l-arginine Millipore Search Results


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  • 99
    Millipore c arginine
    C Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    Millipore l arginine
    Isolation of modified capsomere, DDIT1 using optimized buffer conditions. (A) <t>SEC</t> showed a capsomere peak (b) for DDIT1 following GST removal in the presence of 50 m <t>M</t> l -arginine, distinct from an aggregation peak (a) and GST peak (c). (B) SDS-PAGE gel
    L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 325 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore l arginine hydrochloride
    Isolation of modified capsomere, DDIT1 using optimized buffer conditions. (A) <t>SEC</t> showed a capsomere peak (b) for DDIT1 following GST removal in the presence of 50 m <t>M</t> l -arginine, distinct from an aggregation peak (a) and GST peak (c). (B) SDS-PAGE gel
    L Arginine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 102 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore l arginine monohydrochloride
    Isolation of modified capsomere, DDIT1 using optimized buffer conditions. (A) <t>SEC</t> showed a capsomere peak (b) for DDIT1 following GST removal in the presence of 50 m <t>M</t> l -arginine, distinct from an aggregation peak (a) and GST peak (c). (B) SDS-PAGE gel
    L Arginine Monohydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 95 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore nomega nitro l arginine
    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM <t>Nω-nitro-L-arginine</t> (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P
    Nomega Nitro L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Millipore l arginine arg0
    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM <t>Nω-nitro-L-arginine</t> (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P
    L Arginine Arg0, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore arginine r0k0
    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM <t>Nω-nitro-L-arginine</t> (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P
    Arginine R0k0, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore c6 15 n4 l arginine
    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM <t>Nω-nitro-L-arginine</t> (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P
    C6 15 N4 L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c6 15 n4 l arginine/product/Millipore
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    99
    Millipore l arginine 13c6 15n4 hydrochloride
    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM <t>Nω-nitro-L-arginine</t> (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P
    L Arginine 13c6 15n4 Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Millipore nω propyl l arginine hydrochloride
    Influence of nitric oxide inhibitors on the modulation of electrically- evoked tritium overflow in tail and mesenteric arteries: interaction with nitric oxide inhibitors L-NAME (100 μM, a non-selective nNOS inhibitor), <t>Nω-Propyl-L-arginine</t> hydrochloride (100 nM, a selective nNOS inhibitor) and L-NIO dihydrochloride (500 nM, a selective eNOS inhibitor). Arteries were electrically stimulated (S 1 -S 2 : 100 pulses, 5 Hz, 1 ms, 50 mA). Drugs were added immediately after S 1 and kept until the end of the experiment. Ordinates : S 2 /S 1 values obtained in individual tissue preparations, expressed as a percentage of the appropriate S 2 /S 1 control value. Values are mean±s.e.m. from n = 4–6. Significant differences from the appropriate control: *P
    Nω Propyl L Arginine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore poly l arginine
    Binding of <t>CRP</t> to polycations Microtiter wells were coated with either <t>poly-L-arginine</t> ( A ) or poly-L-lysine ( B ). Increasing concentrations of purified WT and mutant CRP were added to the wells. Bound CRP was detected by HD2.4 mAb. A representative of two experiments is shown.
    Poly L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 54 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore chemicals l arginine hydrochloride
    Binding of <t>CRP</t> to polycations Microtiter wells were coated with either <t>poly-L-arginine</t> ( A ) or poly-L-lysine ( B ). Increasing concentrations of purified WT and mutant CRP were added to the wells. Bound CRP was detected by HD2.4 mAb. A representative of two experiments is shown.
    Chemicals L Arginine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore l arginine ethyl ester dihydrochloride
    Impact of <t>l</t> <t>-arginine</t> and its derivatives on ART-controlled gene expression. ( A ) The structure of the l -arginine derivatives used in this study. ( B ) Sixty hours after co-transfection with pSH91 (P SV40 -ARG2-pA) and pSH93 (P ART1 -SEAP-pA), SEAP expression of CHO-K1 was measured. Cells were incubated in cell culture media containing 10 mg/l l -arginine and supplemented with 57.4, 574 or 5740 μM of l -arginine, l -ornithine, l -citrulline, agmatine, l -homoarginine, l -arginine methyl <t>ester,</t> l -arginine <t>ethyl</t> ester or l -canavanine (5740 μM correspond to 1 g/l l -arginine).
    L Arginine Ethyl Ester Dihydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Millipore arginine r0
    Impact of <t>l</t> <t>-arginine</t> and its derivatives on ART-controlled gene expression. ( A ) The structure of the l -arginine derivatives used in this study. ( B ) Sixty hours after co-transfection with pSH91 (P SV40 -ARG2-pA) and pSH93 (P ART1 -SEAP-pA), SEAP expression of CHO-K1 was measured. Cells were incubated in cell culture media containing 10 mg/l l -arginine and supplemented with 57.4, 574 or 5740 μM of l -arginine, l -ornithine, l -citrulline, agmatine, l -homoarginine, l -arginine methyl <t>ester,</t> l -arginine <t>ethyl</t> ester or l -canavanine (5740 μM correspond to 1 g/l l -arginine).
    Arginine R0, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore poly l arginine hydrochloride
    G1 inhibited nucleotide-stimulated IL-8 and IL-6 release in 16HBE14o- cells. a – c 16HBE14o- cells were treated with <t>ATPγS</t> ( a , c ; 10 μM) or poly- l -arginine ( b ; 1 μM) for 6 h in the presence or absence of G1 (10 nM). The supernatant was then collected, and IL-8 or IL-6 was quantified using an ELISA kit. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were corrected against vehicle control alone and expressed as the net release. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P
    Poly L Arginine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore α dansyl l arginine hydrochloride
    G1 inhibited nucleotide-stimulated IL-8 and IL-6 release in 16HBE14o- cells. a – c 16HBE14o- cells were treated with <t>ATPγS</t> ( a , c ; 10 μM) or poly- l -arginine ( b ; 1 μM) for 6 h in the presence or absence of G1 (10 nM). The supernatant was then collected, and IL-8 or IL-6 was quantified using an ELISA kit. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were corrected against vehicle control alone and expressed as the net release. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P
    α Dansyl L Arginine Hydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Millipore amino acid l arginine
    G1 inhibited nucleotide-stimulated IL-8 and IL-6 release in 16HBE14o- cells. a – c 16HBE14o- cells were treated with <t>ATPγS</t> ( a , c ; 10 μM) or poly- l -arginine ( b ; 1 μM) for 6 h in the presence or absence of G1 (10 nM). The supernatant was then collected, and IL-8 or IL-6 was quantified using an ELISA kit. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were corrected against vehicle control alone and expressed as the net release. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P
    Amino Acid L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore ng methyl l arginine acetate salt
    Effect of endogenous enzyme inhibition on KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against amyloid- β toxicity. PKiSS cells were pretreated with (a) catalase inhibitor 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT: 50 mM), (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC560 (1 μ M), (c) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G <t>-Methyl-L-arginine</t> acetate salt (LNMA: 1 mM), (d) mitogen activated protein kinase cascade inhibitor PD98059 (50 μ M) for 2 h prior to exposure to A β 1–40 (10 μ M) and determination of viability by MTT reduction. Results are mean ± s.e.m. * P
    Ng Methyl L Arginine Acetate Salt, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 114 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore l noarg
    Effect of endogenous enzyme inhibition on KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against amyloid- β toxicity. PKiSS cells were pretreated with (a) catalase inhibitor 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT: 50 mM), (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC560 (1 μ M), (c) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G <t>-Methyl-L-arginine</t> acetate salt (LNMA: 1 mM), (d) mitogen activated protein kinase cascade inhibitor PD98059 (50 μ M) for 2 h prior to exposure to A β 1–40 (10 μ M) and determination of viability by MTT reduction. Results are mean ± s.e.m. * P
    L Noarg, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 43 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore l lysine l arginine
    Effect of endogenous enzyme inhibition on KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against amyloid- β toxicity. PKiSS cells were pretreated with (a) catalase inhibitor 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT: 50 mM), (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC560 (1 μ M), (c) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G <t>-Methyl-L-arginine</t> acetate salt (LNMA: 1 mM), (d) mitogen activated protein kinase cascade inhibitor PD98059 (50 μ M) for 2 h prior to exposure to A β 1–40 (10 μ M) and determination of viability by MTT reduction. Results are mean ± s.e.m. * P
    L Lysine L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore n g monomethyl l arginine
    Assessment of endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome and controls. A, Effect of acetylcholine dilation on preconstricted small arteries from subcutaneous gluteal fat biopsy samples from control participants and patients with metabolic syndrome measured in a pressurized system. B, Acetylcholine relaxations after 1‐hour incubation with L‐ NMMA in control participants and those with metabolic syndrome. l ‐NMMA indicates <t>N</t> G ‐monomethyl‐ l ‐arginine.
    N G Monomethyl L Arginine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 212 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Isolation of modified capsomere, DDIT1 using optimized buffer conditions. (A) SEC showed a capsomere peak (b) for DDIT1 following GST removal in the presence of 50 m M l -arginine, distinct from an aggregation peak (a) and GST peak (c). (B) SDS-PAGE gel

    Journal: Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society

    Article Title: Insert engineering and solubility screening improves recovery of virus-like particle subunits displaying hydrophobic epitopes

    doi: 10.1002/pro.2775

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Isolation of modified capsomere, DDIT1 using optimized buffer conditions. (A) SEC showed a capsomere peak (b) for DDIT1 following GST removal in the presence of 50 m M l -arginine, distinct from an aggregation peak (a) and GST peak (c). (B) SDS-PAGE gel

    Article Snippet: Modified DD IT1 capsomere recovered via SEC in buffer containing 50 m M l -arginine ( l -Arg) (≥98%, Sigma-Aldrich, ) at pH 8.5 was assembled by dialysis in standard assembly buffer containing 0.5 M (NH4 )2 SO4 , 20 m M Tris–base, 5% glycerol (v/v), 1 m M CaCl2 at pH 7.4, with or without l -Arg at 50 m M .

    Techniques: Isolation, Modification, Size-exclusion Chromatography, SDS Page

    Views of pentavalent and hexavalent capsomeres based on cryo-EM reconstructions of APV+R, APV+R empty capsids, SV40, SV40 VLPs, JCV, and JCV+R all rendered at 25-Å resolution to allow for direct comparison. Left column, surface rendering views

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, nonconserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.12.005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Views of pentavalent and hexavalent capsomeres based on cryo-EM reconstructions of APV+R, APV+R empty capsids, SV40, SV40 VLPs, JCV, and JCV+R all rendered at 25-Å resolution to allow for direct comparison. Left column, surface rendering views

    Article Snippet: L-arginine has been used to reduce protein aggregation , and we treated purified APV with GP buffer plus 250 mM L-arginine (APV+R) by dialysis (D-tube Mini Dialyzers, MWCO 12-14 kDa, Novagen) to stabilize and de-aggregate particles.

    Techniques:

    Minor capsid proteins after treatment with L-arginine: APV+R (A) and JCV and JCV+R (B,C). (A) Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE (left) and immunoblot (right) analysis confirms the presence of VP4 in the sample used to image APV. In the immunoblot, antibodies

    Journal: Virology

    Article Title: The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, nonconserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4

    doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.12.005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Minor capsid proteins after treatment with L-arginine: APV+R (A) and JCV and JCV+R (B,C). (A) Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE (left) and immunoblot (right) analysis confirms the presence of VP4 in the sample used to image APV. In the immunoblot, antibodies

    Article Snippet: L-arginine has been used to reduce protein aggregation , and we treated purified APV with GP buffer plus 250 mM L-arginine (APV+R) by dialysis (D-tube Mini Dialyzers, MWCO 12-14 kDa, Novagen) to stabilize and de-aggregate particles.

    Techniques: Staining, SDS Page

    Effect of intracerebroventricular administration of nitric oxide/cGMP/K ATP pathway inhibitors on the antinociception induced by acute aerobic exercise (AE) in the paw-withdrawal ( A ) and tail-flick ( B ) tests. Rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular injection of N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg, 10 μg/5 µL), H-( 1 , 2 , 4 )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μg/5 µL) and glibenclamide (GLB, 10 μg/5 µL) immediately before the onset of exercise, which lasted for a mean of 44.2±1.5 min. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were measured before and after 1, 15, 30 min of AE. Data are reported as means±SE of 6 animals per group. ***P

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

    Article Title: Central release of nitric oxide mediates antinociception induced by aerobic exercise

    doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20144160

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of intracerebroventricular administration of nitric oxide/cGMP/K ATP pathway inhibitors on the antinociception induced by acute aerobic exercise (AE) in the paw-withdrawal ( A ) and tail-flick ( B ) tests. Rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular injection of N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg, 10 μg/5 µL), H-( 1 , 2 , 4 )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μg/5 µL) and glibenclamide (GLB, 10 μg/5 µL) immediately before the onset of exercise, which lasted for a mean of 44.2±1.5 min. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were measured before and after 1, 15, 30 min of AE. Data are reported as means±SE of 6 animals per group. ***P

    Article Snippet: Drugs The drugs used were N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg; Sigma, USA), an unspecific NOS inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AMG, Sigma), an iNOS inhibitor;N 5 -(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride (L-NIO; Sigma), an eNOS inhibitor; and N ω-propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA; Cayman, USA), an nNOS inhibitor, all diluted in physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl); and 1H-( , , )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; Tocris, USA), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, diluted in DMSO (10% in saline solution); and glibenclamide (GLB; Sigma), a KATP channel blocker, diluted in Tween (1% in saline solution).

    Techniques: Tail Flick Test, Injection

    Effect of intrathecal administration of nitric oxide/cGMP/K ATP pathway inhibitors on the antinociception induced by acute aerobic exercise (AE) in the paw-withdrawal ( A ) and tail-flick ( B ) tests. Rats were pretreated with intrathecal injection of N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg, 50 μg/10 µL), 1H-( 1 , 2 , 4 )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 4 μg/10 µL), and glibenclamide (GLB, 10 μg/10 µL) immediately before the onset of AE, which lasted for a mean of 45.3±2.0 min. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were measured before and after 1, 15, 30 min of AE. Data are reported as means±SE of 6 animals per group. ***P

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

    Article Title: Central release of nitric oxide mediates antinociception induced by aerobic exercise

    doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20144160

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of intrathecal administration of nitric oxide/cGMP/K ATP pathway inhibitors on the antinociception induced by acute aerobic exercise (AE) in the paw-withdrawal ( A ) and tail-flick ( B ) tests. Rats were pretreated with intrathecal injection of N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg, 50 μg/10 µL), 1H-( 1 , 2 , 4 )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 4 μg/10 µL), and glibenclamide (GLB, 10 μg/10 µL) immediately before the onset of AE, which lasted for a mean of 45.3±2.0 min. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds were measured before and after 1, 15, 30 min of AE. Data are reported as means±SE of 6 animals per group. ***P

    Article Snippet: Drugs The drugs used were N -nitro-L-arginine (L-NOArg; Sigma, USA), an unspecific NOS inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AMG, Sigma), an iNOS inhibitor;N 5 -(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride (L-NIO; Sigma), an eNOS inhibitor; and N ω-propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA; Cayman, USA), an nNOS inhibitor, all diluted in physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl); and 1H-( , , )oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; Tocris, USA), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, diluted in DMSO (10% in saline solution); and glibenclamide (GLB; Sigma), a KATP channel blocker, diluted in Tween (1% in saline solution).

    Techniques: Tail Flick Test, Injection

    Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P

    Journal: Neural Regeneration Research

    Article Title: Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses the toxic effects of amyloid-beta peptide (25–35) ☆

    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.01.007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of amyloid-β peptide (25–35) (Aβ 25-35 ) on mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells. Cells stained with 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) (A, × 400). Green fluorescence (emission maximum at 527 nm) and orange-red fluorescence (emission maximum at 590 nm) are shown. Cells were exposed to Aβ 25-35 (5 µM) or Aβ 35-25 (5 µM) in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide (a potassium channel activator) or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, a K ATP channel blocker) or 500 μM Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NIL, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) for 24 hours, followed by staining with JC-1 and laser scan confocal microscopy semi-quantitative analysis of the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio (B) (the lower the JC-1 590/527 nm fluorescence ratio is, the higher the mitochondrial membrane potential is). The data are expressed as mean ± SEM from five independent experiments. a P

    Article Snippet: Following exposure to 5 μM Aβ25-35 or Aβ35-25 in the presence or absence of 1 mM diazoxide or 1 mM diazoxide plus 500 μM 5-hydroxydecanoate or 500 μM Nω-nitro-L-arginine or 100 mg/mL catalase (Sigma) or 1 µM H2 O2 (Sigma) for 24 hours, the cultured cells were incubated in serum-free culture medium containing 10 µM DCFH-DA (Molecular Probes Europe) for 30 minutes at 37°C and were then washed with 0.2 M PBS once.

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Confocal Microscopy

    Effect of VEGF treatment on preterm ECFC growth is mediated by NO. Growth curves of preterm ECFCs in room air ( A ) and in hyperoxia ( B ; 50% oxygen) with or without rhVEGF (25 ng/ml) or  N ω -nitro- l -arginine (LNA; 2 mmol/l). Study conditions included

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    Article Title: Hyperoxia disrupts vascular endothelial growth factor-nitric oxide signaling and decreases growth of endothelial colony-forming cells from preterm infants

    doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00234.2009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of VEGF treatment on preterm ECFC growth is mediated by NO. Growth curves of preterm ECFCs in room air ( A ) and in hyperoxia ( B ; 50% oxygen) with or without rhVEGF (25 ng/ml) or N ω -nitro- l -arginine (LNA; 2 mmol/l). Study conditions included

    Article Snippet: The conditions for the three assays were as follows: 1 ) room air with and without recombinant human VEGF (rhVEGF; 25 ng/ml; R & D Systems 293-VE); hyperoxia with and without rhVEGF; 2 ) room air with and without NO gas (10 ppm) and hyperoxia with and without NO gas; and 3 ) room air and hyperoxia with the combination of rhVEGF with or without N ω -nitro- l -arginine (LNA; 2 mmol/l; Sigma N5501) to inhibit NO production.

    Techniques:

    NOS inhibition increases neuronal cell death in Prnp +/+ OHC but not in Prnp 0/0 , while NO addition enhances neuron survival upon NMDA exposure. Images from Prnp +/+ and Prnp 0/0 OHC areas are reported in rows: (A) Prnp +/+ CA1; (B) Prnp 0/0 CA1; (C) Prnp +/+ CA3; (D) Prnp 0/0 CA3; (E) Prnp +/+ DG; (F) Prnp 0/0 DG. The different treatments are reported in columns: 5 μ M NMDA for 3 h, left column ; 5 μ M NMDA+1 m M NNA for 3 h, central column ; 5 μ M NMDA+20 μ M GSNO for 3 h, right column . NeuN staining is displayed in green and DAPI in red . Confocal microscope fluorescence images were acquired using a 40×/1.30 NA oil objective. Graphs show the comparison of the neuronal pyknotic nuclei percentage, calculated over the total nuclei number, between Prnp +/+ and Prnp 0/0 OHC in CA1 (G) , CA3 (H) , and DG (I) ; all error bars indicate SD; sample size n =4 OHC, 5 slices per treatment in each culture; * p

    Journal: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

    Article Title: Prion Protein and Copper Cooperatively Protect Neurons by Modulating NMDA Receptor Through S-nitrosylation

    doi: 10.1089/ars.2014.6032

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NOS inhibition increases neuronal cell death in Prnp +/+ OHC but not in Prnp 0/0 , while NO addition enhances neuron survival upon NMDA exposure. Images from Prnp +/+ and Prnp 0/0 OHC areas are reported in rows: (A) Prnp +/+ CA1; (B) Prnp 0/0 CA1; (C) Prnp +/+ CA3; (D) Prnp 0/0 CA3; (E) Prnp +/+ DG; (F) Prnp 0/0 DG. The different treatments are reported in columns: 5 μ M NMDA for 3 h, left column ; 5 μ M NMDA+1 m M NNA for 3 h, central column ; 5 μ M NMDA+20 μ M GSNO for 3 h, right column . NeuN staining is displayed in green and DAPI in red . Confocal microscope fluorescence images were acquired using a 40×/1.30 NA oil objective. Graphs show the comparison of the neuronal pyknotic nuclei percentage, calculated over the total nuclei number, between Prnp +/+ and Prnp 0/0 OHC in CA1 (G) , CA3 (H) , and DG (I) ; all error bars indicate SD; sample size n =4 OHC, 5 slices per treatment in each culture; * p

    Article Snippet: The drug stock solutions were prepared as follows: 1 mM NMDA (0114; Tocris Biosciences, Missouri, United Kingdom) in ddH2 O stored at −20°C; 250 mM EGTA (E4378; Sigma-Aldrich) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, stored at RT; 40 mM CNQX (C239; Sigma-Aldrich) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, D8418; Sigma-Aldrich) stored at −20°C; 10 mM (2R )-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5, A5282; Sigma-Aldrich) in ddH2 O stored at −20°C; 5 mM threo ifenprodil hemitartrate (2892; Tocris Biosciences) in ddH2 O stored at −20°C; 10 mM GSNO (N4148; Sigma-Aldrich) in ddH2 O stored at −20°C; freshly prepared three NNA (N5501; Sigma-Aldrich) in serum-free medium; freshly prepared 4 mM CZ in 50% ethanol.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence

    Influence of nitric oxide inhibitors on the modulation of electrically- evoked tritium overflow in tail and mesenteric arteries: interaction with nitric oxide inhibitors L-NAME (100 μM, a non-selective nNOS inhibitor), Nω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (100 nM, a selective nNOS inhibitor) and L-NIO dihydrochloride (500 nM, a selective eNOS inhibitor). Arteries were electrically stimulated (S 1 -S 2 : 100 pulses, 5 Hz, 1 ms, 50 mA). Drugs were added immediately after S 1 and kept until the end of the experiment. Ordinates : S 2 /S 1 values obtained in individual tissue preparations, expressed as a percentage of the appropriate S 2 /S 1 control value. Values are mean±s.e.m. from n = 4–6. Significant differences from the appropriate control: *P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Endothelial and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Activate Distinct Pathways on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Rat Tail and Mesenteric Arteries

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129224

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of nitric oxide inhibitors on the modulation of electrically- evoked tritium overflow in tail and mesenteric arteries: interaction with nitric oxide inhibitors L-NAME (100 μM, a non-selective nNOS inhibitor), Nω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (100 nM, a selective nNOS inhibitor) and L-NIO dihydrochloride (500 nM, a selective eNOS inhibitor). Arteries were electrically stimulated (S 1 -S 2 : 100 pulses, 5 Hz, 1 ms, 50 mA). Drugs were added immediately after S 1 and kept until the end of the experiment. Ordinates : S 2 /S 1 values obtained in individual tissue preparations, expressed as a percentage of the appropriate S 2 /S 1 control value. Values are mean±s.e.m. from n = 4–6. Significant differences from the appropriate control: *P

    Article Snippet: Chemicals The following drugs were used: levo-[ring-2,5,6-3H]-noradrenaline, specific activity 41.3 Ci/mmol, was from DuPont NEN (I.L.C., Lisboa, Portugal); Desipramine hydrochloride, Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), DiethylamineNONOate diethylammonium salt (DEA-NONOate), Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), Nω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride and L-NIO dihydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine (SCH 58261), 5-Iodotubericidin (ITU) and Triton X-100 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Sintra, Portugal).

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry

    Binding of CRP to polycations Microtiter wells were coated with either poly-L-arginine ( A ) or poly-L-lysine ( B ). Increasing concentrations of purified WT and mutant CRP were added to the wells. Bound CRP was detected by HD2.4 mAb. A representative of two experiments is shown.

    Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry

    Article Title: Interaction of Calcium-bound C-reactive Protein with Fibronectin Is Controlled by pH

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M409054200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Binding of CRP to polycations Microtiter wells were coated with either poly-L-arginine ( A ) or poly-L-lysine ( B ). Increasing concentrations of purified WT and mutant CRP were added to the wells. Bound CRP was detected by HD2.4 mAb. A representative of two experiments is shown.

    Article Snippet: Binding activity of CRP for polycationic ligands was evaluated by two assays using poly-L-arginine (Sigma, P-3892, M r 70,000–150,000) and poly-L-lysine (Sigma, P8920, M r 150,000–300,000, 0.01% solution).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Purification, Mutagenesis

    Impact of l -arginine and its derivatives on ART-controlled gene expression. ( A ) The structure of the l -arginine derivatives used in this study. ( B ) Sixty hours after co-transfection with pSH91 (P SV40 -ARG2-pA) and pSH93 (P ART1 -SEAP-pA), SEAP expression of CHO-K1 was measured. Cells were incubated in cell culture media containing 10 mg/l l -arginine and supplemented with 57.4, 574 or 5740 μM of l -arginine, l -ornithine, l -citrulline, agmatine, l -homoarginine, l -arginine methyl ester, l -arginine ethyl ester or l -canavanine (5740 μM correspond to 1 g/l l -arginine).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: An engineered l-arginine sensor of Chlamydia pneumoniae enables arginine-adjustable transcription control in mammalian cells and mice

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkm652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of l -arginine and its derivatives on ART-controlled gene expression. ( A ) The structure of the l -arginine derivatives used in this study. ( B ) Sixty hours after co-transfection with pSH91 (P SV40 -ARG2-pA) and pSH93 (P ART1 -SEAP-pA), SEAP expression of CHO-K1 was measured. Cells were incubated in cell culture media containing 10 mg/l l -arginine and supplemented with 57.4, 574 or 5740 μM of l -arginine, l -ornithine, l -citrulline, agmatine, l -homoarginine, l -arginine methyl ester, l -arginine ethyl ester or l -canavanine (5740 μM correspond to 1 g/l l -arginine).

    Article Snippet: Regulating l -arginine and l -arginine analogs l -arginine stock solution was prepared in water by adjusting 50 g/l l -arginine base (0.287 M, AppliChem, Darmstadt, Germany, Cat. No. A3653,0100) to pH 7.2 with HCl and used at the final concentrations indicated. l -ornithine hydrochloride (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland, Cat. No. 75470) and l -citrulline (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland, Cat. No. 27510), l -homoarginine hydrochloride (Acros Organics, Basel, Switzerland, Cat. No. 169090050) were dissolved in water (0.287 M) with pH adjusted to 7.2 by NaOH. l -arginine methyl ester dihydrochloride (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland, Cat. No. 11030), l -arginine ethyl ester dihydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany, Cat. No. A2883), agmatine sulfate (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat. No. A7127) and l -canavanine sulfate (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat. No. C9758) stock solutions were prepared by adjusting the pH of a 0.144 M solution to pH 7.2.

    Techniques: Expressing, Cotransfection, Incubation, Cell Culture

    G1 inhibited nucleotide-stimulated IL-8 and IL-6 release in 16HBE14o- cells. a – c 16HBE14o- cells were treated with ATPγS ( a , c ; 10 μM) or poly- l -arginine ( b ; 1 μM) for 6 h in the presence or absence of G1 (10 nM). The supernatant was then collected, and IL-8 or IL-6 was quantified using an ELISA kit. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were corrected against vehicle control alone and expressed as the net release. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Pflugers Archiv

    Article Title: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor inhibits the P2Y receptor-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway in human airway epithelia

    doi: 10.1007/s00424-016-1840-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: G1 inhibited nucleotide-stimulated IL-8 and IL-6 release in 16HBE14o- cells. a – c 16HBE14o- cells were treated with ATPγS ( a , c ; 10 μM) or poly- l -arginine ( b ; 1 μM) for 6 h in the presence or absence of G1 (10 nM). The supernatant was then collected, and IL-8 or IL-6 was quantified using an ELISA kit. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were corrected against vehicle control alone and expressed as the net release. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: Uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP), uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP), adenosine 5′-(γ-thio)triphosphate (ATPγS), forskolin, poly-l -arginine hydrochloride, SQ 22536, U73122, E2 , and G1 were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA).

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Zeta potential measurement of respective surface charges. Notes: Alternating potential profile of proceeding polymer assembly is shown after coating of outermost five layers with ARG and DXS. Polymer assembly ended either in position 9 (positively charged outermost ARG) or in position 8 (negatively charged outermost DXS). Abbreviations: ARG, poly- l -arginine hydrochloride; DXS, dextran sodium sulfate; L, layers.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Cellular interaction of a layer-by-layer based drug delivery system depending on material properties and cell types

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S153701

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Zeta potential measurement of respective surface charges. Notes: Alternating potential profile of proceeding polymer assembly is shown after coating of outermost five layers with ARG and DXS. Polymer assembly ended either in position 9 (positively charged outermost ARG) or in position 8 (negatively charged outermost DXS). Abbreviations: ARG, poly- l -arginine hydrochloride; DXS, dextran sodium sulfate; L, layers.

    Article Snippet: Retinoic acid, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, poly-l -arginine hydrochloride (ARG), poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), Triton™ X-100, Tris buffer, lithium lactate, iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT)/phenazine methosulfate (PMS)/β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) solution, PMS and valinomycin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Munich, Germany).

    Techniques:

    IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is activated by TLR8 ligands and cytosolic dsDNA sensing, IRF3 is activated by TLR4 signaling and cytosolic dsDNA and dsRNA sensors, while only TLR8 is antagonized by TLR2 ligand. (A) Monocytes were stimulated with CL75 (1 μg/ml), LPS (K12, 100 ng/ml), pdA:dT (dsDNA, 1 μg/ml), or poly(I:C) (dsRNA, 1 μg/ml). The nucleic acid ligands were transfected using L2K. Fixation was done at 30, 60, and 120 min poststimulation and IF staining of IRF5 and IRF3 was performed. (B) Monocytes were stimulated with the TLR8 agonist polyuridylic acid (pU) in complex with poly- l -arginine (pLA) or with pdA:dT/L2K. The ligands (1 μg/ml) were added alone or together with FLS-1 (100 ng/ml), and cells were fixed and stained after 120 min of incubation. Quantification of nuclear accumulation was done by high-content screening (Scan^R, 20×). Significance was tested relative to no stimuli (NS). n = 4.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Toll-Like Receptor 8 Is a Major Sensor of Group B Streptococcus But Not Escherichia coli in Human Primary Monocytes and Macrophages

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is activated by TLR8 ligands and cytosolic dsDNA sensing, IRF3 is activated by TLR4 signaling and cytosolic dsDNA and dsRNA sensors, while only TLR8 is antagonized by TLR2 ligand. (A) Monocytes were stimulated with CL75 (1 μg/ml), LPS (K12, 100 ng/ml), pdA:dT (dsDNA, 1 μg/ml), or poly(I:C) (dsRNA, 1 μg/ml). The nucleic acid ligands were transfected using L2K. Fixation was done at 30, 60, and 120 min poststimulation and IF staining of IRF5 and IRF3 was performed. (B) Monocytes were stimulated with the TLR8 agonist polyuridylic acid (pU) in complex with poly- l -arginine (pLA) or with pdA:dT/L2K. The ligands (1 μg/ml) were added alone or together with FLS-1 (100 ng/ml), and cells were fixed and stained after 120 min of incubation. Quantification of nuclear accumulation was done by high-content screening (Scan^R, 20×). Significance was tested relative to no stimuli (NS). n = 4.

    Article Snippet: Poly-l -arginine (pLA) was from Sigma.

    Techniques: Transfection, Staining, Proximity Ligation Assay, Incubation, High Content Screening

    Effect of endogenous enzyme inhibition on KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against amyloid- β toxicity. PKiSS cells were pretreated with (a) catalase inhibitor 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT: 50 mM), (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC560 (1 μ M), (c) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G -Methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (LNMA: 1 mM), (d) mitogen activated protein kinase cascade inhibitor PD98059 (50 μ M) for 2 h prior to exposure to A β 1–40 (10 μ M) and determination of viability by MTT reduction. Results are mean ± s.e.m. * P

    Journal: ISRN Neuroscience

    Article Title: The Role of Neurotransmitters in Protection against Amyloid-β Toxicity by KiSS-1 Overexpression in SH-SY5Y Neurons

    doi: 10.1155/2013/253210

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of endogenous enzyme inhibition on KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against amyloid- β toxicity. PKiSS cells were pretreated with (a) catalase inhibitor 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT: 50 mM), (b) cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC560 (1 μ M), (c) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N G -Methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (LNMA: 1 mM), (d) mitogen activated protein kinase cascade inhibitor PD98059 (50 μ M) for 2 h prior to exposure to A β 1–40 (10 μ M) and determination of viability by MTT reduction. Results are mean ± s.e.m. * P

    Article Snippet: ASCAT peptide was obtained from Insight Biotechnology Ltd. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole, atosiban, atropine sulphate, 1(S),9(R)-(−)-bicuculline methiodide, BTA-EG4 hydrate, cyproheptadine hydrochloride, DAPT, haloperidol, KP234, mecamylamine hydrochloride, methysergide maleate, naltrexone, NG -Methyl-L-arginine acetate salt, PD98059, phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride, prazosin hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, RF9, SC-560, tamoxifen, and yohimbine hydrochloride, plus all other chemicals, were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Enzyme Inhibition Assay, Over Expression, MTT Assay

    Assessment of endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome and controls. A, Effect of acetylcholine dilation on preconstricted small arteries from subcutaneous gluteal fat biopsy samples from control participants and patients with metabolic syndrome measured in a pressurized system. B, Acetylcholine relaxations after 1‐hour incubation with L‐ NMMA in control participants and those with metabolic syndrome. l ‐NMMA indicates N G ‐monomethyl‐ l ‐arginine.

    Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

    Article Title: Abnormal Remodeling of Subcutaneous Small Arteries Is Associated With Early Diastolic Impairment in Metabolic Syndrome

    doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004603

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome and controls. A, Effect of acetylcholine dilation on preconstricted small arteries from subcutaneous gluteal fat biopsy samples from control participants and patients with metabolic syndrome measured in a pressurized system. B, Acetylcholine relaxations after 1‐hour incubation with L‐ NMMA in control participants and those with metabolic syndrome. l ‐NMMA indicates N G ‐monomethyl‐ l ‐arginine.

    Article Snippet: After 1 hour of incubation with 5×10−5 mol/L N G ‐monomethyl‐l ‐arginine (Sigma), a NO synthase inhibitor, the responses to acetylcholine were repeated as in step 2 above.

    Techniques: Incubation