mptp Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Millipore mptp
    <t>Cyclosporin</t> A prevents protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and cell death (both necrosis and apoptosis) induced by partial GSH depletion nPC12 cells were incubated for 12 h with 50 μM DEM in the absence or presence of 5 μM cyclosporin A (CsA), a classical <t>MPTP</t> inhibitor. (a) The proportion of necrotic and apoptotic cells determined by morphological analysis of 400 cells. ( b ) GSH levels measured by spectrophotometric analysis. ( c ) PCO levels measured by oxyblot. ( d ) Protein aggregation measured by differential centrifugation. Values represent the means±S.E.M. of three experiments. Asterisks denote values that are significantly different (* P
    Mptp, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1093 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 1093 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore 1 methyl 4 phenyl 1
    Schematic representation of the experimental design. Neuronal behaviors of mice were recorded on days 0, 2, 5, 8, 15, and 22. Parkinson’s disease induction was performed by <t>1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine</t> administration on day 1. Adipose-derived stem cell transplantation was performed on day 3. Brains of target mice were collected on day 22.
    1 Methyl 4 Phenyl 1, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 244 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/1 methyl 4 phenyl 1/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 244 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    1 methyl 4 phenyl 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore mptp hydrochloride
    Lack of <t>IL4</t> has no impact on the susceptibility toward 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine <t>(MPTP)-induced</t> neurodegeneration. (A) Scheme for MPTP injections and time points used for qPCR, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. (B) Expression of IL4 in total tissue samples from substantia nigra (SN) and caudate putamen (CPu) of wild type (WT) mice 1 and 2 days after MPTP injections. qPCR results were normalized to Gapdh and are given as fold changes ( n = 3 PBS, n = 3 MPTP). (C) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 7 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. Scale bar indicates 300 μm. (D) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 7 days. Equal reductions in dopamine levels were observed in both genotypes. (E) Quantification of TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice. No significant changes in neurodegeneration were detected between WT and mutant (IL4 KO) mice. (F) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 90 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. (G) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days. Similar recoveries of dopamine levels were observed in WT and IL4 KO mice. (H) TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days were not significantly different between WT and IL4 KO mice, indicating normal regeneration of mDA neurons in IL4-deficient mice. Scale bars indicate 300 μm. Data are given as mean ± SEM from at least three mice per genotype and time point. P -values derived from one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison post-test are ∗ p
    Mptp Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 288 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp hydrochloride/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 288 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp hydrochloride - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Genmed mptp assay kit
    The influence of lycopene on the opening of <t>mPTP</t> in <t>cardiomyocytes</t> exposed to H/R. The mPTP opening was assayed using the calcein–cobalt quenching method. Different group of cardiomyocytes were used to measure the normalized relative fluorescence units (NRFU) of calcein. ** P
    Mptp Assay Kit, supplied by Genmed, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 98 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp assay kit/product/Genmed
    Average 88 stars, based on 98 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp assay kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Genmed mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp
    Cap and DHC increase ROS and intracellular Ca 2+ levels, and activate the mitochondrial pathway in U251 cells following 12 h treatment with 200 µM Cap or DHC. (A) Intracellular ROS levels were assessed through detection of fluorescent DCF by flow cytometry. (B) Intracellular Ca 2+ was detected with <t>Fluo</t> 3-AM by laser scanning confocal microscopy. (C) MPTPs were detected using a GENMED <t>MPTP</t> living cell fluorescence detection kit and an inverted fluorescence microscope. (D) Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using Rhodamine 123 and a laser scanning confocal microscope. ROS, reactive oxygen species; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Cap, capsaicin; DHC, dihydrocapsaicin; DCF, dichlorofluorescein.
    Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Mptp, supplied by Genmed, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 46 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp/product/Genmed
    Average 88 stars, based on 46 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Genmed mptp fluorescence assay kit
    Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore <t>(MPTP)</t> opening in rat myocardial tissues. ( A ) The change in mitochondrial membrane potential was detected with JC-1 fluorescent probe by laser confocal microscopy. Red color represented JC-1 aggregate and green color represented JC-1 monomer; ( B ) Summarized data for the relative changes in JC-1 fluorescence; ( C ) The change in MPTP opening was detected with <t>calcein-AM</t> as a fluorescence indicator by laser confocal microscopy; ( D ) Summarized data for the relative changes in calcein fluorescence. ISO: isopropylarterenol; SO 2 : sulfur dioxide; ** p
    Mptp Fluorescence Assay Kit, supplied by Genmed, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp fluorescence assay kit/product/Genmed
    Average 85 stars, based on 14 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp fluorescence assay kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Thermo Fisher mptp opening
    DOX provokes mitochondrial perturbations contingent on Bnip3. Shown are mitochondrial perturbations induced by DOX in the absence or presence of Bnip3 knockdown. ( A , Top ) Epifluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes assessed for <t>mPTP</t> by mitochondrial <t>calcein-AM-CoCl</t> 2 (green). Loss of green fluorescence is indicative of mPTP opening. ( Middle ) Epifluorescence microscopy of ROS as assessed by dihydroethidine (red). ( Bottom for details. ( B–D ) Histograms for quantitative data for conditions shown in A . Data were obtained from three independent myocyte isolations using two replicates for each condition tested. P
    Mptp Opening, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 146 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp opening/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 90 stars, based on 146 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp opening - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Tokyo Chemical Industry base mptp hcl
    Similar microglial activation in <t>MPTP-treated</t> WT and <t>Cx30</t> KO. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP and analysed on day 1 or 7 after treatment. a , b Number of Iba1-positive cells in the striatum ( a ) and SNc ( b ) of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1. c , d Iba1 immunostaining of the striatum and SNc on days 1 ( c ) and 7 ( d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. N.S., not significant; *** p
    Base Mptp Hcl, supplied by Tokyo Chemical Industry, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/base mptp hcl/product/Tokyo Chemical Industry
    Average 92 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    base mptp hcl - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    BioVision mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp activity
    Similar microglial activation in <t>MPTP-treated</t> WT and <t>Cx30</t> KO. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP and analysed on day 1 or 7 after treatment. a , b Number of Iba1-positive cells in the striatum ( a ) and SNc ( b ) of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1. c , d Iba1 immunostaining of the striatum and SNc on days 1 ( c ) and 7 ( d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. N.S., not significant; *** p
    Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Mptp Activity, supplied by BioVision, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp activity/product/BioVision
    Average 93 stars, based on 12 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mitochondrial permeability transition pore mptp activity - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Sequoia Research mptp hcl
    Effects of Valproate <t>(VPA)</t> on striatal dopamine (DA) and DA turnover following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine <t>(MPTP).</t> Treatment with VPA increased striatal DA levels (A), as measured by high pressure liquid chromatography
    Mptp Hcl, supplied by Sequoia Research, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp hcl/product/Sequoia Research
    Average 91 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp hcl - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    US Biological Life Sciences mptp blocker
    Effects of Valproate <t>(VPA)</t> on striatal dopamine (DA) and DA turnover following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine <t>(MPTP).</t> Treatment with VPA increased striatal DA levels (A), as measured by high pressure liquid chromatography
    Mptp Blocker, supplied by US Biological Life Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp blocker/product/US Biological Life Sciences
    Average 92 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp blocker - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    3M Co mptp administration
    Effects of Valproate <t>(VPA)</t> on striatal dopamine (DA) and DA turnover following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine <t>(MPTP).</t> Treatment with VPA increased striatal DA levels (A), as measured by high pressure liquid chromatography
    Mptp Administration, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp administration/product/3M Co
    Average 88 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp administration - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Genmed mptp fluorescence assay
    Effects of TubA on ROS, <t>mPTP,</t> apoptosis rate, and cellular injury in Prdx1-WT-HA- and Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells exposed to HG. HG: high glucose (30 mM); HR: hypoxia/reoxygenation; TubA: tubastatin A; WT: Prdx1-WT-HA-transfected H9c2 cells; K197R: Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells. (a) Representative immunoblot showing expression of Acetyl-K and HA in Prx1-WT- or Prdx1-K197R-transfected H9C2 cells. GAPDH served as the loading control. (b) Cardiomyocyte cell viability. (c) Cardiomyocyte LDH release. (d) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (e) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (f) Representative images of ROS staining and the mean fluorescence intensity of DCFDA in each group. (g) Representative images of flow cytometry and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates in each group. (h) Fluorescent images of the cells show the change in integrity of mPTP. All values are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6/group. ∗ p
    Mptp Fluorescence Assay, supplied by Genmed, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mptp fluorescence assay/product/Genmed
    Average 92 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mptp fluorescence assay - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Cyclosporin A prevents protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and cell death (both necrosis and apoptosis) induced by partial GSH depletion nPC12 cells were incubated for 12 h with 50 μM DEM in the absence or presence of 5 μM cyclosporin A (CsA), a classical MPTP inhibitor. (a) The proportion of necrotic and apoptotic cells determined by morphological analysis of 400 cells. ( b ) GSH levels measured by spectrophotometric analysis. ( c ) PCO levels measured by oxyblot. ( d ) Protein aggregation measured by differential centrifugation. Values represent the means±S.E.M. of three experiments. Asterisks denote values that are significantly different (* P

    Journal: ASN NEURO

    Article Title: Protein carbonylation and aggregation precede neuronal apoptosis induced by partial glutathione depletion

    doi: 10.1042/AN20110064

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cyclosporin A prevents protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and cell death (both necrosis and apoptosis) induced by partial GSH depletion nPC12 cells were incubated for 12 h with 50 μM DEM in the absence or presence of 5 μM cyclosporin A (CsA), a classical MPTP inhibitor. (a) The proportion of necrotic and apoptotic cells determined by morphological analysis of 400 cells. ( b ) GSH levels measured by spectrophotometric analysis. ( c ) PCO levels measured by oxyblot. ( d ) Protein aggregation measured by differential centrifugation. Values represent the means±S.E.M. of three experiments. Asterisks denote values that are significantly different (* P

    Article Snippet: Other drugs tested were the MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore) inhibitor cyclosporin A (Calbiochem), the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL -Asp-fluoromethylketone; Sigma), the apoptosis initiator staurosporine (Sigma) and the GSH depletor BSO (buthionine sulfoximine; Sigma).

    Techniques: Incubation, Centrifugation

    Schematic representation of the experimental design. Neuronal behaviors of mice were recorded on days 0, 2, 5, 8, 15, and 22. Parkinson’s disease induction was performed by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration on day 1. Adipose-derived stem cell transplantation was performed on day 3. Brains of target mice were collected on day 22.

    Journal: Cell Transplantation

    Article Title: Adipose-derived Stem Cells Stimulated withn-Butylidenephthalide Exhibit Therapeutic Effects in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    doi: 10.1177/0963689718757408

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of the experimental design. Neuronal behaviors of mice were recorded on days 0, 2, 5, 8, 15, and 22. Parkinson’s disease induction was performed by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration on day 1. Adipose-derived stem cell transplantation was performed on day 3. Brains of target mice were collected on day 22.

    Article Snippet: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP-HCl) (Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in PBS at a stock concentration of 7 mg/mL.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Derivative Assay, Transplantation Assay

    Lack of IL4 has no impact on the susceptibility toward 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration. (A) Scheme for MPTP injections and time points used for qPCR, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. (B) Expression of IL4 in total tissue samples from substantia nigra (SN) and caudate putamen (CPu) of wild type (WT) mice 1 and 2 days after MPTP injections. qPCR results were normalized to Gapdh and are given as fold changes ( n = 3 PBS, n = 3 MPTP). (C) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 7 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. Scale bar indicates 300 μm. (D) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 7 days. Equal reductions in dopamine levels were observed in both genotypes. (E) Quantification of TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice. No significant changes in neurodegeneration were detected between WT and mutant (IL4 KO) mice. (F) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 90 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. (G) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days. Similar recoveries of dopamine levels were observed in WT and IL4 KO mice. (H) TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days were not significantly different between WT and IL4 KO mice, indicating normal regeneration of mDA neurons in IL4-deficient mice. Scale bars indicate 300 μm. Data are given as mean ± SEM from at least three mice per genotype and time point. P -values derived from one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison post-test are ∗ p

    Journal: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

    Article Title: Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo

    doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00062

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lack of IL4 has no impact on the susceptibility toward 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration. (A) Scheme for MPTP injections and time points used for qPCR, HPLC and immunohistochemistry. (B) Expression of IL4 in total tissue samples from substantia nigra (SN) and caudate putamen (CPu) of wild type (WT) mice 1 and 2 days after MPTP injections. qPCR results were normalized to Gapdh and are given as fold changes ( n = 3 PBS, n = 3 MPTP). (C) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 7 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. Scale bar indicates 300 μm. (D) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 7 days. Equal reductions in dopamine levels were observed in both genotypes. (E) Quantification of TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice. No significant changes in neurodegeneration were detected between WT and mutant (IL4 KO) mice. (F) Immunohistochemical detection of TH + neurons in the SN 90 days after injections with PBS and MPTP. (G) Striatal dopamine levels in PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days. Similar recoveries of dopamine levels were observed in WT and IL4 KO mice. (H) TH + neuron numbers in the SN of PBS- and MPTP-injected mice after 90 days were not significantly different between WT and IL4 KO mice, indicating normal regeneration of mDA neurons in IL4-deficient mice. Scale bars indicate 300 μm. Data are given as mean ± SEM from at least three mice per genotype and time point. P -values derived from one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison post-test are ∗ p

    Article Snippet: MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration Adult (10–12 weeks) male wild type (WT) and IL4 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP hydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich) dissolved in 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) once a day for three consecutive days as previously described ( ).

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Immunohistochemistry, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection, Mutagenesis, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Derivative Assay

    Catalpol alleviates impairment of exploratory behavior in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with catalpol (15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (saline) for 3 days, and then administered MPTP (30 mg/kg/day; n = 11), MPTP + catalpol, or vehicle starting on day 4 for 5 days. Mice that were previously treated with MPTP + catalpol ( n = 9) were continually administered catalpol for 6 days; those primed with MPTP received the vehicle for 6 days. Mice treated with the vehicle saline served as the control group ( n = 10). (A) Treatment schedule. (B) Representative images of movement trials in the open field test (OFT). (C) Quantitative analysis of total distance traveled in the OFT. (D) Distance from the zone center. (E) The number of entries into the zone center in the OFT. (F,G) Time and score in the pole-climbing test. (H) The average amount of time mice remained on the rod in the Rotarod test. Data represent mean ± SEM. The P -values were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). * P

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Catalpol Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2019.00316

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Catalpol alleviates impairment of exploratory behavior in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with catalpol (15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (saline) for 3 days, and then administered MPTP (30 mg/kg/day; n = 11), MPTP + catalpol, or vehicle starting on day 4 for 5 days. Mice that were previously treated with MPTP + catalpol ( n = 9) were continually administered catalpol for 6 days; those primed with MPTP received the vehicle for 6 days. Mice treated with the vehicle saline served as the control group ( n = 10). (A) Treatment schedule. (B) Representative images of movement trials in the open field test (OFT). (C) Quantitative analysis of total distance traveled in the OFT. (D) Distance from the zone center. (E) The number of entries into the zone center in the OFT. (F,G) Time and score in the pole-climbing test. (H) The average amount of time mice remained on the rod in the Rotarod test. Data represent mean ± SEM. The P -values were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). * P

    Article Snippet: The mice (n = 11 pre-group) were intraperitoneally injected with catalpol dissolved in saline (15 mg/kg/day; Chengdu Manster Biotechnology Co., Chengdu, China; A0215) or vehicle (saline) for 3 days, followed by MPTP (30 mg/kg/day; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; M0896), MPTP + catalpol, or vehicle starting on day 4 for 5 days.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    Astrocyte expression. (A) Western blot of GFAP in the VM. (B) Quantification by western blot of GFAP protein expression did not show a significant increase but a positive tendency in the Parkinsonian animals compared to the non-intoxicated mice can be observed. (C) Western blot of GFAP in the striatum. (D) Quantification by western blot showed a significant increase of GFAP expression in Parkinsonian animals sacrificed after 48 h (* p = 0.0370) compared with its control group and with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) mice sacrificed after 4 h (** p = 0.0046) and 8 h (* p = 0.0473).

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Study of the Link Between Neuronal Death, Glial Response, and MAPK Pathway in Old Parkinsonian Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Astrocyte expression. (A) Western blot of GFAP in the VM. (B) Quantification by western blot of GFAP protein expression did not show a significant increase but a positive tendency in the Parkinsonian animals compared to the non-intoxicated mice can be observed. (C) Western blot of GFAP in the striatum. (D) Quantification by western blot showed a significant increase of GFAP expression in Parkinsonian animals sacrificed after 48 h (* p = 0.0370) compared with its control group and with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) mice sacrificed after 4 h (** p = 0.0046) and 8 h (* p = 0.0473).

    Article Snippet: Experimental Groups and MPTP Intoxication Regime All animals were randomly distributed into two main groups: control group (n = 20) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) group (n = 20).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Mouse Assay

    (A) Western blot of phosphor-p38 in the VM. (B) Quantification by western blot of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression shows higher levels in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) mice compared with control animals. (C) Western blot phosphor-p38 in the striatum. (D) Quantification by western blot showed a significant increase of phospho-p38 MAPK expression in Parkinsonian animals sacrificed after 48 h (** p

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Study of the Link Between Neuronal Death, Glial Response, and MAPK Pathway in Old Parkinsonian Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Western blot of phosphor-p38 in the VM. (B) Quantification by western blot of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression shows higher levels in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) mice compared with control animals. (C) Western blot phosphor-p38 in the striatum. (D) Quantification by western blot showed a significant increase of phospho-p38 MAPK expression in Parkinsonian animals sacrificed after 48 h (** p

    Article Snippet: Experimental Groups and MPTP Intoxication Regime All animals were randomly distributed into two main groups: control group (n = 20) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) group (n = 20).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Representative images of TH, Iba-1, and GFAP immunostaining of control and Parkinsonian mice at 48 h after the last 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) injection. The microphotographs show a decrease in the number of TH-positive neurons and striatal fibers in the MPTP mice as well as an increase in the number of microglial and astroglial cells, with morphological changes. These findings are consistent with the data obtained in the western blot for dopaminergic neuronal death and astroglial response (magnification, ×40; scale bar = 50 μm, except for the figures of TH in the SNpc; magnification, ×10; scale bar = 200 μm and TH in the striatum; magnification, ×20; scale bar = 100 μm). (A) Coronal sections in the SNpc (scale bar = 500 μm). (B) Coronal sections in the striatum (scale bar = 500 μm).

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Study of the Link Between Neuronal Death, Glial Response, and MAPK Pathway in Old Parkinsonian Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative images of TH, Iba-1, and GFAP immunostaining of control and Parkinsonian mice at 48 h after the last 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) injection. The microphotographs show a decrease in the number of TH-positive neurons and striatal fibers in the MPTP mice as well as an increase in the number of microglial and astroglial cells, with morphological changes. These findings are consistent with the data obtained in the western blot for dopaminergic neuronal death and astroglial response (magnification, ×40; scale bar = 50 μm, except for the figures of TH in the SNpc; magnification, ×10; scale bar = 200 μm and TH in the striatum; magnification, ×20; scale bar = 100 μm). (A) Coronal sections in the SNpc (scale bar = 500 μm). (B) Coronal sections in the striatum (scale bar = 500 μm).

    Article Snippet: Experimental Groups and MPTP Intoxication Regime All animals were randomly distributed into two main groups: control group (n = 20) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) group (n = 20).

    Techniques: Immunostaining, Mouse Assay, Injection, Western Blot

    Scheme of the experimental design with mice distribution and different time points of sacrifice after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) intoxication: 4, 8, 24, and 48 h.

    Journal: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

    Article Title: Study of the Link Between Neuronal Death, Glial Response, and MAPK Pathway in Old Parkinsonian Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scheme of the experimental design with mice distribution and different time points of sacrifice after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) intoxication: 4, 8, 24, and 48 h.

    Article Snippet: Experimental Groups and MPTP Intoxication Regime All animals were randomly distributed into two main groups: control group (n = 20) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP) group (n = 20).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The influence of lycopene on the opening of mPTP in cardiomyocytes exposed to H/R. The mPTP opening was assayed using the calcein–cobalt quenching method. Different group of cardiomyocytes were used to measure the normalized relative fluorescence units (NRFU) of calcein. ** P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis by Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Primary Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050778

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The influence of lycopene on the opening of mPTP in cardiomyocytes exposed to H/R. The mPTP opening was assayed using the calcein–cobalt quenching method. Different group of cardiomyocytes were used to measure the normalized relative fluorescence units (NRFU) of calcein. ** P

    Article Snippet: Detection of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (mPTP) Opening The opening mPTP of cardiomyocytes were detected by using the calcein–cobalt with a mPTP assay kit (Genmed Scientifics Inc., USA) according to the manufacturer's directions as described previously .

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Effect of L-Cth on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in Hcy-treated HUVECs. (a) Change of mitochondrial membrane potential detected by a JC-1 fluorescent probe, with red fluorescence indicating high mitochondrial membrane potential and green indicating low mitochondrial membrane potential (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (b) Changes of MPTP opening in HUVECs detected with calcein AM. The green fluorescence quenching represented MPTP opening (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). L-Cth: L-cystathionine.

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: L-Cystathionine Protects against Homocysteine-Induced Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2019/1253289

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of L-Cth on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in Hcy-treated HUVECs. (a) Change of mitochondrial membrane potential detected by a JC-1 fluorescent probe, with red fluorescence indicating high mitochondrial membrane potential and green indicating low mitochondrial membrane potential (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (b) Changes of MPTP opening in HUVECs detected with calcein AM. The green fluorescence quenching represented MPTP opening (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). L-Cth: L-cystathionine.

    Article Snippet: Detection of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) Opening in HUVECs The MPTP opening in HUVECs was determined with a Cell MPTP Assay Kit (Genmed Scientific Inc., Arlington, TX, USA).

    Techniques: Permeability, Fluorescence

    Effect of L-Cth on Bax expression, MPTP opening, caspase-9 activity, and cleaved-caspase3 expression in Hcy-treated HUVECs when administering BTSA1 in advance. (a) Bax expression analyzed by western blotting. (b) Changes of MPTP opening in HUVECs (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (c) Caspase-9 activity detected with the living cell caspase-9 Fluo-staining kit (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (d) Quantitative analysis of caspase-9 activities measured with the caspase-9 activity colorimetric kit. (e) Cleavage of caspase-3 analyzed by western blotting. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. # P

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: L-Cystathionine Protects against Homocysteine-Induced Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    doi: 10.1155/2019/1253289

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of L-Cth on Bax expression, MPTP opening, caspase-9 activity, and cleaved-caspase3 expression in Hcy-treated HUVECs when administering BTSA1 in advance. (a) Bax expression analyzed by western blotting. (b) Changes of MPTP opening in HUVECs (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (c) Caspase-9 activity detected with the living cell caspase-9 Fluo-staining kit (magnification, ×600; scale bar: 20 μ m). (d) Quantitative analysis of caspase-9 activities measured with the caspase-9 activity colorimetric kit. (e) Cleavage of caspase-3 analyzed by western blotting. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. # P

    Article Snippet: Detection of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) Opening in HUVECs The MPTP opening in HUVECs was determined with a Cell MPTP Assay Kit (Genmed Scientific Inc., Arlington, TX, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay, Western Blot, Staining

    Cap and DHC increase ROS and intracellular Ca 2+ levels, and activate the mitochondrial pathway in U251 cells following 12 h treatment with 200 µM Cap or DHC. (A) Intracellular ROS levels were assessed through detection of fluorescent DCF by flow cytometry. (B) Intracellular Ca 2+ was detected with Fluo 3-AM by laser scanning confocal microscopy. (C) MPTPs were detected using a GENMED MPTP living cell fluorescence detection kit and an inverted fluorescence microscope. (D) Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using Rhodamine 123 and a laser scanning confocal microscope. ROS, reactive oxygen species; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Cap, capsaicin; DHC, dihydrocapsaicin; DCF, dichlorofluorescein.

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin induce apoptosis in human glioma cells via ROS and Ca2+-mediated mitochondrial pathway

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5784

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cap and DHC increase ROS and intracellular Ca 2+ levels, and activate the mitochondrial pathway in U251 cells following 12 h treatment with 200 µM Cap or DHC. (A) Intracellular ROS levels were assessed through detection of fluorescent DCF by flow cytometry. (B) Intracellular Ca 2+ was detected with Fluo 3-AM by laser scanning confocal microscopy. (C) MPTPs were detected using a GENMED MPTP living cell fluorescence detection kit and an inverted fluorescence microscope. (D) Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using Rhodamine 123 and a laser scanning confocal microscope. ROS, reactive oxygen species; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Cap, capsaicin; DHC, dihydrocapsaicin; DCF, dichlorofluorescein.

    Article Snippet: Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Fluo-3AM, GENMED mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) living cell fluorescence detection kit and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Dojindo Molecular Technologies, Inc. (Kumamoto, Japan).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Permeability

    Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in rat myocardial tissues. ( A ) The change in mitochondrial membrane potential was detected with JC-1 fluorescent probe by laser confocal microscopy. Red color represented JC-1 aggregate and green color represented JC-1 monomer; ( B ) Summarized data for the relative changes in JC-1 fluorescence; ( C ) The change in MPTP opening was detected with calcein-AM as a fluorescence indicator by laser confocal microscopy; ( D ) Summarized data for the relative changes in calcein fluorescence. ISO: isopropylarterenol; SO 2 : sulfur dioxide; ** p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: The Role of Sulfur Dioxide in the Regulation of Mitochondrion-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Rats with Isopropylarterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury

    doi: 10.3390/ijms140510465

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in rat myocardial tissues. ( A ) The change in mitochondrial membrane potential was detected with JC-1 fluorescent probe by laser confocal microscopy. Red color represented JC-1 aggregate and green color represented JC-1 monomer; ( B ) Summarized data for the relative changes in JC-1 fluorescence; ( C ) The change in MPTP opening was detected with calcein-AM as a fluorescence indicator by laser confocal microscopy; ( D ) Summarized data for the relative changes in calcein fluorescence. ISO: isopropylarterenol; SO 2 : sulfur dioxide; ** p

    Article Snippet: MPTP Opening Detection MPTP opening was determined with calcein-AM in the presence of cobalt chloride using the commercial MPTP fluorescence assay kit (GMS10095, Genmed Scientific Inc., Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: Permeability, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescence

    DOX provokes mitochondrial perturbations contingent on Bnip3. Shown are mitochondrial perturbations induced by DOX in the absence or presence of Bnip3 knockdown. ( A , Top ) Epifluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes assessed for mPTP by mitochondrial calcein-AM-CoCl 2 (green). Loss of green fluorescence is indicative of mPTP opening. ( Middle ) Epifluorescence microscopy of ROS as assessed by dihydroethidine (red). ( Bottom for details. ( B–D ) Histograms for quantitative data for conditions shown in A . Data were obtained from three independent myocyte isolations using two replicates for each condition tested. P

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Bnip3 mediates doxorubicin-induced cardiac myocyte necrosis and mortality through changes in mitochondrial signaling

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414665111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DOX provokes mitochondrial perturbations contingent on Bnip3. Shown are mitochondrial perturbations induced by DOX in the absence or presence of Bnip3 knockdown. ( A , Top ) Epifluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes assessed for mPTP by mitochondrial calcein-AM-CoCl 2 (green). Loss of green fluorescence is indicative of mPTP opening. ( Middle ) Epifluorescence microscopy of ROS as assessed by dihydroethidine (red). ( Bottom for details. ( B–D ) Histograms for quantitative data for conditions shown in A . Data were obtained from three independent myocyte isolations using two replicates for each condition tested. P

    Article Snippet: To monitor mPTP opening, myocytes were incubated with 5 μmol/L calcein-AM (Molecular Probes) in the presence of 2–5 mmol/L cobalt chloride, as reported previously ( ).

    Techniques: Epifluorescence Microscopy, Fluorescence

    DOX triggers mitochondrial perturbations and necrotic death of cardiac myoctyes. ( A ) Epifluorescence microscopy of control (CTRL) and DOX-treated cells for mPTP opening ( Left ), ROS ( Center ), and mitochondrial ΔΨm ( Right for details. ( B ) Cell viability of ventricular myocytes stained with vital dyes calcein-AM and ethidium-homodimer to detect the live (green) and dead (red) cells, respectively, in the absence and presence of DOX treatment (5 and 10 μM) for 18 h. ( C ) Histogram of the quantitative data in B . Data are expressed as mean ± SEM from at least four independent cell culture experiments counting ≥200 cells for each condition tested. P

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Bnip3 mediates doxorubicin-induced cardiac myocyte necrosis and mortality through changes in mitochondrial signaling

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414665111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DOX triggers mitochondrial perturbations and necrotic death of cardiac myoctyes. ( A ) Epifluorescence microscopy of control (CTRL) and DOX-treated cells for mPTP opening ( Left ), ROS ( Center ), and mitochondrial ΔΨm ( Right for details. ( B ) Cell viability of ventricular myocytes stained with vital dyes calcein-AM and ethidium-homodimer to detect the live (green) and dead (red) cells, respectively, in the absence and presence of DOX treatment (5 and 10 μM) for 18 h. ( C ) Histogram of the quantitative data in B . Data are expressed as mean ± SEM from at least four independent cell culture experiments counting ≥200 cells for each condition tested. P

    Article Snippet: To monitor mPTP opening, myocytes were incubated with 5 μmol/L calcein-AM (Molecular Probes) in the presence of 2–5 mmol/L cobalt chloride, as reported previously ( ).

    Techniques: Epifluorescence Microscopy, Staining, Cell Culture

    Similar microglial activation in MPTP-treated WT and Cx30 KO. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP and analysed on day 1 or 7 after treatment. a , b Number of Iba1-positive cells in the striatum ( a ) and SNc ( b ) of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1. c , d Iba1 immunostaining of the striatum and SNc on days 1 ( c ) and 7 ( d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. N.S., not significant; *** p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Similar microglial activation in MPTP-treated WT and Cx30 KO. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP and analysed on day 1 or 7 after treatment. a , b Number of Iba1-positive cells in the striatum ( a ) and SNc ( b ) of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1. c , d Iba1 immunostaining of the striatum and SNc on days 1 ( c ) and 7 ( d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. N.S., not significant; *** p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Mouse Assay, Injection, Immunostaining

    Reduced MPTP-induced GFAP upregulation in Cx30-deficient mice. a , b GFAP immunostaining of the striatum on day 1 ( a ) and 7 ( b ) after injection of WT and Cx30 KO mice with normal saline (NS) or MPTP. c Quantification of Western blot analysis of GFAP protein levels normalised to β-actin levels. d , e GFAP immunostaining ( d ) and GFAP-positive cell numbers ( e ) in the SNc in WT and Cx30 KO mice 7 days after injection of NS or MPTP. Data are the mean ± SEM of n = 3 ( c ) or 4 ( e ) mice. * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduced MPTP-induced GFAP upregulation in Cx30-deficient mice. a , b GFAP immunostaining of the striatum on day 1 ( a ) and 7 ( b ) after injection of WT and Cx30 KO mice with normal saline (NS) or MPTP. c Quantification of Western blot analysis of GFAP protein levels normalised to β-actin levels. d , e GFAP immunostaining ( d ) and GFAP-positive cell numbers ( e ) in the SNc in WT and Cx30 KO mice 7 days after injection of NS or MPTP. Data are the mean ± SEM of n = 3 ( c ) or 4 ( e ) mice. * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Immunostaining, Injection, Western Blot

    Acceleration of MPTP-induced nigrostriatal damage by Cx30 deficiency. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP, and mice were analysed 7 days later. a , b TH immunostaining of the striatum ( a ) and the SNc ( b ) in scale bars a 50 μm and b 100 μm. c , d TH-positive fibre density in the striatum ( c ) and number of TH-positive cells in the SNc ( d ). e Concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the striatum. The experiment to examine the MPTP-induced acceleration of DA neuron death was repeated three times, and essentially, the same results were obtained. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Acceleration of MPTP-induced nigrostriatal damage by Cx30 deficiency. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP, and mice were analysed 7 days later. a , b TH immunostaining of the striatum ( a ) and the SNc ( b ) in scale bars a 50 μm and b 100 μm. c , d TH-positive fibre density in the striatum ( c ) and number of TH-positive cells in the SNc ( d ). e Concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the striatum. The experiment to examine the MPTP-induced acceleration of DA neuron death was repeated three times, and essentially, the same results were obtained. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM of n = 4 mice per group. * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Immunostaining

    Expression of Gdnf and S100a10 mRNA in S100β-positive astrocytes. Left panels: Gdnf ( a ) and S100a10 ( b ) in situ hybridisation (blue colour) combined with S100β immunohistochemistry (brown colour) in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice 1 day after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Gdnf and S100a10 mRNA expression (yellow arrowheads) colocalise with S100β-positive astrocytes. Black boxes show enlarged images in each picture. Right panels: Quantification of the number of Gdnf and S100β double-positive cells ( a ) and S100a10 and S100β double-positive cells ( b ). Each point is a data from an individual image. Horizontal bars represent the mean ± SEM of n = 12 ( a ) or 9 ( b ) images per group. * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of Gdnf and S100a10 mRNA in S100β-positive astrocytes. Left panels: Gdnf ( a ) and S100a10 ( b ) in situ hybridisation (blue colour) combined with S100β immunohistochemistry (brown colour) in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice 1 day after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Gdnf and S100a10 mRNA expression (yellow arrowheads) colocalise with S100β-positive astrocytes. Black boxes show enlarged images in each picture. Right panels: Quantification of the number of Gdnf and S100β double-positive cells ( a ) and S100a10 and S100β double-positive cells ( b ). Each point is a data from an individual image. Horizontal bars represent the mean ± SEM of n = 12 ( a ) or 9 ( b ) images per group. * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Expressing, In Situ, Hybridization, Immunohistochemistry, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Microarray gene expression analysis of A1, A2, and pan-reactive astrocyte gene sets at day 1 after MPTP treatment. a Scatter plots. Black arrows show the genes that were validated by RT-PCR. The X - and Y -axis values are the log10 scale-normalised signals. b Enrichment plots (green curve) show the running sum of the enrichment score (ES) for each gene set. The score at the peak of the plots is the ES for each gene set. The black bars show where the members of the gene set appear in the ranked list of genes. A predominance of black bars to the left or right side indicates that most genes are upregulated in MPTP-treated WT mice or MPTP-treated Cx30 KO mice, respectively

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microarray gene expression analysis of A1, A2, and pan-reactive astrocyte gene sets at day 1 after MPTP treatment. a Scatter plots. Black arrows show the genes that were validated by RT-PCR. The X - and Y -axis values are the log10 scale-normalised signals. b Enrichment plots (green curve) show the running sum of the enrichment score (ES) for each gene set. The score at the peak of the plots is the ES for each gene set. The black bars show where the members of the gene set appear in the ranked list of genes. A predominance of black bars to the left or right side indicates that most genes are upregulated in MPTP-treated WT mice or MPTP-treated Cx30 KO mice, respectively

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Microarray, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mouse Assay

    Microarray gene expression analysis of M1, M2, and M1/M2 mixed microglia gene sets at 1 day after MPTP treatment. a Scatter plots. The X - and Y -axis values are log10 scale-normalised signals. b Enrichment plots (green curve) show the running sum of enrichment score (ES) for each gene set. The score at the peak of the plots is the ES for each gene set. The black bars show where the members of the gene set appear in the ranked list of genes. A predominance of black bars to the left or right side indicates that most genes are upregulated in MPTP-treated WT mice or MPTP-treated Cx30 KO mice, respectively

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microarray gene expression analysis of M1, M2, and M1/M2 mixed microglia gene sets at 1 day after MPTP treatment. a Scatter plots. The X - and Y -axis values are log10 scale-normalised signals. b Enrichment plots (green curve) show the running sum of enrichment score (ES) for each gene set. The score at the peak of the plots is the ES for each gene set. The black bars show where the members of the gene set appear in the ranked list of genes. A predominance of black bars to the left or right side indicates that most genes are upregulated in MPTP-treated WT mice or MPTP-treated Cx30 KO mice, respectively

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Microarray, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Alteration of S100a10 and Gdnf expression in the striatum by Cx30 deficiency. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP, and mice were analysed 1 and 7 days later. a , b RT-PCR analysis of S100a10 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. c , d RT-PCR analysis of Gdnf mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. e ELISA analysis of GDNF protein levels. Analyses were performed on days 1 ( a , c , e ) and 7 ( b , d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. N.S., not significant; * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alteration of S100a10 and Gdnf expression in the striatum by Cx30 deficiency. WT and Cx30 KO mice were injected with normal saline (NS) or MPTP, and mice were analysed 1 and 7 days later. a , b RT-PCR analysis of S100a10 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. c , d RT-PCR analysis of Gdnf mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. e ELISA analysis of GDNF protein levels. Analyses were performed on days 1 ( a , c , e ) and 7 ( b , d ) after treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. N.S., not significant; * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Cx30 immunostaining in the striatum. a , b Upper panels: Cx30 immunostaining in the striatum in WT mice 1 day ( a ) and 7 days ( b ) after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Lower panels: Enlarged images showing the areas marked with a white box in the upper panels. The sections were triple-stained for Cx30 (green), GFAP (red), and DAPI (blue, nuclei). Scale bars: upper panels, 100 μm; lower panels, 50 μm

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cx30 immunostaining in the striatum. a , b Upper panels: Cx30 immunostaining in the striatum in WT mice 1 day ( a ) and 7 days ( b ) after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Lower panels: Enlarged images showing the areas marked with a white box in the upper panels. The sections were triple-stained for Cx30 (green), GFAP (red), and DAPI (blue, nuclei). Scale bars: upper panels, 100 μm; lower panels, 50 μm

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Immunostaining, Mouse Assay, Injection, Staining

    Effects of MPTP on Cx30 levels in the striatum of WT mice on days 1 and 7 after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. a Number of Cx30-immunoreactive dots counted by Nikon NIS-Element software. b qRT-PCR analysis of Cx30 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. c Cx30 protein levels measured by Western blotting and normalised to β-actin levels. Data are the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of MPTP on Cx30 levels in the striatum of WT mice on days 1 and 7 after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. a Number of Cx30-immunoreactive dots counted by Nikon NIS-Element software. b qRT-PCR analysis of Cx30 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. c Cx30 protein levels measured by Western blotting and normalised to β-actin levels. Data are the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Software, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    Cx43 immunostaining in the striatum. Left two columns: Cx43 immunostaining in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1 ( a ) and 7 ( b ) after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Right two columns: Enlarged images showing the areas marked with a white box in the left columns. The sections were triple-stained for Cx43 (green), GFAP (red), and DAPI (blue, nuclei). Scale bars: left columns, 100 μm; right columns, 50 μm

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cx43 immunostaining in the striatum. Left two columns: Cx43 immunostaining in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice on day 1 ( a ) and 7 ( b ) after injection of normal saline (NS) or MPTP. Right two columns: Enlarged images showing the areas marked with a white box in the left columns. The sections were triple-stained for Cx43 (green), GFAP (red), and DAPI (blue, nuclei). Scale bars: left columns, 100 μm; right columns, 50 μm

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Immunostaining, Mouse Assay, Injection, Staining

    Effects of MPTP on Cx43 expression in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice on days 1 and 7 after the treatment with normal saline (NS) or MPTP. a , b Number of Cx43-immunoreactive dots counted by Nikon NIS-Element software. c , d , qRT-PCR analysis of Cx30 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. e , f Cx30 protein levels measured by Western blotting and normalised to β-actin levels. Analyses were performed on day 1 ( a , c , e ) and day 7 ( b , d , f ) after treatment. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. * p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Connexin 30 deficiency attenuates A2 astrocyte responses and induces severe neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride Parkinson’s disease animal model

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1251-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of MPTP on Cx43 expression in the striatum of WT and Cx30 KO mice on days 1 and 7 after the treatment with normal saline (NS) or MPTP. a , b Number of Cx43-immunoreactive dots counted by Nikon NIS-Element software. c , d , qRT-PCR analysis of Cx30 mRNA levels normalised to Gapdh mRNA. e , f Cx30 protein levels measured by Western blotting and normalised to β-actin levels. Analyses were performed on day 1 ( a , c , e ) and day 7 ( b , d , f ) after treatment. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM of n = 4–5 mice per group. * p

    Article Snippet: MPTP treatment Eight-week-old male WT and Cx30 KO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg of free base MPTP-HCl (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo, Japan) four times at 2 h intervals, and were sacrificed on days 1 and 7 after the last injection.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Software, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    Effects of Valproate (VPA) on striatal dopamine (DA) and DA turnover following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Treatment with VPA increased striatal DA levels (A), as measured by high pressure liquid chromatography

    Journal: Neuroscience

    Article Title: Protective Effects of Valproic Acid on the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of Valproate (VPA) on striatal dopamine (DA) and DA turnover following administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Treatment with VPA increased striatal DA levels (A), as measured by high pressure liquid chromatography

    Article Snippet: Either saline or VPA was administered 30 min prior to administration of MPTP-HCl (Sequoia Research Products Ltd, Pangbourne, UK).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Effects of TubA on ROS, mPTP, apoptosis rate, and cellular injury in Prdx1-WT-HA- and Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells exposed to HG. HG: high glucose (30 mM); HR: hypoxia/reoxygenation; TubA: tubastatin A; WT: Prdx1-WT-HA-transfected H9c2 cells; K197R: Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells. (a) Representative immunoblot showing expression of Acetyl-K and HA in Prx1-WT- or Prdx1-K197R-transfected H9C2 cells. GAPDH served as the loading control. (b) Cardiomyocyte cell viability. (c) Cardiomyocyte LDH release. (d) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (e) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (f) Representative images of ROS staining and the mean fluorescence intensity of DCFDA in each group. (g) Representative images of flow cytometry and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates in each group. (h) Fluorescent images of the cells show the change in integrity of mPTP. All values are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6/group. ∗ p

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: Inhibition of HDAC6 Activity Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats: Potential Role of Peroxiredoxin 1 Acetylation and Redox Regulation

    doi: 10.1155/2018/9494052

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of TubA on ROS, mPTP, apoptosis rate, and cellular injury in Prdx1-WT-HA- and Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells exposed to HG. HG: high glucose (30 mM); HR: hypoxia/reoxygenation; TubA: tubastatin A; WT: Prdx1-WT-HA-transfected H9c2 cells; K197R: Prdx1-K197R-HA-transfected H9c2 cells. (a) Representative immunoblot showing expression of Acetyl-K and HA in Prx1-WT- or Prdx1-K197R-transfected H9C2 cells. GAPDH served as the loading control. (b) Cardiomyocyte cell viability. (c) Cardiomyocyte LDH release. (d) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (e) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (f) Representative images of ROS staining and the mean fluorescence intensity of DCFDA in each group. (g) Representative images of flow cytometry and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates in each group. (h) Fluorescent images of the cells show the change in integrity of mPTP. All values are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6/group. ∗ p

    Article Snippet: Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pores (mPTPs) in Cardiomyocytes To examine mPTP opening, an mPTP fluorescence assay (Genmed Scientifics Inc., MA, USA) was performed.

    Techniques: Transfection, Expressing, Staining, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Effects of TubA on ROS, mPTP, apoptosis rate, and cellular injury in H9c2 cells exposed to HG. HG: high glucose (30 mM); HR: hypoxia/reoxygenation; TubA: tubastatin A. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to 4 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation with or without TubA under LG or HG stimulation. (a) Representative images of ROS staining and the mean fluorescence intensity of DCFDA in each group. (b) Representative images of flow cytometry and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates in each group. (c) Fluorescent images of the cells show the change in integrity of mPTP. (d) Cardiomyocyte H 2 O 2 concentration. (e) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (f) Cardiomyocyte LDH release. (g) Cardiomyocyte cell viability. All values are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6/group. ▲ p

    Journal: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

    Article Title: Inhibition of HDAC6 Activity Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats: Potential Role of Peroxiredoxin 1 Acetylation and Redox Regulation

    doi: 10.1155/2018/9494052

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of TubA on ROS, mPTP, apoptosis rate, and cellular injury in H9c2 cells exposed to HG. HG: high glucose (30 mM); HR: hypoxia/reoxygenation; TubA: tubastatin A. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to 4 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation with or without TubA under LG or HG stimulation. (a) Representative images of ROS staining and the mean fluorescence intensity of DCFDA in each group. (b) Representative images of flow cytometry and cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates in each group. (c) Fluorescent images of the cells show the change in integrity of mPTP. (d) Cardiomyocyte H 2 O 2 concentration. (e) Cardiomyocyte superoxide anion production. (f) Cardiomyocyte LDH release. (g) Cardiomyocyte cell viability. All values are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6/group. ▲ p

    Article Snippet: Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pores (mPTPs) in Cardiomyocytes To examine mPTP opening, an mPTP fluorescence assay (Genmed Scientifics Inc., MA, USA) was performed.

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Concentration Assay