kcl Search Results


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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher kcl
    Kcl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 26119 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore potassium chloride kcl
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 915 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co kcl
    Sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence transients of Na + ,K + -ATPase from pig kidney and shark rectal gland noncovalently labeled with RH421. Na + ,K + -ATPase (60 μ g/mL) was premixed with a small volume of 0.5 M Na 2 ATP to a final concentration of 4 mM ATP. A few seconds later, the enzyme was mixed with an equal volume of a <t>KCl</t> solution (0.6 mM after mixing). The final Na + ,K + -ATPase concentration was 30 μ g/mL, and the RH421 concentration was 400 nM. Both the enzyme suspensions and the KCl solutions were in a buffer containing 30 mM imidazole, 40 mM <t>NaCl,</t> 5 mM MgCl 2 , and 1 mM EDTA (pH 7.4, 24°C). The total ionic strength was maintained at a constant value by the addition of choline chloride to the enzyme suspension and the KCl solutions ([choline chloride] + [KCl] = 90 mM). The fluorescence of membrane-bound RH421 was measured at an excitation wavelength of 577 nm at emission wavelengths of ≥665 nm (RG665 glass cutoff filter). The calculated observed rate constants were 67 (±2) s −1 for the pig enzyme and 120 (±11) s −1 (82% of the total amplitude) and 16 (±3) s −1 (18%) for the shark enzyme.
    Kcl, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 645 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fisher Scientific kcl
    Overall performance for experiment 2 amiloride sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE) in <t>NaCl</t> vs. <t>KCl</t> (dissolved in 100 μM amiloride) discrimination by group for presurgical ( left ) and postsurgical ( right ) amiloride sessions. *Significantly
    Kcl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 921 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck KGaA kcl
    Vasorelaxations to cumulative concentrations of taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) in human radial artery rings precontracted with 45 mM <t>KCl</t> in the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM), barium chloride (BaCl 2 , 30 µM) and glibenclamide (GLI, 10 µM). Each value represents mean±S.E.M. and it is calculated as the percentage of the first KCl (45 mM)-induced contraction in the same ring (n=7~11). Vertical bars represent S.E.M. * p
    Kcl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 742 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Carl Roth GmbH kcl
    (a) Chronoamperograms for the H 2 O 2 oxidation at the ME after ion‐transfer and H 2 O 2 generation at the liquid|liquid interface by using the cell in Figure 2 ; the aqueous solution was (I) <t>LiCl,</t> (II) NaCl, (III) <t>KCl,</t> and (IV) HCl at d ME–MP values of (1) 2, (2) 10, (3) 20, (4) 30, (5) 40, (6) 50, and (7) 100 μm. (b) Steady‐state oxidation current from the chronoamperograms in (a) as a function of d ME–MP for different aqueous electrolytes; Pt ME with r T =12.5 μm, E T =0.8 V (vs. Ag|AgCl|Cl − ), Δ o w φ =−0.65 V, and r MP =10 μm.
    Kcl, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 443 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    kcl  (Avantor)
    92
    Avantor kcl
    Performance of catalysts for electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction. Potential-dependent faradaic efficiency of the products from the CO 2 RR products on electropolished Cu ( a ), chlorinated Cu ( b ), brominated Cu ( c ), and iodinated Cu ( d ). Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed in 0.1 M <t>KCl</t> at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 100 s ( b ); in 0.1 M <t>KBr</t> at 0.18 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 60 s ( c ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 s ( d ). e – h FEs of C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. C 1 products include CO, formate, and CH 4 . C 2 products include C 2 H 4 , ethanol, acetate, acetaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. C 3 products include n-propanol, propionaldehyde, and allyl alcohol. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . FE is shown as a function of the iR-corrected potential in RHE scale. Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.
    Kcl, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 320 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fisher Scientific potassium chloride kcl
    Performance of catalysts for electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction. Potential-dependent faradaic efficiency of the products from the CO 2 RR products on electropolished Cu ( a ), chlorinated Cu ( b ), brominated Cu ( c ), and iodinated Cu ( d ). Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed in 0.1 M <t>KCl</t> at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 100 s ( b ); in 0.1 M <t>KBr</t> at 0.18 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 60 s ( c ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 s ( d ). e – h FEs of C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. C 1 products include CO, formate, and CH 4 . C 2 products include C 2 H 4 , ethanol, acetate, acetaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. C 3 products include n-propanol, propionaldehyde, and allyl alcohol. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . FE is shown as a function of the iR-corrected potential in RHE scale. Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 102 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck KGaA potassium chloride kcl
    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m <t>Tris,</t> 100 m m <t>KCl</t> buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 72 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    FUJIFILM kcl
    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m <t>Tris,</t> 100 m m <t>KCl</t> buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.
    Kcl, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 446 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co potassium chloride kcl
    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m <t>Tris,</t> 100 m m <t>KCl</t> buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 74 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Sinopharm potassium chloride kcl
    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m <t>Tris,</t> 100 m m <t>KCl</t> buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Sinopharm, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 43 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Sinopharm kcl
    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m <t>Tris,</t> 100 m m <t>KCl</t> buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.
    Kcl, supplied by Sinopharm, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 156 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    kcl  (Nacalai)
    92
    Nacalai kcl
    The snapshots of the real-time HS-AFM imaging of the conformational changes. ( a ) Salt-induced formation of a G-quadruplex. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a <t>KCl-free</t> buffer, while the imaging was carried out in a buffer that contained 100 mM KCl. ( b ) The deformation of a G-quadruplex structure under KCl-free environment. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a buffer containing 100 mM KCl, whereas the observation buffer contained no KCl. The long duplex system (67-mer top and 77-mer bottom duplexes) with six G-repeats was used in these studies. The numbers at the top left corner represent the imaging time in second. Image size: 125 × 125 nm; scan speed: 0.2 frame/s. [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; <t>[Tris–HCl]</t> = 20 mM, pH 7.6. For real-time movies, see Supplementary section .
    Kcl, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 313 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Mallinckrodt kcl
    Contrasting effects of treatments inducing calcium flux on CREB phosphorylation in the caudoputamen ( A – C ) and in the olfactory tubercle ( A ′– C ′). Both <t>KCl</t> ( A ) and NMDA ( B ) induce high levels of PCREB expression through the caudoputamen. In sharp contrast, KCl induces little PCREB expression ( A ′) and NMDA induces only weak PCREB expression ( B ′) in the olfactory tubercle. Pretreatment with EGTA before BAY K <t>8644</t> stimulation decreases the PCREB immunostaining to background levels in the caudoputamen ( C ), but significantly enhances PCREB immunoreactivity in the islands of the olfactory tubercle (curved arrow in C ′). All drug treatments were for 30 min. The arrowheads in A ′– C ′ point to ventral edges of the tissue; × indicates a region of tissue damage. NAc, nucleus accumbens; AC, anterior commissure; fb, fiber bundles. [Bar in C (for A – C ) = 100 μm; bar in C ′ (for A ′– C ′) = 0.5 mm.]
    Kcl, supplied by Mallinckrodt, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 115 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    3M Co 3m kcl
    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with <t>3M</t> <t>KCl</t> pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster
    3m Kcl, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 48 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Avantor potassium chloride kcl
    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with <t>3M</t> <t>KCl</t> pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    FUJIFILM potassium chloride kcl
    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with <t>3M</t> <t>KCl</t> pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster
    Potassium Chloride Kcl, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Applichem kcl
    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with <t>3M</t> <t>KCl</t> pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster
    Kcl, supplied by Applichem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 73 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    3M Co ag agcl kcl
    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with <t>3M</t> <t>KCl</t> pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster
    Ag Agcl Kcl, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    N/A
    Choose from two types of reference fill solutions 3 8 M KCl saturated with AgCl for AgCl AgCl electrodes or 4 M KCl for calomel Hg Hg sub 2 subCl
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    KCL 22  (DSMZ)
    N/A
    established from the pleural effusion of a 32 year old woman with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in blast crisis in 1981 described in the literature to contain the t 9
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    Image Search Results


    Sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence transients of Na + ,K + -ATPase from pig kidney and shark rectal gland noncovalently labeled with RH421. Na + ,K + -ATPase (60 μ g/mL) was premixed with a small volume of 0.5 M Na 2 ATP to a final concentration of 4 mM ATP. A few seconds later, the enzyme was mixed with an equal volume of a KCl solution (0.6 mM after mixing). The final Na + ,K + -ATPase concentration was 30 μ g/mL, and the RH421 concentration was 400 nM. Both the enzyme suspensions and the KCl solutions were in a buffer containing 30 mM imidazole, 40 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgCl 2 , and 1 mM EDTA (pH 7.4, 24°C). The total ionic strength was maintained at a constant value by the addition of choline chloride to the enzyme suspension and the KCl solutions ([choline chloride] + [KCl] = 90 mM). The fluorescence of membrane-bound RH421 was measured at an excitation wavelength of 577 nm at emission wavelengths of ≥665 nm (RG665 glass cutoff filter). The calculated observed rate constants were 67 (±2) s −1 for the pig enzyme and 120 (±11) s −1 (82% of the total amplitude) and 16 (±3) s −1 (18%) for the shark enzyme.

    Journal: Biophysical Journal

    Article Title: Kinetics of K+ Occlusion by the Phosphoenzyme of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2010.11.038

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sequential mixing stopped-flow fluorescence transients of Na + ,K + -ATPase from pig kidney and shark rectal gland noncovalently labeled with RH421. Na + ,K + -ATPase (60 μ g/mL) was premixed with a small volume of 0.5 M Na 2 ATP to a final concentration of 4 mM ATP. A few seconds later, the enzyme was mixed with an equal volume of a KCl solution (0.6 mM after mixing). The final Na + ,K + -ATPase concentration was 30 μ g/mL, and the RH421 concentration was 400 nM. Both the enzyme suspensions and the KCl solutions were in a buffer containing 30 mM imidazole, 40 mM NaCl, 5 mM MgCl 2 , and 1 mM EDTA (pH 7.4, 24°C). The total ionic strength was maintained at a constant value by the addition of choline chloride to the enzyme suspension and the KCl solutions ([choline chloride] + [KCl] = 90 mM). The fluorescence of membrane-bound RH421 was measured at an excitation wavelength of 577 nm at emission wavelengths of ≥665 nm (RG665 glass cutoff filter). The calculated observed rate constants were 67 (±2) s −1 for the pig enzyme and 120 (±11) s −1 (82% of the total amplitude) and 16 (±3) s −1 (18%) for the shark enzyme.

    Article Snippet: The origins of the various reagents used were: imidazole (≥99%; Sigma, Castle Hill, Australia), NaCl (suprapure; Merck, Kilsyth, Australia), KCl (analytical grade; Merck), choline chloride (99%; Sigma), MgCl2 ·6H2 O (analytical grade; Merck), EDTA (99%; Sigma), ATP disodium·3H2 O (special quality; Roche, Castle Hill, Australia), NaOH (analytical grade; Merck), and HCl (0.1 N Titrisol solution; Merck).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence, Labeling, Concentration Assay

    Overall performance for experiment 2 amiloride sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE) in NaCl vs. KCl (dissolved in 100 μM amiloride) discrimination by group for presurgical ( left ) and postsurgical ( right ) amiloride sessions. *Significantly

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

    Article Title: Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input

    doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00843.2009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall performance for experiment 2 amiloride sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE) in NaCl vs. KCl (dissolved in 100 μM amiloride) discrimination by group for presurgical ( left ) and postsurgical ( right ) amiloride sessions. *Significantly

    Article Snippet: The rats in experiments 1 and 2 were trained to associate one reinforcement spout with NaCl and the other with KCl (both reagent grade chemicals; Fisher Scientific, Orlando, FL).

    Techniques:

    Overall performance for experiment 1 control sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE or ±SE) in NaCl vs. KCl discrimination by group for presurgical control sessions ( left ), initial postsurgical testing ( weeks 1–4 ; middle ), and

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

    Article Title: Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input

    doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00843.2009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall performance for experiment 1 control sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE or ±SE) in NaCl vs. KCl discrimination by group for presurgical control sessions ( left ), initial postsurgical testing ( weeks 1–4 ; middle ), and

    Article Snippet: The rats in experiments 1 and 2 were trained to associate one reinforcement spout with NaCl and the other with KCl (both reagent grade chemicals; Fisher Scientific, Orlando, FL).

    Techniques:

    Overall performance for experiment 2 control sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE or ±SE) in NaCl vs. KCl discrimination by group for presurgical control sessions ( left ), initial postsurgical testing ( weeks 1–4 ; middle ), and

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

    Article Title: Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input

    doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00843.2009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall performance for experiment 2 control sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE or ±SE) in NaCl vs. KCl discrimination by group for presurgical control sessions ( left ), initial postsurgical testing ( weeks 1–4 ; middle ), and

    Article Snippet: The rats in experiments 1 and 2 were trained to associate one reinforcement spout with NaCl and the other with KCl (both reagent grade chemicals; Fisher Scientific, Orlando, FL).

    Techniques:

    Overall performance for experiment 1 amiloride sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE) in NaCl vs. KCl (dissolved in 100 μM amiloride) discrimination by group for presurgical ( left ) and postsurgical ( right ) amiloride sessions. *Significantly

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

    Article Title: Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input

    doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00843.2009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall performance for experiment 1 amiloride sessions. Mean overall percentage correct (+SE) in NaCl vs. KCl (dissolved in 100 μM amiloride) discrimination by group for presurgical ( left ) and postsurgical ( right ) amiloride sessions. *Significantly

    Article Snippet: The rats in experiments 1 and 2 were trained to associate one reinforcement spout with NaCl and the other with KCl (both reagent grade chemicals; Fisher Scientific, Orlando, FL).

    Techniques:

    Vasorelaxations to cumulative concentrations of taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) in human radial artery rings precontracted with 45 mM KCl in the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM), barium chloride (BaCl 2 , 30 µM) and glibenclamide (GLI, 10 µM). Each value represents mean±S.E.M. and it is calculated as the percentage of the first KCl (45 mM)-induced contraction in the same ring (n=7~11). Vertical bars represent S.E.M. * p

    Journal: The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Taurine relaxes human radial artery through potassium channel opening action

    doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2017.21.6.617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vasorelaxations to cumulative concentrations of taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) in human radial artery rings precontracted with 45 mM KCl in the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM), barium chloride (BaCl 2 , 30 µM) and glibenclamide (GLI, 10 µM). Each value represents mean±S.E.M. and it is calculated as the percentage of the first KCl (45 mM)-induced contraction in the same ring (n=7~11). Vertical bars represent S.E.M. * p

    Article Snippet: KCl and TEA were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany).

    Techniques:

    Original tracings showing vasorelaxations to taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) in KCl (45 mM)-precontracted human radial artery rings in the absence (control) and presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM).

    Journal: The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Taurine relaxes human radial artery through potassium channel opening action

    doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2017.21.6.617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Original tracings showing vasorelaxations to taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) in KCl (45 mM)-precontracted human radial artery rings in the absence (control) and presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM).

    Article Snippet: KCl and TEA were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany).

    Techniques:

    (a) Chronoamperograms for the H 2 O 2 oxidation at the ME after ion‐transfer and H 2 O 2 generation at the liquid|liquid interface by using the cell in Figure 2 ; the aqueous solution was (I) LiCl, (II) NaCl, (III) KCl, and (IV) HCl at d ME–MP values of (1) 2, (2) 10, (3) 20, (4) 30, (5) 40, (6) 50, and (7) 100 μm. (b) Steady‐state oxidation current from the chronoamperograms in (a) as a function of d ME–MP for different aqueous electrolytes; Pt ME with r T =12.5 μm, E T =0.8 V (vs. Ag|AgCl|Cl − ), Δ o w φ =−0.65 V, and r MP =10 μm.

    Journal: Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)

    Article Title: Catalytic Activity of Alkali Metal Cations for the Chemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Biphasic Liquid System Probed by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    doi: 10.1002/chem.202001967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Chronoamperograms for the H 2 O 2 oxidation at the ME after ion‐transfer and H 2 O 2 generation at the liquid|liquid interface by using the cell in Figure 2 ; the aqueous solution was (I) LiCl, (II) NaCl, (III) KCl, and (IV) HCl at d ME–MP values of (1) 2, (2) 10, (3) 20, (4) 30, (5) 40, (6) 50, and (7) 100 μm. (b) Steady‐state oxidation current from the chronoamperograms in (a) as a function of d ME–MP for different aqueous electrolytes; Pt ME with r T =12.5 μm, E T =0.8 V (vs. Ag|AgCl|Cl − ), Δ o w φ =−0.65 V, and r MP =10 μm.

    Article Snippet: ChemicalsNaCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), LiCl ( > 9999 %, VWN chemicals), KCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), HCl (35 %, VWN chemicals), DMFc (Sigma–Aldrich), LiTB (Sigma–Aldrich), bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene) ammonium chloride (BACl, Sigma–Aldrich), and DCE (Sigma–Aldrich) were used as received.

    Techniques:

    (a) Approach curves (1) without and (2) with Δ o w φ =−0.65 V applied at the liquid|liquid interface using the cell in Figure 2 with LiCl as an aqueous electrolyte solution. (b) The same as (a) but with aqueous electrolyte solutions of (1) HCl, (2) KCl, (3) NaCl, and (4) LiCl; Pt ME with r tip =12.5 μm as WE2, E T =0.8 V (vs. Ag|AgCl|Cl − ), v T =0.8 μm s −1 , Δ o w φ =−0.65 V, r MP ≈50 μm for (a) and 10 μm for (b).

    Journal: Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)

    Article Title: Catalytic Activity of Alkali Metal Cations for the Chemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Biphasic Liquid System Probed by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    doi: 10.1002/chem.202001967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Approach curves (1) without and (2) with Δ o w φ =−0.65 V applied at the liquid|liquid interface using the cell in Figure 2 with LiCl as an aqueous electrolyte solution. (b) The same as (a) but with aqueous electrolyte solutions of (1) HCl, (2) KCl, (3) NaCl, and (4) LiCl; Pt ME with r tip =12.5 μm as WE2, E T =0.8 V (vs. Ag|AgCl|Cl − ), v T =0.8 μm s −1 , Δ o w φ =−0.65 V, r MP ≈50 μm for (a) and 10 μm for (b).

    Article Snippet: ChemicalsNaCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), LiCl ( > 9999 %, VWN chemicals), KCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), HCl (35 %, VWN chemicals), DMFc (Sigma–Aldrich), LiTB (Sigma–Aldrich), bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene) ammonium chloride (BACl, Sigma–Aldrich), and DCE (Sigma–Aldrich) were used as received.

    Techniques:

    Plot of H 2 O 2 oxidation at the ME in the cell in Figure 2 for aqueous solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and HCl as a function of standard hydration enthalpy Δ hyd H ° of protons and alkali metal ions from ref. 25 . The values of i T are taken from Figure 5 b at d ME–MP =2 μm. The solid line is a fit for LiCl, NaCl, and KCl i T [pA]=−0.21 Δ hyd H ° [kJ mol −1 ]−45.70 ( R 2 =0.995). The dashed line is an extrapolation of the solid line for RbCl and CsCl solutions and the literature values of Δ hyd H °(Rb + ) and Δ hyd H °(Cs + ).

    Journal: Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)

    Article Title: Catalytic Activity of Alkali Metal Cations for the Chemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Biphasic Liquid System Probed by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    doi: 10.1002/chem.202001967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Plot of H 2 O 2 oxidation at the ME in the cell in Figure 2 for aqueous solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and HCl as a function of standard hydration enthalpy Δ hyd H ° of protons and alkali metal ions from ref. 25 . The values of i T are taken from Figure 5 b at d ME–MP =2 μm. The solid line is a fit for LiCl, NaCl, and KCl i T [pA]=−0.21 Δ hyd H ° [kJ mol −1 ]−45.70 ( R 2 =0.995). The dashed line is an extrapolation of the solid line for RbCl and CsCl solutions and the literature values of Δ hyd H °(Rb + ) and Δ hyd H °(Cs + ).

    Article Snippet: ChemicalsNaCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), LiCl ( > 9999 %, VWN chemicals), KCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), HCl (35 %, VWN chemicals), DMFc (Sigma–Aldrich), LiTB (Sigma–Aldrich), bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene) ammonium chloride (BACl, Sigma–Aldrich), and DCE (Sigma–Aldrich) were used as received.

    Techniques:

    (a) ITCV with 0.1 m of (1) KCl, (2) HCl, (3) LiCl, and (4) NaCl as aqueous electrolyte solution in the absence of DMFc in the organic phase. (b) ITCV with the cell shown in Figure 2 and 0.1 m of (1) KCl, (2) HCl, (3) LiCl, and (4) NaCl as aqueous electrolyte solution in the presence of 5 m m DMFc in the organic phase; r MP ≈10 μm and v =20 mV s −1 .

    Journal: Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)

    Article Title: Catalytic Activity of Alkali Metal Cations for the Chemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Biphasic Liquid System Probed by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    doi: 10.1002/chem.202001967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) ITCV with 0.1 m of (1) KCl, (2) HCl, (3) LiCl, and (4) NaCl as aqueous electrolyte solution in the absence of DMFc in the organic phase. (b) ITCV with the cell shown in Figure 2 and 0.1 m of (1) KCl, (2) HCl, (3) LiCl, and (4) NaCl as aqueous electrolyte solution in the presence of 5 m m DMFc in the organic phase; r MP ≈10 μm and v =20 mV s −1 .

    Article Snippet: ChemicalsNaCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), LiCl ( > 9999 %, VWN chemicals), KCl ( > 99.99 %, Carl Roth), HCl (35 %, VWN chemicals), DMFc (Sigma–Aldrich), LiTB (Sigma–Aldrich), bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene) ammonium chloride (BACl, Sigma–Aldrich), and DCE (Sigma–Aldrich) were used as received.

    Techniques:

    Performance of catalysts for electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction. Potential-dependent faradaic efficiency of the products from the CO 2 RR products on electropolished Cu ( a ), chlorinated Cu ( b ), brominated Cu ( c ), and iodinated Cu ( d ). Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed in 0.1 M KCl at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 100 s ( b ); in 0.1 M KBr at 0.18 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 60 s ( c ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 s ( d ). e – h FEs of C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. C 1 products include CO, formate, and CH 4 . C 2 products include C 2 H 4 , ethanol, acetate, acetaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. C 3 products include n-propanol, propionaldehyde, and allyl alcohol. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . FE is shown as a function of the iR-corrected potential in RHE scale. Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: A scalable method for preparing Cu electrocatalysts that convert CO2 into C2+ products

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16998-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Performance of catalysts for electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction. Potential-dependent faradaic efficiency of the products from the CO 2 RR products on electropolished Cu ( a ), chlorinated Cu ( b ), brominated Cu ( c ), and iodinated Cu ( d ). Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed in 0.1 M KCl at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 100 s ( b ); in 0.1 M KBr at 0.18 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 60 s ( c ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 s ( d ). e – h FEs of C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. C 1 products include CO, formate, and CH 4 . C 2 products include C 2 H 4 , ethanol, acetate, acetaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. C 3 products include n-propanol, propionaldehyde, and allyl alcohol. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . FE is shown as a function of the iR-corrected potential in RHE scale. Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Article Snippet: KCl (Macron fine chemicals), KBr (Fisher Scientific), and KI (Fisher Scientific) were dissolved in DI water to a concentration of 0.1 M. Anodic chlorination, bromination, and iodination was performed on an electropolished Cu foil immersed in 0.1 M KCl, KBr, and KI at 1.1, 0.18, and −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, in a three-electrode configuration using a potentiostat (Pine Instrument Company, Biopotentiostat, model AFCBP1).

    Techniques:

    Effect of halogenation time on the performance of the catalysts for CO 2 reduction reaction. FEs of the products from electrochemical CO 2 RR are shown versus the amount of time the Cu foils were subjected to anodic halogenation in KCl ( a ), KBr ( b ), and KI ( c ). d – f FEs of H 2 , C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential of ~ −1.11 V vs. RHE in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: A scalable method for preparing Cu electrocatalysts that convert CO2 into C2+ products

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16998-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of halogenation time on the performance of the catalysts for CO 2 reduction reaction. FEs of the products from electrochemical CO 2 RR are shown versus the amount of time the Cu foils were subjected to anodic halogenation in KCl ( a ), KBr ( b ), and KI ( c ). d – f FEs of H 2 , C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 products from the same results shown in the corresponding upper plot. Data were acquired during 40 min of electrochemical CO 2 RR at a constant potential of ~ −1.11 V vs. RHE in 0.1 M KHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 . Data legends apply to all plots in the same row. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Article Snippet: KCl (Macron fine chemicals), KBr (Fisher Scientific), and KI (Fisher Scientific) were dissolved in DI water to a concentration of 0.1 M. Anodic chlorination, bromination, and iodination was performed on an electropolished Cu foil immersed in 0.1 M KCl, KBr, and KI at 1.1, 0.18, and −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, in a three-electrode configuration using a potentiostat (Pine Instrument Company, Biopotentiostat, model AFCBP1).

    Techniques:

    Crystal structures of halogenated Cu identified by grazing incident X-ray diffraction. GI-XRD patterns of the original electropolished Cu foil ( a ). Cu foils oxidized in 0.05 M K 2 SO 4 at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 300 s (control sample) ( b ), or halogenated in KCl ( c ), in KBr ( d ), and in KI ( e ) for 100, 60, and 30 s, respectively. The symbol # indicates peaks corresponding to the underlying Cu-foil substrate. The incidence angle used for GI-XRD was 2°. The inset of each GI-XRD plot is a diagram of the unit cell for Cu, Cu 2 O, CuCl, CuBr, and CuI, from ( a ) to ( e ), respectively. Cu atoms are represented as blue spheres. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: A scalable method for preparing Cu electrocatalysts that convert CO2 into C2+ products

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16998-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Crystal structures of halogenated Cu identified by grazing incident X-ray diffraction. GI-XRD patterns of the original electropolished Cu foil ( a ). Cu foils oxidized in 0.05 M K 2 SO 4 at 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 300 s (control sample) ( b ), or halogenated in KCl ( c ), in KBr ( d ), and in KI ( e ) for 100, 60, and 30 s, respectively. The symbol # indicates peaks corresponding to the underlying Cu-foil substrate. The incidence angle used for GI-XRD was 2°. The inset of each GI-XRD plot is a diagram of the unit cell for Cu, Cu 2 O, CuCl, CuBr, and CuI, from ( a ) to ( e ), respectively. Cu atoms are represented as blue spheres. Source data are provided as a Source data file.

    Article Snippet: KCl (Macron fine chemicals), KBr (Fisher Scientific), and KI (Fisher Scientific) were dissolved in DI water to a concentration of 0.1 M. Anodic chlorination, bromination, and iodination was performed on an electropolished Cu foil immersed in 0.1 M KCl, KBr, and KI at 1.1, 0.18, and −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, in a three-electrode configuration using a potentiostat (Pine Instrument Company, Biopotentiostat, model AFCBP1).

    Techniques:

    Morphology of halogenated Cu-foil electrodes. SEM images of halogenated Cu foils: a – f as-prepared; g – i after immersion in 0.1 M KHCO 3 for 10 min; j – l after reduction by LSV in the potential range from OCP to −1.8 V in CO 2 -saturated 0.1 M KHCO 3 . a – c Cross-sectional images taken at a tilt angle of 45° to reveal the thickness of halogenated Cu. d – l Plan-view images. Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed for 50 s in 0.1 M KCl at 1.1 V ( a , d , g , j ); in 0.1 M KBr at 0.18 V ( b , e , h , k ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V ( c , f , i , l ). All voltages are reported vs. Ag/AgCl. Scale bars: 2 μm.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: A scalable method for preparing Cu electrocatalysts that convert CO2 into C2+ products

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16998-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphology of halogenated Cu-foil electrodes. SEM images of halogenated Cu foils: a – f as-prepared; g – i after immersion in 0.1 M KHCO 3 for 10 min; j – l after reduction by LSV in the potential range from OCP to −1.8 V in CO 2 -saturated 0.1 M KHCO 3 . a – c Cross-sectional images taken at a tilt angle of 45° to reveal the thickness of halogenated Cu. d – l Plan-view images. Anodic halogenation of Cu was performed for 50 s in 0.1 M KCl at 1.1 V ( a , d , g , j ); in 0.1 M KBr at 0.18 V ( b , e , h , k ); in 0.1 M KI at −0.2 V ( c , f , i , l ). All voltages are reported vs. Ag/AgCl. Scale bars: 2 μm.

    Article Snippet: KCl (Macron fine chemicals), KBr (Fisher Scientific), and KI (Fisher Scientific) were dissolved in DI water to a concentration of 0.1 M. Anodic chlorination, bromination, and iodination was performed on an electropolished Cu foil immersed in 0.1 M KCl, KBr, and KI at 1.1, 0.18, and −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, in a three-electrode configuration using a potentiostat (Pine Instrument Company, Biopotentiostat, model AFCBP1).

    Techniques:

    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m Tris, 100 m m KCl buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: The Impact of N-terminal Acetylation of α-Synuclein on Phospholipid Membrane Binding and Fibril Structure *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.726612

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS. All data obtained with WT-αS are depicted with black diamonds / lines , NTAc-αS with red squares / lines, and Endo-αS with blue circles / lines. Open symbols in panels A, C , and E represent data obtained in the presence of LUVs and closed symbols represent data obtained in presence of SUVs. Binding curves of αS to 100% POPS liposomes ( panel A ), 25:75 POPC:POPS ( panel B ), 50:50 POPC:POPS ( panel C ), and 75:25 POPC:POPS ( panel D ) showing no differences in membrane binding of acetylated-αS compared with WT-αS. Binding curves of αS to POPC liposomes show hardly any binding of αS to membranes of this composition but acetylated-αS has a slightly higher affinity for 100% POPC SUVs than WT-αS ( panel E ). Average MRE values were obtained from the plateau phase of the binding curve obtained from CD spectroscopy measurements showing insignificant differences for either WT-αS or acetylated-αS indicating a similar size of helical domain on lipid membranes ( panel F ). All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m Tris, 100 m m KCl buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements. The binding curves for LUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panels C and E could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 23 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye.

    Article Snippet: Tris salt and potassium chloride (KCl) were purchased from Merck (Germany).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Spectroscopy

    Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS to SUVs containing cholesterol. A, binding curves comparing the affinity of αS to 1:1 Chol:POPS SUVs ( open symbols ) and 1:1 POPC:POPS SUVs ( closed symbols ). B, binding curves of αS to 1:1 POPC:Chol SUVs ( open symbols ) and POPC SUVs ( closed symbols ). The binding curves for SUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panel B could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 26 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye. All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m Tris, 100 m m KCl buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: The Impact of N-terminal Acetylation of α-Synuclein on Phospholipid Membrane Binding and Fibril Structure *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.726612

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Membrane binding characteristics of WT-αS, NTAc-αS, and Endo-αS to SUVs containing cholesterol. A, binding curves comparing the affinity of αS to 1:1 Chol:POPS SUVs ( open symbols ) and 1:1 POPC:POPS SUVs ( closed symbols ). B, binding curves of αS to 1:1 POPC:Chol SUVs ( open symbols ) and POPC SUVs ( closed symbols ). The binding curves for SUVs ( open symbols ) shown in panel B could not be fitted using the solution to a simple quadratic equation ( 26 ) and the depicted lines are only a guide to the eye. All measurements were performed at room temperature in the presence of 10 m m Tris, 100 m m KCl buffered at pH 7.4. The error bars in all binding curves represent standard deviations from 3 independent measurements.

    Article Snippet: Tris salt and potassium chloride (KCl) were purchased from Merck (Germany).

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    The snapshots of the real-time HS-AFM imaging of the conformational changes. ( a ) Salt-induced formation of a G-quadruplex. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a KCl-free buffer, while the imaging was carried out in a buffer that contained 100 mM KCl. ( b ) The deformation of a G-quadruplex structure under KCl-free environment. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a buffer containing 100 mM KCl, whereas the observation buffer contained no KCl. The long duplex system (67-mer top and 77-mer bottom duplexes) with six G-repeats was used in these studies. The numbers at the top left corner represent the imaging time in second. Image size: 125 × 125 nm; scan speed: 0.2 frame/s. [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris–HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6. For real-time movies, see Supplementary section .

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Controlling the stoichiometry and strand polarity of a tetramolecular G-quadruplex structure by using a DNA origami frame

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt592

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The snapshots of the real-time HS-AFM imaging of the conformational changes. ( a ) Salt-induced formation of a G-quadruplex. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a KCl-free buffer, while the imaging was carried out in a buffer that contained 100 mM KCl. ( b ) The deformation of a G-quadruplex structure under KCl-free environment. The origami was prepared and immobilized on mica surface in a buffer containing 100 mM KCl, whereas the observation buffer contained no KCl. The long duplex system (67-mer top and 77-mer bottom duplexes) with six G-repeats was used in these studies. The numbers at the top left corner represent the imaging time in second. Image size: 125 × 125 nm; scan speed: 0.2 frame/s. [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris–HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6. For real-time movies, see Supplementary section .

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and reagents Tris–HCl, EDTA, MgCl2 and KCl were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Inc. (Kyoto, Japan).

    Techniques: Imaging

    Control experiment with six G–T (top duplex) and T–T (bottom duplex) mismatch-containing duplexes in the presence of 100 mM KCl. Long duplex system was used. The mismatch regions are shown above the images, and other regions in the sequence are same as in Figure 1 a. The absence of X-shape indicates the absence of the quadruplex structure. Zoom-in image size: 125 × 125 nm. [KCl] = 100 mM (both in origami solution and observation buffer); [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris–HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Controlling the stoichiometry and strand polarity of a tetramolecular G-quadruplex structure by using a DNA origami frame

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt592

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Control experiment with six G–T (top duplex) and T–T (bottom duplex) mismatch-containing duplexes in the presence of 100 mM KCl. Long duplex system was used. The mismatch regions are shown above the images, and other regions in the sequence are same as in Figure 1 a. The absence of X-shape indicates the absence of the quadruplex structure. Zoom-in image size: 125 × 125 nm. [KCl] = 100 mM (both in origami solution and observation buffer); [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris–HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and reagents Tris–HCl, EDTA, MgCl2 and KCl were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Inc. (Kyoto, Japan).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    The Zoom-out AFM images of the DNA origami frame with incorporated duplexes recorded in the absence ( a, b ) and presence ( c ) of KCl for the G-repeat number of six. The parallel-shape of the incorporated strands can be clearly seen in the absence of KCl, indicating that no G-quadruplex is formed in this case. The X-shape in the presence of KCl evidences the formation of the quadruplex structure. The representative zoom-in images recorded in the absence of KCl for the sequences that contained six ( d ), four ( e ) and three ( f ) G-repeats. The same sequences in the presence of KCl are given, respectively, in ( g–i ). ( j ) The height profile estimated from the image given above the graph indicates that the origami frame and the incorporated duplexes are nearly same in height. ( k–l ) Height profiles estimated (vertical: k, and horizontal: l) indicate that the X-shape is slightly taller than the origami frame. This could be due to the formation of the four-stranded G-quadruplex which is taller than the duplexes in origami. ( m ) The height profiles of the duplexes and G-quadruplex regions. Yellow lines in the images indicate the locations where the height analyses were performed. The numbers in the graphs represent the estimated heights in nm of the peaks from the respective base line. All the images given in this figure were recorded for 67-mer top and 77-mer bottom duplexes. Image size: 125 × 125 nm (d–m). [KCl] = 0 or 100 mM; [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris-HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Controlling the stoichiometry and strand polarity of a tetramolecular G-quadruplex structure by using a DNA origami frame

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt592

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The Zoom-out AFM images of the DNA origami frame with incorporated duplexes recorded in the absence ( a, b ) and presence ( c ) of KCl for the G-repeat number of six. The parallel-shape of the incorporated strands can be clearly seen in the absence of KCl, indicating that no G-quadruplex is formed in this case. The X-shape in the presence of KCl evidences the formation of the quadruplex structure. The representative zoom-in images recorded in the absence of KCl for the sequences that contained six ( d ), four ( e ) and three ( f ) G-repeats. The same sequences in the presence of KCl are given, respectively, in ( g–i ). ( j ) The height profile estimated from the image given above the graph indicates that the origami frame and the incorporated duplexes are nearly same in height. ( k–l ) Height profiles estimated (vertical: k, and horizontal: l) indicate that the X-shape is slightly taller than the origami frame. This could be due to the formation of the four-stranded G-quadruplex which is taller than the duplexes in origami. ( m ) The height profiles of the duplexes and G-quadruplex regions. Yellow lines in the images indicate the locations where the height analyses were performed. The numbers in the graphs represent the estimated heights in nm of the peaks from the respective base line. All the images given in this figure were recorded for 67-mer top and 77-mer bottom duplexes. Image size: 125 × 125 nm (d–m). [KCl] = 0 or 100 mM; [MgCl 2 ] = 10 mM; [Tris-HCl] = 20 mM, pH 7.6.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and reagents Tris–HCl, EDTA, MgCl2 and KCl were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Inc. (Kyoto, Japan).

    Techniques:

    Contrasting effects of treatments inducing calcium flux on CREB phosphorylation in the caudoputamen ( A – C ) and in the olfactory tubercle ( A ′– C ′). Both KCl ( A ) and NMDA ( B ) induce high levels of PCREB expression through the caudoputamen. In sharp contrast, KCl induces little PCREB expression ( A ′) and NMDA induces only weak PCREB expression ( B ′) in the olfactory tubercle. Pretreatment with EGTA before BAY K 8644 stimulation decreases the PCREB immunostaining to background levels in the caudoputamen ( C ), but significantly enhances PCREB immunoreactivity in the islands of the olfactory tubercle (curved arrow in C ′). All drug treatments were for 30 min. The arrowheads in A ′– C ′ point to ventral edges of the tissue; × indicates a region of tissue damage. NAc, nucleus accumbens; AC, anterior commissure; fb, fiber bundles. [Bar in C (for A – C ) = 100 μm; bar in C ′ (for A ′– C ′) = 0.5 mm.]

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Region-dependent dynamics of cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the basal ganglia

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Contrasting effects of treatments inducing calcium flux on CREB phosphorylation in the caudoputamen ( A – C ) and in the olfactory tubercle ( A ′– C ′). Both KCl ( A ) and NMDA ( B ) induce high levels of PCREB expression through the caudoputamen. In sharp contrast, KCl induces little PCREB expression ( A ′) and NMDA induces only weak PCREB expression ( B ′) in the olfactory tubercle. Pretreatment with EGTA before BAY K 8644 stimulation decreases the PCREB immunostaining to background levels in the caudoputamen ( C ), but significantly enhances PCREB immunoreactivity in the islands of the olfactory tubercle (curved arrow in C ′). All drug treatments were for 30 min. The arrowheads in A ′– C ′ point to ventral edges of the tissue; × indicates a region of tissue damage. NAc, nucleus accumbens; AC, anterior commissure; fb, fiber bundles. [Bar in C (for A – C ) = 100 μm; bar in C ′ (for A ′– C ′) = 0.5 mm.]

    Article Snippet: For the initial time-course study, striatal slices were incubated for 7, 15, or 30 min, or 1, 2, 4, 8, or 24 hr, with the following reagents: the D1-selective agonist, SKF-81297 HCl (100 nM, kindly provided by J. Weinstock of SmithKline Beecham); the D2-selective agonist, R(−)-quinpirole HCl [10 μM; Research Biochemicals (RBI), Natick, MA]; the L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel agonist, S(−)-BAY K 8644 (1 μM; RBI); the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (10 μM; RBI); KCl (50 mM; Mallinckrodt); or the N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor agonist, NMDA (10 μM, 100 μM; RBI).

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunostaining

    Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with 3M KCl pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster

    Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    Article Title: Synaptic mechanisms of temporal diversity in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4046-12.2013

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Early synaptic inhibition is mediated by chloride. Recording from a X L cell with 3M KCl pipette solution. A) Three minutes after impalement, the leading inhibition to a same-sign contrast center stimulus was evident as shown by PSTH (top), the spike raster

    Article Snippet: We further investigated the ionic basis of the early inhibition at a cellular level by recording from 4 XL cells with KCl (3M) in the pipette rather than the control KAc solution.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Transferring