Journal: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Article Title: Elucidation of Biochemical Pathways Underlying VOCs Production in A549 Cells
Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration of medium sugars (A,B) , and lactate (C,D) . Principle component analysis (PCA) based on 30 VOC GC-MS data of 2D and 3D cultures (E,F) , and absolute quantification of trans -2-hexenol and isobutyrate in 2D-cultured cell-less media and 1 × 10 6 and 2 × 10 6 A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma) A549 cells (G,H) . qPCR data (I,J) , ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity assay over time (K–M) , and ROS data (N–P) . HLB (Human lung fibroblasts cells), HBEpC (Human bronchial epithelial cells as primary cells), and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) were compared. Note different scales on y-axis. (A) Neutral sugar concentration in 2D-cultured medium. (B) Neutral sugar concentration in 3D-cultured medium; Y axis indicates μg Sugars/μL culture medium, error bars indicate standard deviation. (C) Lactate concentration in 2D-cultured medium. (D) Lactate concentration in 3D-cultured medium. Y axis indicates μg Lactate/μL culture medium, error bars indicate standard deviation. Medium without cells, HLB (Human lung fibroblasts cells), HBEpC (Human bronchial epithelial cells as primary cells), and A549 (Human lung adenocarcinoma) were compared. For the sugar and lactate assays, sampling was done at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 days after inoculation. Experiments were biologically replicated four times. Asterisk indicates statistical significance ( p
Article Snippet: Reference compounds for absolute quantification were purchased from SIGMA and TCI company (trans -2-hexenol, SIGMA 132667; tetradecane, TCI T0079; and isobutyrate, SIGMA l1754).
Techniques: Concentration Assay, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Cell Culture, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation, Sampling