR analysis of cytokine/chemokine expression in Bph-1 cells at days 2. In the co-culture group, CCL5 and CCR5 mRNA were up-regulated in Bph-1 cells compared to the mono-culture group. **P

    Article Snippet: The reagents used in the in vitro experiment included recombinant human CCL5 (rhCCL5), anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and Pimozide were purchased from R & D systems (278-RN, MAB678, 0937 Minneapolis, MN, USA). rhCCL5 was reconstituted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adjusted to a final concentration of 2, 20, 100 ng/ml.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Co-Culture Assay

    The STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide reversed CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway and CD8+ T cell-enhanced BECs proliferation. ( A ) Western blot results showed the up-regulation of Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1 were reversed by Pimozide (PZ). Before the treatment of rhCCL5 or conditioned media (3 h), Bph-1 cells were treated with the Pimozide (10 μ M) for 2 hours. β-ACTIN was used as a loading control (full-length blots were presented in Supplementary Figure 3 ). ( B ) CCK8 assay showed that the addition of Pimozide (10 μ M) reversed the Molt-3 cells-enhanced Bph-1 cells proliferation at days 2. *P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep42893

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide reversed CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway and CD8+ T cell-enhanced BECs proliferation. ( A ) Western blot results showed the up-regulation of Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1 were reversed by Pimozide (PZ). Before the treatment of rhCCL5 or conditioned media (3 h), Bph-1 cells were treated with the Pimozide (10 μ M) for 2 hours. β-ACTIN was used as a loading control (full-length blots were presented in Supplementary Figure 3 ). ( B ) CCK8 assay showed that the addition of Pimozide (10 μ M) reversed the Molt-3 cells-enhanced Bph-1 cells proliferation at days 2. *P

    Article Snippet: The reagents used in the in vitro experiment included recombinant human CCL5 (rhCCL5), anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and Pimozide were purchased from R & D systems (278-RN, MAB678, 0937 Minneapolis, MN, USA). rhCCL5 was reconstituted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adjusted to a final concentration of 2, 20, 100 ng/ml.

    Techniques: Western Blot, CCK-8 Assay

    Mechanism dissection of how increased CCL5 promoted the proliferation of BECs in low androgen level. ( A ) Bph-1 cells were treated with conditioned media from the co-culture group for 30 min, 1 h and 3 h compared to the mono-culture group. Western blot assay was performed using antibodies specific for total STAT5, Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1. ( B ) Bph-1 cells were treated with rhCCL5 (2 ng/ml) at the indicated times. Western blot assay was performed using antibodies specific for total STAT5, Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1. β-ACTIN was used as a loading control (full-length blots were presented in Supplementary Figure 2 ).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep42893

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism dissection of how increased CCL5 promoted the proliferation of BECs in low androgen level. ( A ) Bph-1 cells were treated with conditioned media from the co-culture group for 30 min, 1 h and 3 h compared to the mono-culture group. Western blot assay was performed using antibodies specific for total STAT5, Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1. ( B ) Bph-1 cells were treated with rhCCL5 (2 ng/ml) at the indicated times. Western blot assay was performed using antibodies specific for total STAT5, Phospho-STAT5 and CCND1. β-ACTIN was used as a loading control (full-length blots were presented in Supplementary Figure 2 ).

    Article Snippet: The reagents used in the in vitro experiment included recombinant human CCL5 (rhCCL5), anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and Pimozide were purchased from R & D systems (278-RN, MAB678, 0937 Minneapolis, MN, USA). rhCCL5 was reconstituted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adjusted to a final concentration of 2, 20, 100 ng/ml.

    Techniques: Dissection, Co-Culture Assay, Western Blot

    Low intra-prostatic DHT promotes CD8+ T cells infiltration in BPH prostate tissue. Then, increased secretion of CCL5 from CD8+ T cells/BECs interaction could promote the proliferation of BPH epithelial cells in the condition of low androgen via activation of the STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: CD8+ T cells promote proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells under low androgen level via modulation of CCL5/STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep42893

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Low intra-prostatic DHT promotes CD8+ T cells infiltration in BPH prostate tissue. Then, increased secretion of CCL5 from CD8+ T cells/BECs interaction could promote the proliferation of BPH epithelial cells in the condition of low androgen via activation of the STAT5/CCND1 signaling pathway.

    Article Snippet: The reagents used in the in vitro experiment included recombinant human CCL5 (rhCCL5), anti-CCL5 neutralizing antibody and Pimozide were purchased from R & D systems (278-RN, MAB678, 0937 Minneapolis, MN, USA). rhCCL5 was reconstituted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adjusted to a final concentration of 2, 20, 100 ng/ml.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Positive correlation between TLR2 expression (mean fluorescence intensity; MFI) on freshly isolated monocytes as assessed by flow cytometry and RANTES levels in PBMC culture supernatants after TLR2 stimulation. PBMC from 20 HIV-infected patients (10 without and 10 with antiretroviral therapy) were stimulated with a TLR2 agonist (Pam 3 Cys; 1 µg/ml) and cultured for 20 h. Relations between the variables were tested by Spearman's rank correlation test.

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    Article Title: Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 in mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients induces chemokine responses: possible pathogenic consequences

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02595.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Positive correlation between TLR2 expression (mean fluorescence intensity; MFI) on freshly isolated monocytes as assessed by flow cytometry and RANTES levels in PBMC culture supernatants after TLR2 stimulation. PBMC from 20 HIV-infected patients (10 without and 10 with antiretroviral therapy) were stimulated with a TLR2 agonist (Pam 3 Cys; 1 µg/ml) and cultured for 20 h. Relations between the variables were tested by Spearman's rank correlation test.

    Article Snippet: In some experiments, PBMC were stimulated with 100 or 1000 ng/ml recombinant human RANTES or a negative control (0·3% BSA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Fluorescence, Isolation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Infection, Cell Culture

    Cytokine responses in culture supernatants after stimulation with human recombinant RANTES. PBMC from seven healthy controls (white circles) and 12 HIV-infected patients (five without and seven with antiretroviral therapy) (black circles) were stimulated with RANTES (100 or 1000 ng/ml) and cultured for 20 h. Data are presented as medians and 25th and 75th percentiles, * P

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    Article Title: Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 in mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients induces chemokine responses: possible pathogenic consequences

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02595.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cytokine responses in culture supernatants after stimulation with human recombinant RANTES. PBMC from seven healthy controls (white circles) and 12 HIV-infected patients (five without and seven with antiretroviral therapy) (black circles) were stimulated with RANTES (100 or 1000 ng/ml) and cultured for 20 h. Data are presented as medians and 25th and 75th percentiles, * P

    Article Snippet: In some experiments, PBMC were stimulated with 100 or 1000 ng/ml recombinant human RANTES or a negative control (0·3% BSA).

    Techniques: Recombinant, Infection, Cell Culture

    Binge alcohol inhibit TLR4-MyD88 and –TRIF signaling, but not TLR3-TRIF, via specific inactivation of HspA1A and IRF3 respectively TLR4-MyD88 signaling results in NF-κB activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. TLR4- and TLR3-TRIF signaling results in TBK1-induced IRF3 phosphorylation and transcription of IFNβ and RANTES. Binge alcohol exposure inhibits both branches of signaling downstream of TLR4 but not TLR3-TRIF signaling. While alcohol-induced HspA1A suppresses TLR4-MyD88 signaling, HspA1A does not regulate alcohol-mediated suppression of TLR4-TRIF IRF3 activation which is dependent on protein phosphatase, PP1.

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Human binge alcohol intake inhibits TLR4-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF responses but not TLR3-TRIF pathway: HspA1A and PP1 play selective regulatory roles

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600924

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Binge alcohol inhibit TLR4-MyD88 and –TRIF signaling, but not TLR3-TRIF, via specific inactivation of HspA1A and IRF3 respectively TLR4-MyD88 signaling results in NF-κB activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. TLR4- and TLR3-TRIF signaling results in TBK1-induced IRF3 phosphorylation and transcription of IFNβ and RANTES. Binge alcohol exposure inhibits both branches of signaling downstream of TLR4 but not TLR3-TRIF signaling. While alcohol-induced HspA1A suppresses TLR4-MyD88 signaling, HspA1A does not regulate alcohol-mediated suppression of TLR4-TRIF IRF3 activation which is dependent on protein phosphatase, PP1.

    Article Snippet: Cell-free supernatants were collected from human monocyte or RAW macrophage cultures and analyzed for human RANTES (R & D systems) or murine TNFα (BD Biosciences) and RANTES (Peprotech Inc) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    PP1 inhibition reverses alcohol-mediated inhibition of TLR4-TRIF chemokine RANTES but not TNFα RAW macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 2 hours, 50 mM alcohol (EtOH) and 0.25 μM tautomycetin alone or in combination for 24 hours or pre-exposed to alcohol and tautomycetin followed by LPS stimulation for indicated times. (A) TNFα and (B) RANTES mRNA was analyzed by qRT-PCR and normalized to LPS stimulation alone. Graph depicts mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Human binge alcohol intake inhibits TLR4-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF responses but not TLR3-TRIF pathway: HspA1A and PP1 play selective regulatory roles

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600924

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PP1 inhibition reverses alcohol-mediated inhibition of TLR4-TRIF chemokine RANTES but not TNFα RAW macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 2 hours, 50 mM alcohol (EtOH) and 0.25 μM tautomycetin alone or in combination for 24 hours or pre-exposed to alcohol and tautomycetin followed by LPS stimulation for indicated times. (A) TNFα and (B) RANTES mRNA was analyzed by qRT-PCR and normalized to LPS stimulation alone. Graph depicts mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Article Snippet: Cell-free supernatants were collected from human monocyte or RAW macrophage cultures and analyzed for human RANTES (R & D systems) or murine TNFα (BD Biosciences) and RANTES (Peprotech Inc) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Overexpression of HspA1A is sufficient to inhibit TLR4-MyD88 dependent cytokine TNFα but not TLR4-MyD88 independent chemokine RANTES RAW macrophages were transiently transfected with pCMV5-HspA1A using 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 ratios of 2 μg DNA to lipofectamine. 24 hours after transfection, macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 6 hours and culture supernatants were assayed for secreted (A) TNFα and (B) RANTES by ELISA. Graph depicts mean ± SD (n=4) and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Human binge alcohol intake inhibits TLR4-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF responses but not TLR3-TRIF pathway: HspA1A and PP1 play selective regulatory roles

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600924

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of HspA1A is sufficient to inhibit TLR4-MyD88 dependent cytokine TNFα but not TLR4-MyD88 independent chemokine RANTES RAW macrophages were transiently transfected with pCMV5-HspA1A using 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 ratios of 2 μg DNA to lipofectamine. 24 hours after transfection, macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 6 hours and culture supernatants were assayed for secreted (A) TNFα and (B) RANTES by ELISA. Graph depicts mean ± SD (n=4) and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Article Snippet: Cell-free supernatants were collected from human monocyte or RAW macrophage cultures and analyzed for human RANTES (R & D systems) or murine TNFα (BD Biosciences) and RANTES (Peprotech Inc) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Transfection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    HspA1A is required for alcohol-mediated inhibition of TLR4-MyD88 dependent TNFα but not TLR4-MyD88 independent RANTES (A) RAW macrophages were transfected with 10 nM siRNA targeting HspA1A or negative control (Neg ctrl) siRNA. Cells were subjected to heatshock (HS) (42°C for 45 min) and total RNA was used for HspA1A mRNA determination by qRT-PCR. Percent knockdown in HS cells was calculated with respect to untransfected. Graph depicts mean ± SD (n=3). Representative gels are shown to illustrate knockdown at protein level with HspA1A (top) and loading control, β-actin (bottom). (B,C) RAW macrophages were transfected with 10 nM siRNA targeting HspA1A or negative control (Neg ctrl) siRNA. 24 hours after transfection, macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 2 hours, 50 mM alcohol (EtOH) alone for 24 hours or pre-exposed to alcohol followed by LPS stimulation for indicated times. (B) TNFα and (C) RANTES mRNA was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Graph depicts mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Human binge alcohol intake inhibits TLR4-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF responses but not TLR3-TRIF pathway: HspA1A and PP1 play selective regulatory roles

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600924

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HspA1A is required for alcohol-mediated inhibition of TLR4-MyD88 dependent TNFα but not TLR4-MyD88 independent RANTES (A) RAW macrophages were transfected with 10 nM siRNA targeting HspA1A or negative control (Neg ctrl) siRNA. Cells were subjected to heatshock (HS) (42°C for 45 min) and total RNA was used for HspA1A mRNA determination by qRT-PCR. Percent knockdown in HS cells was calculated with respect to untransfected. Graph depicts mean ± SD (n=3). Representative gels are shown to illustrate knockdown at protein level with HspA1A (top) and loading control, β-actin (bottom). (B,C) RAW macrophages were transfected with 10 nM siRNA targeting HspA1A or negative control (Neg ctrl) siRNA. 24 hours after transfection, macrophages were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 2 hours, 50 mM alcohol (EtOH) alone for 24 hours or pre-exposed to alcohol followed by LPS stimulation for indicated times. (B) TNFα and (C) RANTES mRNA was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Graph depicts mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments and statistical analysis was performed by one way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparisons. (ns p > 0.05, * p

    Article Snippet: Cell-free supernatants were collected from human monocyte or RAW macrophage cultures and analyzed for human RANTES (R & D systems) or murine TNFα (BD Biosciences) and RANTES (Peprotech Inc) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Transfection, Negative Control, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Decreased expression of M2 macrophage-associated mediators in ST2-deficient mice. Expression in lung of the chemokine CCL17/TARC in lungs was measured by ELISA (A) . Data are representative of three independent experiments. In addition expression in lung of the chemokine CCL5/RANTES (B) and of the cytokines IL-4 in lung (C) and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (D) and IL-5 (E) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) in BALF (F) and lung (G) , IL-10 (H) , IL-13 (I) , and IFN-γ (J) in lungs were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Rad). Experiments are expressed as mean values ± SEM ( n = 4–6 mice per group, * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: The IL-33 Receptor ST2 Regulates Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis to Bleomycin

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Decreased expression of M2 macrophage-associated mediators in ST2-deficient mice. Expression in lung of the chemokine CCL17/TARC in lungs was measured by ELISA (A) . Data are representative of three independent experiments. In addition expression in lung of the chemokine CCL5/RANTES (B) and of the cytokines IL-4 in lung (C) and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (D) and IL-5 (E) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) in BALF (F) and lung (G) , IL-10 (H) , IL-13 (I) , and IFN-γ (J) in lungs were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Rad). Experiments are expressed as mean values ± SEM ( n = 4–6 mice per group, * p

    Article Snippet: In addition, CCL5/Rantes, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ were measured by multiplex immunoassay and revealed with MagPix reader (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiplex Assay

    Upregulation of early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in ischaemia reperfusion (IR) gut. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to analyse the relative expression of Egr-1 in the IR (IR) and sham operation (sham) gut of the 30/60 minute (30′/60′) IR and 45/60 minute (45′/60′) IR groups (A). Weak expression of Egr-1 mRNA was detected in control jejunum (control) and sham operation jejunum. A marked increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 30/60 minute IR jejunum and a moderate increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum were detected. Relative expression of Egr-1 to β - actin was determined in each group and is shown next to the gel picture of RT-PCR. *Significant difference between the IR and sham jejunum. Protein levels of Egr-1, RANTES, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 in the jejunum of different IR groups were analysed by western blotting (B). Actin was used as a loading control for each lane. Elevated levels of Egr-1, RANTES, and MCP-1 were detected in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum. Immunoreactivity of ICAM-1 was detected in villi (C), but only expressed in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum in endothelial cells (arrows) of blood capillaries.

    Journal: Gut

    Article Title: Depletion of intestinal resident macrophages prevents ischaemia reperfusion injury in gut

    doi: 10.1136/gut.2003.034868

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Upregulation of early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in ischaemia reperfusion (IR) gut. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to analyse the relative expression of Egr-1 in the IR (IR) and sham operation (sham) gut of the 30/60 minute (30′/60′) IR and 45/60 minute (45′/60′) IR groups (A). Weak expression of Egr-1 mRNA was detected in control jejunum (control) and sham operation jejunum. A marked increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 30/60 minute IR jejunum and a moderate increase in Egr-1 mRNA expression in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum were detected. Relative expression of Egr-1 to β - actin was determined in each group and is shown next to the gel picture of RT-PCR. *Significant difference between the IR and sham jejunum. Protein levels of Egr-1, RANTES, ICAM-1, and MCP-1 in the jejunum of different IR groups were analysed by western blotting (B). Actin was used as a loading control for each lane. Elevated levels of Egr-1, RANTES, and MCP-1 were detected in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum. Immunoreactivity of ICAM-1 was detected in villi (C), but only expressed in the 45/60 minute IR jejunum in endothelial cells (arrows) of blood capillaries.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked in PBST (pH 7.2, 0.1% Tween 20) containing 10% (w/v) skimmed milk for one hour before incubation with primary antibodies in PBST against Egr-1 (Geneka Biotechnology, Quebec, Canada; diluted 1:1000), RANTES, ICAM-1, MCP-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; diluted 1:100), or actin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; diluted 1:2000) for 16 hours at 4°C.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Western Blot

    Intraperitoneal injection of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl 2 MBP) depleted resident macrophages from the gut and liver. Sections from the liver (A, C) and jejunum (B, D) of rats treated with control liposome or Cl 2 MBP liposome were immunostained with ED2 antibody to localise resident macrophages. ED2 immunopositive resident macrophages (arrows) were localised in the liver (A) and jejunum (B) of control liposome treated rats but were undetectable in the liver (C) and jejunum (D) of Cl 2 MBP liposome treated rats. The percentage of ED2 immunopositive resident macrophages versus ED1 immunopositive total macrophages in the control liposome treated and Cl 2 MBP liposome treated jejunum was determined and tabulated as shown (number of views studied for reach group = 30). Expression of early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1) mRNA in the control liposome treatment group and the Cl 2 MBP treatment group was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (E). Levels of Egr-1, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the jejunum of the control liposome treatment group and the Cl 2 MBP treatment group were analysed by western blotting (F). Reduction of Egr-1, RANTES, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was observed in the Cl 2 MBP treatment group. In contrast, only a slight reduction in the level of ICAM-1 was observed in the Cl2MBP treatment group compared with that in the control liposome treatment group.

    Journal: Gut

    Article Title: Depletion of intestinal resident macrophages prevents ischaemia reperfusion injury in gut

    doi: 10.1136/gut.2003.034868

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intraperitoneal injection of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl 2 MBP) depleted resident macrophages from the gut and liver. Sections from the liver (A, C) and jejunum (B, D) of rats treated with control liposome or Cl 2 MBP liposome were immunostained with ED2 antibody to localise resident macrophages. ED2 immunopositive resident macrophages (arrows) were localised in the liver (A) and jejunum (B) of control liposome treated rats but were undetectable in the liver (C) and jejunum (D) of Cl 2 MBP liposome treated rats. The percentage of ED2 immunopositive resident macrophages versus ED1 immunopositive total macrophages in the control liposome treated and Cl 2 MBP liposome treated jejunum was determined and tabulated as shown (number of views studied for reach group = 30). Expression of early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1) mRNA in the control liposome treatment group and the Cl 2 MBP treatment group was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (E). Levels of Egr-1, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the jejunum of the control liposome treatment group and the Cl 2 MBP treatment group were analysed by western blotting (F). Reduction of Egr-1, RANTES, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was observed in the Cl 2 MBP treatment group. In contrast, only a slight reduction in the level of ICAM-1 was observed in the Cl2MBP treatment group compared with that in the control liposome treatment group.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked in PBST (pH 7.2, 0.1% Tween 20) containing 10% (w/v) skimmed milk for one hour before incubation with primary antibodies in PBST against Egr-1 (Geneka Biotechnology, Quebec, Canada; diluted 1:1000), RANTES, ICAM-1, MCP-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; diluted 1:100), or actin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; diluted 1:2000) for 16 hours at 4°C.

    Techniques: Injection, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    Localization of CCL5/RANTES in NPC/GPCs in vitro and in vivo. Cultured cells were immunostained (A-C) at 5 days in vitro. In vivo staining (D-E) was done in adult striatum. A and B: NPC/GPCs were immunostained with an antibody to Olig2 (A) to identify oligodendroglial precursors, and an antibody to CCL-5/RANTES (B) to determine which cells are producing this chemokine. Of the five Olig2 + cells in this field, two show CCL-5/RANTES expression in their cytoplasm (arrows indicate double-labeled cells). Three other cells that are Olig2 + (asterisks) do not express detectable levels of CCL5/RANTES. For (C-E), Z stacked images (AxioVision software, version 4, Carl Zeiss, Inc.) were taken through the entire depth of the cell layer (C) or section (D-E), then optimized for deconvolution microscopy (AutoQuant X Version 2, Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) in order to better demonstrate sub-cellular details of Sox2 and CCL5/RANTES co-localization. C. Cells in the same NPC/GPC cultured stained for Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red). The Sox2 + cells are a mixture of CCL5 + (asterisks) and CCL5 − (arrows). Note also that many CCL5 + cells are Sox2 − (arrowheads). Hoechst staining (blue) identifies the nuclei of all cells in the field. D-E: Co-localization of Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red) in the adult mouse striatum in situ. Hoechst staining (blue) identifies nuclei of all cells in the field. Since CCL5 is a secreted, soluble chemokine, it is difficult to associate specific cell boundaries with CCL5 immunostaining. However, it can be appreciated from panel D that Sox2 + cells (asterisks) in the striatum are frequently associated with significant CCL5 immunostaining. The region shown in E has a high density of Sox2- cells, as indicated by the Hoechst staining, and little CCL5 signal.

    Journal: Journal of neurochemistry

    Article Title: ?-chemokine production by neural and glial progenitor cells is enhanced by HIV-1 Tat: Effects on microglial migration

    doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06744.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Localization of CCL5/RANTES in NPC/GPCs in vitro and in vivo. Cultured cells were immunostained (A-C) at 5 days in vitro. In vivo staining (D-E) was done in adult striatum. A and B: NPC/GPCs were immunostained with an antibody to Olig2 (A) to identify oligodendroglial precursors, and an antibody to CCL-5/RANTES (B) to determine which cells are producing this chemokine. Of the five Olig2 + cells in this field, two show CCL-5/RANTES expression in their cytoplasm (arrows indicate double-labeled cells). Three other cells that are Olig2 + (asterisks) do not express detectable levels of CCL5/RANTES. For (C-E), Z stacked images (AxioVision software, version 4, Carl Zeiss, Inc.) were taken through the entire depth of the cell layer (C) or section (D-E), then optimized for deconvolution microscopy (AutoQuant X Version 2, Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) in order to better demonstrate sub-cellular details of Sox2 and CCL5/RANTES co-localization. C. Cells in the same NPC/GPC cultured stained for Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red). The Sox2 + cells are a mixture of CCL5 + (asterisks) and CCL5 − (arrows). Note also that many CCL5 + cells are Sox2 − (arrowheads). Hoechst staining (blue) identifies the nuclei of all cells in the field. D-E: Co-localization of Sox2 (green) and CCL5/RANTES (red) in the adult mouse striatum in situ. Hoechst staining (blue) identifies nuclei of all cells in the field. Since CCL5 is a secreted, soluble chemokine, it is difficult to associate specific cell boundaries with CCL5 immunostaining. However, it can be appreciated from panel D that Sox2 + cells (asterisks) in the striatum are frequently associated with significant CCL5 immunostaining. The region shown in E has a high density of Sox2- cells, as indicated by the Hoechst staining, and little CCL5 signal.

    Article Snippet: CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL4/MIP-1β are all known to act as endogenous suppressors of HIV infection and cell damage due to their ability to block gp120 binding with its CCR5 co-receptor ( , ), and both CCR5 and its ligands are the subject of ongoing investigation as therapeutic targets to reduce viral entry [reviewed in ( , )].

    Techniques: In Vitro, In Vivo, Cell Culture, Staining, Expressing, Labeling, Software, Microscopy, Gel Permeation Chromatography, In Situ, Immunostaining

    Pulmonary inflammation is alleviative following H7N9 virus infection in RIP3−/− mice A . H E sections through bronchioles showing edema, infiltration with inflammatory cells, and alveolar collapses. Images shown are representative of 6 mice per genotype per time point collected from three independent experiments. Scale bar indicates 100μm. B . IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES and MIP-1 secreted in BALF were detected by using ELISA. C . IFN-α and IFN-γ expression of lung tissues were measured by qPCR. Data collected from three independent experiments was shown as mean±SEM. (* p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: RIP3 deficiency ameliorates inflammatory response in mice infected with influenza H7N9 virus infection

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pulmonary inflammation is alleviative following H7N9 virus infection in RIP3−/− mice A . H E sections through bronchioles showing edema, infiltration with inflammatory cells, and alveolar collapses. Images shown are representative of 6 mice per genotype per time point collected from three independent experiments. Scale bar indicates 100μm. B . IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES and MIP-1 secreted in BALF were detected by using ELISA. C . IFN-α and IFN-γ expression of lung tissues were measured by qPCR. Data collected from three independent experiments was shown as mean±SEM. (* p

    Article Snippet: Lung cytokine and chemokine analysis The concentrations of cytokines and chemokines in BALF including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and macrophage induced protein-1 (MIP-1) were measured by using an ELISA kits (BMS6002, BMS603/2, BMS6009INST, 88-56013; eBioscience Inc., CA, USA), whose procedures were according to the manufacturer's protocols.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Colonic tissue from TLR2 −/− mice recruit inflammatory cells that have reduced NO production and fail to mount an adequate defense against tumor growth in early CAC. (A) Chemokines concentrations quantified by ELISA in colon homogenates in WT and TLR2 −/− mice at day 14 of AOM-DSS treatment were measured by ELISA. KC (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), MIP-2 (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), MCP-1 (n = 6 WT, n = 4 TLR2−/−), RANTES (n = 4 WT, n = 10 TLR2−/−). (B) Immunofluorescent staining for nitrotyrosine in proximal (top panels) and distal (bottom panels) colon section of WT (left panels) and TLR2 −/− (right panels) mice treated for 14 days with the AOM-DSS regimen. Original magnification 100x. (C) Quantification of nitrotyrosine positive cells normalized by area (mm 2 ) from greater than five focus fields in at least four slides per animal (n = 5 WT and n = 5 TLR2 −/− ).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling Protects Mice from Tumor Development in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Induced Cancer

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013027

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colonic tissue from TLR2 −/− mice recruit inflammatory cells that have reduced NO production and fail to mount an adequate defense against tumor growth in early CAC. (A) Chemokines concentrations quantified by ELISA in colon homogenates in WT and TLR2 −/− mice at day 14 of AOM-DSS treatment were measured by ELISA. KC (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), MIP-2 (n = 6 WT, n = 9 TLR2−/−), MCP-1 (n = 6 WT, n = 4 TLR2−/−), RANTES (n = 4 WT, n = 10 TLR2−/−). (B) Immunofluorescent staining for nitrotyrosine in proximal (top panels) and distal (bottom panels) colon section of WT (left panels) and TLR2 −/− (right panels) mice treated for 14 days with the AOM-DSS regimen. Original magnification 100x. (C) Quantification of nitrotyrosine positive cells normalized by area (mm 2 ) from greater than five focus fields in at least four slides per animal (n = 5 WT and n = 5 TLR2 −/− ).

    Article Snippet: ELISAs Supernatants, colon homogenates or serum were analyzed for the presence of TNFa, IL-4, IFNg, IL-17A, IL-23p19 (all eBioscience, San Diego, CA), IL-10, IL-6, TGFß, MIP-2 (all R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), or KC, MCP-1 and RANTES (all BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), as per the manufacturer's suggested protocol.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Staining

    CCN3 induce the remodeling of HSC with elevation of cytokines relating to HCC malignancy. The significantly changed cytokines expression profiles were found in CCN3 treated LX2 by cytokines array ( a ). RANTES, TGFβ and TIMP-2 were selected for immunoblotting, and NFκB was proved as one of the control signaling pathway ( b ). The reduced migration and inhibited proliferation of LX2 were proved in the CM from NFκB inhibitor EVP4593 treated MHCC97H ( c )

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Remodeling of hepatic stellate cells orchestrated the stroma-derived oxaliplatin-resistance through CCN3 paracrine in hepatocellular carcinoma

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-019-6362-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CCN3 induce the remodeling of HSC with elevation of cytokines relating to HCC malignancy. The significantly changed cytokines expression profiles were found in CCN3 treated LX2 by cytokines array ( a ). RANTES, TGFβ and TIMP-2 were selected for immunoblotting, and NFκB was proved as one of the control signaling pathway ( b ). The reduced migration and inhibited proliferation of LX2 were proved in the CM from NFκB inhibitor EVP4593 treated MHCC97H ( c )

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies used for immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and/or, immunohistochemistry were as follows: CCN3, α-SMA, p-C-RAF, ERK1/2, NFκB, TIMP-2, TGF-β, and p-ERK1/2 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA), RANTES and C-RAF (Cell Signaling, Beverly, MA, USA), p-MEK (Epitomics, Burlingame, CA, USA), Actin (Jackson Labs, Bar Harbor, ME, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Migration

    SBL subdues macrophage susceptibility to HIV by enhancing C-C chemokine expression. (A) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h. The CCR5 expression was measured by flow cytometry. (B and C) Macrophages were treated with the indicated concentrations of SBL for 6 h (B) or 24 h (C), and the expression of the C-C chemokines MIP-1β and RANTES at the mRNA (B) and protein (C) levels was measured. (D) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h, and the culture supernatants without SBL (Ctrl/SN) or with SBL (SBL/SN) were collected for treatment of autologous macrophages. In addition, SBL/SN was incubated with 20 μg/ml control IgG (Ctrl/IgG) or a mixture of neutralization antibodies to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES for 1 h and then added to the macrophages for an additional 1 h prior to infection with DNase I-treated HIV (Bal). HIV strong-stop DNA was quantified at 3 h postinfection. The number of copies was normalized to the control (100%). The data are expressed as the means and SD of the results of three independent experiments (*, P

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: GalNAc-Specific Soybean Lectin Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Induction of Antiviral Factors

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01720-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SBL subdues macrophage susceptibility to HIV by enhancing C-C chemokine expression. (A) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h. The CCR5 expression was measured by flow cytometry. (B and C) Macrophages were treated with the indicated concentrations of SBL for 6 h (B) or 24 h (C), and the expression of the C-C chemokines MIP-1β and RANTES at the mRNA (B) and protein (C) levels was measured. (D) Macrophages were incubated with or without SBL (50 nM) for 24 h, and the culture supernatants without SBL (Ctrl/SN) or with SBL (SBL/SN) were collected for treatment of autologous macrophages. In addition, SBL/SN was incubated with 20 μg/ml control IgG (Ctrl/IgG) or a mixture of neutralization antibodies to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES for 1 h and then added to the macrophages for an additional 1 h prior to infection with DNase I-treated HIV (Bal). HIV strong-stop DNA was quantified at 3 h postinfection. The number of copies was normalized to the control (100%). The data are expressed as the means and SD of the results of three independent experiments (*, P

    Article Snippet: The protein levels of IFN-β, MIP-1β, and RANTES in the culture supernatants of macrophages were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits according to the manufacturer's instructions (IFN-β, PBL Assay Science; MIP-1β and RANTES, RayBiotech, Norcross, GA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Neutralization, Infection