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  • 99
    Millipore medroxyprogesterone acetate mpa
    Regulation of breast cancer cell invasiveness by pre-menopausal concentrations of estrogen and progestin and dose-dependent effects of <t>medroxyprogesterone</t> acetate In panels A–C. hormone depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel A) , T47D cells (Panel B) , and BT474 cells (Panel C) at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or E 2 (4 nM), alone or in combination with R5020 (5 nM or 50 nM) for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel transwell invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or R5020 present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In the negative control, serum free media (SFM) was used instead of the FBS chemoattractant. In panels D–F. hormone-depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel D) , T47D cells (Panel E) , and BT474 cells (Panel F) cells at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or the indicated concetrations of <t>MPA</t> either with or without 1nM E 2 for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or MPA present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In panels A–F, values for invasiveness are represented as average number of cells invaded from triplicate treatment sets and the error bars represent standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was performed on triplicate treatment sets and P values are indicated.
    Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Mpa, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 94 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore mpa
    Structure of <t>BME</t> (top) and <t>MPA</t> (bottom) chitosan adducts. The protons corresponding to the 1 H NMR peaks used for the calculations of the functionalization degree in eqn (2) and eqn (3) are highlighted.
    Mpa, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 987 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore mycophenolic acid mpa
    Inhibition of virus infectivity. Image analysis on CHIKV-118-GFP infection of HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM <t>MPA</t> or 50 µM CQ. The percentages of infected cells are indicated on the lower right of each image (A). Production of infectious virus particles from the CHIKV-118-GFP-infected HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM MPA and 50 µM CQ (B). DMSO – CHIKV-118-GFP infection control, MOCK – non-infected control, MPA – <t>mycophenolic</t> acid, CQ – chloroquine. (false-color imaging were applied on panel A).
    Mycophenolic Acid Mpa, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 108 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Courage Khazaka electronic Gmbh cutometer mpa 580
    Clinical Application of the <t>Cutometer</t> <t>MPA</t> 580 Probe A, The probe position off the nose shows the 4-mm probe opening (arrowhead) through which suction pressure of 400 millibars will be applied to the nasal skin of the patient. B, The probe is positioned on the nasal sidewall with the opening centered over the nasal skin superficial to the scroll region of nasal cartilages, and when suction is applied, skin deformation is measured within the opening seen in panel A.
    Cutometer Mpa 580, supplied by Courage Khazaka electronic Gmbh, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 54 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Medicago mpa cdse zns qd
    Histogram of comet distribution. A) Histogram of comet distribution for cell suspension cultures added with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM of <t>MPA-CdSe/ZnS</t> QD and subjected to 50°C during 20 min based on the comet score with the A/N version. B) Images of comets that represent the 0–4 classes for visual scoring.
    Mpa Cdse Zns Qd, supplied by Medicago, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Thermo Fisher mpa modified cdte qds
    Transmission electron microscopy images of hippocampus of rats treated with 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm <t>MPA-capped</t> <t>CdTe</t> <t>QDs.</t> The arrows indicate accumulated QDs in the lysosome. Note: The insets are magnifications of parts of neurons. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dots; M, mitochondria; N, nucleus; L, lysosome; NC, nucleolus; PreM, presynaptic membrane; postM, postsynaptic membrane; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    Mpa Modified Cdte Qds, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore metaphosphoric acid mpa
    Collection tube type and preservation comparison. (A) Light protected serum, <t>EDTA</t> plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid; (B) Light <t>protected/MPA</t> preserved serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid. Legend: Serum – red triangles and dashed trendline, EDTA plasma – lavender diamonds and dash-and-dot trendline, heparinized plasma – green circles and solid trendline, 1:1 line – dotted. The regression equation and coefficient of determination are listed for each set of data.
    Metaphosphoric Acid Mpa, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Constant Systems mpa
    Collection tube type and preservation comparison. (A) Light protected serum, <t>EDTA</t> plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid; (B) Light <t>protected/MPA</t> preserved serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid. Legend: Serum – red triangles and dashed trendline, EDTA plasma – lavender diamonds and dash-and-dot trendline, heparinized plasma – green circles and solid trendline, 1:1 line – dotted. The regression equation and coefficient of determination are listed for each set of data.
    Mpa, supplied by Constant Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 219 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore lxr agonist to 901317
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Lxr Agonist To 901317, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore mpa s ethyl cellulose
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Mpa S Ethyl Cellulose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Thermo Fisher mpa
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Mpa, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 276 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    mpa  (AVESTIN)
    92
    AVESTIN mpa
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Mpa, supplied by AVESTIN, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 128 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Thermo Fisher 3 mercaptopropionic acid mpa
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    3 Mercaptopropionic Acid Mpa, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 35 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Olympus dp71 12 5 mpa digital camera
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Dp71 12 5 Mpa Digital Camera, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    80
    Schiff Nutrition International mild periodic acid schiff mpas
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Mild Periodic Acid Schiff Mpas, supplied by Schiff Nutrition International, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Toronto Research Chemicals mpa d3 internal standard
    <t>LXR</t> agonist <t>TO-901317</t> reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +
    Mpa D3 Internal Standard, supplied by Toronto Research Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    FUJIFILM mpa s
    Human NP cells in 3D <t>UPAL</t> gel composites were viable in serum-starved conditions. (a) Confocal laser-scanning micrographs of three-dimensional (3D) nucleus pulposus (NP) cell–alginate gel composites (commercial-grade alginate; <t>CAL,</t> normal viscosity ultra-purified alginate; NV-UPAL) at 6 and 48 h after serum starvation and staining with calcein AM (green) and propidium iodide (PI) (red). Five replicates were tested, and representative images are shown. Scale bar, 100 μm. (b) Cell viability determined by counts of live and dead cells in confocal laser-scanning micrographs. (* p
    Mpa S, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Hahn-Schickard mpa
    Human NP cells in 3D <t>UPAL</t> gel composites were viable in serum-starved conditions. (a) Confocal laser-scanning micrographs of three-dimensional (3D) nucleus pulposus (NP) cell–alginate gel composites (commercial-grade alginate; <t>CAL,</t> normal viscosity ultra-purified alginate; NV-UPAL) at 6 and 48 h after serum starvation and staining with calcein AM (green) and propidium iodide (PI) (red). Five replicates were tested, and representative images are shown. Scale bar, 100 μm. (b) Cell viability determined by counts of live and dead cells in confocal laser-scanning micrographs. (* p
    Mpa, supplied by Hahn-Schickard, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Thermo Fisher cedia mpa assay kits
    Linear regression showing comparison of <t>MPA</t> concentrations obtained by HPLC and <t>CEDIA</t> assay in 18 liver transplant recipients.
    Cedia Mpa Assay Kits, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Pfizer Inc medroxyprogesterone acetate mpa
    Treatment protocol of ovarian stimulation. On the menstrual cycle day 2, 3 or 4, ovarian stimulation was started with a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®; MSD), of which the dosage was determined by the patient’s body weight (150 μg for > 60 kg and 100 μg for ≦ 60 kg). <t>Medroxyprogesterone</t> acetate <t>(MPA)</t> (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after Elonva injection. Seven days after Elonva injection, follicle development was monitored by transvaginal sonography as well as serum hormone levels of E2, LH and P. The patients received trigger at night if at least three leading follicles reached above 17 mm in diameter, and the final tablet of MPA was taken in the morning of the trigger day. If the folliculogenesis was insufficient for trigger, additional HMG (Menopur®, Ferring) 150 ~ 225 IU/day would be administered for days until the requirement for trigger was met
    Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Mpa, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Olympus dp70 12 5 mpa digital camera
    Treatment protocol of ovarian stimulation. On the menstrual cycle day 2, 3 or 4, ovarian stimulation was started with a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®; MSD), of which the dosage was determined by the patient’s body weight (150 μg for > 60 kg and 100 μg for ≦ 60 kg). <t>Medroxyprogesterone</t> acetate <t>(MPA)</t> (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after Elonva injection. Seven days after Elonva injection, follicle development was monitored by transvaginal sonography as well as serum hormone levels of E2, LH and P. The patients received trigger at night if at least three leading follicles reached above 17 mm in diameter, and the final tablet of MPA was taken in the morning of the trigger day. If the folliculogenesis was insufficient for trigger, additional HMG (Menopur®, Ferring) 150 ~ 225 IU/day would be administered for days until the requirement for trigger was met
    Dp70 12 5 Mpa Digital Camera, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Olympus fluoview 1200 mpa
    Treatment protocol of ovarian stimulation. On the menstrual cycle day 2, 3 or 4, ovarian stimulation was started with a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®; MSD), of which the dosage was determined by the patient’s body weight (150 μg for > 60 kg and 100 μg for ≦ 60 kg). <t>Medroxyprogesterone</t> acetate <t>(MPA)</t> (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after Elonva injection. Seven days after Elonva injection, follicle development was monitored by transvaginal sonography as well as serum hormone levels of E2, LH and P. The patients received trigger at night if at least three leading follicles reached above 17 mm in diameter, and the final tablet of MPA was taken in the morning of the trigger day. If the folliculogenesis was insufficient for trigger, additional HMG (Menopur®, Ferring) 150 ~ 225 IU/day would be administered for days until the requirement for trigger was met
    Fluoview 1200 Mpa, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Regulation of breast cancer cell invasiveness by pre-menopausal concentrations of estrogen and progestin and dose-dependent effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate In panels A–C. hormone depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel A) , T47D cells (Panel B) , and BT474 cells (Panel C) at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or E 2 (4 nM), alone or in combination with R5020 (5 nM or 50 nM) for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel transwell invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or R5020 present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In the negative control, serum free media (SFM) was used instead of the FBS chemoattractant. In panels D–F. hormone-depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel D) , T47D cells (Panel E) , and BT474 cells (Panel F) cells at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or the indicated concetrations of MPA either with or without 1nM E 2 for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or MPA present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In panels A–F, values for invasiveness are represented as average number of cells invaded from triplicate treatment sets and the error bars represent standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was performed on triplicate treatment sets and P values are indicated.

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Role of the short isoform of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer cell invasiveness at estrogen and progesterone levels in the pre- and post-menopausal ranges

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Regulation of breast cancer cell invasiveness by pre-menopausal concentrations of estrogen and progestin and dose-dependent effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate In panels A–C. hormone depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel A) , T47D cells (Panel B) , and BT474 cells (Panel C) at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or E 2 (4 nM), alone or in combination with R5020 (5 nM or 50 nM) for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel transwell invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or R5020 present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In the negative control, serum free media (SFM) was used instead of the FBS chemoattractant. In panels D–F. hormone-depleted ZR-75-1 cells (Panel D) , T47D cells (Panel E) , and BT474 cells (Panel F) cells at 30% confluence were treated with vehicle or the indicated concetrations of MPA either with or without 1nM E 2 for 48 h. Cells were trypsinized and subjected to the matrigel invasion assay with vehicle or the appropriate concentration of E 2 and/or MPA present in the top and bottom chambers, as described under Materials and Methods. In panels A–F, values for invasiveness are represented as average number of cells invaded from triplicate treatment sets and the error bars represent standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was performed on triplicate treatment sets and P values are indicated.

    Article Snippet: 17β-estradiol (E2 ), R5020, RU486, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Transwell Invasion Assay, Concentration Assay, Negative Control, Invasion Assay, Standard Deviation

    Structure of BME (top) and MPA (bottom) chitosan adducts. The protons corresponding to the 1 H NMR peaks used for the calculations of the functionalization degree in eqn (2) and eqn (3) are highlighted.

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Regioselective thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00038fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00038f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of BME (top) and MPA (bottom) chitosan adducts. The protons corresponding to the 1 H NMR peaks used for the calculations of the functionalization degree in eqn (2) and eqn (3) are highlighted.

    Article Snippet: Reagents, materials Chitosan with a degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 91.7%, M n = 193 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.256) and 99.5%, M n = 0.8 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.245) was provided by Marinard Biotech Inc. Deuterium oxide (Cat #151882), deuterium chloride 35 wt% in deuterium oxide (Cat #543047), sodium nitrite (Cat #431605), hydrochloric acid standard solution 1.0 M in H2 O (Cat #31894-9), hydrochloric acid 37% (Cat #320331), sodium hydroxide solution 1.0 M (Cat #319511), sodium acetate (Cat #241245), DTNB (5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) (Cat #D8130), GlcNH2 d -(+)-glucosamine hydrochloride 99% (Cat #C-1276), MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid) ≥99% (Cat #63768), BME (β-mercaptoethanol) (Cat #M6250), sodium acetate trihydrate BioXtra (Cat #S7670), Dowex® 50WX8-100 [H+ ] (Cat #217506), Dowex® 1X8-50 [Cl– ] (Cat #217417) and sodium azide (Cat #S2002) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Schematic representation of potential reactions occurring during conjugation of 2,5-anhydro- d -mannose (M-Unit) and 2 thiol-bearing models (3-mercaptopropionic acid and β-mercaptoethanol, MPA and BME respectively) giving the following expected products: product A is the hemithioacetal intermediate that is in equilibrium with its corresponding oxonium, whereas products B and C correspond to the oxathiolane (for BME reactions only) and thioacetal, respectively. Molecule D represents the α,β-unsaturated sulfide. The results of this study suggest that the thioacetal C corresponds to the only stable form observed after freeze-drying.

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Regioselective thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00038fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00038f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of potential reactions occurring during conjugation of 2,5-anhydro- d -mannose (M-Unit) and 2 thiol-bearing models (3-mercaptopropionic acid and β-mercaptoethanol, MPA and BME respectively) giving the following expected products: product A is the hemithioacetal intermediate that is in equilibrium with its corresponding oxonium, whereas products B and C correspond to the oxathiolane (for BME reactions only) and thioacetal, respectively. Molecule D represents the α,β-unsaturated sulfide. The results of this study suggest that the thioacetal C corresponds to the only stable form observed after freeze-drying.

    Article Snippet: Reagents, materials Chitosan with a degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 91.7%, M n = 193 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.256) and 99.5%, M n = 0.8 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.245) was provided by Marinard Biotech Inc. Deuterium oxide (Cat #151882), deuterium chloride 35 wt% in deuterium oxide (Cat #543047), sodium nitrite (Cat #431605), hydrochloric acid standard solution 1.0 M in H2 O (Cat #31894-9), hydrochloric acid 37% (Cat #320331), sodium hydroxide solution 1.0 M (Cat #319511), sodium acetate (Cat #241245), DTNB (5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) (Cat #D8130), GlcNH2 d -(+)-glucosamine hydrochloride 99% (Cat #C-1276), MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid) ≥99% (Cat #63768), BME (β-mercaptoethanol) (Cat #M6250), sodium acetate trihydrate BioXtra (Cat #S7670), Dowex® 50WX8-100 [H+ ] (Cat #217506), Dowex® 1X8-50 [Cl– ] (Cat #217417) and sodium azide (Cat #S2002) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Conjugation Assay

    Experimental design flowchart. (A) Mechanistic studies. Glucosamine (GlcNH 2 ) was treated with nitrous acid to form the 2,5-anhydro- d -mannose (M-Unit) that was reacted with 2 thiol-bearing molecules (β-mercaptoethanol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, BME and MPA, respectively). The reaction products were treated using one of 3 methods, i.e. Method I: direct LC-MS analyses to determine to which extent thioacetal formation occurs in situ ; Method II: freeze-drying (FD) + LC-MS analyses to assess the effect of FD on the thioacetal proportion and to ascertain that no by-products appear post-FD; Method III: acetate buffer pH 4 + FD + LC-MS analyses to determine the effect of an increase in pH prior to FD (this pH increase was included here to prevent any CS acid hydrolysis that could occur when Method II, i.e. FD at pH 1, would be transposed to the polymer). (B) Chitosan M-Unit reactivity. CS 92-200 was depolymerized with nitrous acid to produce CS 92-2 HCl salt bearing the M-Unit at the cleaved end of the polymer. M-Unit CS 92-2 HCl salt was reacted with MPA and BME and the reaction products treated with one of 3 workups: Workup I: dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to remove all thiol model excess and to determine the in situ thioacetal formation rate; Workup II: FD + dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to determine the effect of FD on the functionalization rate; Workup III: acetate buffer pH 4 + FD + dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to determine the effect of an increase in pH prior to FD on the functionalization rate (this pH increase was included to prevent any CS acid hydrolysis that could occur during FD at pH 1 in Workup II). The degree of functionalization of the CS conjugates was determined by 1 H NMR, whereas covalent conjugation was assessed by DOSY NMR experiments and Ellman assays in order to rule out the possibility of a simple physical mixture of reagents.

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Regioselective thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00038fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00038f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental design flowchart. (A) Mechanistic studies. Glucosamine (GlcNH 2 ) was treated with nitrous acid to form the 2,5-anhydro- d -mannose (M-Unit) that was reacted with 2 thiol-bearing molecules (β-mercaptoethanol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, BME and MPA, respectively). The reaction products were treated using one of 3 methods, i.e. Method I: direct LC-MS analyses to determine to which extent thioacetal formation occurs in situ ; Method II: freeze-drying (FD) + LC-MS analyses to assess the effect of FD on the thioacetal proportion and to ascertain that no by-products appear post-FD; Method III: acetate buffer pH 4 + FD + LC-MS analyses to determine the effect of an increase in pH prior to FD (this pH increase was included here to prevent any CS acid hydrolysis that could occur when Method II, i.e. FD at pH 1, would be transposed to the polymer). (B) Chitosan M-Unit reactivity. CS 92-200 was depolymerized with nitrous acid to produce CS 92-2 HCl salt bearing the M-Unit at the cleaved end of the polymer. M-Unit CS 92-2 HCl salt was reacted with MPA and BME and the reaction products treated with one of 3 workups: Workup I: dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to remove all thiol model excess and to determine the in situ thioacetal formation rate; Workup II: FD + dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to determine the effect of FD on the functionalization rate; Workup III: acetate buffer pH 4 + FD + dialysis vs. HCl 1 mM solution + FD to determine the effect of an increase in pH prior to FD on the functionalization rate (this pH increase was included to prevent any CS acid hydrolysis that could occur during FD at pH 1 in Workup II). The degree of functionalization of the CS conjugates was determined by 1 H NMR, whereas covalent conjugation was assessed by DOSY NMR experiments and Ellman assays in order to rule out the possibility of a simple physical mixture of reagents.

    Article Snippet: Reagents, materials Chitosan with a degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 91.7%, M n = 193 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.256) and 99.5%, M n = 0.8 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.245) was provided by Marinard Biotech Inc. Deuterium oxide (Cat #151882), deuterium chloride 35 wt% in deuterium oxide (Cat #543047), sodium nitrite (Cat #431605), hydrochloric acid standard solution 1.0 M in H2 O (Cat #31894-9), hydrochloric acid 37% (Cat #320331), sodium hydroxide solution 1.0 M (Cat #319511), sodium acetate (Cat #241245), DTNB (5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) (Cat #D8130), GlcNH2 d -(+)-glucosamine hydrochloride 99% (Cat #C-1276), MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid) ≥99% (Cat #63768), BME (β-mercaptoethanol) (Cat #M6250), sodium acetate trihydrate BioXtra (Cat #S7670), Dowex® 50WX8-100 [H+ ] (Cat #217506), Dowex® 1X8-50 [Cl– ] (Cat #217417) and sodium azide (Cat #S2002) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, In Situ, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Conjugation Assay

    Thioacetal conjugation to the chitosan M-Unit formed post-HONO depolymerization: the first objective of this study was to assess the availability of the reactive form of the unhydrated M-Unit aldehyde ( 2 ). Although there could be a strong displacement of the equilibrium towards the unreactive aldehyde-hydrated or gem -diol form in water, we hypothesized that efficient nucleophilic conjugation to the M-Unit was possible in acidic aqueous conditions. The second objective was to assess the M-Unit reactivity towards thiol moieties in aqueous conditions. The proposed reaction pathways between CS end-groups and thiols include the M-Unit CS aldehyde reacting directly with a thiol-bearing model molecule (β-mercaptoethanol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, BME and MPA respectively) to form a hemithioacetal intermediate ( 3 ) through a pH-dependent equilibrium. By analogy with Schiff base formation where the equilibrium displacement occurs by water removal, the hemithioacetal can be stabilized into the corresponding thioacetal ( 4 ) by freeze-drying.

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Regioselective thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00038fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00038f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Thioacetal conjugation to the chitosan M-Unit formed post-HONO depolymerization: the first objective of this study was to assess the availability of the reactive form of the unhydrated M-Unit aldehyde ( 2 ). Although there could be a strong displacement of the equilibrium towards the unreactive aldehyde-hydrated or gem -diol form in water, we hypothesized that efficient nucleophilic conjugation to the M-Unit was possible in acidic aqueous conditions. The second objective was to assess the M-Unit reactivity towards thiol moieties in aqueous conditions. The proposed reaction pathways between CS end-groups and thiols include the M-Unit CS aldehyde reacting directly with a thiol-bearing model molecule (β-mercaptoethanol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, BME and MPA respectively) to form a hemithioacetal intermediate ( 3 ) through a pH-dependent equilibrium. By analogy with Schiff base formation where the equilibrium displacement occurs by water removal, the hemithioacetal can be stabilized into the corresponding thioacetal ( 4 ) by freeze-drying.

    Article Snippet: Reagents, materials Chitosan with a degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 91.7%, M n = 193 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.256) and 99.5%, M n = 0.8 kg mol–1 (PDI = 1.245) was provided by Marinard Biotech Inc. Deuterium oxide (Cat #151882), deuterium chloride 35 wt% in deuterium oxide (Cat #543047), sodium nitrite (Cat #431605), hydrochloric acid standard solution 1.0 M in H2 O (Cat #31894-9), hydrochloric acid 37% (Cat #320331), sodium hydroxide solution 1.0 M (Cat #319511), sodium acetate (Cat #241245), DTNB (5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) (Cat #D8130), GlcNH2 d -(+)-glucosamine hydrochloride 99% (Cat #C-1276), MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid) ≥99% (Cat #63768), BME (β-mercaptoethanol) (Cat #M6250), sodium acetate trihydrate BioXtra (Cat #S7670), Dowex® 50WX8-100 [H+ ] (Cat #217506), Dowex® 1X8-50 [Cl– ] (Cat #217417) and sodium azide (Cat #S2002) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Conjugation Assay

    Preparation of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP). ( A ) The experimental scheme shows conjugation between EGF and GNP. Three different linkers were used for conjugation; MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid), MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid), and MHDA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid) ( B ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with 1% BSA, EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MPA-EGF, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF respectively. Whole-cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting for assessment of the level of phospho-ERK protein. 14-3-3ξ was used as a loading control. Quantification of Western blots was performed with Image J. All density values were normalized with the loading control. ( C ) Whole-cell extracts were analyzed by dot blots. EGF antibody detected 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF. The experiment was performed independently at least three times. ( D ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with 1% BSA, EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF for 6 hours at 37 °C, respectively. MTT assay was performed to assess cell viability after incubation without plasma irradiation. ( E ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37 °C or 29.5 °C for 6 hours. EGFR was stained with green fluorescent antibody, and DNA was stained with Hoechst 33342. The scale bar on each image represents 10 μm.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Selective uptake of epidermal growth factor-conjugated gold nanoparticle (EGF-GNP) facilitates non-thermal plasma (NTP)-mediated cell death

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11292-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Preparation of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP). ( A ) The experimental scheme shows conjugation between EGF and GNP. Three different linkers were used for conjugation; MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid), MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid), and MHDA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid) ( B ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with 1% BSA, EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MPA-EGF, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF respectively. Whole-cell extracts were analyzed by Western blotting for assessment of the level of phospho-ERK protein. 14-3-3ξ was used as a loading control. Quantification of Western blots was performed with Image J. All density values were normalized with the loading control. ( C ) Whole-cell extracts were analyzed by dot blots. EGF antibody detected 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF. The experiment was performed independently at least three times. ( D ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with 1% BSA, EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF for 6 hours at 37 °C, respectively. MTT assay was performed to assess cell viability after incubation without plasma irradiation. ( E ) Serum-starved (24 hours) A549 cells were treated with EGF (100 μg/ml), 5 nm GNP, 5 nm GNP-MUA-EGF, and 5 nm GNP-MHDA-EGF, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37 °C or 29.5 °C for 6 hours. EGFR was stained with green fluorescent antibody, and DNA was stained with Hoechst 33342. The scale bar on each image represents 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 0.1 mg/ml aqueous solution of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) were prepared and incubated with 5 nm colloidal gold (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) suspension.

    Techniques: Conjugation Assay, Western Blot, MTT Assay, Incubation, Irradiation, Staining

    Inhibition of virus infectivity. Image analysis on CHIKV-118-GFP infection of HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM MPA or 50 µM CQ. The percentages of infected cells are indicated on the lower right of each image (A). Production of infectious virus particles from the CHIKV-118-GFP-infected HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM MPA and 50 µM CQ (B). DMSO – CHIKV-118-GFP infection control, MOCK – non-infected control, MPA – mycophenolic acid, CQ – chloroquine. (false-color imaging were applied on panel A).

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: Identification of Novel Compounds Inhibiting Chikungunya Virus-Induced Cell Death by High Throughput Screening of a Kinase Inhibitor Library

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002471

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of virus infectivity. Image analysis on CHIKV-118-GFP infection of HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM MPA or 50 µM CQ. The percentages of infected cells are indicated on the lower right of each image (A). Production of infectious virus particles from the CHIKV-118-GFP-infected HuH-7 in the presence of 20 µM hit compounds, 50 µM MPA and 50 µM CQ (B). DMSO – CHIKV-118-GFP infection control, MOCK – non-infected control, MPA – mycophenolic acid, CQ – chloroquine. (false-color imaging were applied on panel A).

    Article Snippet: The reference compounds Bafilomycin A1 (BAF), Chloroquine (CQ), Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and Chlorpromazine (CPZ) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Infection, Imaging

    Clinical Application of the Cutometer MPA 580 Probe A, The probe position off the nose shows the 4-mm probe opening (arrowhead) through which suction pressure of 400 millibars will be applied to the nasal skin of the patient. B, The probe is positioned on the nasal sidewall with the opening centered over the nasal skin superficial to the scroll region of nasal cartilages, and when suction is applied, skin deformation is measured within the opening seen in panel A.

    Journal: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery

    Article Title: Assessment of Pliability and Elasticity of the External Nasal Skin in Patients With Unilateral Nasal Valve Collapse: A Static Biomechanical Evaluation

    doi: 10.1001/jamafacial.2018.0861

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Clinical Application of the Cutometer MPA 580 Probe A, The probe position off the nose shows the 4-mm probe opening (arrowhead) through which suction pressure of 400 millibars will be applied to the nasal skin of the patient. B, The probe is positioned on the nasal sidewall with the opening centered over the nasal skin superficial to the scroll region of nasal cartilages, and when suction is applied, skin deformation is measured within the opening seen in panel A.

    Article Snippet: The effect of probe placement on inter-trial variability when using the Cutometer MPA 580 .

    Techniques:

    Histogram of comet distribution. A) Histogram of comet distribution for cell suspension cultures added with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and subjected to 50°C during 20 min based on the comet score with the A/N version. B) Images of comets that represent the 0–4 classes for visual scoring.

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots trigger DNA repair and antioxidant enzyme systems in Medicago sativa cells in suspension culture

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histogram of comet distribution. A) Histogram of comet distribution for cell suspension cultures added with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and subjected to 50°C during 20 min based on the comet score with the A/N version. B) Images of comets that represent the 0–4 classes for visual scoring.

    Article Snippet: When cells are exposed to 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD, 78% of the comets fall into class 2 and 13% and 8% of the comets fall in class 3 and 4, respectively.

    Techniques:

    Effect of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD on the activities of SOD, CAT and GR. Enzymatic activity of extracts of cell suspension cultures treated with 0, 10, 50 or 100 nM MPA-CDSE/ZNS QD for 48 hours. SOD is expressed in relative activity, A/A0, where A is the measured enzyme activity for the cells in the presence of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and A0 is the enzyme activity of the control. CAT and GR activities are expressed as U mg -1 protein. Bars indicate the standard deviation of mean values. Values with different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.01.

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots trigger DNA repair and antioxidant enzyme systems in Medicago sativa cells in suspension culture

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD on the activities of SOD, CAT and GR. Enzymatic activity of extracts of cell suspension cultures treated with 0, 10, 50 or 100 nM MPA-CDSE/ZNS QD for 48 hours. SOD is expressed in relative activity, A/A0, where A is the measured enzyme activity for the cells in the presence of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and A0 is the enzyme activity of the control. CAT and GR activities are expressed as U mg -1 protein. Bars indicate the standard deviation of mean values. Values with different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.01.

    Article Snippet: When cells are exposed to 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD, 78% of the comets fall into class 2 and 13% and 8% of the comets fall in class 3 and 4, respectively.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

    DNA damage in Medicago sativa cells in suspension cultures. DNA damage in cell suspension cultures treated with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD at room temperature for 48 hours or at 50°C for 20 minutes, under alkaline unwinding and neutral electrophoresis (A/N), under neutral incubation and neutral electrophoresis (N/N), and also by incubation with lesion-specific FPG or EndoIII enzymes. Results are expressed as mean values with the standard deviation. One –way ANOVA P

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots trigger DNA repair and antioxidant enzyme systems in Medicago sativa cells in suspension culture

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA damage in Medicago sativa cells in suspension cultures. DNA damage in cell suspension cultures treated with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD at room temperature for 48 hours or at 50°C for 20 minutes, under alkaline unwinding and neutral electrophoresis (A/N), under neutral incubation and neutral electrophoresis (N/N), and also by incubation with lesion-specific FPG or EndoIII enzymes. Results are expressed as mean values with the standard deviation. One –way ANOVA P

    Article Snippet: When cells are exposed to 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD, 78% of the comets fall into class 2 and 13% and 8% of the comets fall in class 3 and 4, respectively.

    Techniques: Electrophoresis, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Expression of Tdp1 β, Top1 β, Fpg, SOD and APX genes in Medicago sativa cells treated with MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD. Expression of Tdp1 β, Top1 β, Fpg, SOD and APX genes on cell suspension cultures of M.sativa treated for 48 hours with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and at 50°C for 20 minutes. For each treatment, the data represents the mean values of three independent replications. One –way ANOVA P

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots trigger DNA repair and antioxidant enzyme systems in Medicago sativa cells in suspension culture

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of Tdp1 β, Top1 β, Fpg, SOD and APX genes in Medicago sativa cells treated with MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD. Expression of Tdp1 β, Top1 β, Fpg, SOD and APX genes on cell suspension cultures of M.sativa treated for 48 hours with 0, 10, 50 and 100 nM of MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD and at 50°C for 20 minutes. For each treatment, the data represents the mean values of three independent replications. One –way ANOVA P

    Article Snippet: When cells are exposed to 100 nM MPA-CdSe/ZnS QD, 78% of the comets fall into class 2 and 13% and 8% of the comets fall in class 3 and 4, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Transmission electron microscopy images of hippocampus of rats treated with 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QDs. The arrows indicate accumulated QDs in the lysosome. Note: The insets are magnifications of parts of neurons. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dots; M, mitochondria; N, nucleus; L, lysosome; NC, nucleolus; PreM, presynaptic membrane; postM, postsynaptic membrane; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy images of hippocampus of rats treated with 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QDs. The arrows indicate accumulated QDs in the lysosome. Note: The insets are magnifications of parts of neurons. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dots; M, mitochondria; N, nucleus; L, lysosome; NC, nucleolus; PreM, presynaptic membrane; postM, postsynaptic membrane; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    Effects of 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD exposure on the protein expression of Akt, ERK1/2, their corresponding phosphorylated (p-) proteins, and c-FOS on rat hippocampus. Notes: ( A ) Representative Western blot of Akt, p-Akt, and GAPDH (reference protein). The density of each band was measured, and the ratios of Akt:GAPDH and p-Akt:Akt were calculated. ( B ) Representative Western blot of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, and GAPDH. The density of each band was measured, and the ratios of ERK1/2:GAPDH and p-ERK1/2:ERK1/2 were calculated. ( C ) Representative Western blot of c-Fos and GAPDH. The density of each band was measured, and the ratio of c-Fos:GAPDH was calculated. Data shown are mean ± SD (n=3). One-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test used for statistical analysis at each testing time point. * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD exposure on the protein expression of Akt, ERK1/2, their corresponding phosphorylated (p-) proteins, and c-FOS on rat hippocampus. Notes: ( A ) Representative Western blot of Akt, p-Akt, and GAPDH (reference protein). The density of each band was measured, and the ratios of Akt:GAPDH and p-Akt:Akt were calculated. ( B ) Representative Western blot of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, and GAPDH. The density of each band was measured, and the ratios of ERK1/2:GAPDH and p-ERK1/2:ERK1/2 were calculated. ( C ) Representative Western blot of c-Fos and GAPDH. The density of each band was measured, and the ratio of c-Fos:GAPDH was calculated. Data shown are mean ± SD (n=3). One-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test used for statistical analysis at each testing time point. * P

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Changes in genes in immune-response pathways after CdTe QD treatment in rat hippocampus. Notes: Gene products are shown in black font, and gene names are colored and italicized. Colors of gene names indicate the direction of differential expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control (red, up; green, down). No gene name indicates no significant change. Connected edges between gene products described their interactions (solid edge, direct interaction; dashed edge, indirect interaction). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot; DC, dendritic cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in genes in immune-response pathways after CdTe QD treatment in rat hippocampus. Notes: Gene products are shown in black font, and gene names are colored and italicized. Colors of gene names indicate the direction of differential expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control (red, up; green, down). No gene name indicates no significant change. Connected edges between gene products described their interactions (solid edge, direct interaction; dashed edge, indirect interaction). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot; DC, dendritic cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques: Expressing

    MA plots and volcano diagrams representing differently expressed genes. Notes: MPA-capped CdTe QD (2.2 nm) treatment ( A ) and MPA-capped CdTe QD (3.5 nm) treatment ( B ), with the control (red dots indicating significantly expressed genes and black dots indicating insignificantly expressed genes). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dot; FC, fold change; FDR, false-discovery rate.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MA plots and volcano diagrams representing differently expressed genes. Notes: MPA-capped CdTe QD (2.2 nm) treatment ( A ) and MPA-capped CdTe QD (3.5 nm) treatment ( B ), with the control (red dots indicating significantly expressed genes and black dots indicating insignificantly expressed genes). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dot; FC, fold change; FDR, false-discovery rate.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques:

    Fluorescent and corresponding bright-field images of 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD-exposed hippocampus CA1 region of rats. Notes: Green for 2.2 nm CdTe QDs, red for 3.5 nm CdTe QDs. Scale bar 64 μm. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fluorescent and corresponding bright-field images of 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD-exposed hippocampus CA1 region of rats. Notes: Green for 2.2 nm CdTe QDs, red for 3.5 nm CdTe QDs. Scale bar 64 μm. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques:

    Effects of 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD exposure on the gene expression of GNGT2 , DUSP2 , PIK3R5 , and PTPN7 in rat hippocampus. Notes: * P

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD exposure on the gene expression of GNGT2 , DUSP2 , PIK3R5 , and PTPN7 in rat hippocampus. Notes: * P

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Histological analysis of hippocampus of rats treated with 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QDs. Notes: Black arrows indicate foamy cells, red arrows indicate neutrophils, blue arrows indicate accumulated QDs, green arrow indicate necrotic cells, yellow arrows indicate swollen blood vessels. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dots.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histological analysis of hippocampus of rats treated with 2.2 nm and 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QDs. Notes: Black arrows indicate foamy cells, red arrows indicate neutrophils, blue arrows indicate accumulated QDs, green arrow indicate necrotic cells, yellow arrows indicate swollen blood vessels. Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QDs, quantum dots.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques:

    All GO terms and top 15 GO terms of genes differentially expressed. Notes: MPA-capped CdTe QD (2.2 nm and 3.5 nm) exposure on rat hippocampus based on the biological processes associated with GO. Differences between the 2.2 nm CdTe QD treatment and the control are indicated by gray bars, while differences between the 3.5 nm CdTe QD treatment and the control are indicated by black bars. Percentages are based on the proportion of the number of genes in each term. Abbreviations: GO, gene ontology; MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: All GO terms and top 15 GO terms of genes differentially expressed. Notes: MPA-capped CdTe QD (2.2 nm and 3.5 nm) exposure on rat hippocampus based on the biological processes associated with GO. Differences between the 2.2 nm CdTe QD treatment and the control are indicated by gray bars, while differences between the 3.5 nm CdTe QD treatment and the control are indicated by black bars. Percentages are based on the proportion of the number of genes in each term. Abbreviations: GO, gene ontology; MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques:

    Changes of relevant genes in learning and memory pathways after CdTe QD treatment in rat hippocampus. Notes: Gene products are shown in black font, and gene names are colored and italicized. Colors of gene names indicate the direction of differential gene expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control in qRT-PCR analysis (red, up; green, down). No gene name indicates no significant change. Colors of gene-product boxes indicate the direction of differential protein expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control in Western blotting analysis (red, up; green, down). Connected edges between gene products described their interactions (solid edge, direct interaction; dashed edge, indirect interaction). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot; qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Impairments of spatial learning and memory following intrahippocampal injection in rats of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots and molecular mechanisms

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S104985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes of relevant genes in learning and memory pathways after CdTe QD treatment in rat hippocampus. Notes: Gene products are shown in black font, and gene names are colored and italicized. Colors of gene names indicate the direction of differential gene expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control in qRT-PCR analysis (red, up; green, down). No gene name indicates no significant change. Colors of gene-product boxes indicate the direction of differential protein expression observed between 3.5 nm MPA-capped CdTe QD treatment and control in Western blotting analysis (red, up; green, down). Connected edges between gene products described their interactions (solid edge, direct interaction; dashed edge, indirect interaction). Abbreviations: MPA, 3-mercaptopropionic acid; QD, quantum dot; qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Article Snippet: Biodistribution of MPA-modified CdTe QDs in the brain As general fluorescence microscopy cannot achieve nanoscale resolution, we did not observe single nanosized QDs in the brain slices.

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Collection tube type and preservation comparison. (A) Light protected serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid; (B) Light protected/MPA preserved serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid. Legend: Serum – red triangles and dashed trendline, EDTA plasma – lavender diamonds and dash-and-dot trendline, heparinized plasma – green circles and solid trendline, 1:1 line – dotted. The regression equation and coefficient of determination are listed for each set of data.

    Journal: Practical Laboratory Medicine

    Article Title: Development and implementation of an HPLC-ECD method for analysis of vitamin C in plasma using single column and automatic alternating dual column regeneration

    doi: 10.1016/j.plabm.2016.09.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Collection tube type and preservation comparison. (A) Light protected serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid; (B) Light protected/MPA preserved serum, EDTA plasma, and heparinized plasma concentrations compared with concentrations for heparinized plasma specimens preserved with oxalic acid. Legend: Serum – red triangles and dashed trendline, EDTA plasma – lavender diamonds and dash-and-dot trendline, heparinized plasma – green circles and solid trendline, 1:1 line – dotted. The regression equation and coefficient of determination are listed for each set of data.

    Article Snippet: 2.1 Chemicals and reagents l- Ascorbic Acid (AA), disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Na2 EDTA) dihydrate, dl -dithiothreitol (DTT), meta -phosphoric acid (MPA), monochloroacetic acid, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate (TSP), and the internal standard 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Preserving

    LXR agonist TO-901317 reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    Article Title: Stimulation of the Liver X Receptor Pathway Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Induction of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1

    doi: 10.1124/mol.110.065029

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LXR agonist TO-901317 reverses HIV-mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux. A, triplicate PHA-activated CD4 +

    Article Snippet: LXR agonist TO-901317 was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques:

    LXR agonists inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. Replication of Nef-positive or Nef-deficient (HIV-1ΔNef) HIV-1 NL4-3 in CD4 + T cells (A) and HIV-1 ADA replication in MDMs (B) in the presence of indicated concentrations of TO-901317 was measured

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    Article Title: Stimulation of the Liver X Receptor Pathway Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Induction of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1

    doi: 10.1124/mol.110.065029

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LXR agonists inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. Replication of Nef-positive or Nef-deficient (HIV-1ΔNef) HIV-1 NL4-3 in CD4 + T cells (A) and HIV-1 ADA replication in MDMs (B) in the presence of indicated concentrations of TO-901317 was measured

    Article Snippet: LXR agonist TO-901317 was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Human NP cells in 3D UPAL gel composites were viable in serum-starved conditions. (a) Confocal laser-scanning micrographs of three-dimensional (3D) nucleus pulposus (NP) cell–alginate gel composites (commercial-grade alginate; CAL, normal viscosity ultra-purified alginate; NV-UPAL) at 6 and 48 h after serum starvation and staining with calcein AM (green) and propidium iodide (PI) (red). Five replicates were tested, and representative images are shown. Scale bar, 100 μm. (b) Cell viability determined by counts of live and dead cells in confocal laser-scanning micrographs. (* p

    Journal: EBioMedicine

    Article Title: An acellular bioresorbable ultra-purified alginate gel promotes intervertebral disc repair: A preclinical proof-of-concept study

    doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.10.055

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Human NP cells in 3D UPAL gel composites were viable in serum-starved conditions. (a) Confocal laser-scanning micrographs of three-dimensional (3D) nucleus pulposus (NP) cell–alginate gel composites (commercial-grade alginate; CAL, normal viscosity ultra-purified alginate; NV-UPAL) at 6 and 48 h after serum starvation and staining with calcein AM (green) and propidium iodide (PI) (red). Five replicates were tested, and representative images are shown. Scale bar, 100 μm. (b) Cell viability determined by counts of live and dead cells in confocal laser-scanning micrographs. (* p

    Article Snippet: 2.3 Preparation of alginate gel and 3D NP cell-alginate composites UPAL gel (Mochida Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at two viscosities was prepared (LV-UPAL, 100–200 mPa/s; and NV-UPAL, 400–600 mPa/s) in addition to CAL (sodium alginate, #199–09961, 400–600 mPa/s, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Purification, Staining

    Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 18 liver transplant recipients.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis

    Article Title: Positive Bias in Mycophenolic Acid Concentrations Determined by the CEDIA Assay Compared to HPLC‐UV Method: Is CEDIA Assay Suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Mycophenolic Acid?

    doi: 10.1002/jcla.21565

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 18 liver transplant recipients.

    Article Snippet: The CEDIA MPA assay kits were obtained from Thermo Scientific and assays were run using a Hitachi 917 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 42 kidney transplant recipients.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis

    Article Title: Positive Bias in Mycophenolic Acid Concentrations Determined by the CEDIA Assay Compared to HPLC‐UV Method: Is CEDIA Assay Suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Mycophenolic Acid?

    doi: 10.1002/jcla.21565

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 42 kidney transplant recipients.

    Article Snippet: The CEDIA MPA assay kits were obtained from Thermo Scientific and assays were run using a Hitachi 917 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 60 transplant recipients.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis

    Article Title: Positive Bias in Mycophenolic Acid Concentrations Determined by the CEDIA Assay Compared to HPLC‐UV Method: Is CEDIA Assay Suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Mycophenolic Acid?

    doi: 10.1002/jcla.21565

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Linear regression showing comparison of MPA concentrations obtained by HPLC and CEDIA assay in 60 transplant recipients.

    Article Snippet: The CEDIA MPA assay kits were obtained from Thermo Scientific and assays were run using a Hitachi 917 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Treatment protocol of ovarian stimulation. On the menstrual cycle day 2, 3 or 4, ovarian stimulation was started with a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®; MSD), of which the dosage was determined by the patient’s body weight (150 μg for > 60 kg and 100 μg for ≦ 60 kg). Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after Elonva injection. Seven days after Elonva injection, follicle development was monitored by transvaginal sonography as well as serum hormone levels of E2, LH and P. The patients received trigger at night if at least three leading follicles reached above 17 mm in diameter, and the final tablet of MPA was taken in the morning of the trigger day. If the folliculogenesis was insufficient for trigger, additional HMG (Menopur®, Ferring) 150 ~ 225 IU/day would be administered for days until the requirement for trigger was met

    Journal: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB & E

    Article Title: An extremely patient-friendly and efficient stimulation protocol for assisted reproductive technology in normal and high responders

    doi: 10.1186/s12958-018-0335-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatment protocol of ovarian stimulation. On the menstrual cycle day 2, 3 or 4, ovarian stimulation was started with a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®; MSD), of which the dosage was determined by the patient’s body weight (150 μg for > 60 kg and 100 μg for ≦ 60 kg). Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after Elonva injection. Seven days after Elonva injection, follicle development was monitored by transvaginal sonography as well as serum hormone levels of E2, LH and P. The patients received trigger at night if at least three leading follicles reached above 17 mm in diameter, and the final tablet of MPA was taken in the morning of the trigger day. If the folliculogenesis was insufficient for trigger, additional HMG (Menopur®, Ferring) 150 ~ 225 IU/day would be administered for days until the requirement for trigger was met

    Article Snippet: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (Provera® 5 mg/tablet; Pfizer) 5 mg twice a day was initiated orally from the day after corifollitropin alfa injection.

    Techniques: Injection