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  • 96
    Millipore vocs
    Vocs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 243 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Agilent technologies 6890 gc system
    6890 Gc System, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 327 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Agilent technologies masshunter workstation software
    Masshunter Workstation Software, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1558 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore 2 ethylfuran
    Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on Plasmopara viticola sporangia. Sporulated leaf disks were treated with water (control), 2.5 mg/L (trans-2-pentenal) or 20 mg/L in air volume (2-phenylethanol, <t>2-ethylfuran</t> or β-cyclocitral) on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Dishes were incubated overnight, after which P. viticola sporangia length ( A ) and width ( B ) were assessed. One hundred sporangia were measured for each replicate, five replicates (dishes) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). VOC concentrations, expressed as mg/L in air volume, are shown in brackets.
    2 Ethylfuran, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Amazon biogenic vocs
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Biogenic Vocs, supplied by Amazon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Agilent technologies spme gc ms
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Spme Gc Ms, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 50 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    FUJIFILM carbon disulfide
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Carbon Disulfide, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Agilent technologies gas chromatography
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Gas Chromatography, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4260 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Onset Computer Corporation logger
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Logger, supplied by Onset Computer Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Nonlinear Dynamics progenesis qi
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Progenesis Qi, supplied by Nonlinear Dynamics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 912 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Agilent technologies quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometery
    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic <t>VOCs</t> and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by <t>VBS</t> approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text
    Quadrupole Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometery, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Millipore trans 2 pentenal
    Effects of different concentrations of <t>trans-2-pentenal</t> on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or trans-2-pentenal at different concentrations expressed in mg/L of air volume. Trans-2-pentenal was applied on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each concentration and the experiment was carried out twice. As Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. Letters indicate significant differences among concentrations according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.
    Trans 2 Pentenal, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore β cyclocitral
    Effects of different concentrations of <t>trans-2-pentenal</t> on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or trans-2-pentenal at different concentrations expressed in mg/L of air volume. Trans-2-pentenal was applied on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each concentration and the experiment was carried out twice. As Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. Letters indicate significant differences among concentrations according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.
    β Cyclocitral, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    BOC Sciences β selinene
    Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or a pure VOC at concentrations of 20.0 mg/L ( A ), 5.0 ( B ) and 0.5 (black) mg/L in air volume, on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences among treatments according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Cadinene, β-caryophyllene, <t>β-selinene</t> and ledol (20.0 mg/L in air volume) did not affect downy mildew severity as compared with the control disks (Kruskal-Wallis test p > 0.05) and severity data are therefore not shown here. Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.
    β Selinene, supplied by BOC Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore 1 undecene
    Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and <t>1-undecene</t> (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.
    1 Undecene, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Agilent technologies 5975c mass selective detector
    Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and <t>1-undecene</t> (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.
    5975c Mass Selective Detector, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 845 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Agilent technologies 7890a gas chromatograph
    Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and <t>1-undecene</t> (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.
    7890a Gas Chromatograph, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3011 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Agilent technologies agilent chemstation
    Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and <t>1-undecene</t> (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.
    Agilent Chemstation, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1039 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Amazon biogenic soa precursors
    <t>WRF-Chem</t> simulated concentrations of biogenic <t>SOA</t> in the presence and absence of Manaus emissions. a Biogenic SOA when all emissions are on b Biogenic SOA when biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are on but Manaus (anthropogenic) emissions are turned off c Biogenic SOA enhancement (%) calculated from the two simulations with Manaus emissions turned on/off i.e. (a–b)/b × 100. WRF-Chem predictions are at ~500 m altitude, averaged during the afternoon (16–20 UTC = 12–16 local time) of 13 March 2014
    Biogenic Soa Precursors, supplied by Amazon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Cambridge Isotope Laboratories c labeled vocs
    <t>WRF-Chem</t> simulated concentrations of biogenic <t>SOA</t> in the presence and absence of Manaus emissions. a Biogenic SOA when all emissions are on b Biogenic SOA when biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are on but Manaus (anthropogenic) emissions are turned off c Biogenic SOA enhancement (%) calculated from the two simulations with Manaus emissions turned on/off i.e. (a–b)/b × 100. WRF-Chem predictions are at ~500 m altitude, averaged during the afternoon (16–20 UTC = 12–16 local time) of 13 March 2014
    C Labeled Vocs, supplied by Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Millipore jasmonic acid solution
    Effects of the induction treatments on plant fitness traits, (a) total plant biomass, (b) aboveground biomass, (c) belowground biomass among Alternanthera philoxeroides plants. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous <t>jasmonic</t> acid application. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts
    Jasmonic Acid Solution, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 42 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Shanghai Yuanye Biotechnology polydimethylsiloxane pdms emulsion
    Effects of the induction treatments on plant fitness traits, (a) total plant biomass, (b) aboveground biomass, (c) belowground biomass among Alternanthera philoxeroides plants. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous <t>jasmonic</t> acid application. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts
    Polydimethylsiloxane Pdms Emulsion, supplied by Shanghai Yuanye Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore p dichlorobenzene
    Effects of the induction treatments on plant fitness traits, (a) total plant biomass, (b) aboveground biomass, (c) belowground biomass among Alternanthera philoxeroides plants. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous <t>jasmonic</t> acid application. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts
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    Image Search Results


    Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on Plasmopara viticola sporangia. Sporulated leaf disks were treated with water (control), 2.5 mg/L (trans-2-pentenal) or 20 mg/L in air volume (2-phenylethanol, 2-ethylfuran or β-cyclocitral) on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Dishes were incubated overnight, after which P. viticola sporangia length ( A ) and width ( B ) were assessed. One hundred sporangia were measured for each replicate, five replicates (dishes) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). VOC concentrations, expressed as mg/L in air volume, are shown in brackets.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Downy mildew symptoms on grapevines can be reduced by volatile organic compounds of resistant genotypes

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19776-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on Plasmopara viticola sporangia. Sporulated leaf disks were treated with water (control), 2.5 mg/L (trans-2-pentenal) or 20 mg/L in air volume (2-phenylethanol, 2-ethylfuran or β-cyclocitral) on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Dishes were incubated overnight, after which P. viticola sporangia length ( A ) and width ( B ) were assessed. One hundred sporangia were measured for each replicate, five replicates (dishes) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). VOC concentrations, expressed as mg/L in air volume, are shown in brackets.

    Article Snippet: Pure VOCs were selected according to the SPME/GC-MS results, such as Benzenethanol, β-caryophyllene, trans-2-pentenal, 2-ethylfuran and β-cyclocitral (Sigma-Aldrich); cadinene (a mixture of ɣ-cadinene and δ-cadinene; (BOC Sciences); β-selinene and ledol (Xiamen Freede Industry).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on downy mildew development. Leaf disks were treated with water (control), 2.5 mg/L (trans-2-pentenal) or 20 mg/L in air volume (2-phenylethanol, 2-ethylfuran or β-cyclocitral) on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Disks were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola and the respective pure VOC was applied again to the filter paper disk. Pathogen development was monitored at one ( A–E ), two ( F–J ) and six ( K–T ) days post inoculation (dpi) using aniline blue staining. A representative leaf disk of ten is shown for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. Abbreviations: eZ, encysted zoospore; pHA, primary haustorium, pHy, primary hyphae; sV, substomatal vescicle. VOC concentrations, expressed as mg/L in air volume, are shown in brackets.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Downy mildew symptoms on grapevines can be reduced by volatile organic compounds of resistant genotypes

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19776-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on downy mildew development. Leaf disks were treated with water (control), 2.5 mg/L (trans-2-pentenal) or 20 mg/L in air volume (2-phenylethanol, 2-ethylfuran or β-cyclocitral) on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Disks were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola and the respective pure VOC was applied again to the filter paper disk. Pathogen development was monitored at one ( A–E ), two ( F–J ) and six ( K–T ) days post inoculation (dpi) using aniline blue staining. A representative leaf disk of ten is shown for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. Abbreviations: eZ, encysted zoospore; pHA, primary haustorium, pHy, primary hyphae; sV, substomatal vescicle. VOC concentrations, expressed as mg/L in air volume, are shown in brackets.

    Article Snippet: Pure VOCs were selected according to the SPME/GC-MS results, such as Benzenethanol, β-caryophyllene, trans-2-pentenal, 2-ethylfuran and β-cyclocitral (Sigma-Aldrich); cadinene (a mixture of ɣ-cadinene and δ-cadinene; (BOC Sciences); β-selinene and ledol (Xiamen Freede Industry).

    Techniques: Staining

    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic VOCs and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by VBS approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Urban pollution greatly enhances formation of natural aerosols over the Amazon rainforest

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08909-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic VOCs and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by VBS approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text

    Article Snippet: The VBS approach represents multiple generations of oxidation of biogenic VOCs that include isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene compound classes, and anthropogenic and biomass burning precursors using a lumped set of compounds.

    Techniques:

    Effects of different concentrations of trans-2-pentenal on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or trans-2-pentenal at different concentrations expressed in mg/L of air volume. Trans-2-pentenal was applied on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each concentration and the experiment was carried out twice. As Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. Letters indicate significant differences among concentrations according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Downy mildew symptoms on grapevines can be reduced by volatile organic compounds of resistant genotypes

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19776-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of different concentrations of trans-2-pentenal on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or trans-2-pentenal at different concentrations expressed in mg/L of air volume. Trans-2-pentenal was applied on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each concentration and the experiment was carried out twice. As Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. Letters indicate significant differences among concentrations according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.

    Article Snippet: Pure VOCs were selected according to the SPME/GC-MS results, such as Benzenethanol, β-caryophyllene, trans-2-pentenal, 2-ethylfuran and β-cyclocitral (Sigma-Aldrich); cadinene (a mixture of ɣ-cadinene and δ-cadinene; (BOC Sciences); β-selinene and ledol (Xiamen Freede Industry).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or a pure VOC at concentrations of 20.0 mg/L ( A ), 5.0 ( B ) and 0.5 (black) mg/L in air volume, on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences among treatments according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Cadinene, β-caryophyllene, β-selinene and ledol (20.0 mg/L in air volume) did not affect downy mildew severity as compared with the control disks (Kruskal-Wallis test p > 0.05) and severity data are therefore not shown here. Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Downy mildew symptoms on grapevines can be reduced by volatile organic compounds of resistant genotypes

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19776-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of pure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on downy mildew in air volume. Leaf disks were treated with water (control) or a pure VOC at concentrations of 20.0 mg/L ( A ), 5.0 ( B ) and 0.5 (black) mg/L in air volume, on a filter paper disk without contact with leaf tissues. Five replicates (dishes with five disks each) were assessed for each treatment and the experiment was carried out twice. As the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant differences between the two experiments ( p > 0.05, n = 5 replicates per experiment), data from the two experiments were pooled. The pooled mean and standard error values of ten replicates from the two experiments are presented for each treatment. For each chart, different letters indicate significant differences among treatments according to the Kruskal-Wallis test ( p ≤ 0.05). Cadinene, β-caryophyllene, β-selinene and ledol (20.0 mg/L in air volume) did not affect downy mildew severity as compared with the control disks (Kruskal-Wallis test p > 0.05) and severity data are therefore not shown here. Asterisks indicate phytotoxic effects on leaf disks.

    Article Snippet: Pure VOCs were selected according to the SPME/GC-MS results, such as Benzenethanol, β-caryophyllene, trans-2-pentenal, 2-ethylfuran and β-cyclocitral (Sigma-Aldrich); cadinene (a mixture of ɣ-cadinene and δ-cadinene; (BOC Sciences); β-selinene and ledol (Xiamen Freede Industry).

    Techniques:

    Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and 1-undecene (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01082

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average of mycelia growth (%) of strains DS256, DS270, and DS226, DS284 of Pleurotus eryngii and P. ostreatus , respectively, in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and 1-undecene (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.

    Article Snippet: VOCs Bioassays In order to evaluate VOCs bioactivity, identified by GC-MS, belonging to P. tolaasii strains volatile mixture, three pure VOCs, DMDS, MT, and 1-undecene (Sigma–Aldrich, Milan, Italy), selected on the basis of their detection for all the P. tolaasii strains, were used in mushrooms and seeds bioassays.

    Techniques:

    Agaricus bisporus (1) and Pleurotus ostreatus (2) basidiome tissue blocks treated with pure 1-undecene aliquots ( 1A and 2A = H 2 O; 1B and 2B = 2.5 μg; 1C and 2C = 5 μg; 1D and 2D = 10 μg; 1E and 2E = 25 μg; 1F and 2F = 50 μg) .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01082

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Agaricus bisporus (1) and Pleurotus ostreatus (2) basidiome tissue blocks treated with pure 1-undecene aliquots ( 1A and 2A = H 2 O; 1B and 2B = 2.5 μg; 1C and 2C = 5 μg; 1D and 2D = 10 μg; 1E and 2E = 25 μg; 1F and 2F = 50 μg) .

    Article Snippet: VOCs Bioassays In order to evaluate VOCs bioactivity, identified by GC-MS, belonging to P. tolaasii strains volatile mixture, three pure VOCs, DMDS, MT, and 1-undecene (Sigma–Aldrich, Milan, Italy), selected on the basis of their detection for all the P. tolaasii strains, were used in mushrooms and seeds bioassays.

    Techniques:

    Average growth (%) of whole seedlings ( ), epicotyls ( ), and main rootlets ( ) of broccoli in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and 1-undecene (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01082

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average growth (%) of whole seedlings ( ), epicotyls ( ), and main rootlets ( ) of broccoli in presence of pure MT (A) , DMDS (B) , and 1-undecene (C) aliquots . Bars on the columns correspond to the standard error of the mean in percentage.

    Article Snippet: VOCs Bioassays In order to evaluate VOCs bioactivity, identified by GC-MS, belonging to P. tolaasii strains volatile mixture, three pure VOCs, DMDS, MT, and 1-undecene (Sigma–Aldrich, Milan, Italy), selected on the basis of their detection for all the P. tolaasii strains, were used in mushrooms and seeds bioassays.

    Techniques:

    Volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii strains (NCPPB2192, USB1, and USB66) . 1- carbon dioxide (CO 2 ); 2- methanethiol (MT); 3- dimethyl disulfide (DMDS); 4- p -cymene; 5, 1,4-undecadiene; 6- 1-undecene; 7- 2-undecanone; 8- 4,7-dimethylundecane.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01082

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii strains (NCPPB2192, USB1, and USB66) . 1- carbon dioxide (CO 2 ); 2- methanethiol (MT); 3- dimethyl disulfide (DMDS); 4- p -cymene; 5, 1,4-undecadiene; 6- 1-undecene; 7- 2-undecanone; 8- 4,7-dimethylundecane.

    Article Snippet: VOCs Bioassays In order to evaluate VOCs bioactivity, identified by GC-MS, belonging to P. tolaasii strains volatile mixture, three pure VOCs, DMDS, MT, and 1-undecene (Sigma–Aldrich, Milan, Italy), selected on the basis of their detection for all the P. tolaasii strains, were used in mushrooms and seeds bioassays.

    Techniques: Produced

    WRF-Chem simulated concentrations of biogenic SOA in the presence and absence of Manaus emissions. a Biogenic SOA when all emissions are on b Biogenic SOA when biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are on but Manaus (anthropogenic) emissions are turned off c Biogenic SOA enhancement (%) calculated from the two simulations with Manaus emissions turned on/off i.e. (a–b)/b × 100. WRF-Chem predictions are at ~500 m altitude, averaged during the afternoon (16–20 UTC = 12–16 local time) of 13 March 2014

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Urban pollution greatly enhances formation of natural aerosols over the Amazon rainforest

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08909-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WRF-Chem simulated concentrations of biogenic SOA in the presence and absence of Manaus emissions. a Biogenic SOA when all emissions are on b Biogenic SOA when biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are on but Manaus (anthropogenic) emissions are turned off c Biogenic SOA enhancement (%) calculated from the two simulations with Manaus emissions turned on/off i.e. (a–b)/b × 100. WRF-Chem predictions are at ~500 m altitude, averaged during the afternoon (16–20 UTC = 12–16 local time) of 13 March 2014

    Article Snippet: Here, we use the WRF-Chem model to understand the contributions of different biogenic SOA precursors over the Amazon.

    Techniques:

    Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic VOCs and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by VBS approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Urban pollution greatly enhances formation of natural aerosols over the Amazon rainforest

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08909-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic illustrating how NO x emissions from Manaus greatly enhance formation of biogenic SOA within the urban plume. NO x emitted by Manaus greatly increases oxidants (OH and ozone; brown arrows), which promote reaction of forest carbon (emitted as isoprene and terpenes; green arrows). In the absence of the urban plume, background soil NO x emissions (purple arrows) drive the oxidant cycling but are much smaller than the NO x emitted from Manaus. Lower background NO x causes smaller OH and ozone production, thus decreasing reacted biogenic VOCs and SOA formation. The pie charts indicate WRF-Chem simulated domain-averaged components of a Mass emissions fluxes of biogenic VOCs, b Background biogenic SOA and c In-plume biogenic SOA at 500 m altitude during the afternoon (16–20 UTC) of 13 March 2014. Biogenic SOA consists of two parts: gas-phase chemistry of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes represented by VBS approach (~70% of total SOA), and multiphase chemistry that is driven by IEPOX uptake into SOA, as described in the text

    Article Snippet: Here, we use the WRF-Chem model to understand the contributions of different biogenic SOA precursors over the Amazon.

    Techniques:

    Effects of the induction treatments on plant fitness traits, (a) total plant biomass, (b) aboveground biomass, (c) belowground biomass among Alternanthera philoxeroides plants. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid application. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Journal: Ecology and Evolution

    Article Title: Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed). Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)

    doi: 10.1002/ece3.3615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of the induction treatments on plant fitness traits, (a) total plant biomass, (b) aboveground biomass, (c) belowground biomass among Alternanthera philoxeroides plants. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid application. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Article Snippet: For the exogenous jasmonic acid treatment, we applied 1 mmol/L of jasmonic acid solution (adding 1 ml of EtOH [95%] to 100 mg of pure jasmonic acid [Sigma J250001] and then diluting 100 μl of JA solution into 50 ml of pure water) onto the upper surface of each leaf with a paintbrush (Appendix , A preliminary experiment found that A. philoxeroides began to exhibit significantly induced response at 1 mmol/L [the concentration gradient was 1 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, and 7.5 mmol/L]).

    Techniques: Cross-linking Immunoprecipitation

    Comparison of two larval growth gain ( Agasicles hygrophila , white bar; Spodoptera litura , black bar) for each of the five treatments. AH , A. hygrophila damage, SL , S. litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE . different letters indicate means that differ significantly following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Journal: Ecology and Evolution

    Article Title: Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed). Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)

    doi: 10.1002/ece3.3615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of two larval growth gain ( Agasicles hygrophila , white bar; Spodoptera litura , black bar) for each of the five treatments. AH , A. hygrophila damage, SL , S. litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE . different letters indicate means that differ significantly following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Article Snippet: For the exogenous jasmonic acid treatment, we applied 1 mmol/L of jasmonic acid solution (adding 1 ml of EtOH [95%] to 100 mg of pure jasmonic acid [Sigma J250001] and then diluting 100 μl of JA solution into 50 ml of pure water) onto the upper surface of each leaf with a paintbrush (Appendix , A preliminary experiment found that A. philoxeroides began to exhibit significantly induced response at 1 mmol/L [the concentration gradient was 1 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, and 7.5 mmol/L]).

    Techniques: Cross-linking Immunoprecipitation

    The influence of continental origin of populations and five treatment on (a) total triterpenoid saponins, (b) C/N ratio. AH, Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Journal: Ecology and Evolution

    Article Title: Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed). Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)

    doi: 10.1002/ece3.3615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The influence of continental origin of populations and five treatment on (a) total triterpenoid saponins, (b) C/N ratio. AH, Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL, Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Article Snippet: For the exogenous jasmonic acid treatment, we applied 1 mmol/L of jasmonic acid solution (adding 1 ml of EtOH [95%] to 100 mg of pure jasmonic acid [Sigma J250001] and then diluting 100 μl of JA solution into 50 ml of pure water) onto the upper surface of each leaf with a paintbrush (Appendix , A preliminary experiment found that A. philoxeroides began to exhibit significantly induced response at 1 mmol/L [the concentration gradient was 1 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, and 7.5 mmol/L]).

    Techniques: Cross-linking Immunoprecipitation

    Effect of the induction treatments on morphological traits of Alternanthera philoxeroides , including (a) root:shoot ratio (RSR), (b) branching intensity (BI), (c) specific leaf area (SLA), (d) specific stem length (SSL), and (e) trichome density. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL , Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Journal: Ecology and Evolution

    Article Title: Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed). Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)

    doi: 10.1002/ece3.3615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the induction treatments on morphological traits of Alternanthera philoxeroides , including (a) root:shoot ratio (RSR), (b) branching intensity (BI), (c) specific leaf area (SLA), (d) specific stem length (SSL), and (e) trichome density. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, SL , Spodoptera litura damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Article Snippet: For the exogenous jasmonic acid treatment, we applied 1 mmol/L of jasmonic acid solution (adding 1 ml of EtOH [95%] to 100 mg of pure jasmonic acid [Sigma J250001] and then diluting 100 μl of JA solution into 50 ml of pure water) onto the upper surface of each leaf with a paintbrush (Appendix , A preliminary experiment found that A. philoxeroides began to exhibit significantly induced response at 1 mmol/L [the concentration gradient was 1 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, and 7.5 mmol/L]).

    Techniques: Cross-linking Immunoprecipitation

    Effect of the induction treatments on chemical traits of Alternanthera philoxeroides , including (a) total triterpenoid saponins, (b) total flavonoid, (c) lignin concentrations, (d) C/N ratio. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, Spodoptera litura, SL, damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Journal: Ecology and Evolution

    Article Title: Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed). Specificity of herbivore‐induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)

    doi: 10.1002/ece3.3615

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the induction treatments on chemical traits of Alternanthera philoxeroides , including (a) total triterpenoid saponins, (b) total flavonoid, (c) lignin concentrations, (d) C/N ratio. AH , Agasicles hygrophila damage, Spodoptera litura, SL, damage, Clip, clipped leaves, JA, exogenous jasmonic acid. Data are means ± 1 SE , and different letters indicate significant differences among means following LSD‐adjusted post hoc contrasts

    Article Snippet: For the exogenous jasmonic acid treatment, we applied 1 mmol/L of jasmonic acid solution (adding 1 ml of EtOH [95%] to 100 mg of pure jasmonic acid [Sigma J250001] and then diluting 100 μl of JA solution into 50 ml of pure water) onto the upper surface of each leaf with a paintbrush (Appendix , A preliminary experiment found that A. philoxeroides began to exhibit significantly induced response at 1 mmol/L [the concentration gradient was 1 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 5 mmol/L, and 7.5 mmol/L]).

    Techniques: Cross-linking Immunoprecipitation