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  • 99
    ATCC mic mic
    Increased expression of adeA following pentamidine stress is dependent on the presence of AdeRS in <t>ATCC</t> 17978. Transcriptional levels of adeA (ACX60_09125) from WT and Δ adeRS were determined by qRT-PCR after 30 min shock with 7.8 mg/L of pentamidine (Pent) (0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of Δ adeRS ) and corrected to untreated cells (UT) after normalization to 16S. Bars represent the mean fold change (Log 2 ) of three biological replicates undertaken in triplicate, and error bars represent ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed by Student’s t -test, two-tailed, unpaired; ** = P
    Mic Mic, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 43 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    97
    Thermo Fisher sensititre mic plate
    Increased expression of adeA following pentamidine stress is dependent on the presence of AdeRS in <t>ATCC</t> 17978. Transcriptional levels of adeA (ACX60_09125) from WT and Δ adeRS were determined by qRT-PCR after 30 min shock with 7.8 mg/L of pentamidine (Pent) (0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of Δ adeRS ) and corrected to untreated cells (UT) after normalization to 16S. Bars represent the mean fold change (Log 2 ) of three biological replicates undertaken in triplicate, and error bars represent ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed by Student’s t -test, two-tailed, unpaired; ** = P
    Sensititre Mic Plate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    mic  (ATCC)
    99
    ATCC mic
    Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average <t>MIC</t> and <t>MBC</t> for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.
    Mic, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 539 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Oxyrase Inc mics
    Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average <t>MIC</t> and <t>MBC</t> for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.
    Mics, supplied by Oxyrase Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    bioMerieux mics
    Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average <t>MIC</t> and <t>MBC</t> for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.
    Mics, supplied by bioMerieux, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 119 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology mics
    Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average <t>MIC</t> and <t>MBC</t> for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.
    Mics, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Thermo Fisher mic
    (A and B) Disc diffusion synergy screen for isolate AB 205. (A) FD 10-μg disc applied onto an unsupplemented <t>ISA</t> plate. (B) Same assay performed on an ISA plate supplemented with 0.5× the <t>MIC</t> of COL. (C) COL-FD checkerboard for isolate AB 315.
    Mic, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 58 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore mic assays
    (A and B) Disc diffusion synergy screen for isolate AB 205. (A) FD 10-μg disc applied onto an unsupplemented <t>ISA</t> plate. (B) Same assay performed on an ISA plate supplemented with 0.5× the <t>MIC</t> of COL. (C) COL-FD checkerboard for isolate AB 315.
    Mic Assays, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 35 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Abcam mic ab
    Relapses over time related with expression of <t>MIC-AB</t> (A), <t>ULBP-1</t> (B), ULBP-2 (C), ULBP-3 (D), ULBP-4 (E), and ULBP-5 (F) . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in each graph. Only expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in statistically significantly favorable relapse-free period (RFP).
    Mic Ab, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Bio Molecular Systems mic system
    Relapses over time related with expression of <t>MIC-AB</t> (A), <t>ULBP-1</t> (B), ULBP-2 (C), ULBP-3 (D), ULBP-4 (E), and ULBP-5 (F) . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in each graph. Only expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in statistically significantly favorable relapse-free period (RFP).
    Mic System, supplied by Bio Molecular Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology mic 1
    A proposed working model of RIS-altered chemoresistance and malignancy of circulating tumor cells. When normal intestinal epithelial cells ( IECs ) transformed to malignant colorectal cancer cells ( CRCCs ), some detached invasive cells from solid CRC intravasate into peripheral blood through lesions of the basement membrane. Exposure to RIS can exert a dual regulatory mode toward circulating tumor cells. The first is inhibition of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs to cancer cells via direct activation of ERK-dependent ATF3-mediated signaling. ATF3 induced by exposure to RIS attenuates the EGR-1, p53, and <t>MIC-1</t> signaling axis, resulting in perturbation of cancer cell death. RIS can lead to a direct translational inhibition of MIC-1 and p53 responsible for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. The other is the enhancing effect of RIS on the malignancy of cancer cells through increases in EMT and the CSC population. As a result, chronic exposure to RIS can finally result in chemoresistance to anticancer drugs against cancer cells accompanying cancer resurgence or exacerbation after chemotherapy.
    Mic 1, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Millipore mic plates
    Migration (solid) and viability (shaded) assays of MDA-MB 435 breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of compound A5 (panel (a)), compound A8 (panel (b)), compound 5 (panel (c)), and compound 9 (panel (d)). Migration studies were performed for 18 hours using <t>Millipore</t> <t>MIC</t> plates, and cells were stained with calcein AM. Viability was assessed by utilizing an MTT assay and measuring absorbance at 570 nm. Three concentrations of each compound were used; [low] = 3.6 ng/μl, [med] = 36 ng/μl, and [high] = 203 ng/μ l. Data not shown for high concentration.
    Mic Plates, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore mic tests
    Migration (solid) and viability (shaded) assays of MDA-MB 435 breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of compound A5 (panel (a)), compound A8 (panel (b)), compound 5 (panel (c)), and compound 9 (panel (d)). Migration studies were performed for 18 hours using <t>Millipore</t> <t>MIC</t> plates, and cells were stained with calcein AM. Viability was assessed by utilizing an MTT assay and measuring absorbance at 570 nm. Three concentrations of each compound were used; [low] = 3.6 ng/μl, [med] = 36 ng/μl, and [high] = 203 ng/μ l. Data not shown for high concentration.
    Mic Tests, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals mic determination
    The <t>MIC</t> distribution of meropenem-clavulanic acid for the M. tuberculosis isolates ( n = 68) tested using <t>Middlebrook</t> 7H10 medium, shown by bars shaded as follows: non-MDR/XDR-TB (gray); XDR-TB (black), and MDR-TB (hatched). The MIC distribution shows
    Mic Determination, supplied by MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Intel mic intel
    <t>MIC</t> code snippet. The first pragma directive marks the start of a MIC code section. Keywords in and out indicate the data to be transferred to and from the <t>Xeon</t> Phi. The OpenMP clause omp parallel for launches all available threads in parallel, which execute the code in the body of the loop and score the SNP pairs.
    Mic Intel, supplied by Intel, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    Ethicon mic 54
    <t>MIC</t> code snippet. The first pragma directive marks the start of a MIC code section. Keywords in and out indicate the data to be transferred to and from the <t>Xeon</t> Phi. The OpenMP clause omp parallel for launches all available threads in parallel, which execute the code in the body of the loop and score the SNP pairs.
    Mic 54, supplied by Ethicon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute mic assay
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic Assay, supplied by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    BioLegend mic b
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic B, supplied by BioLegend, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Liofilchem mic strips
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic Strips, supplied by Liofilchem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Billups-Rothenberg mic 101
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic 101, supplied by Billups-Rothenberg, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Agilent technologies mic 2
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic 2, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Immunotec mic a protein
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic A Protein, supplied by Immunotec, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    QImaging mic chaudoir
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic Chaudoir, supplied by QImaging, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Dynatech Laboratories mic 2000
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic 2000, supplied by Dynatech Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    R&D Systems mic a apc
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic A Apc, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Bio Molecular Systems mic thermocycler
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic Thermocycler, supplied by Bio Molecular Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Nikon mic roscope
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Mic Roscope, supplied by Nikon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Xylem Analytics sentix mic
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Sentix Mic, supplied by Xylem Analytics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    Thermo Fisher sensititre equine mic plate
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Sensititre Equine Mic Plate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher scientific sensititre anaerobe mic plate
    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × <t>MIC</t> of <t>AMP;</t> EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.
    Scientific Sensititre Anaerobe Mic Plate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Increased expression of adeA following pentamidine stress is dependent on the presence of AdeRS in ATCC 17978. Transcriptional levels of adeA (ACX60_09125) from WT and Δ adeRS were determined by qRT-PCR after 30 min shock with 7.8 mg/L of pentamidine (Pent) (0.5 × MIC of Δ adeRS ) and corrected to untreated cells (UT) after normalization to 16S. Bars represent the mean fold change (Log 2 ) of three biological replicates undertaken in triplicate, and error bars represent ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed by Student’s t -test, two-tailed, unpaired; ** = P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Resistance to pentamidine is mediated by AdeAB, regulated by AdeRS, and influenced by growth conditions in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197412

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased expression of adeA following pentamidine stress is dependent on the presence of AdeRS in ATCC 17978. Transcriptional levels of adeA (ACX60_09125) from WT and Δ adeRS were determined by qRT-PCR after 30 min shock with 7.8 mg/L of pentamidine (Pent) (0.5 × MIC of Δ adeRS ) and corrected to untreated cells (UT) after normalization to 16S. Bars represent the mean fold change (Log 2 ) of three biological replicates undertaken in triplicate, and error bars represent ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed by Student’s t -test, two-tailed, unpaired; ** = P

    Article Snippet: From MIC analysis of the ATCC 17978 derivatives, it was proposed that the presence of the AdeRS TCSTS increased adeAB expression consequently providing resistance to pentamidine, chlorhexidine and DAPI ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Two Tailed Test

    Table contents of minimum inhibitory concentration of eugenol (EUG) against the Cryptococcus gattii (Cg) and C. neoformans (Cn) strains using CLSI method (A) ; values of interactions of antifungal drugs with eugenol Cg and Cn strains and (B) ; and time-kill curves of EUG against C. gattii (filled squares) and C. neoformans (filled circles) (C) . Results of time-kill curve are expressed as the percentage of metabolic activity compared with the control growth. Data represent the mean of three independent experiments in duplicate assays. MIC, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration; C, Clinical; E, Environmental; EUG, Eugenol; FLC, Fluconazole, AMB, Amphotericin B; FICI, fractional inhibitory concentration index.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Eugenol Induces Phenotypic Alterations and Increases the Oxidative Burst in Cryptococcus

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Table contents of minimum inhibitory concentration of eugenol (EUG) against the Cryptococcus gattii (Cg) and C. neoformans (Cn) strains using CLSI method (A) ; values of interactions of antifungal drugs with eugenol Cg and Cn strains and (B) ; and time-kill curves of EUG against C. gattii (filled squares) and C. neoformans (filled circles) (C) . Results of time-kill curve are expressed as the percentage of metabolic activity compared with the control growth. Data represent the mean of three independent experiments in duplicate assays. MIC, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration; C, Clinical; E, Environmental; EUG, Eugenol; FLC, Fluconazole, AMB, Amphotericin B; FICI, fractional inhibitory concentration index.

    Article Snippet: Eugenol was added at the concentrations of 1× MIC and 2× MIC, and the cells were incubated for 1 h (MIC) and 12 h (MIC and 2× MIC) at 37°C (MIC eugenol = 256 mg/L for C. gattii ATCC 24065, C. neoformans ATCC 28957, and C. neoformans ATCC 62066; 64 mg/L – C. gattii ATCC 32068).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Activity Assay

    Time-kill curves for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and 43300. Each data point reflects the average of two independent measurements. The curves are viable cell concentrations plotted against time. Open circles, nondrug control; closed squares, 1× MIC of EF60; closed triangles, 2× MIC of EF60; closed circles, 4× MIC of EF60; asterisk, 4× MIC of vancomycin. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the phenanthrene fraction from fibrous roots of Bletilla striata

    doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1488-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-kill curves for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and 43300. Each data point reflects the average of two independent measurements. The curves are viable cell concentrations plotted against time. Open circles, nondrug control; closed squares, 1× MIC of EF60; closed triangles, 2× MIC of EF60; closed circles, 4× MIC of EF60; asterisk, 4× MIC of vancomycin. MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration

    Article Snippet: Consistently, the time-kill assay indicated that EF60 could completely kill S. aureus ATCC 29213 at 2× the MIC within 3 h but could kill less than two logarithmic units of ATCC 43300, even at 4× the MIC within 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAE) of EF60 (4× MIC) against strains 29213 and 43300 were 2.0 and 0.38 h, respectively.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average MIC and MBC for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Unearthing the Antibacterial Mechanism of Medicinal Clay: A Geochemical Approach to Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    doi: 10.1038/srep19043

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Metal hydrolysis reactions generate acid; therefore, pH, metal solubility and toxicity correlate with pKa. These plots show average MIC and MBC for individual metals in MSA and LB media correlating with ( A ) pH and ( B ) soluble metal content.

    Article Snippet: E. coli (ATCC 25922) MIC and MBC toxicity measurements were performed in Lennox broth (LB) and minimal salts and amino acids (MSA) to evaluate effects of minimal and rich media on pH, metal solubility, and toxicity.

    Techniques: Solubility

    Clay leachates produce high levels of envelope protein oxidation, activating σ E and SOS stress responses. Plots show ( A ) protein carbonyl content (nmol-carbonyl/mg-protein) measured in envelope vs. soluble protein fractions of E. coli reacted with leachates and metal mixtures in MSA media, at MIC and MBC. ( B ) Envelope stress measured by σ E -response from LacZ fusions in leachates compared to ( C ) single metal solutions. ( D ) DNA stress (SOS-response) measured on E. coli reacted with leachates, and ( E ) single metal solutions. LacZ results are normalized to levels measured in control E. coli (Relative β-Gal Units).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Unearthing the Antibacterial Mechanism of Medicinal Clay: A Geochemical Approach to Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    doi: 10.1038/srep19043

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Clay leachates produce high levels of envelope protein oxidation, activating σ E and SOS stress responses. Plots show ( A ) protein carbonyl content (nmol-carbonyl/mg-protein) measured in envelope vs. soluble protein fractions of E. coli reacted with leachates and metal mixtures in MSA media, at MIC and MBC. ( B ) Envelope stress measured by σ E -response from LacZ fusions in leachates compared to ( C ) single metal solutions. ( D ) DNA stress (SOS-response) measured on E. coli reacted with leachates, and ( E ) single metal solutions. LacZ results are normalized to levels measured in control E. coli (Relative β-Gal Units).

    Article Snippet: E. coli (ATCC 25922) MIC and MBC toxicity measurements were performed in Lennox broth (LB) and minimal salts and amino acids (MSA) to evaluate effects of minimal and rich media on pH, metal solubility, and toxicity.

    Techniques:

    Clay suspensions provide extended metal release whereas aqueous leachates alone precipitate metals. ( A ) Major element concentrations leached from the Blue clays. ( B ) pH, MIC and MBC values for leachates (gray bars) and clay suspensions (blue bar) measured in MSA and LB media. The leachate pH is similar at MBC in both media, while clay suspensions kill bacteria at higher pH. A comparison of soluble metal concentrations ( C,D ) show clay suspensions kill bacteria by maintaining metal solubility over 24 h, while ( E,F ) leachates precipitate metals, only inhibiting growth.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Unearthing the Antibacterial Mechanism of Medicinal Clay: A Geochemical Approach to Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    doi: 10.1038/srep19043

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Clay suspensions provide extended metal release whereas aqueous leachates alone precipitate metals. ( A ) Major element concentrations leached from the Blue clays. ( B ) pH, MIC and MBC values for leachates (gray bars) and clay suspensions (blue bar) measured in MSA and LB media. The leachate pH is similar at MBC in both media, while clay suspensions kill bacteria at higher pH. A comparison of soluble metal concentrations ( C,D ) show clay suspensions kill bacteria by maintaining metal solubility over 24 h, while ( E,F ) leachates precipitate metals, only inhibiting growth.

    Article Snippet: E. coli (ATCC 25922) MIC and MBC toxicity measurements were performed in Lennox broth (LB) and minimal salts and amino acids (MSA) to evaluate effects of minimal and rich media on pH, metal solubility, and toxicity.

    Techniques: Solubility

    (A and B) Disc diffusion synergy screen for isolate AB 205. (A) FD 10-μg disc applied onto an unsupplemented ISA plate. (B) Same assay performed on an ISA plate supplemented with 0.5× the MIC of COL. (C) COL-FD checkerboard for isolate AB 315.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Colistin and Fusidic Acid, a Novel Potent Synergistic Combination for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00753-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A and B) Disc diffusion synergy screen for isolate AB 205. (A) FD 10-μg disc applied onto an unsupplemented ISA plate. (B) Same assay performed on an ISA plate supplemented with 0.5× the MIC of COL. (C) COL-FD checkerboard for isolate AB 315.

    Article Snippet: An even lawn was spread onto 2 Iso-Sensitest agar plates (ISA; Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom), one supplemented with 0.5× the MIC of COL. After application of FD 10-μg discs (Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom), the plates were incubated in air at 37°C for 18 h. Potential synergy was inferred when the zone of inhibition around the FD disc was ≥5 mm on the COL-supplemented plate ( ).

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay

    Relapses over time related with expression of MIC-AB (A), ULBP-1 (B), ULBP-2 (C), ULBP-3 (D), ULBP-4 (E), and ULBP-5 (F) . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in each graph. Only expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in statistically significantly favorable relapse-free period (RFP).

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: NKG2D ligand tumor expression and association with clinical outcome in early breast cancer patients: an observational study

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-24

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relapses over time related with expression of MIC-AB (A), ULBP-1 (B), ULBP-2 (C), ULBP-3 (D), ULBP-4 (E), and ULBP-5 (F) . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in each graph. Only expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in statistically significantly favorable relapse-free period (RFP).

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry Antibodies specific against MIC-AB (ab54413; Abcam), ULBP-1 (HPA007547; Atlas antibodies), ULBP-2 (af1298; R & D systems), ULBP-3 (CUMO3-100; BAMOMAB), ULBP-4 (RAET1E) and ULBP-5 (RAET1G, both kindly provided by Dr. Robert A Eagle, Cambridge, UK) [ , ] were used for immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Representative examples of immunohistochemical stainings of primary breast cancer tissues for respectively no expression and high expression of MIC-AB (A: intensity 0 (negative); B: intensity 2 (intermediate)), ULBP-1 (C: intensity 0 (negative); D: intensity 2 (intermediate)), ULBP-2 (E: intensity 0 (negative); F: intensity 3 (strong)), ULBP-3 (G: intensity 0 (negative); H: intensity 3 (strong)), ULBP-4 (I: intensity 0 (negative); J: intensity 1 (weak)), and ULBP-5 (K: intensity 0 (negative); L: intensity 3 (strong)) in breast cancer . Immunohistochemistry was performed according to standard protocols as described in Materials and Methods.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: NKG2D ligand tumor expression and association with clinical outcome in early breast cancer patients: an observational study

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-24

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative examples of immunohistochemical stainings of primary breast cancer tissues for respectively no expression and high expression of MIC-AB (A: intensity 0 (negative); B: intensity 2 (intermediate)), ULBP-1 (C: intensity 0 (negative); D: intensity 2 (intermediate)), ULBP-2 (E: intensity 0 (negative); F: intensity 3 (strong)), ULBP-3 (G: intensity 0 (negative); H: intensity 3 (strong)), ULBP-4 (I: intensity 0 (negative); J: intensity 1 (weak)), and ULBP-5 (K: intensity 0 (negative); L: intensity 3 (strong)) in breast cancer . Immunohistochemistry was performed according to standard protocols as described in Materials and Methods.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry Antibodies specific against MIC-AB (ab54413; Abcam), ULBP-1 (HPA007547; Atlas antibodies), ULBP-2 (af1298; R & D systems), ULBP-3 (CUMO3-100; BAMOMAB), ULBP-4 (RAET1E) and ULBP-5 (RAET1G, both kindly provided by Dr. Robert A Eagle, Cambridge, UK) [ , ] were used for immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Expressing

    Relapses over time related with combined expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in the graph. Combined low expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in the worst outcome of patients concerning relapse-free period (RFP); while combined high expression of both ligands resulted in the most favorable outcome of patients.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: NKG2D ligand tumor expression and association with clinical outcome in early breast cancer patients: an observational study

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-24

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relapses over time related with combined expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 . X-axis represents patient follow-up in years; Y-axis represents cumulative relapses in %. Log-rank p-values are shown in the graph. Combined low expression of MIC-AB and ULBP-2 resulted in the worst outcome of patients concerning relapse-free period (RFP); while combined high expression of both ligands resulted in the most favorable outcome of patients.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry Antibodies specific against MIC-AB (ab54413; Abcam), ULBP-1 (HPA007547; Atlas antibodies), ULBP-2 (af1298; R & D systems), ULBP-3 (CUMO3-100; BAMOMAB), ULBP-4 (RAET1E) and ULBP-5 (RAET1G, both kindly provided by Dr. Robert A Eagle, Cambridge, UK) [ , ] were used for immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue.

    Techniques: Expressing

    A proposed working model of RIS-altered chemoresistance and malignancy of circulating tumor cells. When normal intestinal epithelial cells ( IECs ) transformed to malignant colorectal cancer cells ( CRCCs ), some detached invasive cells from solid CRC intravasate into peripheral blood through lesions of the basement membrane. Exposure to RIS can exert a dual regulatory mode toward circulating tumor cells. The first is inhibition of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs to cancer cells via direct activation of ERK-dependent ATF3-mediated signaling. ATF3 induced by exposure to RIS attenuates the EGR-1, p53, and MIC-1 signaling axis, resulting in perturbation of cancer cell death. RIS can lead to a direct translational inhibition of MIC-1 and p53 responsible for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. The other is the enhancing effect of RIS on the malignancy of cancer cells through increases in EMT and the CSC population. As a result, chronic exposure to RIS can finally result in chemoresistance to anticancer drugs against cancer cells accompanying cancer resurgence or exacerbation after chemotherapy.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Acquisition of Chemoresistance and Other Malignancy-related Features of Colorectal Cancer Cells Are Incremented by Ribosome-inactivating Stress *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.696609

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A proposed working model of RIS-altered chemoresistance and malignancy of circulating tumor cells. When normal intestinal epithelial cells ( IECs ) transformed to malignant colorectal cancer cells ( CRCCs ), some detached invasive cells from solid CRC intravasate into peripheral blood through lesions of the basement membrane. Exposure to RIS can exert a dual regulatory mode toward circulating tumor cells. The first is inhibition of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs to cancer cells via direct activation of ERK-dependent ATF3-mediated signaling. ATF3 induced by exposure to RIS attenuates the EGR-1, p53, and MIC-1 signaling axis, resulting in perturbation of cancer cell death. RIS can lead to a direct translational inhibition of MIC-1 and p53 responsible for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. The other is the enhancing effect of RIS on the malignancy of cancer cells through increases in EMT and the CSC population. As a result, chronic exposure to RIS can finally result in chemoresistance to anticancer drugs against cancer cells accompanying cancer resurgence or exacerbation after chemotherapy.

    Article Snippet: In contrast to our expectations, EGR-1 overexpression partly restored the levels of p53 and MIC-1, which were suppressed by RIS, although EGR-1 was definitely essential for the induction of proapoptotic molecules in response to 5-FU ( D ), implicating additional mechanisms of RIS-induced suppression of MIC-1 and p53 signals, such as translational arrest of MIC-1 and p53 by the intrinsic actions of RIS.

    Techniques: Transformation Assay, Inhibition, Activation Assay

    RIS exposure attenuates proapoptotic signaling molecules in vivo . A , allograft assay with CMT-93 cells pre-exposed to DON. CMT-93 C57BL/6 mouse colon cancer cells pre-exposed to 500 ng/ml DON for 24 h were dissociated into single cells with trypsin, and 5 × 10 6 cells resuspended with 200 μl of PBS were injected subcutaneously into 14-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Seven days later, 100 mg/ml 5-FU was intraperitoneally injected, and tumors were excised surgically 24 h later. The tumor volume was calculated as tumor volume = π/6 × major diameter (W) × minor diameter (L) 2 , presented by vertical scatter plot, and statistically analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test ( bottom panel ). The difference in tumor volume was statistically significant (**, p = 0.0022). Con , control. B , a histological section of allograft tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with MIC-1, EGR-1, and ATF3. 3,3′-diaminobenzidine intensity versus hematoxylin was quantitatively assessed by HistoQuest software and statistically analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test ( bottom panel ). **, p

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Acquisition of Chemoresistance and Other Malignancy-related Features of Colorectal Cancer Cells Are Incremented by Ribosome-inactivating Stress *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.696609

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RIS exposure attenuates proapoptotic signaling molecules in vivo . A , allograft assay with CMT-93 cells pre-exposed to DON. CMT-93 C57BL/6 mouse colon cancer cells pre-exposed to 500 ng/ml DON for 24 h were dissociated into single cells with trypsin, and 5 × 10 6 cells resuspended with 200 μl of PBS were injected subcutaneously into 14-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Seven days later, 100 mg/ml 5-FU was intraperitoneally injected, and tumors were excised surgically 24 h later. The tumor volume was calculated as tumor volume = π/6 × major diameter (W) × minor diameter (L) 2 , presented by vertical scatter plot, and statistically analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test ( bottom panel ). The difference in tumor volume was statistically significant (**, p = 0.0022). Con , control. B , a histological section of allograft tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with MIC-1, EGR-1, and ATF3. 3,3′-diaminobenzidine intensity versus hematoxylin was quantitatively assessed by HistoQuest software and statistically analyzed by unpaired two-tailed t test ( bottom panel ). **, p

    Article Snippet: In contrast to our expectations, EGR-1 overexpression partly restored the levels of p53 and MIC-1, which were suppressed by RIS, although EGR-1 was definitely essential for the induction of proapoptotic molecules in response to 5-FU ( D ), implicating additional mechanisms of RIS-induced suppression of MIC-1 and p53 signals, such as translational arrest of MIC-1 and p53 by the intrinsic actions of RIS.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Injection, Mouse Assay, Two Tailed Test, Immunohistochemistry, Software

    Migration (solid) and viability (shaded) assays of MDA-MB 435 breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of compound A5 (panel (a)), compound A8 (panel (b)), compound 5 (panel (c)), and compound 9 (panel (d)). Migration studies were performed for 18 hours using Millipore MIC plates, and cells were stained with calcein AM. Viability was assessed by utilizing an MTT assay and measuring absorbance at 570 nm. Three concentrations of each compound were used; [low] = 3.6 ng/μl, [med] = 36 ng/μl, and [high] = 203 ng/μ l. Data not shown for high concentration.

    Journal: Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

    Article Title: Apocynin Derivatives Interrupt Intracellular Signaling Resulting in Decreased Migration in Breast Cancer Cells

    doi: 10.1155/JBB/2006/87246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Migration (solid) and viability (shaded) assays of MDA-MB 435 breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of compound A5 (panel (a)), compound A8 (panel (b)), compound 5 (panel (c)), and compound 9 (panel (d)). Migration studies were performed for 18 hours using Millipore MIC plates, and cells were stained with calcein AM. Viability was assessed by utilizing an MTT assay and measuring absorbance at 570 nm. Three concentrations of each compound were used; [low] = 3.6 ng/μl, [med] = 36 ng/μl, and [high] = 203 ng/μ l. Data not shown for high concentration.

    Article Snippet: MIC plates were generously donated by Millipore (Danvers, Mass).

    Techniques: Migration, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Staining, MTT Assay, Concentration Assay

    The MIC distribution of meropenem-clavulanic acid for the M. tuberculosis isolates ( n = 68) tested using Middlebrook 7H10 medium, shown by bars shaded as follows: non-MDR/XDR-TB (gray); XDR-TB (black), and MDR-TB (hatched). The MIC distribution shows

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Meropenem-Clavulanic Acid Has High In Vitro Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00171-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The MIC distribution of meropenem-clavulanic acid for the M. tuberculosis isolates ( n = 68) tested using Middlebrook 7H10 medium, shown by bars shaded as follows: non-MDR/XDR-TB (gray); XDR-TB (black), and MDR-TB (hatched). The MIC distribution shows

    Article Snippet: Our study was limited by the absence of wild-type M. tuberculosis isolates, the use of only one method of MIC determination (Middlebrook 7H10), and a high exclusion rate of isolates due to poor growth (27%).

    Techniques:

    Target attainment of different doses in Monte Carlo simulations. A , Target attainment probabilities (TAPs) of the different oral tedizolid doses at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC distribution ranged from 0.125–0.5 mg/L for

    Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Article Title: The Sterilizing Effect of Intermittent Tedizolid for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy626

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Target attainment of different doses in Monte Carlo simulations. A , Target attainment probabilities (TAPs) of the different oral tedizolid doses at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC distribution ranged from 0.125–0.5 mg/L for

    Article Snippet: This could either be that no drug resistance arose, or more likely that our assay of tedizolid 3 times the MIC on Middlebrook agar did not work.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    MIC code snippet. The first pragma directive marks the start of a MIC code section. Keywords in and out indicate the data to be transferred to and from the Xeon Phi. The OpenMP clause omp parallel for launches all available threads in parallel, which execute the code in the body of the loop and score the SNP pairs.

    Journal: BMC Bioinformatics

    Article Title: Heterogeneous computing architecture for fast detection of SNP-SNP interactions

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-15-216

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MIC code snippet. The first pragma directive marks the start of a MIC code section. Keywords in and out indicate the data to be transferred to and from the Xeon Phi. The OpenMP clause omp parallel for launches all available threads in parallel, which execute the code in the body of the loop and score the SNP pairs.

    Article Snippet: Xeon Phi and MIC Intel designed the Xeon Phi family of coprocessors around the new MIC architecture [ ] to compete with GPUs specialized in general-purpose computing.

    Techniques:

    Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.

    Journal: Bioengineered

    Article Title: Proteomic analysis reveals that a global response is induced by subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin

    doi: 10.1080/21655979.2017.1373532

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth curves of the strains in the RDCSs. EDR-A, the donor strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; EDR-C, the donor strain in the untreated RDCS; ERP-A, the recipient strain in the RDCS treated with 0.5 × MIC of AMP; ERP-C, the recipient strain in the untreated RDCS.

    Article Snippet: The MIC of AMP was determined following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, and the MICs for the donor and recipient strains were both 1 μg/mL.

    Techniques:

    The STRING software (Version 10.0a) predicted protein-protein interactions of differentially expressed proteins with and without 0.5 × MIC of AMP. Thicker lines indicate stronger interactions. (a) The protein-protein interaction network among proteins upregulated under AMP stress. (b) The protein-protein interaction network among proteins downregulated under AMP stress.

    Journal: Bioengineered

    Article Title: Proteomic analysis reveals that a global response is induced by subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin

    doi: 10.1080/21655979.2017.1373532

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The STRING software (Version 10.0a) predicted protein-protein interactions of differentially expressed proteins with and without 0.5 × MIC of AMP. Thicker lines indicate stronger interactions. (a) The protein-protein interaction network among proteins upregulated under AMP stress. (b) The protein-protein interaction network among proteins downregulated under AMP stress.

    Article Snippet: The MIC of AMP was determined following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, and the MICs for the donor and recipient strains were both 1 μg/mL.

    Techniques: Software