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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher nacl
    pH response of purified pHlash protein in vitro (A) <t>SDS-PAGE</t> gel of purified His-tagged pHlash protein stained with Coomassie Blue dye. Leftmost lane is molecular weight standards with KDa indicated, while the other lanes are the purified pHlash protein loaded at 0.2, 1, and 2 μg per lane. (B ) Construct of the pHlash fusion protein. Rluc8 was linked to cpVenus by the sequence Ala-Glu-Leu. (C ) Raw data (not normalized) of luminescence emission spectra of purified pHlash protein with 10 μM native coelenterazine at different pH values (pH 5.4-9.0) in 50 mM BIS-Tris-propane, 100 mM KCl, and 100 mM <t>NaCl.</t> (D) Normalized luminescence emission spectra of pHlash measured as in panel C. Luminescence intensity was normalized to the peak at 475 nm. (E) The BRET ratio (luminescence at 525nm:475 nm) as a function of pH is shown for pHlash in vitro . Error bars are +/- S.D., but in most cases the error bars are so small that they are obscured by the symbols (n = 3).
    Nacl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17191 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore sodium chloride nacl
    ( a ) Absorbance spectra of R6G ( i ) in absence of polymers; ( ii ) in presence of PDAD; ( iii ) in presence of <t>PSS;</t> and ( iv ) after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. ( b ) Concentration dependence of 10 mM absorbance of freeR6G at 533 nm, R6G in presence of PDAD and after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. Twenty-five millimolar TRIS buffer solution pH 7.4 containing 137 mM <t>NaCl</t> was used as a solvent.
    Sodium Chloride Nacl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1612 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Fisher Scientific nacl
    Adsorption tests performed over 6 h in <t>TSB</t> media containing <t>NaCl</t> (A), adjusted to different pH values (B) and containing the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (C) or SDS (D). Graphs show the number of free (unattached extracellular) phages. All experiments were carried out twice and in duplicates and mean values and standard deviations are shown.
    Nacl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 906 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck & Co nacl
    <t>CCL2</t> production in RAW264.7 cells is not increased in excess <t>NaCl.</t> RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with additional 40
    Nacl, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1058 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck KGaA nacl
    Spectroscopic characterization of VG peptides. ( a ) Environmental effects on the tryptophan residue of VG peptides. Normalized fluorescence excitation (dashed line) and emission (solid line) spectra of each peptide and Trp in <t>HEPES</t> buffer 10 mM pH 7.4 in <t>NaCl</t> 150 mM. ( b ) Concentration-dependent aggregation of the VG peptides, evaluated by ANS (12.8 μM) fluorescence intensity (λexc = 369 nm; emission spectra integrated from 400 to 600 nm). The values are means ± standart error of the mean (±s.e.m) of at least three experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-way ANOVA test (* P
    Nacl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1335 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Avantor nacl
    Total body cortisol—comparison of HP proportion of total body cortisol and MGGF proportion of total body cortisol; HP = hepatopancreas; MGGF = sum of mantle, gills, gonads, foot; total cortisol = hepatopancreas, mantle, gills, gonads, foot; CuCl 2 = copper (II) chloride treatment; <t>NaCl</t> = sodium chloride treatment; A: pie charts are showing the distribution of total body cortisol between HP and MGGF. B: Bars are showing mean ± standard deviation of total body cortisol per mussel; *** are showing highly significant increase in the difference between HP and MGGF; CNF, n = 10; CF, n = 10; copper (II) chloride, n = 20; sodium chloride, n = 20
    Nacl, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 496 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Carl Roth GmbH nacl
    UBC responses to <t>NaCl,</t> <t>ATP</t> and denatonium. Sequential stimulation with NaCl (50 mM on top of baseline concentrations in Tyrode), ATP (0.5 mM) and denatonium (25 mM); sequence of stimuli was changed between experiments ( N = 37). Graphs show representative recordings of changes in Calcium Orange® fluorescence in single cholinergic (eGFP + ) UBC. Experiments were performed during continuous superfusion with Tyrode III buffer Stimuli were added under continuous flow of Tyrode III into the chamber, so that indicated concentrations were reached initially and then washed out. Y-Axis depicts arbitrary units (AU) of Calcium Orange® fluorescence.
    Nacl, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 530 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    B. Braun nacl
    UBC responses to <t>NaCl,</t> <t>ATP</t> and denatonium. Sequential stimulation with NaCl (50 mM on top of baseline concentrations in Tyrode), ATP (0.5 mM) and denatonium (25 mM); sequence of stimuli was changed between experiments ( N = 37). Graphs show representative recordings of changes in Calcium Orange® fluorescence in single cholinergic (eGFP + ) UBC. Experiments were performed during continuous superfusion with Tyrode III buffer Stimuli were added under continuous flow of Tyrode III into the chamber, so that indicated concentrations were reached initially and then washed out. Y-Axis depicts arbitrary units (AU) of Calcium Orange® fluorescence.
    Nacl, supplied by B. Braun, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 200 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    GE Healthcare nacl
    SDS-PAGE of lysin purification after AEC, IMAC, thrombin digest, and more AEC. The 10% acrylamide gel was run at 60V for 30 mins followed by 150V for 60 mins in buffer containing 50 mM <t>Tris,</t> 50 mM MOPS, 0.1% SDS, and 1 mM EDTA, pH 6.8. The lanes from left to right: (1) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs), (2) 210 mM <t>NaCl</t> eluate from second AEC after thrombin digest, (3) 250 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (4) 25 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (5) 200 mM NaCl eluate from first AEC, (6) crude B-PER lysate of IPTG-induced E. coli , (7) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs).
    Nacl, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17206 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Dyets Inc nacl diet
    Comparison of urinary <t>TGF-β1</t> excretion in WT and TGFβ1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% <t>NaCl</t> diet on weeks 0, 1, and 5 . A : free urinary TGF-β1 levels. Total urinary TGF-β1 levels are presented in B . *Significant difference
    Nacl Diet, supplied by Dyets Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 72 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Fisher Scientific sodium chloride nacl
    Interaction between OligoG CF-5/20 and LPS. ( a ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM <t>NaCl,</t> 1 mM <t>EDTA).</t> ( b ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA).
    Sodium Chloride Nacl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 251 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck KGaA sodium chloride nacl
    Effect of <t>LiCl</t> (a) and <t>NaCl</t> (b) on viability of LNCap cells. Values are expressed as mean+SD from at least three independents experiments in triplicate. * P
    Sodium Chloride Nacl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 231 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    FUJIFILM nacl
    A. Reporter assay of virF promoter activity in an hns mutant . An hns deletion mutant of S. sonnei strain MS4841 carrying virFTL-lacZ (striped bars) was grown in <t>YENB</t> media with or without 150 mM <t>NaCl</t> were subjected to the β-galactosidase assay. For a comparison of activities, the data from Figure 1C, Graph 1, which was derived from simultaneous assays, is indicated by three solid bars on the left side of the graph. Strain and concentration of NaCl are indicated at the bottom of the graph as follows: Wt, wild-type strain (solid bars); hns , hns deletion mutant (striped bars); YENB medium, 0 (white bars); YENB medium with 150 mM NaCl, 150 mM (gray bars). B. Western blot analysis of H-NS and CpxR expression . An overnight LB culture of MS390 at 30°C was inoculated into fresh media and then the cells were cultured until they reached mid-log phase ( A 600 = 0.8). Media, temperature (YENB at 37°C; LB at 30°C and 37°C) and the concentration of NaCl are indicated on the top of the panel. Antibodies used for detection are indicated on the right side of the panels. A cross-reactive unknown protein detected by the anti-H-NS antiserum was used as a loding control.
    Nacl, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 777 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore nacl solution
    TTFields induce a dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca 2+ -entry in human glioblastoma cells. ( A ) Time course of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min)-induced changes of mean (±SE; n = 8–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio as recorded in T98G (left) and U251 (right) cells with Ca 2+ (1 mM)-containing <t>NaCl-solution</t> (closed triangles) and <t>EGTA</t> (0.6 mM)-buffered Ca 2+ -free NaCl-solution (open circles). ( B ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with Ca 2+ -containing NaCl-solution (open circles), Ca 2+ -containing NaCl solution further containing 1 µM benidipine (red triangles) or 1 µM nifedipine (blue diamonds). ( C ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–39) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with benidipine (1 µM, top, red symbols) or nifedipine (1 µM, bottom, blue symbols)-containing NaCl-solution and after wash-out of the inhibitors (open symbols). ( D ) Mean (±SE; n = 34–63) slope (as indicated by white lines in ( C )) of the fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio changes before (control), at the end and shortly after TTF-application (middle) both in the presence of benidipine (red) or nifedipine (blue) as well as after wash-out of the inhibitors. * and *** in ( D ) indicate 3 p ≤ 0.05 and 3 p ≤ 0.01, respectively, (Welch)-corrected t -test and Bonferroni correction for 3 pairwise comparisons.
    Nacl Solution, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 619 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Becton Dickinson nacl
    TTFields induce a dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca 2+ -entry in human glioblastoma cells. ( A ) Time course of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min)-induced changes of mean (±SE; n = 8–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio as recorded in T98G (left) and U251 (right) cells with Ca 2+ (1 mM)-containing <t>NaCl-solution</t> (closed triangles) and <t>EGTA</t> (0.6 mM)-buffered Ca 2+ -free NaCl-solution (open circles). ( B ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with Ca 2+ -containing NaCl-solution (open circles), Ca 2+ -containing NaCl solution further containing 1 µM benidipine (red triangles) or 1 µM nifedipine (blue diamonds). ( C ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–39) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with benidipine (1 µM, top, red symbols) or nifedipine (1 µM, bottom, blue symbols)-containing NaCl-solution and after wash-out of the inhibitors (open symbols). ( D ) Mean (±SE; n = 34–63) slope (as indicated by white lines in ( C )) of the fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio changes before (control), at the end and shortly after TTF-application (middle) both in the presence of benidipine (red) or nifedipine (blue) as well as after wash-out of the inhibitors. * and *** in ( D ) indicate 3 p ≤ 0.05 and 3 p ≤ 0.01, respectively, (Welch)-corrected t -test and Bonferroni correction for 3 pairwise comparisons.
    Nacl, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1101 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    nacl  (Difco)
    92
    Difco nacl
    Morphologies of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC <t>33815</t> incubated in artificial sea water (pH 6) microcosms with varying concentrations of <t>NaCl</t> at 4 °C on the seventh day. ( A , B ) Bacterial cells in a microcosm containing 0.75% NaCl; ( C , D ) cells in a microcosm amended with 5% NaCl; ( E , F ) cells in a microcosm amended with 10% NaCl; and ( G , H ) cells in a microcosm amended with 30% NaCl. Arrows point out the collapse of cytoplasmic spaces, which resulted in the development of gaps between the cell membrane and the peripheral membrane
    Nacl, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 346 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Sinopharm nacl
    Morphologies of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC <t>33815</t> incubated in artificial sea water (pH 6) microcosms with varying concentrations of <t>NaCl</t> at 4 °C on the seventh day. ( A , B ) Bacterial cells in a microcosm containing 0.75% NaCl; ( C , D ) cells in a microcosm amended with 5% NaCl; ( E , F ) cells in a microcosm amended with 10% NaCl; and ( G , H ) cells in a microcosm amended with 30% NaCl. Arrows point out the collapse of cytoplasmic spaces, which resulted in the development of gaps between the cell membrane and the peripheral membrane
    Nacl, supplied by Sinopharm, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 159 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Baxter Healthcare nacl
    Morphologies of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC <t>33815</t> incubated in artificial sea water (pH 6) microcosms with varying concentrations of <t>NaCl</t> at 4 °C on the seventh day. ( A , B ) Bacterial cells in a microcosm containing 0.75% NaCl; ( C , D ) cells in a microcosm amended with 5% NaCl; ( E , F ) cells in a microcosm amended with 10% NaCl; and ( G , H ) cells in a microcosm amended with 30% NaCl. Arrows point out the collapse of cytoplasmic spaces, which resulted in the development of gaps between the cell membrane and the peripheral membrane
    Nacl, supplied by Baxter Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 42 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Mallinckrodt nacl
    Group means ± standard error of water intake (white bars) and CS intake (quinine upper panel, citric acid lower panel) on conditioning days 1, 2, and 3. For mice injected with <t>LiCl</t> (left panel, black bars) and <t>NaCl</t> (right panel, gray bars). *Significantly
    Nacl, supplied by Mallinckrodt, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 46 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Sinopharm sodium chloride nacl
    ( a ) Effects of <t>NaOH</t> concentration on membrane performance of PAUt membranes; Effects of CS concentration on membrane performance of ( b ) PAUt-CS and ( c ) PAUt-PDDA/PSS/CS. Testing conditions: 1.55 MPa and 2000 ppm <t>NaCl</t> as feed solution at 25.0 ± 2.0 °C.
    Sodium Chloride Nacl, supplied by Sinopharm, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 112 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    pH response of purified pHlash protein in vitro (A) SDS-PAGE gel of purified His-tagged pHlash protein stained with Coomassie Blue dye. Leftmost lane is molecular weight standards with KDa indicated, while the other lanes are the purified pHlash protein loaded at 0.2, 1, and 2 μg per lane. (B ) Construct of the pHlash fusion protein. Rluc8 was linked to cpVenus by the sequence Ala-Glu-Leu. (C ) Raw data (not normalized) of luminescence emission spectra of purified pHlash protein with 10 μM native coelenterazine at different pH values (pH 5.4-9.0) in 50 mM BIS-Tris-propane, 100 mM KCl, and 100 mM NaCl. (D) Normalized luminescence emission spectra of pHlash measured as in panel C. Luminescence intensity was normalized to the peak at 475 nm. (E) The BRET ratio (luminescence at 525nm:475 nm) as a function of pH is shown for pHlash in vitro . Error bars are +/- S.D., but in most cases the error bars are so small that they are obscured by the symbols (n = 3).

    Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

    Article Title: Monitoring Intracellular pH change with a Genetically Encoded and Ratiometric Luminescence Sensor in Yeast and Mammalian Cells

    doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3813-1_9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: pH response of purified pHlash protein in vitro (A) SDS-PAGE gel of purified His-tagged pHlash protein stained with Coomassie Blue dye. Leftmost lane is molecular weight standards with KDa indicated, while the other lanes are the purified pHlash protein loaded at 0.2, 1, and 2 μg per lane. (B ) Construct of the pHlash fusion protein. Rluc8 was linked to cpVenus by the sequence Ala-Glu-Leu. (C ) Raw data (not normalized) of luminescence emission spectra of purified pHlash protein with 10 μM native coelenterazine at different pH values (pH 5.4-9.0) in 50 mM BIS-Tris-propane, 100 mM KCl, and 100 mM NaCl. (D) Normalized luminescence emission spectra of pHlash measured as in panel C. Luminescence intensity was normalized to the peak at 475 nm. (E) The BRET ratio (luminescence at 525nm:475 nm) as a function of pH is shown for pHlash in vitro . Error bars are +/- S.D., but in most cases the error bars are so small that they are obscured by the symbols (n = 3).

    Article Snippet: 50-mL flask and 2-L flask LB medium with ampicillin (60 μg/mL) TALON metal affinity resin (Clontech) Equilibration/Wash buffer: 50 mM sodium phosphate, 300 mM NaCl, pH 7.0 Elution buffer: 50 mM sodium phosphate, 300 mM NaCl, 150 mM imidazole, pH 7.0 10% SDS-PAGE gel Dialysis cassette (20K MWCO) (Thermo Scientific) Dialysis buffer: 30 mM MOPS, 5% Glycerol, pH 7.2 BSA standard solution and Protein Assay Dye Reagent Concentrate (Bio-Rad)

    Techniques: Purification, In Vitro, SDS Page, Staining, Molecular Weight, Construct, Sequencing, Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    CaM directly interacts with DR5 in DR5 death domain in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. A , CaM pull-down of purified DR5 cytoplasmic region (DR5 CR) and DR5 death domain (DR5 DD) in a 50 m m Tris, pH 7.6, 120 m m NaCl, 1% Brij buffer with 1 m m Ca 2+ , or 2 m m EGTA.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Characterization of the Interactions between Calmodulin and Death Receptor 5 in Triple-negative and Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Cells

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.727727

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CaM directly interacts with DR5 in DR5 death domain in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. A , CaM pull-down of purified DR5 cytoplasmic region (DR5 CR) and DR5 death domain (DR5 DD) in a 50 m m Tris, pH 7.6, 120 m m NaCl, 1% Brij buffer with 1 m m Ca 2+ , or 2 m m EGTA.

    Article Snippet: ER-positive or triple-negative breast cancer cells were lysed using a 50 m m Tris-HCL pH 7.5, 150 m m NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, and 1:100 Halt protease inhibitor (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) buffer at 4 °C for 30 min.

    Techniques: Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay, Purification

    DNA/PEI ratio affects the particle size of PEI–DNA complexes and transfection efficiency in CHO-S cells a DNA and different amounts of PEI were diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution. After incubating for different times (5, 10, 30, 60, and 120 min),

    Journal: Cytotechnology

    Article Title: Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI–DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    doi: 10.1007/s10616-013-9658-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA/PEI ratio affects the particle size of PEI–DNA complexes and transfection efficiency in CHO-S cells a DNA and different amounts of PEI were diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution. After incubating for different times (5, 10, 30, 60, and 120 min),

    Article Snippet: To examine the effects of the culture medium on the stability of PEI–DNA complexes, DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium (DMEM, Gibco) was added after incubation.

    Techniques: Transfection

    Stability of PEI–DNA complexes in culture medium. DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium was added. The particle size of PEI–DNA complexes was measured at different time intervals (0, 5, 10, 30,

    Journal: Cytotechnology

    Article Title: Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI–DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    doi: 10.1007/s10616-013-9658-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stability of PEI–DNA complexes in culture medium. DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium was added. The particle size of PEI–DNA complexes was measured at different time intervals (0, 5, 10, 30,

    Article Snippet: To examine the effects of the culture medium on the stability of PEI–DNA complexes, DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium (DMEM, Gibco) was added after incubation.

    Techniques:

    Longer incubation time increases particle size and decreases transfection efficiency a The DNA-PEI complexes (DNA/PEI = 1:4) was incubated in 300 mM NaCl for different times. The particle sizes of PEI–DNA complexes increased

    Journal: Cytotechnology

    Article Title: Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI–DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    doi: 10.1007/s10616-013-9658-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Longer incubation time increases particle size and decreases transfection efficiency a The DNA-PEI complexes (DNA/PEI = 1:4) was incubated in 300 mM NaCl for different times. The particle sizes of PEI–DNA complexes increased

    Article Snippet: To examine the effects of the culture medium on the stability of PEI–DNA complexes, DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium (DMEM, Gibco) was added after incubation.

    Techniques: Incubation, Transfection

    NaCl increases the particle size of PEI–DNA complexes and transfection efficiency a DNA and PEI were diluted with different concentrations of NaCl solution (0, 150, 300, and 600 mM NaCl). The particle size of PEI–DNA complexes

    Journal: Cytotechnology

    Article Title: Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI–DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    doi: 10.1007/s10616-013-9658-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NaCl increases the particle size of PEI–DNA complexes and transfection efficiency a DNA and PEI were diluted with different concentrations of NaCl solution (0, 150, 300, and 600 mM NaCl). The particle size of PEI–DNA complexes

    Article Snippet: To examine the effects of the culture medium on the stability of PEI–DNA complexes, DNA/PEI (1:4) was diluted in 300 mM NaCl solution, and then basic medium (DMEM, Gibco) was added after incubation.

    Techniques: Transfection

    Spearman correlation between salt ST and salt PR. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between salt ST and umami PR. The variables were logged to reduce the magnitude of their scales. Salt ST was measured by the AUC of intensity ratings for NaCl and salt PR was determined using the Monell forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method for NaCl. Salt ST and PR were negatively correlated with a Spearman correlation coefficient of –0.35 ( P

    Journal: Chemical Senses

    Article Title: Taste Sensitivity and Taste Preference Measures Are Correlated in Healthy Young Adults

    doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjy082

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spearman correlation between salt ST and salt PR. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between salt ST and umami PR. The variables were logged to reduce the magnitude of their scales. Salt ST was measured by the AUC of intensity ratings for NaCl and salt PR was determined using the Monell forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method for NaCl. Salt ST and PR were negatively correlated with a Spearman correlation coefficient of –0.35 ( P

    Article Snippet: The tastants were: sucrose for sweet taste (Thermo Fisher; S5-500), monosodium glutamate (MSG) for umami taste (Thermo Fisher; ICN10180080), inosine monophosphate (IMP) for umami taste (Thermo Fisher; AC226260250), MSG + IMP, sodium chloride (NaCl) for salt taste (Thermo Fisher; S641-500), citric acid for sour taste (A940-500), [...] and oleic acid for fat taste [...] (A195-500; Thermo Fisher Scientific).

    Techniques:

    ( a ) Absorbance spectra of R6G ( i ) in absence of polymers; ( ii ) in presence of PDAD; ( iii ) in presence of PSS; and ( iv ) after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. ( b ) Concentration dependence of 10 mM absorbance of freeR6G at 533 nm, R6G in presence of PDAD and after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. Twenty-five millimolar TRIS buffer solution pH 7.4 containing 137 mM NaCl was used as a solvent.

    Journal: Micromachines

    Article Title: Internal Structure of Matrix-Type Multilayer Capsules Templated on Porous Vaterite CaCO3 Crystals as Probed by Staining with a Fluorescence Dye

    doi: 10.3390/mi9110547

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) Absorbance spectra of R6G ( i ) in absence of polymers; ( ii ) in presence of PDAD; ( iii ) in presence of PSS; and ( iv ) after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. ( b ) Concentration dependence of 10 mM absorbance of freeR6G at 533 nm, R6G in presence of PDAD and after incubation with PSS that was further removed by ultracentrifugation. Twenty-five millimolar TRIS buffer solution pH 7.4 containing 137 mM NaCl was used as a solvent.

    Article Snippet: Calcium chloride dehydrate (CaCl2 ·2H2 O), sodium carbonate (Na2 CO3 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PSS, average MW 70 kDa), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAD, molecular weight 200–350 kDa), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid sodium salt (EDTA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Seelze, Germany).

    Techniques: Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Establishment of the MSG-induced excitotoxicity slice model. Percent cytotoxicity was calculated from LDH absorbance for a slices treated with gradient of MSG concentrations ( n = 18; mean ± SEM), and b organotypic hippocampal (OHC) ( n = 3; mean ± SEM) and c organotypic whole hemisphere (OWH) ( n = 6 NaCl, LPS; n = 18 NT, MSG; mean ± SEM) ex vivo slice cultures treated with various exposures, referenced to the 24 h cumulative 1% TX LDH absorbance as 100%. Representative photos of d OHC slice cultures and e OWH slice cultures

    Journal: Journal of Biological Engineering

    Article Title: Superoxide dismutase reduces monosodium glutamate-induced injury in an organotypic whole hemisphere brain slice model of excitotoxicity

    doi: 10.1186/s13036-020-0226-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Establishment of the MSG-induced excitotoxicity slice model. Percent cytotoxicity was calculated from LDH absorbance for a slices treated with gradient of MSG concentrations ( n = 18; mean ± SEM), and b organotypic hippocampal (OHC) ( n = 3; mean ± SEM) and c organotypic whole hemisphere (OWH) ( n = 6 NaCl, LPS; n = 18 NT, MSG; mean ± SEM) ex vivo slice cultures treated with various exposures, referenced to the 24 h cumulative 1% TX LDH absorbance as 100%. Representative photos of d OHC slice cultures and e OWH slice cultures

    Article Snippet: Sample preparation for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity After slices rested overnight, supernatant was collected (time t = − 3 h) and replaced with SCM containing 1–1000 mM MSG (L-glutamic acid monosodium salt hydrate, Sigma), 1000 mM NaCl (sodium chloride, Sigma), or 100 ng/mL LPS (lipopolysaccharide O111:B4, Sigma) for disease induction, if applicable.

    Techniques: Ex Vivo

    Fold-changes of mRNA markers for inflammation-, excitation-, and antioxidant-related proteins of NT, 100 mM MSG, 100 mM NaCl, and 100 ng/mL LPS slices at 6 h. a Fold-change of mRNAs for inflammatory cytokines of NT, MSG, and LPS slices ( n = 12 NT; n = 3 MSG; n = 6 LPS; mean ± SEM). b Fold-change of mRNAs for excitation-related proteins of NT, MSG, and NaCl slices ( n = 6–12 NT; n = 3 MSG and NaCl; mean ± SEM). c Fold-change of mRNAs for antioxidant enzymes of NT, MSG, NaCl, and LPS slices ( n = 6 NT; n = 3 MSG, NaCl, and LPS; mean ± SEM). ns: not significant

    Journal: Journal of Biological Engineering

    Article Title: Superoxide dismutase reduces monosodium glutamate-induced injury in an organotypic whole hemisphere brain slice model of excitotoxicity

    doi: 10.1186/s13036-020-0226-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fold-changes of mRNA markers for inflammation-, excitation-, and antioxidant-related proteins of NT, 100 mM MSG, 100 mM NaCl, and 100 ng/mL LPS slices at 6 h. a Fold-change of mRNAs for inflammatory cytokines of NT, MSG, and LPS slices ( n = 12 NT; n = 3 MSG; n = 6 LPS; mean ± SEM). b Fold-change of mRNAs for excitation-related proteins of NT, MSG, and NaCl slices ( n = 6–12 NT; n = 3 MSG and NaCl; mean ± SEM). c Fold-change of mRNAs for antioxidant enzymes of NT, MSG, NaCl, and LPS slices ( n = 6 NT; n = 3 MSG, NaCl, and LPS; mean ± SEM). ns: not significant

    Article Snippet: Sample preparation for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity After slices rested overnight, supernatant was collected (time t = − 3 h) and replaced with SCM containing 1–1000 mM MSG (L-glutamic acid monosodium salt hydrate, Sigma), 1000 mM NaCl (sodium chloride, Sigma), or 100 ng/mL LPS (lipopolysaccharide O111:B4, Sigma) for disease induction, if applicable.

    Techniques:

    Adsorption tests performed over 6 h in TSB media containing NaCl (A), adjusted to different pH values (B) and containing the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (C) or SDS (D). Graphs show the number of free (unattached extracellular) phages. All experiments were carried out twice and in duplicates and mean values and standard deviations are shown.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adsorption tests performed over 6 h in TSB media containing NaCl (A), adjusted to different pH values (B) and containing the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (C) or SDS (D). Graphs show the number of free (unattached extracellular) phages. All experiments were carried out twice and in duplicates and mean values and standard deviations are shown.

    Article Snippet: To test the short-time influence of chemicals on P100 stability in terms of infectivity, phages were incubated in TSB containing either 2 M NaCl (Fisher Scientific, Leics, UK), the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; SIGMA-ALDRICH, Steinheim, Germany; 5% each) and TSB adjusted to the pH values of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 using 0.5 M HCl or NaOH (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Adsorption

    Adsorption tests performed over 60 min indicating attachment (decreasing number of free phages) of phage P100 to L. monocytogenes in TSB containing NaCl (A), Lutensol AO 7 (B), TSB adjusted to pH values 3–11 (C), smear water and Fraser (D), and TSB containing SDS (E). All experiments were done twice and in duplicates and mean values and standard deviations were shown.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adsorption tests performed over 60 min indicating attachment (decreasing number of free phages) of phage P100 to L. monocytogenes in TSB containing NaCl (A), Lutensol AO 7 (B), TSB adjusted to pH values 3–11 (C), smear water and Fraser (D), and TSB containing SDS (E). All experiments were done twice and in duplicates and mean values and standard deviations were shown.

    Article Snippet: To test the short-time influence of chemicals on P100 stability in terms of infectivity, phages were incubated in TSB containing either 2 M NaCl (Fisher Scientific, Leics, UK), the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; SIGMA-ALDRICH, Steinheim, Germany; 5% each) and TSB adjusted to the pH values of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 using 0.5 M HCl or NaOH (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Adsorption

    Growth curves of uninfected (A) and infected (B,C; MOI = 10) L. monocytogenes in TSB and NaCl containing TSB media. Bacteria concentrations at the beginning of the infections were 10 7 CFU/ml (A,B) and 10 6 CFU/ml (C) . All NaCl concentrations (0–2 M) were tested. For the sake of clarity only the curves of growing bacteria were demonstrated while the others on base line level were not depicted. Moreover, one of four independent experiments is representatively shown.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01152

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth curves of uninfected (A) and infected (B,C; MOI = 10) L. monocytogenes in TSB and NaCl containing TSB media. Bacteria concentrations at the beginning of the infections were 10 7 CFU/ml (A,B) and 10 6 CFU/ml (C) . All NaCl concentrations (0–2 M) were tested. For the sake of clarity only the curves of growing bacteria were demonstrated while the others on base line level were not depicted. Moreover, one of four independent experiments is representatively shown.

    Article Snippet: To test the short-time influence of chemicals on P100 stability in terms of infectivity, phages were incubated in TSB containing either 2 M NaCl (Fisher Scientific, Leics, UK), the detergents Lutensol AO 7 (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; SIGMA-ALDRICH, Steinheim, Germany; 5% each) and TSB adjusted to the pH values of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 using 0.5 M HCl or NaOH (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Infection

    CCL2 production in RAW264.7 cells is not increased in excess NaCl. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with additional 40

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Salt-Dependent Chemotaxis of Macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073439

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CCL2 production in RAW264.7 cells is not increased in excess NaCl. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with additional 40

    Article Snippet: 2*105 cells were placed in serum-reduced (0.5% FCS) cell culture media (see cell culture) in the upper well while the culture medium of the lower compartment was supplemented with 25 nM CXCL12, 15 nM CCL2 (both from Peprotech), or NaCl (Merck) with concentrations between 10–100 mM (reaching a final concentration of 155 to 255 mM NaCl in the media), respectively.

    Techniques:

    TonEBP is not involved in salt-dependent chemotaxis of macrophages. Western blot analysis of TonEBP protein expression with or without excess 40(wt) and TonEBP overexpressing (TonEBP overexp) RAW264.7 cells, respectively (A). Kinetics of cell migration of TonEBP overexpressing and wildtype RAW264.7 macrophages toward 40 mM excess NaCl over 20 hours using transwell migration assays (B). Western blot analysis of TonEBP expression in RAW264.7 cells following RNAi of TonEBP using lipofection for 72 hours; mock, lipofection without siRNA; ns siRNA, nonspecific control siRNA (C). Transwell migration assay of RAW264.7 cells following RNAi of TonEBP toward 40 mM excess NaCl (D). For all western blot analysis (A, C), β-actin protein expression was used as a loading control. The migration index (B, D) was determined by the number of transmigrated cells in relation to CXCL12-stimulated cells. “+”indicates that the stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell (D). All cell migration data shown represent mean ± SD from 3 experiments performed in duplicate. ***p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Salt-Dependent Chemotaxis of Macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073439

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TonEBP is not involved in salt-dependent chemotaxis of macrophages. Western blot analysis of TonEBP protein expression with or without excess 40(wt) and TonEBP overexpressing (TonEBP overexp) RAW264.7 cells, respectively (A). Kinetics of cell migration of TonEBP overexpressing and wildtype RAW264.7 macrophages toward 40 mM excess NaCl over 20 hours using transwell migration assays (B). Western blot analysis of TonEBP expression in RAW264.7 cells following RNAi of TonEBP using lipofection for 72 hours; mock, lipofection without siRNA; ns siRNA, nonspecific control siRNA (C). Transwell migration assay of RAW264.7 cells following RNAi of TonEBP toward 40 mM excess NaCl (D). For all western blot analysis (A, C), β-actin protein expression was used as a loading control. The migration index (B, D) was determined by the number of transmigrated cells in relation to CXCL12-stimulated cells. “+”indicates that the stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell (D). All cell migration data shown represent mean ± SD from 3 experiments performed in duplicate. ***p

    Article Snippet: 2*105 cells were placed in serum-reduced (0.5% FCS) cell culture media (see cell culture) in the upper well while the culture medium of the lower compartment was supplemented with 25 nM CXCL12, 15 nM CCL2 (both from Peprotech), or NaCl (Merck) with concentrations between 10–100 mM (reaching a final concentration of 155 to 255 mM NaCl in the media), respectively.

    Techniques: Chemotaxis Assay, Western Blot, Expressing, Migration, Transwell Migration Assay

    Excess NaCl does not increase lamellipodia dynamics of motile RAW264.7 cells. Microscopial analysis of TRITC-Phalloidin stained F-actin (red) in untreated RAW264.7 cells and cells stimulated with 40 mM NaCl, 10 nM C5a, 15 nM CCL2, or 25 nM CXCL12, respectively (A). Images were performed with an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope focussed to the basal plasma membrane of the cells. Nuclei were detected with DAPI staining (blue). Microscopical analysis of lamellipodia dynamics in RAW264.7 cells (B-D) on a glass surface stimulated with excess 40 mM NaCl, 10 nM C5a, 15 nM CCL2, 25 nM CXCL12, respectively. Membrane dynamics were visualized at the basal plasma membrane by the use of phase contrast over a period of 5 min at 2 sec per frame. Subsequently, an area of interest was marked on each image of the time-series by lines (white line in B) that cross the motile lamellipodium of the polarized cell. Velocities of lamellipodia protrusion formation were analyzed by kymograph analysis and line scan analysis of yellow lines (C) using ImageJ. Quantification of lamellipodia dynamics of motile RAW264.7 cells (D). Three kymographs per cell were analyzed; each dot represents the value of one single kymograph (C). Shown data are representative for one experiment out of three. Error bars indicate ± SD. ***p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Salt-Dependent Chemotaxis of Macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073439

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Excess NaCl does not increase lamellipodia dynamics of motile RAW264.7 cells. Microscopial analysis of TRITC-Phalloidin stained F-actin (red) in untreated RAW264.7 cells and cells stimulated with 40 mM NaCl, 10 nM C5a, 15 nM CCL2, or 25 nM CXCL12, respectively (A). Images were performed with an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope focussed to the basal plasma membrane of the cells. Nuclei were detected with DAPI staining (blue). Microscopical analysis of lamellipodia dynamics in RAW264.7 cells (B-D) on a glass surface stimulated with excess 40 mM NaCl, 10 nM C5a, 15 nM CCL2, 25 nM CXCL12, respectively. Membrane dynamics were visualized at the basal plasma membrane by the use of phase contrast over a period of 5 min at 2 sec per frame. Subsequently, an area of interest was marked on each image of the time-series by lines (white line in B) that cross the motile lamellipodium of the polarized cell. Velocities of lamellipodia protrusion formation were analyzed by kymograph analysis and line scan analysis of yellow lines (C) using ImageJ. Quantification of lamellipodia dynamics of motile RAW264.7 cells (D). Three kymographs per cell were analyzed; each dot represents the value of one single kymograph (C). Shown data are representative for one experiment out of three. Error bars indicate ± SD. ***p

    Article Snippet: 2*105 cells were placed in serum-reduced (0.5% FCS) cell culture media (see cell culture) in the upper well while the culture medium of the lower compartment was supplemented with 25 nM CXCL12, 15 nM CCL2 (both from Peprotech), or NaCl (Merck) with concentrations between 10–100 mM (reaching a final concentration of 155 to 255 mM NaCl in the media), respectively.

    Techniques: Staining, Laser-Scanning Microscopy, Size-exclusion Chromatography

    RAW264.7 cells recognize NaCl-induced hypertonicity as a chemoattractant stimulus. Transwell migration assay of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 toward the hypertonic stimuli NaCl, urea or mannitol, respectively (A). The difference in Na + concentration measured in lower and upper wells by flame photometry is shown as Δ Na + (B). Transwell migration assay of RAW264.7 cells in the presence or absence of Polymyxin B, respectively (C). Transwell migration assay of BMDMs activated with 200 ng/ml LPS (D). Dose-dependency of RAW264.7 cells toward different NaCl concentrations by the use of transwell migration assays (E). The migration index was determined by the number of transmigrated cells in relation to CXCL12-stimulated cells after 20 hours. [−/−] indicates that no hypertonic stimulus was added to the transwells. [−/+] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell. [+/−] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to the upper well of the transwell. [+/+] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to both wells of the transwell (A). “+”indicates that the stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell (C, D and E). Error bars indicate ± SD. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Salt-Dependent Chemotaxis of Macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073439

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RAW264.7 cells recognize NaCl-induced hypertonicity as a chemoattractant stimulus. Transwell migration assay of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 toward the hypertonic stimuli NaCl, urea or mannitol, respectively (A). The difference in Na + concentration measured in lower and upper wells by flame photometry is shown as Δ Na + (B). Transwell migration assay of RAW264.7 cells in the presence or absence of Polymyxin B, respectively (C). Transwell migration assay of BMDMs activated with 200 ng/ml LPS (D). Dose-dependency of RAW264.7 cells toward different NaCl concentrations by the use of transwell migration assays (E). The migration index was determined by the number of transmigrated cells in relation to CXCL12-stimulated cells after 20 hours. [−/−] indicates that no hypertonic stimulus was added to the transwells. [−/+] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell. [+/−] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to the upper well of the transwell. [+/+] indicates that the hypertonic stimulus was added to both wells of the transwell (A). “+”indicates that the stimulus was added to the lower well of the transwell (C, D and E). Error bars indicate ± SD. *p

    Article Snippet: 2*105 cells were placed in serum-reduced (0.5% FCS) cell culture media (see cell culture) in the upper well while the culture medium of the lower compartment was supplemented with 25 nM CXCL12, 15 nM CCL2 (both from Peprotech), or NaCl (Merck) with concentrations between 10–100 mM (reaching a final concentration of 155 to 255 mM NaCl in the media), respectively.

    Techniques: Transwell Migration Assay, Concentration Assay, Migration

    Spectroscopic characterization of VG peptides. ( a ) Environmental effects on the tryptophan residue of VG peptides. Normalized fluorescence excitation (dashed line) and emission (solid line) spectra of each peptide and Trp in HEPES buffer 10 mM pH 7.4 in NaCl 150 mM. ( b ) Concentration-dependent aggregation of the VG peptides, evaluated by ANS (12.8 μM) fluorescence intensity (λexc = 369 nm; emission spectra integrated from 400 to 600 nm). The values are means ± standart error of the mean (±s.e.m) of at least three experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-way ANOVA test (* P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Broad spectrum antiviral activity for paramyxoviruses is modulated by biophysical properties of fusion inhibitory peptides

    doi: 10.1038/srep43610

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spectroscopic characterization of VG peptides. ( a ) Environmental effects on the tryptophan residue of VG peptides. Normalized fluorescence excitation (dashed line) and emission (solid line) spectra of each peptide and Trp in HEPES buffer 10 mM pH 7.4 in NaCl 150 mM. ( b ) Concentration-dependent aggregation of the VG peptides, evaluated by ANS (12.8 μM) fluorescence intensity (λexc = 369 nm; emission spectra integrated from 400 to 600 nm). The values are means ± standart error of the mean (±s.e.m) of at least three experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-way ANOVA test (* P

    Article Snippet: L-Tryptophan, HEPES and NaCl were from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Concentration Assay

    Total body cortisol—comparison of HP proportion of total body cortisol and MGGF proportion of total body cortisol; HP = hepatopancreas; MGGF = sum of mantle, gills, gonads, foot; total cortisol = hepatopancreas, mantle, gills, gonads, foot; CuCl 2 = copper (II) chloride treatment; NaCl = sodium chloride treatment; A: pie charts are showing the distribution of total body cortisol between HP and MGGF. B: Bars are showing mean ± standard deviation of total body cortisol per mussel; *** are showing highly significant increase in the difference between HP and MGGF; CNF, n = 10; CF, n = 10; copper (II) chloride, n = 20; sodium chloride, n = 20

    Journal: Conservation Physiology

    Article Title: Does environmental stress affect cortisol biodistribution in freshwater mussels?

    doi: 10.1093/conphys/coz101

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Total body cortisol—comparison of HP proportion of total body cortisol and MGGF proportion of total body cortisol; HP = hepatopancreas; MGGF = sum of mantle, gills, gonads, foot; total cortisol = hepatopancreas, mantle, gills, gonads, foot; CuCl 2 = copper (II) chloride treatment; NaCl = sodium chloride treatment; A: pie charts are showing the distribution of total body cortisol between HP and MGGF. B: Bars are showing mean ± standard deviation of total body cortisol per mussel; *** are showing highly significant increase in the difference between HP and MGGF; CNF, n = 10; CF, n = 10; copper (II) chloride, n = 20; sodium chloride, n = 20

    Article Snippet: For the treatments, either CuCl2 (Carl Roth GmbH, Germany) or NaCl (crystal, J.T.BAKER, Netherlands) was added.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    UBC responses to NaCl, ATP and denatonium. Sequential stimulation with NaCl (50 mM on top of baseline concentrations in Tyrode), ATP (0.5 mM) and denatonium (25 mM); sequence of stimuli was changed between experiments ( N = 37). Graphs show representative recordings of changes in Calcium Orange® fluorescence in single cholinergic (eGFP + ) UBC. Experiments were performed during continuous superfusion with Tyrode III buffer Stimuli were added under continuous flow of Tyrode III into the chamber, so that indicated concentrations were reached initially and then washed out. Y-Axis depicts arbitrary units (AU) of Calcium Orange® fluorescence.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

    Article Title: ENaC in Cholinergic Brush Cells

    doi: 10.3389/fcell.2018.00089

    Figure Lengend Snippet: UBC responses to NaCl, ATP and denatonium. Sequential stimulation with NaCl (50 mM on top of baseline concentrations in Tyrode), ATP (0.5 mM) and denatonium (25 mM); sequence of stimuli was changed between experiments ( N = 37). Graphs show representative recordings of changes in Calcium Orange® fluorescence in single cholinergic (eGFP + ) UBC. Experiments were performed during continuous superfusion with Tyrode III buffer Stimuli were added under continuous flow of Tyrode III into the chamber, so that indicated concentrations were reached initially and then washed out. Y-Axis depicts arbitrary units (AU) of Calcium Orange® fluorescence.

    Article Snippet: Test stimuli and concentrations were denatonium benzoate (25 mM; Molekula, Munich, Germany), ATP (0.5 mM; Sigma-Aldrich/Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and NaCl (1–150 mM; Carl Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany), and inhibitors and controls included the osmolarity control mannitol (1–150 mM; Sigma-Aldrich/Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and the ENaC inhibitor amiloride (0.01–100 μM; Sigma-Aldrich/Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Sequencing, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry

    SDS-PAGE of lysin purification after AEC, IMAC, thrombin digest, and more AEC. The 10% acrylamide gel was run at 60V for 30 mins followed by 150V for 60 mins in buffer containing 50 mM Tris, 50 mM MOPS, 0.1% SDS, and 1 mM EDTA, pH 6.8. The lanes from left to right: (1) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs), (2) 210 mM NaCl eluate from second AEC after thrombin digest, (3) 250 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (4) 25 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (5) 200 mM NaCl eluate from first AEC, (6) crude B-PER lysate of IPTG-induced E. coli , (7) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs).

    Journal: Bacteriophage

    Article Title: Isolation and characterization of a novel phage lysin active against Paenibacillus larvae, a honeybee pathogen

    doi: 10.1080/21597081.2015.1080787

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDS-PAGE of lysin purification after AEC, IMAC, thrombin digest, and more AEC. The 10% acrylamide gel was run at 60V for 30 mins followed by 150V for 60 mins in buffer containing 50 mM Tris, 50 mM MOPS, 0.1% SDS, and 1 mM EDTA, pH 6.8. The lanes from left to right: (1) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs), (2) 210 mM NaCl eluate from second AEC after thrombin digest, (3) 250 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (4) 25 mM imidazole eluate from IMAC, (5) 200 mM NaCl eluate from first AEC, (6) crude B-PER lysate of IPTG-induced E. coli , (7) 10-250 kDa Protein Ladder (New England Biolabs).

    Article Snippet: The crude protein extracts were then directly applied to a HiTrap DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange column (AEC) equilibrated with 20 mM Tris, pH 7.6, and eluted using a stepwise gradient of NaCl according to manufacturer's instructions (GE Healthcare, 17-5055-01).

    Techniques: SDS Page, Purification, Acrylamide Gel Assay

    Comparison of urinary TGF-β1 excretion in WT and TGFβ1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet on weeks 0, 1, and 5 . A : free urinary TGF-β1 levels. Total urinary TGF-β1 levels are presented in B . *Significant difference

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of urinary TGF-β1 excretion in WT and TGFβ1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet on weeks 0, 1, and 5 . A : free urinary TGF-β1 levels. Total urinary TGF-β1 levels are presented in B . *Significant difference

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the expression of TGF-β1 ( A ), TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 ( B ) protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the expression of TGF-β1 ( A ), TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 ( B ) protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Comparison of renal cortical histology ( A ) in WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 and 5 wk. Glomerular injury index ( B ) and renal cortical interstitial fibrosis ( C ) were assessed. *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of renal cortical histology ( A ) in WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 and 5 wk. Glomerular injury index ( B ) and renal cortical interstitial fibrosis ( C ) were assessed. *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of renal medullary histology ( A ) in WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 and 5 wk. Renal medullary interstitial fibrosis ( B ) was assessed. *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of renal medullary histology ( A ) in WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 and 5 wk. Renal medullary interstitial fibrosis ( B ) was assessed. *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the expression of COL4A1 and α-SMA protein in the renal cortex ( A and B ) and outer medulla ( C and D ) of WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the expression of COL4A1 and α-SMA protein in the renal cortex ( A and B ) and outer medulla ( C and D ) of WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Comparison of renal cortical TGF-β1 levels in rats fed 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 or 5 wk. A : free renal cortical TGF-β1 levels. Total renal cortical TGF-β1 levels are presented in B . *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of renal cortical TGF-β1 levels in rats fed 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 or 5 wk. A : free renal cortical TGF-β1 levels. Total renal cortical TGF-β1 levels are presented in B . *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF-β +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 wk. A : representative blots. B, C, D : a comparison of the relative

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF-β +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 1 wk. A : representative blots. B, C, D : a comparison of the relative

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Comparison of the expression of podocin ( A ) and nephrin ( B ) protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Physiological Genomics

    Article Title: Heterozygous knockout of transforming growth factor-?1 protects Dahl S rats against high salt-induced renal injury

    doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00119.2012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the expression of podocin ( A ) and nephrin ( B ) protein in the renal cortex of WT and TGF-β1 +/− rats fed a 0.4% or 8% NaCl diet for 5 wk. *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Renal cortical COL4A1 was similar in WT and TGF-β1+/− rats fed 0.4% NaCl diet for 5 wk.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Interaction between OligoG CF-5/20 and LPS. ( a ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA). ( b ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: The antimicrobial effects of the alginate oligomer OligoG CF-5/20 are independent of direct bacterial cell membrane disruption

    doi: 10.1038/srep44731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interaction between OligoG CF-5/20 and LPS. ( a ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA). ( b ) Heat effects per injection ( q i ) for the titration of 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into 10 mg/ml LPS (▪), 20 mg/ml OligoG CF-5/20 into buffer (o), buffer into 10 mg/ml LPS (Δ), and buffer into buffer (∇) at 37 °C (buffer is 20 mM phosphate pH 7, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA).

    Article Snippet: Materials were obtained from the following companies: deuterium oxide (D2 O; with 99.9% isotopic purity), LPS (from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10), Triton X-100, carboxyfluorescein (Cbfl), colistin sulphate, polymyxin B, Tris HCl, propidium iodide (PI), 1-N -phenylnapthylamine (NPN), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium fluoride (Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, U.K.); sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl), hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetone (Fisher Scientific, Loughborough, U.K.); phosphate buffered saline (PBS) tablets, tryptic soy broth (TSB), Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth, (Oxoid, Basingstoke, U.K.); nitrocefin, (Calbiochem, Darmstadt, Germany); and egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), (Lipid Products, Nutfield, UK).

    Techniques: Injection, Titration

    Effect of LiCl (a) and NaCl (b) on viability of LNCap cells. Values are expressed as mean+SD from at least three independents experiments in triplicate. * P

    Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Effect of lithium chloride and antineoplastic drugs on survival and cell cycle of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCap cells

    doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.103265

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of LiCl (a) and NaCl (b) on viability of LNCap cells. Values are expressed as mean+SD from at least three independents experiments in triplicate. * P

    Article Snippet: LiCl and sodium chloride (NaCl) were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany), and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, USA).

    Techniques:

    A. Reporter assay of virF promoter activity in an hns mutant . An hns deletion mutant of S. sonnei strain MS4841 carrying virFTL-lacZ (striped bars) was grown in YENB media with or without 150 mM NaCl were subjected to the β-galactosidase assay. For a comparison of activities, the data from Figure 1C, Graph 1, which was derived from simultaneous assays, is indicated by three solid bars on the left side of the graph. Strain and concentration of NaCl are indicated at the bottom of the graph as follows: Wt, wild-type strain (solid bars); hns , hns deletion mutant (striped bars); YENB medium, 0 (white bars); YENB medium with 150 mM NaCl, 150 mM (gray bars). B. Western blot analysis of H-NS and CpxR expression . An overnight LB culture of MS390 at 30°C was inoculated into fresh media and then the cells were cultured until they reached mid-log phase ( A 600 = 0.8). Media, temperature (YENB at 37°C; LB at 30°C and 37°C) and the concentration of NaCl are indicated on the top of the panel. Antibodies used for detection are indicated on the right side of the panels. A cross-reactive unknown protein detected by the anti-H-NS antiserum was used as a loding control.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Involvement of RNA-binding protein Hfq in the osmotic-response regulation of invE gene expression in Shigella sonnei

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Reporter assay of virF promoter activity in an hns mutant . An hns deletion mutant of S. sonnei strain MS4841 carrying virFTL-lacZ (striped bars) was grown in YENB media with or without 150 mM NaCl were subjected to the β-galactosidase assay. For a comparison of activities, the data from Figure 1C, Graph 1, which was derived from simultaneous assays, is indicated by three solid bars on the left side of the graph. Strain and concentration of NaCl are indicated at the bottom of the graph as follows: Wt, wild-type strain (solid bars); hns , hns deletion mutant (striped bars); YENB medium, 0 (white bars); YENB medium with 150 mM NaCl, 150 mM (gray bars). B. Western blot analysis of H-NS and CpxR expression . An overnight LB culture of MS390 at 30°C was inoculated into fresh media and then the cells were cultured until they reached mid-log phase ( A 600 = 0.8). Media, temperature (YENB at 37°C; LB at 30°C and 37°C) and the concentration of NaCl are indicated on the top of the panel. Antibodies used for detection are indicated on the right side of the panels. A cross-reactive unknown protein detected by the anti-H-NS antiserum was used as a loding control.

    Article Snippet: YENB medium containing 150 mM NaCl (Wako Chemical, Tokyo Japan) was used as the physiological osmotic medium.

    Techniques: Reporter Assay, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Concentration Assay, Western Blot, Expressing, Cell Culture

    A. InvE expression in Δp invE:: p araBAD strain MS5512 . Δp invE:: p araBAD strain MS5512 and wild-type strain MS390 were grown overnight in LB medium containing chloramphenicol and 50 μM arabinose, washed twice with fresh LB medium, and then inoculated into YENB media containing increasing concentrations of arabinose and cultured at 37°C with or without 150 mM NaCl, as indicated. Strains (Δ pinvE::paraBAD , MS5512; Wt, wild-type strain MS390), concentration of NaCl (0 mM or 150 mM) and concentration of arabinose (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mM) are indicated above the panels. Primers and antibodies used in the experiments are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Stability of InvE protein . Δ invE strain MS1632 carrying the expression plasmid pBAD-invE was grown in YENB media containing ampicillin and 100 μM arabinose, with or without 150 mM NaCl, at 37°C. When cultures reached an A 600 of 0.8, rifampicin was added. Cells were harvested at 10 min intervals for a period of 40 min. Whole cell cultures (10 μl) were analysed by Western blot using anti-InvE and -IpaB antibodies.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Involvement of RNA-binding protein Hfq in the osmotic-response regulation of invE gene expression in Shigella sonnei

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. InvE expression in Δp invE:: p araBAD strain MS5512 . Δp invE:: p araBAD strain MS5512 and wild-type strain MS390 were grown overnight in LB medium containing chloramphenicol and 50 μM arabinose, washed twice with fresh LB medium, and then inoculated into YENB media containing increasing concentrations of arabinose and cultured at 37°C with or without 150 mM NaCl, as indicated. Strains (Δ pinvE::paraBAD , MS5512; Wt, wild-type strain MS390), concentration of NaCl (0 mM or 150 mM) and concentration of arabinose (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mM) are indicated above the panels. Primers and antibodies used in the experiments are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Stability of InvE protein . Δ invE strain MS1632 carrying the expression plasmid pBAD-invE was grown in YENB media containing ampicillin and 100 μM arabinose, with or without 150 mM NaCl, at 37°C. When cultures reached an A 600 of 0.8, rifampicin was added. Cells were harvested at 10 min intervals for a period of 40 min. Whole cell cultures (10 μl) were analysed by Western blot using anti-InvE and -IpaB antibodies.

    Article Snippet: YENB medium containing 150 mM NaCl (Wako Chemical, Tokyo Japan) was used as the physiological osmotic medium.

    Techniques: Expressing, Cell Culture, Concentration Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Western Blot

    A. InvE and IpaB expression in the hfq deletion mutant . Wild-type strain MS390 and the hfq mutant strain MS4831 were cultured in YENB media with or without NaCl, and then subjected to Western blot analysis. Strains and concentration of NaCl are indicated above the panels. Antibodies used in the experiment are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Effect of ectopic Hfq expression on InvE and IpaB in the hfq mutant . hfq deletion mutants carrying an Hfq expression plasmid or a control plasmid were subjected to Western blot analysis. Strains were grown in YENB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG, or YENB medium containing ampicillin, IPTG and 150 mM NaCl at 37°C, and then harvested. Strains, concentration of NaCl and plasmids (minus, pTrc99A; plus, pTrc-hfq) are indicated above the panel. Lane 1, wild-type strain MS390 grown in YENB medium; Lane 2, Δ hfq (pTrc99A) grown in YENB plus 0.1 mM IPTG; Lane 3, Δ hfq (pTrc-hfq) grown in YENB plus 0.1 mM IPTG; Lane 4, Δ hfq (pTrc99A) grown in YENB with 150 mM NaCl plus 1 mM IPTG; Lane 5, Δ hfq (pTrc-hfq) grown in YENB with 150 mM NaCl plus 1 mM IPTG.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Involvement of RNA-binding protein Hfq in the osmotic-response regulation of invE gene expression in Shigella sonnei

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. InvE and IpaB expression in the hfq deletion mutant . Wild-type strain MS390 and the hfq mutant strain MS4831 were cultured in YENB media with or without NaCl, and then subjected to Western blot analysis. Strains and concentration of NaCl are indicated above the panels. Antibodies used in the experiment are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Effect of ectopic Hfq expression on InvE and IpaB in the hfq mutant . hfq deletion mutants carrying an Hfq expression plasmid or a control plasmid were subjected to Western blot analysis. Strains were grown in YENB medium containing ampicillin and IPTG, or YENB medium containing ampicillin, IPTG and 150 mM NaCl at 37°C, and then harvested. Strains, concentration of NaCl and plasmids (minus, pTrc99A; plus, pTrc-hfq) are indicated above the panel. Lane 1, wild-type strain MS390 grown in YENB medium; Lane 2, Δ hfq (pTrc99A) grown in YENB plus 0.1 mM IPTG; Lane 3, Δ hfq (pTrc-hfq) grown in YENB plus 0.1 mM IPTG; Lane 4, Δ hfq (pTrc99A) grown in YENB with 150 mM NaCl plus 1 mM IPTG; Lane 5, Δ hfq (pTrc-hfq) grown in YENB with 150 mM NaCl plus 1 mM IPTG.

    Article Snippet: YENB medium containing 150 mM NaCl (Wako Chemical, Tokyo Japan) was used as the physiological osmotic medium.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mutagenesis, Cell Culture, Western Blot, Concentration Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    A. Stability of invE mRNA in low osmotic growth conditions . Pre-cultures were inoculated into 35 ml of fresh YENB media and then grown at 37°C with shaking. When cultures reached an A 600 of 0.8, rifampicin was added, then cells were harvested at 2 min intervals. Total RNA (100 ng) was used for RT-PCR analysis, and 10 μl of the amplified product was subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis. NaCl concentration (150 mM, 0 mM), strains (Wild-type strain MS390; Δ hfq , MS4831) and time after rifampicin treatment (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 32 min) are indicated above the panels. Primers used in the experiments are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Decay curves of invE mRNAs . Total RNA (100 ng) was subjected to real-time PCR analysis. The amount of RNA was normalized to an internal control (6S RNA) and expression was expressed relative to expression at time 0, which was set as 1.0. The X-axis indicates time after rifampicin treatment (0 to 8 min). Presence or absence of 150 mM NaCl (plus, minus) and strains (Wt, wild-type strain MS390; Δ hfq , MS4831) are indicated on the right side of the graph.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Involvement of RNA-binding protein Hfq in the osmotic-response regulation of invE gene expression in Shigella sonnei

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. Stability of invE mRNA in low osmotic growth conditions . Pre-cultures were inoculated into 35 ml of fresh YENB media and then grown at 37°C with shaking. When cultures reached an A 600 of 0.8, rifampicin was added, then cells were harvested at 2 min intervals. Total RNA (100 ng) was used for RT-PCR analysis, and 10 μl of the amplified product was subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis. NaCl concentration (150 mM, 0 mM), strains (Wild-type strain MS390; Δ hfq , MS4831) and time after rifampicin treatment (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 32 min) are indicated above the panels. Primers used in the experiments are indicated on the right side of the panels. B. Decay curves of invE mRNAs . Total RNA (100 ng) was subjected to real-time PCR analysis. The amount of RNA was normalized to an internal control (6S RNA) and expression was expressed relative to expression at time 0, which was set as 1.0. The X-axis indicates time after rifampicin treatment (0 to 8 min). Presence or absence of 150 mM NaCl (plus, minus) and strains (Wt, wild-type strain MS390; Δ hfq , MS4831) are indicated on the right side of the graph.

    Article Snippet: YENB medium containing 150 mM NaCl (Wako Chemical, Tokyo Japan) was used as the physiological osmotic medium.

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Concentration Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    A. InvE and IpaB expression in different osmotic conditions . An overnight culture of strain MS390 at 30°C was inoculated into fresh YENB medium with or without osmolytes and then incubated at 37°C until mid-log phase ( A 600 = 0.8). Medium, osmolyte, and concentration are indicated at the top of the panel. Antibodies used for detection are indicated on the right of the panels. A cross-reactive unknown protein detected by the anti-InvE antiserum was used as a loading control for InvE Western blot analysis throughout this study. B . Expression of > invE and virF mRNA and InvE and IpaB protein expression in S. Sonnei . Total RNA (100 ng) and 10 μl of the indicate culture were subjected to analysis of mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The 6S RNA ssrS gene was used as control for RT-PCR. Primers and antibodies are indicated on the right side of the panels. Concentration of NaCl in the medium is indicated at top of the panel. C. Expression of invE and virF > promoter-driven reporter genes . Wild-type S. sonnei strain MS390 carrying the indicated reporter plasmids were subjected to a β-galactosidase assay: Graph 1, virFTL-lacZ translational fusion plasmid pHW848; Graph 2, invETx-lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid pJM4320; Graph 3, invETL-lacZ translational fusion plasmid pJM4321. Concentration of NaCl is indicated at the bottom of the graphs. Details of the control experiments, indicated by black bars (NC)are described in methods.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Involvement of RNA-binding protein Hfq in the osmotic-response regulation of invE gene expression in Shigella sonnei

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. InvE and IpaB expression in different osmotic conditions . An overnight culture of strain MS390 at 30°C was inoculated into fresh YENB medium with or without osmolytes and then incubated at 37°C until mid-log phase ( A 600 = 0.8). Medium, osmolyte, and concentration are indicated at the top of the panel. Antibodies used for detection are indicated on the right of the panels. A cross-reactive unknown protein detected by the anti-InvE antiserum was used as a loading control for InvE Western blot analysis throughout this study. B . Expression of > invE and virF mRNA and InvE and IpaB protein expression in S. Sonnei . Total RNA (100 ng) and 10 μl of the indicate culture were subjected to analysis of mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The 6S RNA ssrS gene was used as control for RT-PCR. Primers and antibodies are indicated on the right side of the panels. Concentration of NaCl in the medium is indicated at top of the panel. C. Expression of invE and virF > promoter-driven reporter genes . Wild-type S. sonnei strain MS390 carrying the indicated reporter plasmids were subjected to a β-galactosidase assay: Graph 1, virFTL-lacZ translational fusion plasmid pHW848; Graph 2, invETx-lacZ transcriptional fusion plasmid pJM4320; Graph 3, invETL-lacZ translational fusion plasmid pJM4321. Concentration of NaCl is indicated at the bottom of the graphs. Details of the control experiments, indicated by black bars (NC)are described in methods.

    Article Snippet: YENB medium containing 150 mM NaCl (Wako Chemical, Tokyo Japan) was used as the physiological osmotic medium.

    Techniques: Expressing, Incubation, Concentration Assay, Western Blot, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Plasmid Preparation

    TTFields induce a dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca 2+ -entry in human glioblastoma cells. ( A ) Time course of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min)-induced changes of mean (±SE; n = 8–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio as recorded in T98G (left) and U251 (right) cells with Ca 2+ (1 mM)-containing NaCl-solution (closed triangles) and EGTA (0.6 mM)-buffered Ca 2+ -free NaCl-solution (open circles). ( B ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with Ca 2+ -containing NaCl-solution (open circles), Ca 2+ -containing NaCl solution further containing 1 µM benidipine (red triangles) or 1 µM nifedipine (blue diamonds). ( C ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–39) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with benidipine (1 µM, top, red symbols) or nifedipine (1 µM, bottom, blue symbols)-containing NaCl-solution and after wash-out of the inhibitors (open symbols). ( D ) Mean (±SE; n = 34–63) slope (as indicated by white lines in ( C )) of the fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio changes before (control), at the end and shortly after TTF-application (middle) both in the presence of benidipine (red) or nifedipine (blue) as well as after wash-out of the inhibitors. * and *** in ( D ) indicate 3 p ≤ 0.05 and 3 p ≤ 0.01, respectively, (Welch)-corrected t -test and Bonferroni correction for 3 pairwise comparisons.

    Journal: Cancers

    Article Title: Alternating Electric Fields (TTFields) Activate Cav1.2 Channels in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cancers11010110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TTFields induce a dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca 2+ -entry in human glioblastoma cells. ( A ) Time course of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min)-induced changes of mean (±SE; n = 8–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio as recorded in T98G (left) and U251 (right) cells with Ca 2+ (1 mM)-containing NaCl-solution (closed triangles) and EGTA (0.6 mM)-buffered Ca 2+ -free NaCl-solution (open circles). ( B ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–20) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with Ca 2+ -containing NaCl-solution (open circles), Ca 2+ -containing NaCl solution further containing 1 µM benidipine (red triangles) or 1 µM nifedipine (blue diamonds). ( C ) Mean (±SE; n = 13–39) fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio recorded in T98G (left) and U251 cells (right) before, during, and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 2.5 V/cm, 3 min) during continuous superfusion with benidipine (1 µM, top, red symbols) or nifedipine (1 µM, bottom, blue symbols)-containing NaCl-solution and after wash-out of the inhibitors (open symbols). ( D ) Mean (±SE; n = 34–63) slope (as indicated by white lines in ( C )) of the fura-2 340/380 nm fluorescence ratio changes before (control), at the end and shortly after TTF-application (middle) both in the presence of benidipine (red) or nifedipine (blue) as well as after wash-out of the inhibitors. * and *** in ( D ) indicate 3 p ≤ 0.05 and 3 p ≤ 0.01, respectively, (Welch)-corrected t -test and Bonferroni correction for 3 pairwise comparisons.

    Article Snippet: Control, CACNA1C- or nt siRNA-transfected T98G and U251 cells (48 h after transfection) were incubated with fura-2/AM (2 µM for 30 min at 37 °C; Molecular Probes, Goettingen, Germany) in RPMI-1640/10% FCS and DMEM/10% FCS medium, respectively. free [Ca2+ ]i was recorded at 37 °C during superfusion with Ca2+ -containing NaCl solution (in mM: 125 NaCl, 32 HEPES, 5 KCl, 5 d -glucose, 1 MgCl2 , 1 CaCl2 , titrated with NaOH to pH 7.4), with Ca2+ -free NaCl solution (in mM: 125 NaCl, 32 HEPES, 5 KCl, 5 d -glucose, 1 MgCl2 , 0.6 EGTA, titrated with NaOH to pH 7.4), or with Ca2+ -containing NaCl solution further containing the L-, N-, T-type Ca2+ channel blocker benidipine or the L-type inhibitor nifedipine (both 1 µM, Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany) before, during and after application of TTFields (200 kHz, 0–2.5 V/cm).

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Morphologies of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 33815 incubated in artificial sea water (pH 6) microcosms with varying concentrations of NaCl at 4 °C on the seventh day. ( A , B ) Bacterial cells in a microcosm containing 0.75% NaCl; ( C , D ) cells in a microcosm amended with 5% NaCl; ( E , F ) cells in a microcosm amended with 10% NaCl; and ( G , H ) cells in a microcosm amended with 30% NaCl. Arrows point out the collapse of cytoplasmic spaces, which resulted in the development of gaps between the cell membrane and the peripheral membrane

    Journal: Food Science and Biotechnology

    Article Title: Effects of varying concentrations of sodium chloride and acidic conditions on the behavior of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus cold-starved in artificial sea water microcosms

    doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0105-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphologies of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 33815 incubated in artificial sea water (pH 6) microcosms with varying concentrations of NaCl at 4 °C on the seventh day. ( A , B ) Bacterial cells in a microcosm containing 0.75% NaCl; ( C , D ) cells in a microcosm amended with 5% NaCl; ( E , F ) cells in a microcosm amended with 10% NaCl; and ( G , H ) cells in a microcosm amended with 30% NaCl. Arrows point out the collapse of cytoplasmic spaces, which resulted in the development of gaps between the cell membrane and the peripheral membrane

    Article Snippet: V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969, V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 33844, and V. vulnificus ATCC 33815 in ASW were plating-counted on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 3% NaCl (TSA, Difco) and thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS, Difco).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Loss of culturability in Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 33815 incubated in artificial sea water microcosms (pH 4, 5, 6, and 7) containing ( A ) 0.75% NaCl or supplemented with ( B ) 5%, ( C ) 10%, and ( D ) 30% NaCl, respectively, at 4 °C for 30 days. These culutrabilities were enumerated on a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar, TSA). The number of viable cells of V. vulnificus ATCC 33815 was measured via the fluorescent microscopic assay using the Live/Dead BacLight R bacterial viability kit. Filled circle , culturability at pH 7; open circle , viability at pH 7; filled triangle , culturability at pH 6; open triangle , viability at pH 6; filled square , culturability at pH 5; open square , viability at pH 5; filled diamond culturability at pH 4; open diamond , viability at pH 4

    Journal: Food Science and Biotechnology

    Article Title: Effects of varying concentrations of sodium chloride and acidic conditions on the behavior of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus cold-starved in artificial sea water microcosms

    doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0105-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Loss of culturability in Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 33815 incubated in artificial sea water microcosms (pH 4, 5, 6, and 7) containing ( A ) 0.75% NaCl or supplemented with ( B ) 5%, ( C ) 10%, and ( D ) 30% NaCl, respectively, at 4 °C for 30 days. These culutrabilities were enumerated on a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar, TSA). The number of viable cells of V. vulnificus ATCC 33815 was measured via the fluorescent microscopic assay using the Live/Dead BacLight R bacterial viability kit. Filled circle , culturability at pH 7; open circle , viability at pH 7; filled triangle , culturability at pH 6; open triangle , viability at pH 6; filled square , culturability at pH 5; open square , viability at pH 5; filled diamond culturability at pH 4; open diamond , viability at pH 4

    Article Snippet: V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969, V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 33844, and V. vulnificus ATCC 33815 in ASW were plating-counted on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 3% NaCl (TSA, Difco) and thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS, Difco).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Group means ± standard error of water intake (white bars) and CS intake (quinine upper panel, citric acid lower panel) on conditioning days 1, 2, and 3. For mice injected with LiCl (left panel, black bars) and NaCl (right panel, gray bars). *Significantly

    Journal: Chemical Senses

    Article Title: Citric Acid and Quinine Share Perceived Chemosensory Features Making Oral Discrimination Difficult in C57BL/6J Mice

    doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjr010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Group means ± standard error of water intake (white bars) and CS intake (quinine upper panel, citric acid lower panel) on conditioning days 1, 2, and 3. For mice injected with LiCl (left panel, black bars) and NaCl (right panel, gray bars). *Significantly

    Article Snippet: LiCl (Sigma Chemical Co.) and NaCl (Mallinckrodt Chemicals) served as the unconditioned stimuli.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    ( a ) Effects of NaOH concentration on membrane performance of PAUt membranes; Effects of CS concentration on membrane performance of ( b ) PAUt-CS and ( c ) PAUt-PDDA/PSS/CS. Testing conditions: 1.55 MPa and 2000 ppm NaCl as feed solution at 25.0 ± 2.0 °C.

    Journal: Polymers

    Article Title: Modification of Polyamide-Urethane (PAUt) Thin Film Composite Membrane for Improving the Reverse Osmosis Performance

    doi: 10.3390/polym10040346

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) Effects of NaOH concentration on membrane performance of PAUt membranes; Effects of CS concentration on membrane performance of ( b ) PAUt-CS and ( c ) PAUt-PDDA/PSS/CS. Testing conditions: 1.55 MPa and 2000 ppm NaCl as feed solution at 25.0 ± 2.0 °C.

    Article Snippet: 5-choroformyloxyisophaloyl chloride (CFIC, Purity ≥ 99%) was synthesized via tri-phosgene (BTC) method in the presence of composite catalyst imidazole-pyridine according to Ref. [ ]. m-phenylenediamine (MPD), triethyl amine (TEA), (+)-10-champhor sulfonic acid (CSA), glutaconaldehyde (GA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were purchased from J & K Scientific Ltd. (Beijing, China) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), n -hexane, and sodium chloride (NaCl) were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay