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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher kcl
    GNA-2 deficiency results in a polarity-osmotic defective (Pod) phenotype . (A) Wild type or gna-2(qa705) stained for DNA (Hoechst stain; blue) and PAR-3 (pink), PGL-1 (pink) or PIE-1 (green), or wild type expressing PAR-2::GFP fed OP50 (control) or gna-2 RNAi and stained for DNA (Hoechst; blue) and GFP (green) (second row). Embryos are at the one-cell stage except wild type stained for PIE-1, which is at the two-cell stage. Wild-type embryos are oriented with anterior (maternal DNA, polar-body end) on the left. gna-2(qa705) or gna-2(RNAi) does not extrude polar bodies therefore it was not possible to determine the maternal end. Images are overlays of Hoechst and antibody staining. (B) <t>DIC</t> images showing osmotic sensitivity of wild type or gna-2(qa705) dissected in water, 150 mM <t>KCl</t> or 300 mM KCl. Arrows point to the eggshell. (C) Plasma-membrane staining of gna-2(qa705) with the lipophilic dye, FM 4–64 (red). In wild type, only the first polar body stains (white arrow). DIC images are shown on the left.
    Kcl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 26117 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    Millipore kcl agar
    GNA-2 deficiency results in a polarity-osmotic defective (Pod) phenotype . (A) Wild type or gna-2(qa705) stained for DNA (Hoechst stain; blue) and PAR-3 (pink), PGL-1 (pink) or PIE-1 (green), or wild type expressing PAR-2::GFP fed OP50 (control) or gna-2 RNAi and stained for DNA (Hoechst; blue) and GFP (green) (second row). Embryos are at the one-cell stage except wild type stained for PIE-1, which is at the two-cell stage. Wild-type embryos are oriented with anterior (maternal DNA, polar-body end) on the left. gna-2(qa705) or gna-2(RNAi) does not extrude polar bodies therefore it was not possible to determine the maternal end. Images are overlays of Hoechst and antibody staining. (B) <t>DIC</t> images showing osmotic sensitivity of wild type or gna-2(qa705) dissected in water, 150 mM <t>KCl</t> or 300 mM KCl. Arrows point to the eggshell. (C) Plasma-membrane staining of gna-2(qa705) with the lipophilic dye, FM 4–64 (red). In wild type, only the first polar body stains (white arrow). DIC images are shown on the left.
    Kcl Agar, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Millipore kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 28901 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Fisher Scientific 4m kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    4m Kcl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    3M Co kcl buffer
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Kcl Buffer, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Merck & Co kcl salts
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Kcl Salts, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore mmol kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Mmol Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Thermo Fisher saturated kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Saturated Kcl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    International Crystal Laboratories spectrograde kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    Spectrograde Kcl, supplied by International Crystal Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore 130 kcl
    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), <t>NaCl</t> ( orange ), <t>KCl</t> ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).
    130 Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore kcl salt
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Kcl Salt, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    B. Braun mmol kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Mmol Kcl, supplied by B. Braun, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Merck KGaA suprapur kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Suprapur Kcl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Merck & Co kcl 5
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Kcl 5, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore saturated kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Saturated Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore 3m kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    3m Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Avantor m kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    M Kcl, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    New England Biolabs kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Kcl, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 2535 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Millipore hypotonic kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Hypotonic Kcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    3M Co 3m kcl
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    3m Kcl, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 48 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Millipore kcl l
    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a <t>KCl</t> (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a <t>mica-NaCl</t> (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.
    Kcl L, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GNA-2 deficiency results in a polarity-osmotic defective (Pod) phenotype . (A) Wild type or gna-2(qa705) stained for DNA (Hoechst stain; blue) and PAR-3 (pink), PGL-1 (pink) or PIE-1 (green), or wild type expressing PAR-2::GFP fed OP50 (control) or gna-2 RNAi and stained for DNA (Hoechst; blue) and GFP (green) (second row). Embryos are at the one-cell stage except wild type stained for PIE-1, which is at the two-cell stage. Wild-type embryos are oriented with anterior (maternal DNA, polar-body end) on the left. gna-2(qa705) or gna-2(RNAi) does not extrude polar bodies therefore it was not possible to determine the maternal end. Images are overlays of Hoechst and antibody staining. (B) DIC images showing osmotic sensitivity of wild type or gna-2(qa705) dissected in water, 150 mM KCl or 300 mM KCl. Arrows point to the eggshell. (C) Plasma-membrane staining of gna-2(qa705) with the lipophilic dye, FM 4–64 (red). In wild type, only the first polar body stains (white arrow). DIC images are shown on the left.

    Journal: BMC Biology

    Article Title: The eggshell is required for meiotic fidelity, polar-body extrusion and polarization of the C. elegans embryo

    doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-4-35

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GNA-2 deficiency results in a polarity-osmotic defective (Pod) phenotype . (A) Wild type or gna-2(qa705) stained for DNA (Hoechst stain; blue) and PAR-3 (pink), PGL-1 (pink) or PIE-1 (green), or wild type expressing PAR-2::GFP fed OP50 (control) or gna-2 RNAi and stained for DNA (Hoechst; blue) and GFP (green) (second row). Embryos are at the one-cell stage except wild type stained for PIE-1, which is at the two-cell stage. Wild-type embryos are oriented with anterior (maternal DNA, polar-body end) on the left. gna-2(qa705) or gna-2(RNAi) does not extrude polar bodies therefore it was not possible to determine the maternal end. Images are overlays of Hoechst and antibody staining. (B) DIC images showing osmotic sensitivity of wild type or gna-2(qa705) dissected in water, 150 mM KCl or 300 mM KCl. Arrows point to the eggshell. (C) Plasma-membrane staining of gna-2(qa705) with the lipophilic dye, FM 4–64 (red). In wild type, only the first polar body stains (white arrow). DIC images are shown on the left.

    Article Snippet: Lipophilic dye permeability was tested by DIC/UV microscopy of living embryos dissected in 150 mM KCl containing 30 μM FM 4–64 (Molecular Probes).

    Techniques: Staining, Expressing

    ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), NaCl ( orange ), KCl ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).

    Journal: Biosensors

    Article Title: Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection

    doi: 10.3390/bios6020021

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) schematics of the ion detection experiment. The response of a specific triplet of NRs consisting of an NR functionalized with SAMs of F - ligands ( NR - , green ), an NR functionalized with SAMs of Na + ligands ( NR + , red ) and an NR with bare gold surface ( NR c , black ) is measured in the presence of NaF ( blue ), NaCl ( orange ), KCl ( brown ) and pH ( violet ); ( b – e ) Experimental data (threshold voltage V t h versus concentration) for ( b ) NaF, ( c ) NaCl, ( d ) KCl and ( e ) pH. Note that the experimental points of each NR was shifted along the vertical axis leading to V t h , s h i f t e d . Therefore, the absolute value of V t h , s h i f t e d have been removed. The total change in threshold voltage Δ V t h , t o t a l is defined by the difference of V t h ( 1 M ) - V t h ( 1 mM ) as indicated in ( b ).

    Article Snippet: NaF (ACS ≥ 99 %, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), NaCl (≥99.5%, Fluka (Sigma-Aldrich), St. Louis, MO, USA) and KCl (ACS 99.0%–100.5%, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) were dissolved in deionized water (resistivity = 18 MΩcm) and buffered around pH 7 with HEPES (≈4 mM, AppliChem, Darmstadt, Germany) and solution of KOH (≈1.5 mM, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a KCl (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a mica-NaCl (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Atomically resolved three-dimensional structures of electrolyte aqueous solutions near a solid surface

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms12164

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Three-dimensional images of mica-electrolyte solution interfaces. ( a ) 3D AFM image of a KCl (aq.) solution (0.2 M KCl). The image shows a monolayer of adsorbed K + ions (light red) topped by two hydration layers (lighter stripes). The hydration layers (∼0.3 nm thick) follow the atomic corrugation of the surface. ( b ) 3D AFM image of a mica-KCl (aq.) interface (∼4 M). The interface is divided in two main regions, an ordered liquid layer extending up to 2 nm from the mica and the bulk solution above it. ( c ) 3D AFM image of a mica-NaCl (aq.) interface. Atomic scale order is seen in xy, xz and yz planes. These 3D maps show the variations of the phase shift of the tip's oscillation. Supplementary Movies 1 (52 s), 2 (105 s) and 3 (105 s) include the complete 3D data, respectively, of a – c . The 3D AFM experiments were performed at ∼300 K.

    Article Snippet: NaCl and KCl solutions were prepared from 99.5% (NaCl) and 99.0% (KCl) salts (Sigma-Aldrich) dissolved in ultrapure water (18.2 MΩ, pH=5.5).

    Techniques: