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  • 95
    Bio-Rad hba1c
    Application of the assay for monitoring individual glycemia. (a, b, c) Quantitation of the glycation levels of HbA <t>(HbA1c),</t> HSA (GA), and apoA-I (GapoA-I) in controls and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, respectively ( n = 8 for each group). The mean HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I levels in T2D were 8.44%, 30.93%, and 5.10%, respectively, while in controls they were 5.95%, 17.05%, and 3.63%, respectively. The p values were calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. (d, e, f) Correlation between any two values of HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I, respectively, for each individual monitored in (a–c) (Pearson’s correlation, p
    Hba1c, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 3639 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tosoh Corporation hba1c
    Scatter plots between annual changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (⊿eGFR) and coefficient of variation (CV) of <t>HbA1c</t> a and post-meal plasma glucose (PG, b ) in diabetes patients with high normal albuminuria, and post-meal triglyceride (TG) in diabetes patients with elevated albuminuria c . High normal and elevated albuminuria: urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 10 and 29 mg/g and ≧30 mg/g, respectively
    Hba1c, supplied by Tosoh Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1595 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Abbott Laboratories hba1c
    Scatter plots between annual changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (⊿eGFR) and coefficient of variation (CV) of <t>HbA1c</t> a and post-meal plasma glucose (PG, b ) in diabetes patients with high normal albuminuria, and post-meal triglyceride (TG) in diabetes patients with elevated albuminuria c . High normal and elevated albuminuria: urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 10 and 29 mg/g and ≧30 mg/g, respectively
    Hba1c, supplied by Abbott Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 141 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine hba1c
    METHODS OF <t>HbA1C</t> ASSAYS
    Hba1c, supplied by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 520 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Bio-Rad hba1c levels
    METHODS OF <t>HbA1C</t> ASSAYS
    Hba1c Levels, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 460 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Siemens AG hba1c
    ROC AUC for RBG detecting <t>HbA1c</t> ≥ 48mmol/mol: 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97). Abbreviations: ROC AUC, receive operating characteristics area under the curve; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; CI, confidence interval.
    Hba1c, supplied by Siemens AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 421 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Siemens Healthineers hba1c
    Comparison between blood glucose levels (mmol/L) (a), insulin dose (IU kg −1 day −1 ) (b), and <t>HbA1c</t> (%) (c) in NHPs before and after porcine islet transplantation. There is a statistically significant difference (* P
    Hba1c, supplied by Siemens Healthineers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 209 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    ARKRAY hba1c
    Scatter plots for <t>HbA1c</t> values versus GA values in each group. In our previous study, we established the following equation: \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{eHbA1c = 0}} . 2 1 6 \times {\text{GA + 2}} . 9 7 8$$\end{document} eHbA1c = 0 . 216 × GA + 2 . 978 . Scatter plots for the HbA1c values versus the GA values are shown for each group with a line for the equation. In all the groups, the eHbA1c values tended to be higher values than the measured HbA1c levels
    Hba1c, supplied by ARKRAY, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 218 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Hitachi Ltd hba1c
    Effects of AVE8134 (10 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ), and rosiglitazone (3 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ) on serum triglycerides (A), serum cholesterol (B), blood glucose (C), <t>HbA1c</t> (D), body weight (E), and oral glucose tolerance test (F) in male ZDF rats after 8 weeks treatment. Mean±SEM ( n =6). b P
    Hba1c, supplied by Hitachi Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 126 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    STATA Corporation hba1c
    Relationship between fasting plasma glucose and <t>HbA1c,</t> among 3359 Omani patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Hba1c, supplied by STATA Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 61 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Bayer AG hba1c
    Memory of last <t>HbA1c.</t> The recollection of the last measured HbA1c values was assessed by comparing the objective HbA1c values 3 months ago with the patient’s recollection of this HbA1c. The gap between the last measured and remembered HbA1c value was then compared to the actual HbA1c. Data are shown as boxplots with the actual HbA1c in categorized form on the x-axis. Note that there is a tendency towards wrong positive memory of the last HbA1c in patients having an HbA1c > 8.5% (p = 0.069). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.
    Hba1c, supplied by Bayer AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 50 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Quest Diagnostics hba1c
    Memory of last <t>HbA1c.</t> The recollection of the last measured HbA1c values was assessed by comparing the objective HbA1c values 3 months ago with the patient’s recollection of this HbA1c. The gap between the last measured and remembered HbA1c value was then compared to the actual HbA1c. Data are shown as boxplots with the actual HbA1c in categorized form on the x-axis. Note that there is a tendency towards wrong positive memory of the last HbA1c in patients having an HbA1c > 8.5% (p = 0.069). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.
    Hba1c, supplied by Quest Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Olympus hba1c
    Association between COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and clinical parameters: a Values of BMI, body weight, fasting glucose levels and <t>HbA1c</t> in T2DM patients subdivided into COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and GG homozygous group; *data are presented as median and minimum and maximum. b The change in HbA1c in subjects subdivided into the A-carriers and GG homozygous genotype of the COMT Val108/158Met; central box represents the values from the lower to upper quartile and the middle line represents the median. The horizontal line extends from the minimum to the maximum value (non-outlier range) and the “far out” values (outliers) are displayed as separate points; c difference in the COMT Val108/158Met frequency in subjects subdivided according to the HbA1c decrease
    Hba1c, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    ARKRAY hba1c levels
    The clinical courses of four patients who could stop (A, B) or reduce (C, D) the amount of anti-hypertensive drugs. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; <t>HbA1C,</t> glucosylated hemoglobin
    Hba1c Levels, supplied by ARKRAY, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 52 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine hba1c levels
    Correlation between <t>HbA1c</t> and FBG in type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Association between glycaemic control and serum lipids profile in type 2 diabetic patients: HbA1c predicts dyslipidaemia. Volume 7, 2007, 24–29, Khan HA, Sobki SH, Khan SA. (Copyright © 2007, Springer-Verlag Italia) Reused with permission of Springer.
    Hba1c Levels, supplied by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Staples hba1c
    Correlation between <t>HbA1c</t> and FBG in type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Association between glycaemic control and serum lipids profile in type 2 diabetic patients: HbA1c predicts dyslipidaemia. Volume 7, 2007, 24–29, Khan HA, Sobki SH, Khan SA. (Copyright © 2007, Springer-Verlag Italia) Reused with permission of Springer.
    Hba1c, supplied by Staples, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 27 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Axis-Shield Diagnostics hba1c
    Comparison of the mean blood glucose values ( a ) and <t>HbA1c</t> levels ( b ) of mice on HFD (light grey=control, dark grey=coffee 20 g l −1 , black=coffee 40 g l −1 ) or ND (open=control, hatched=coffee 20 g l −1 or cross-hatched=40 g l −1 ) at weeks 26 and 41. ( a ) The mean blood glucose values were calculated for each treatment group for the 16-week period before the first HbA1c measurement and for the 17-week period before the second HbA1c measurement. During the first, but not the second, period non-fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in each HFD group than in the corresponding ND group (* P
    Hba1c, supplied by Axis-Shield Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Crystal Chem Inc hba1c
    Low-dose synthetic ABA improves metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-glucose diet. Seven-week-old male CD1 mice (nine/group) were fed for 4 months a high-glucose diet containing 1 g/Kg BW glucose (administered with the drinking water) without (controls) or with ABA at approximately 1 µg/Kg BW. At the end of the study, fasting <t>HbA1c,</t> lipidemia, and body weight were measured and an OGTT was performed. ( a ) AUC of glycemia after OGTT, ( b ) HbA1c, ( c ) lipidemia, ( d ) body weight. Mean ± SD values are shown. p values by unpaired, two-tailed t -test.
    Hba1c, supplied by Crystal Chem Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 43 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Trinity Biotech hba1c
    Haemoglobin A 1c analysis by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing. (A) Normal control. (B) HbH samples - <t>HbA1c</t> cannot be measured (in parenthesis) due to overlapping with the HbBart’s fraction.
    Hba1c, supplied by Trinity Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    PTS Diagnostics hba1c
    BCG pre-administration reduces hyperglycemia in chemically-induced (Streptozocin) mice but does not induce hypoglycemia in normal mice. a Normal BALB/c mice were first studied in a normoglycemic state with ( n = 12) and without BCG ( n = 12) treatment for blood sugars and weight (left panels). BALB/c mice were rendered chemically diabetic (arrows) and studied with and without BCG treatment six weeks earlier with preventative pre-injections (right panels). Most mice became severely hyperglycemic after treatment with streptozocin (STZ) which selectively kills the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. All mice were monitored for blood sugar levels and weighed on a weekly basis. BCG-treated mice gained weight at the same rate as untreated control mice and had normal blood sugars with no indication of hypoglycemia (left panels, blue lines). After STZ induction of hyperglycemia, the control mice rapidly started to lose weight and became severely hyperglycemic within one week (right, black lines). In contrast, mice first treated with BCG before STZ treatment were able to maintain their weight and had markedly lower levels of hyperglycemia (right, blue line). b Measurements of <t>HbA1c</t> values in STZ-treated BALB/c mice after 6 weeks with and without prior BCG treatment show the protection afforded by BCG and the resulting lower HbA1c values of 85 ± 6.6 mmol/mol (9.9 ± 0.6% NGSP) without BCG vs. 67 ± 5.5 mmol/mol (8.3 ± 0.5% NGSP) with BCG treatment; p = 0.02, n = 19 surviving mice). c At 8 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, the BCG-treated mice had statistically lowered HbA1c values
    Hba1c, supplied by PTS Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Schiff Nutrition International hba1c
    Quality chain of IFCC-RMP-standardized <t>HbA1c</t> testing. The manufacturer uses calibrators, to which values have been assigned with the IFCC-RMP, to assign values to the kit calibrators. The EQA/PT provider uses samples also targeted by the IFCC-RMP. Good performance of the whole chain is demonstrated when the laboratory (clinical chemist), using the kit calibrators of the manufacturer, measures the correct HbA1c values in EQA/PT samples. Subsequently, all results of patients are traceable to the IFCC-RMP, and diabetologists can use universal reference values and decision limits. Abbreviations: IFCC-RMP, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Reference Measurement Procedure; EQA, external quality assessment; PT, proficiency testing.
    Hba1c, supplied by Schiff Nutrition International, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 60 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Application of the assay for monitoring individual glycemia. (a, b, c) Quantitation of the glycation levels of HbA (HbA1c), HSA (GA), and apoA-I (GapoA-I) in controls and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, respectively ( n = 8 for each group). The mean HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I levels in T2D were 8.44%, 30.93%, and 5.10%, respectively, while in controls they were 5.95%, 17.05%, and 3.63%, respectively. The p values were calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. (d, e, f) Correlation between any two values of HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I, respectively, for each individual monitored in (a–c) (Pearson’s correlation, p

    Journal: Journal of Proteome Research

    Article Title: Top-Down Proteomics of a Drop of Blood for Diabetes Monitoring

    doi: 10.1021/pr401074t

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Application of the assay for monitoring individual glycemia. (a, b, c) Quantitation of the glycation levels of HbA (HbA1c), HSA (GA), and apoA-I (GapoA-I) in controls and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, respectively ( n = 8 for each group). The mean HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I levels in T2D were 8.44%, 30.93%, and 5.10%, respectively, while in controls they were 5.95%, 17.05%, and 3.63%, respectively. The p values were calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. (d, e, f) Correlation between any two values of HbA1c, GA, and GapoA-I, respectively, for each individual monitored in (a–c) (Pearson’s correlation, p

    Article Snippet: Based on this response curve, we determined the HbA1c values for the Bio-Rad Lyphochek Hemoglobin A1c linearity set, which contains standard samples to check linearity and verify calibration of commercial instruments for HbA1c assays (Figure b).

    Techniques: Quantitation Assay, Two Tailed Test

    Application of the assay for concurrently monitoring individual oxidative stress and cardiovascular risks. (a, b, c) Comparison of the levels of HSA cysteinylation (HSA-Cys), hemoglobin S-nitrosylation (HbA-SNO), and apoA-I oxidation (apoA-I MetO), between controls and T2D patients, respectively ( n = 8 for each group). The mean HSA-Cys, HbA-SNO, and apoA-I MetO levels in T2D were 49.59%, 19.33%, and 12.87%, respectively, while in controls they were 36.96%, 20.17%, and 12.01%, respectively. The p values were calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. (d) Correlation between the levels of HSA-Cys and GA (blue ●), HbA1c (green Δ), and GapoA-I (red ×), respectively, for each individual monitored in panels a–c (Pearson’s correlation, n = 16). (e) Correlation between the age of individual T2D patients and their levels of HSA-Cys (blue ●), HbA-SNO (green Δ), and apoA-I MetO (red ×), respectively (Pearson’s correlation, n = 8).

    Journal: Journal of Proteome Research

    Article Title: Top-Down Proteomics of a Drop of Blood for Diabetes Monitoring

    doi: 10.1021/pr401074t

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Application of the assay for concurrently monitoring individual oxidative stress and cardiovascular risks. (a, b, c) Comparison of the levels of HSA cysteinylation (HSA-Cys), hemoglobin S-nitrosylation (HbA-SNO), and apoA-I oxidation (apoA-I MetO), between controls and T2D patients, respectively ( n = 8 for each group). The mean HSA-Cys, HbA-SNO, and apoA-I MetO levels in T2D were 49.59%, 19.33%, and 12.87%, respectively, while in controls they were 36.96%, 20.17%, and 12.01%, respectively. The p values were calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. (d) Correlation between the levels of HSA-Cys and GA (blue ●), HbA1c (green Δ), and GapoA-I (red ×), respectively, for each individual monitored in panels a–c (Pearson’s correlation, n = 16). (e) Correlation between the age of individual T2D patients and their levels of HSA-Cys (blue ●), HbA-SNO (green Δ), and apoA-I MetO (red ×), respectively (Pearson’s correlation, n = 8).

    Article Snippet: Based on this response curve, we determined the HbA1c values for the Bio-Rad Lyphochek Hemoglobin A1c linearity set, which contains standard samples to check linearity and verify calibration of commercial instruments for HbA1c assays (Figure b).

    Techniques: Two Tailed Test

    Validation of a top-down-proteomics-centric assay for diabetes monitoring. (a) Calibration curve for the ratio of HbA1c:HbA determined by our assay for known molar ratios of the mixtures of purified HbA1c and HbA0. (b) Comparison of HbA1c values for the Lyphochek Hemoglobin A1c linearity set samples (LOT 34650), obtained by our MEA chip-based assay (×), and the corresponding target values using other commercial assays (NGSP (⧫) and IFCC (○)) provided by Bio-Rad. Error bars, SD ( n ≥ 3) for our assay. (c, d) Comparison of HbA1c values for blood samples from T2D patients ( n = 8), each measured by our MEA chip and a commercial Tosoh G7 HPLC analyzer, respectively, showing the correlation between the values obtained by the two methods (Pearson’s correlation, r = 0.9695, p

    Journal: Journal of Proteome Research

    Article Title: Top-Down Proteomics of a Drop of Blood for Diabetes Monitoring

    doi: 10.1021/pr401074t

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Validation of a top-down-proteomics-centric assay for diabetes monitoring. (a) Calibration curve for the ratio of HbA1c:HbA determined by our assay for known molar ratios of the mixtures of purified HbA1c and HbA0. (b) Comparison of HbA1c values for the Lyphochek Hemoglobin A1c linearity set samples (LOT 34650), obtained by our MEA chip-based assay (×), and the corresponding target values using other commercial assays (NGSP (⧫) and IFCC (○)) provided by Bio-Rad. Error bars, SD ( n ≥ 3) for our assay. (c, d) Comparison of HbA1c values for blood samples from T2D patients ( n = 8), each measured by our MEA chip and a commercial Tosoh G7 HPLC analyzer, respectively, showing the correlation between the values obtained by the two methods (Pearson’s correlation, r = 0.9695, p

    Article Snippet: Based on this response curve, we determined the HbA1c values for the Bio-Rad Lyphochek Hemoglobin A1c linearity set, which contains standard samples to check linearity and verify calibration of commercial instruments for HbA1c assays (Figure b).

    Techniques: Purification, Microelectrode Array, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Scatter plots between annual changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (⊿eGFR) and coefficient of variation (CV) of HbA1c a and post-meal plasma glucose (PG, b ) in diabetes patients with high normal albuminuria, and post-meal triglyceride (TG) in diabetes patients with elevated albuminuria c . High normal and elevated albuminuria: urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 10 and 29 mg/g and ≧30 mg/g, respectively

    Journal: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders

    Article Title: Postmeal triglyceridemia and variability of HbA1c and postmeal glycemia were predictors of annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate in type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of nephropathy

    doi: 10.1186/s40200-016-0284-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scatter plots between annual changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (⊿eGFR) and coefficient of variation (CV) of HbA1c a and post-meal plasma glucose (PG, b ) in diabetes patients with high normal albuminuria, and post-meal triglyceride (TG) in diabetes patients with elevated albuminuria c . High normal and elevated albuminuria: urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 10 and 29 mg/g and ≧30 mg/g, respectively

    Article Snippet: HbA1C values were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HLC723-G7, Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Filtration

    METHODS OF HbA1C ASSAYS

    Journal: World Journal of Methodology

    Article Title: Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.5662/wjm.v6.i2.133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: METHODS OF HbA1C ASSAYS

    Article Snippet: Recently Hanas and John[ ] reported the conclusions of the International Consensus Committee 2013 Update that HbA1c results should be reported by clinical laboratories worldwide in Système Internationale (SI) units (mmol/mol - no decimals) and the corresponding NGSP units (% - one decimal) and recommended strongly to the editors of scientific journals that submitted manuscripts should report HbA1c values in both SI (IFCC) and NGSP/DCCT units.

    Techniques:

    UNITS OF HbA1C IN LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Journal: World Journal of Methodology

    Article Title: Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.5662/wjm.v6.i2.133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: UNITS OF HbA1C IN LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Article Snippet: Recently Hanas and John[ ] reported the conclusions of the International Consensus Committee 2013 Update that HbA1c results should be reported by clinical laboratories worldwide in Système Internationale (SI) units (mmol/mol - no decimals) and the corresponding NGSP units (% - one decimal) and recommended strongly to the editors of scientific journals that submitted manuscripts should report HbA1c values in both SI (IFCC) and NGSP/DCCT units.

    Techniques:

    METHODS OF HbA1C ASSAYS

    Journal: World Journal of Methodology

    Article Title: Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.5662/wjm.v6.i2.133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: METHODS OF HbA1C ASSAYS

    Article Snippet: Recently Hanas and John[ ] reported the conclusions of the International Consensus Committee 2013 Update that HbA1c results should be reported by clinical laboratories worldwide in Système Internationale (SI) units (mmol/mol - no decimals) and the corresponding NGSP units (% - one decimal) and recommended strongly to the editors of scientific journals that submitted manuscripts should report HbA1c values in both SI (IFCC) and NGSP/DCCT units.

    Techniques:

    REFERENCE VALUES OF HbA1C

    Journal: World Journal of Methodology

    Article Title: Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.5662/wjm.v6.i2.133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: REFERENCE VALUES OF HbA1C

    Article Snippet: Recently Hanas and John[ ] reported the conclusions of the International Consensus Committee 2013 Update that HbA1c results should be reported by clinical laboratories worldwide in Système Internationale (SI) units (mmol/mol - no decimals) and the corresponding NGSP units (% - one decimal) and recommended strongly to the editors of scientific journals that submitted manuscripts should report HbA1c values in both SI (IFCC) and NGSP/DCCT units.

    Techniques:

    ROC AUC for RBG detecting HbA1c ≥ 48mmol/mol: 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97). Abbreviations: ROC AUC, receive operating characteristics area under the curve; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; CI, confidence interval.

    Journal: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

    Article Title: Health literacy and blood glucose among Guyanese emergency department patients without diagnosed diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    doi: 10.1186/s13098-015-0028-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROC AUC for RBG detecting HbA1c ≥ 48mmol/mol: 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97). Abbreviations: ROC AUC, receive operating characteristics area under the curve; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; CI, confidence interval.

    Article Snippet: Table presents RBG and HbA1c stratified by health literacy level, and Table presents results of logistic and linear regressions evaluating the relationship between health literacy (continuous; higher SILS indicates lower health literacy) and blood glucose measured by RBG and HbA1c, as well as elevated HbA1c (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol).

    Techniques:

    Comparison between blood glucose levels (mmol/L) (a), insulin dose (IU kg −1 day −1 ) (b), and HbA1c (%) (c) in NHPs before and after porcine islet transplantation. There is a statistically significant difference (* P

    Journal: Journal of Transplantation

    Article Title: Hemoglobin A1C Percentage in Nonhuman Primates: A Useful Tool to Monitor Diabetes before and after Porcine Pancreatic Islet Xenotransplantation

    doi: 10.1155/2011/965605

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison between blood glucose levels (mmol/L) (a), insulin dose (IU kg −1 day −1 ) (b), and HbA1c (%) (c) in NHPs before and after porcine islet transplantation. There is a statistically significant difference (* P

    Article Snippet: For the measurement of specific HbA1c, an inhibition of latex agglutination assay is used (HbA1c-specific mouse monoclonal antibody adsorbent onto latex particles, DCA Vantage Analyzer, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA).

    Techniques: Transplantation Assay

    Comparison between HbA1c % levels in nondiabetic, diabetic, and porcine islet transplanted NHPs. A statistically significant difference is shown between nondiabetic and diabetic animals and nondiabetic and islet transplanted animals (* P

    Journal: Journal of Transplantation

    Article Title: Hemoglobin A1C Percentage in Nonhuman Primates: A Useful Tool to Monitor Diabetes before and after Porcine Pancreatic Islet Xenotransplantation

    doi: 10.1155/2011/965605

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison between HbA1c % levels in nondiabetic, diabetic, and porcine islet transplanted NHPs. A statistically significant difference is shown between nondiabetic and diabetic animals and nondiabetic and islet transplanted animals (* P

    Article Snippet: For the measurement of specific HbA1c, an inhibition of latex agglutination assay is used (HbA1c-specific mouse monoclonal antibody adsorbent onto latex particles, DCA Vantage Analyzer, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of metabolic parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic monkeys. (a) HbA1c comparison between non diabetic NHPs and post-STZ diabetic NHPs (* P

    Journal: Journal of Transplantation

    Article Title: Hemoglobin A1C Percentage in Nonhuman Primates: A Useful Tool to Monitor Diabetes before and after Porcine Pancreatic Islet Xenotransplantation

    doi: 10.1155/2011/965605

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of metabolic parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic monkeys. (a) HbA1c comparison between non diabetic NHPs and post-STZ diabetic NHPs (* P

    Article Snippet: For the measurement of specific HbA1c, an inhibition of latex agglutination assay is used (HbA1c-specific mouse monoclonal antibody adsorbent onto latex particles, DCA Vantage Analyzer, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA).

    Techniques:

    Blood glucose levels (solid lines) and HbA1c (%) (red dots) in STZ diabetic NHP (a) and STZ diabetic with porcine islet graft NHP (b). In (a) the HbA1c values are increasing overtime despite exogenous insulin treatment; in (b) the HbA1c value drops after porcine islet transplant.

    Journal: Journal of Transplantation

    Article Title: Hemoglobin A1C Percentage in Nonhuman Primates: A Useful Tool to Monitor Diabetes before and after Porcine Pancreatic Islet Xenotransplantation

    doi: 10.1155/2011/965605

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Blood glucose levels (solid lines) and HbA1c (%) (red dots) in STZ diabetic NHP (a) and STZ diabetic with porcine islet graft NHP (b). In (a) the HbA1c values are increasing overtime despite exogenous insulin treatment; in (b) the HbA1c value drops after porcine islet transplant.

    Article Snippet: For the measurement of specific HbA1c, an inhibition of latex agglutination assay is used (HbA1c-specific mouse monoclonal antibody adsorbent onto latex particles, DCA Vantage Analyzer, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL, USA).

    Techniques:

    Scatter plots for HbA1c values versus GA values in each group. In our previous study, we established the following equation: \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{eHbA1c = 0}} . 2 1 6 \times {\text{GA + 2}} . 9 7 8$$\end{document} eHbA1c = 0 . 216 × GA + 2 . 978 . Scatter plots for the HbA1c values versus the GA values are shown for each group with a line for the equation. In all the groups, the eHbA1c values tended to be higher values than the measured HbA1c levels

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

    Article Title: Possible discrepancy of HbA1c values and its assessment among patients with chronic renal failure, hemodialysis and other diseases

    doi: 10.1007/s10157-015-1110-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scatter plots for HbA1c values versus GA values in each group. In our previous study, we established the following equation: \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{eHbA1c = 0}} . 2 1 6 \times {\text{GA + 2}} . 9 7 8$$\end{document} eHbA1c = 0 . 216 × GA + 2 . 978 . Scatter plots for the HbA1c values versus the GA values are shown for each group with a line for the equation. In all the groups, the eHbA1c values tended to be higher values than the measured HbA1c levels

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (ARKRAY ADAMS-A1C HA-8160; Kyoto, Japan) and was corrected to the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) values [ ].

    Techniques:

    Flow diagram depicting the study. Data sets for a total of 2461 occasions were obtained from 731 patients (including non-diabetes patients) whose HbA1c and GA values were simultaneously measured. If these values were measured in the patients on more than one occasion, the data set containing the smallest HbA1c value was selected. We then excluded patients whose previous HbA1c values were missing or whose HbA1c levels were changeable, selecting 550 patients. We excluded patients without albumin, hemoglobin or eGFR data, and patients who had been treated with transfusions or steroids within the previous 3 months. Finally, we included 44 predialysis patients with an eGFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (CRF), 10 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD), 7 patients with hematological malignancies and their hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dL (HM), and 12 patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). We further excluded patients who had combinations of these diseases, since the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of each condition affecting the turnover of either HbA1c or GA on the direction and magnitude of the discrepancy

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

    Article Title: Possible discrepancy of HbA1c values and its assessment among patients with chronic renal failure, hemodialysis and other diseases

    doi: 10.1007/s10157-015-1110-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Flow diagram depicting the study. Data sets for a total of 2461 occasions were obtained from 731 patients (including non-diabetes patients) whose HbA1c and GA values were simultaneously measured. If these values were measured in the patients on more than one occasion, the data set containing the smallest HbA1c value was selected. We then excluded patients whose previous HbA1c values were missing or whose HbA1c levels were changeable, selecting 550 patients. We excluded patients without albumin, hemoglobin or eGFR data, and patients who had been treated with transfusions or steroids within the previous 3 months. Finally, we included 44 predialysis patients with an eGFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (CRF), 10 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD), 7 patients with hematological malignancies and their hemoglobin level of less than 10 g/dL (HM), and 12 patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). We further excluded patients who had combinations of these diseases, since the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of each condition affecting the turnover of either HbA1c or GA on the direction and magnitude of the discrepancy

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (ARKRAY ADAMS-A1C HA-8160; Kyoto, Japan) and was corrected to the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) values [ ].

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry

    Effects of AVE8134 (10 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ), and rosiglitazone (3 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ) on serum triglycerides (A), serum cholesterol (B), blood glucose (C), HbA1c (D), body weight (E), and oral glucose tolerance test (F) in male ZDF rats after 8 weeks treatment. Mean±SEM ( n =6). b P

    Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

    Article Title: AVE8134, a novel potent PPARα agonist, improves lipid profile and glucose metabolism in dyslipidemic mice and type 2 diabetic rats

    doi: 10.1038/aps.2011.165

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of AVE8134 (10 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ), and rosiglitazone (3 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ) on serum triglycerides (A), serum cholesterol (B), blood glucose (C), HbA1c (D), body weight (E), and oral glucose tolerance test (F) in male ZDF rats after 8 weeks treatment. Mean±SEM ( n =6). b P

    Article Snippet: Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and safety variables: aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), as well as blood glucose and HbA1c were determined on a Hitachi 912 analyzer, using the respective Roche clinical chemistry kits for human diagnostics.

    Techniques:

    Relationship between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c, among 3359 Omani patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: The utility of fasting plasma glucose in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2007.347

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relationship between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c, among 3359 Omani patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Article Snippet: Over 76% (95% CI, 74.5% to 77.5%) of patients had HbA1c ≥7% and nearly 82% (95% CI, 80.6% to 83.3%) had HbA1c > 6.5%. shows that FPG was significantly correlated with HbA1c (r=0.62, P =0.001).

    Techniques:

    Memory of last HbA1c. The recollection of the last measured HbA1c values was assessed by comparing the objective HbA1c values 3 months ago with the patient’s recollection of this HbA1c. The gap between the last measured and remembered HbA1c value was then compared to the actual HbA1c. Data are shown as boxplots with the actual HbA1c in categorized form on the x-axis. Note that there is a tendency towards wrong positive memory of the last HbA1c in patients having an HbA1c > 8.5% (p = 0.069). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Journal: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Article Title: Children's and adolescent's self - assessment of metabolic control versus professional judgment: a cross-sectional retrospective and prospective cohort study

    doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2013-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Memory of last HbA1c. The recollection of the last measured HbA1c values was assessed by comparing the objective HbA1c values 3 months ago with the patient’s recollection of this HbA1c. The gap between the last measured and remembered HbA1c value was then compared to the actual HbA1c. Data are shown as boxplots with the actual HbA1c in categorized form on the x-axis. Note that there is a tendency towards wrong positive memory of the last HbA1c in patients having an HbA1c > 8.5% (p = 0.069). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined by the Latex-Immunagglutination method (DCA 2000 Analyzer, Bayer Corporation, Elkart, IN 46514 USA).

    Techniques:

    HbA1c in relation to (A) age, (B) duration of diabetes, (C) glucose self-monitoring and (D) socioeconomic level. There is a tendency towards higher HbA1c values with age (p = 0.065). HbA1c values correlate with the duration of diabetes (p = 0.025). HbA1c does not correlate with the number of blood glucose self-measurements (p = 0.173) but correlates with the socioeconomic level (p = 0.032). Data are given as boxplots and were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Journal: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Article Title: Children's and adolescent's self - assessment of metabolic control versus professional judgment: a cross-sectional retrospective and prospective cohort study

    doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2013-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HbA1c in relation to (A) age, (B) duration of diabetes, (C) glucose self-monitoring and (D) socioeconomic level. There is a tendency towards higher HbA1c values with age (p = 0.065). HbA1c values correlate with the duration of diabetes (p = 0.025). HbA1c does not correlate with the number of blood glucose self-measurements (p = 0.173) but correlates with the socioeconomic level (p = 0.032). Data are given as boxplots and were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined by the Latex-Immunagglutination method (DCA 2000 Analyzer, Bayer Corporation, Elkart, IN 46514 USA).

    Techniques:

    Knowledge of target HbA1c. All patients were asked for the currently recommended HbA1c level for good glycemic control (y-axis). A) These data were then compared to the actual HbA1c of each patient (x-axis). No significant difference was found (p = 0.154). B) Data were also correlated with the age finding significantly higher target HbA1c levels in older patients (p = 0.017). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Journal: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Article Title: Children's and adolescent's self - assessment of metabolic control versus professional judgment: a cross-sectional retrospective and prospective cohort study

    doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2013-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Knowledge of target HbA1c. All patients were asked for the currently recommended HbA1c level for good glycemic control (y-axis). A) These data were then compared to the actual HbA1c of each patient (x-axis). No significant difference was found (p = 0.154). B) Data were also correlated with the age finding significantly higher target HbA1c levels in older patients (p = 0.017). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05.

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined by the Latex-Immunagglutination method (DCA 2000 Analyzer, Bayer Corporation, Elkart, IN 46514 USA).

    Techniques:

    Self-perception of metabolic control in T1DM. HbA1c levels were put in relation to a self assessment score (SAS). Patients were asked to predict their HbA1c qualitatively. Data were collected with questionnaires and categorized from -2 to +2. A SAS 0 meant that patient’s perception overlapped with the objective result. A SAS of +1 or +2 meant that the measured HbA1c value was better than the last one but this improvement was not perceived by the patient. A SAS -1 or -2 meant that the actual HbA1c value was worse than the last one but predicted otherwise by the patient. No significant correlation was found between the SAS and the actual HbA1c level (p = 0.99). Data are shown as bar graphs and were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test.

    Journal: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology

    Article Title: Children's and adolescent's self - assessment of metabolic control versus professional judgment: a cross-sectional retrospective and prospective cohort study

    doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2013-21

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Self-perception of metabolic control in T1DM. HbA1c levels were put in relation to a self assessment score (SAS). Patients were asked to predict their HbA1c qualitatively. Data were collected with questionnaires and categorized from -2 to +2. A SAS 0 meant that patient’s perception overlapped with the objective result. A SAS of +1 or +2 meant that the measured HbA1c value was better than the last one but this improvement was not perceived by the patient. A SAS -1 or -2 meant that the actual HbA1c value was worse than the last one but predicted otherwise by the patient. No significant correlation was found between the SAS and the actual HbA1c level (p = 0.99). Data are shown as bar graphs and were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test.

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined by the Latex-Immunagglutination method (DCA 2000 Analyzer, Bayer Corporation, Elkart, IN 46514 USA).

    Techniques:

    Association between COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and clinical parameters: a Values of BMI, body weight, fasting glucose levels and HbA1c in T2DM patients subdivided into COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and GG homozygous group; *data are presented as median and minimum and maximum. b The change in HbA1c in subjects subdivided into the A-carriers and GG homozygous genotype of the COMT Val108/158Met; central box represents the values from the lower to upper quartile and the middle line represents the median. The horizontal line extends from the minimum to the maximum value (non-outlier range) and the “far out” values (outliers) are displayed as separate points; c difference in the COMT Val108/158Met frequency in subjects subdivided according to the HbA1c decrease

    Journal: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

    Article Title: The influence of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and catechol O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism on the efficacy of insulin detemir therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.1186/s13098-017-0295-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Association between COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and clinical parameters: a Values of BMI, body weight, fasting glucose levels and HbA1c in T2DM patients subdivided into COMT Val108/158Met A-carriers and GG homozygous group; *data are presented as median and minimum and maximum. b The change in HbA1c in subjects subdivided into the A-carriers and GG homozygous genotype of the COMT Val108/158Met; central box represents the values from the lower to upper quartile and the middle line represents the median. The horizontal line extends from the minimum to the maximum value (non-outlier range) and the “far out” values (outliers) are displayed as separate points; c difference in the COMT Val108/158Met frequency in subjects subdivided according to the HbA1c decrease

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was measured spectrophotometrically by turbidimetric immuno inhibition (Olympus AU600 Beckman Coulter, USA).

    Techniques:

    Changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose values, and BMI due to 52-weeks of treatment. Central box represents the values from the lower to upper quartile and the middle line represents the median. The horizontal line extends from the minimum to the maximum value (non-outlier range) and the “far out” values (outliers) are displayed as separate points: a changes in HbA1c due to 52-week of treatment; b changes in fasting plasma glucose values due to 52-week of treatment; c changes in BMI due to 52-week of treatment. ***p

    Journal: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

    Article Title: The influence of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and catechol O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism on the efficacy of insulin detemir therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    doi: 10.1186/s13098-017-0295-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose values, and BMI due to 52-weeks of treatment. Central box represents the values from the lower to upper quartile and the middle line represents the median. The horizontal line extends from the minimum to the maximum value (non-outlier range) and the “far out” values (outliers) are displayed as separate points: a changes in HbA1c due to 52-week of treatment; b changes in fasting plasma glucose values due to 52-week of treatment; c changes in BMI due to 52-week of treatment. ***p

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was measured spectrophotometrically by turbidimetric immuno inhibition (Olympus AU600 Beckman Coulter, USA).

    Techniques:

    The clinical courses of four patients who could stop (A, B) or reduce (C, D) the amount of anti-hypertensive drugs. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HbA1C, glucosylated hemoglobin

    Journal: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

    Article Title: Mechanism of the blood pressure-lowering effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    doi: 10.1186/s40360-017-0125-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The clinical courses of four patients who could stop (A, B) or reduce (C, D) the amount of anti-hypertensive drugs. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HbA1C, glucosylated hemoglobin

    Article Snippet: HbA1c levels were determined using ADAMS A1c, HA-8180 glycohemoglobin analyzer (ARKRAY, Koka, Japan).

    Techniques:

    Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin, body weight, and BP up to 6 months after administration of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors ( n = 20). HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; BP, blood pressure; M, months. *, P

    Journal: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

    Article Title: Mechanism of the blood pressure-lowering effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    doi: 10.1186/s40360-017-0125-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin, body weight, and BP up to 6 months after administration of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors ( n = 20). HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; BP, blood pressure; M, months. *, P

    Article Snippet: HbA1c levels were determined using ADAMS A1c, HA-8180 glycohemoglobin analyzer (ARKRAY, Koka, Japan).

    Techniques:

    Correlation between HbA1c and FBG in type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Association between glycaemic control and serum lipids profile in type 2 diabetic patients: HbA1c predicts dyslipidaemia. Volume 7, 2007, 24–29, Khan HA, Sobki SH, Khan SA. (Copyright © 2007, Springer-Verlag Italia) Reused with permission of Springer.

    Journal: Biomarker Insights

    Article Title: Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients

    doi: 10.4137/BMI.S38440

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlation between HbA1c and FBG in type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Association between glycaemic control and serum lipids profile in type 2 diabetic patients: HbA1c predicts dyslipidaemia. Volume 7, 2007, 24–29, Khan HA, Sobki SH, Khan SA. (Copyright © 2007, Springer-Verlag Italia) Reused with permission of Springer.

    Article Snippet: In the US, the HbA1c levels are expressed in terms of percentage of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial units., The United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia, along with many other European and Asian countries, however, express the HbA1c levels as millimoles per mole, keeping in reference with the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC)., The International HbA1c Consensus Committee has recommended that the HbA1c levels must be reported in terms of System International (SI) units (millimoles per mole, with no decimal places), which relate better scientifically to a valid measure of HbA1c.

    Techniques:

    Diagnostic potential of HbA1c. Notes: The histogram is showing the frequency of patients versus HbA1c. The vertical reference line shows the cutoff value of 6.5% HbA1c. Reprinted from Khan et al. 11 with permission from Taylor and Francis, www.tandfonline.com .

    Journal: Biomarker Insights

    Article Title: Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients

    doi: 10.4137/BMI.S38440

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diagnostic potential of HbA1c. Notes: The histogram is showing the frequency of patients versus HbA1c. The vertical reference line shows the cutoff value of 6.5% HbA1c. Reprinted from Khan et al. 11 with permission from Taylor and Francis, www.tandfonline.com .

    Article Snippet: In the US, the HbA1c levels are expressed in terms of percentage of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial units., The United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia, along with many other European and Asian countries, however, express the HbA1c levels as millimoles per mole, keeping in reference with the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC)., The International HbA1c Consensus Committee has recommended that the HbA1c levels must be reported in terms of System International (SI) units (millimoles per mole, with no decimal places), which relate better scientifically to a valid measure of HbA1c.

    Techniques: Diagnostic Assay

    Prognostic potential of HbA1c. Impact of HbA1c on various parameters. The patients were categorized into three groups according to HbA1c levels: group 1 (HbA1c ≤6%), group 2 (HbA1c > 6%–9%), and group 3 (HbA1c > 9%). Notes: * P

    Journal: Biomarker Insights

    Article Title: Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients

    doi: 10.4137/BMI.S38440

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Prognostic potential of HbA1c. Impact of HbA1c on various parameters. The patients were categorized into three groups according to HbA1c levels: group 1 (HbA1c ≤6%), group 2 (HbA1c > 6%–9%), and group 3 (HbA1c > 9%). Notes: * P

    Article Snippet: In the US, the HbA1c levels are expressed in terms of percentage of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial units., The United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia, along with many other European and Asian countries, however, express the HbA1c levels as millimoles per mole, keeping in reference with the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC)., The International HbA1c Consensus Committee has recommended that the HbA1c levels must be reported in terms of System International (SI) units (millimoles per mole, with no decimal places), which relate better scientifically to a valid measure of HbA1c.

    Techniques:

    Comparison of the mean blood glucose values ( a ) and HbA1c levels ( b ) of mice on HFD (light grey=control, dark grey=coffee 20 g l −1 , black=coffee 40 g l −1 ) or ND (open=control, hatched=coffee 20 g l −1 or cross-hatched=40 g l −1 ) at weeks 26 and 41. ( a ) The mean blood glucose values were calculated for each treatment group for the 16-week period before the first HbA1c measurement and for the 17-week period before the second HbA1c measurement. During the first, but not the second, period non-fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in each HFD group than in the corresponding ND group (* P

    Journal: Nutrition & Diabetes

    Article Title: Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the mean blood glucose values ( a ) and HbA1c levels ( b ) of mice on HFD (light grey=control, dark grey=coffee 20 g l −1 , black=coffee 40 g l −1 ) or ND (open=control, hatched=coffee 20 g l −1 or cross-hatched=40 g l −1 ) at weeks 26 and 41. ( a ) The mean blood glucose values were calculated for each treatment group for the 16-week period before the first HbA1c measurement and for the 17-week period before the second HbA1c measurement. During the first, but not the second, period non-fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in each HFD group than in the corresponding ND group (* P

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined in 5 μl capillary blood using an immunoassay based on the boronate affinity technology (Nycocard, Axis-Shield, Heidelberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Development of non-fasting glycaemia in HFD mice (closed circles) and ND mice (open circles). ( a ) The data scattering obscures possible differences between the blood glucose values of HFD and ND mice consuming either high-strength coffee (40 g l −1 =solid black line) or low-strength coffee (20 g l −1 =solid grey line) or water (dashed grey line). The § signs denote the time points of the IPGTTs, the # signs those of the HbA1c measurements. Values are means±s.e.m. of five animals in each group (HFD control and HFD coffee: n =4 after week 34). ( b ) The mean glycaemia of HFD (closed circles) and ND (open circles) mice. The mean value of testing at weeks 8 and 10 was defined as the baseline (dashed grey line). The spontaneous decrease in glycaemia was significant with both groups ( P

    Journal: Nutrition & Diabetes

    Article Title: Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Development of non-fasting glycaemia in HFD mice (closed circles) and ND mice (open circles). ( a ) The data scattering obscures possible differences between the blood glucose values of HFD and ND mice consuming either high-strength coffee (40 g l −1 =solid black line) or low-strength coffee (20 g l −1 =solid grey line) or water (dashed grey line). The § signs denote the time points of the IPGTTs, the # signs those of the HbA1c measurements. Values are means±s.e.m. of five animals in each group (HFD control and HFD coffee: n =4 after week 34). ( b ) The mean glycaemia of HFD (closed circles) and ND (open circles) mice. The mean value of testing at weeks 8 and 10 was defined as the baseline (dashed grey line). The spontaneous decrease in glycaemia was significant with both groups ( P

    Article Snippet: HbA1c was determined in 5 μl capillary blood using an immunoassay based on the boronate affinity technology (Nycocard, Axis-Shield, Heidelberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Low-dose synthetic ABA improves metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-glucose diet. Seven-week-old male CD1 mice (nine/group) were fed for 4 months a high-glucose diet containing 1 g/Kg BW glucose (administered with the drinking water) without (controls) or with ABA at approximately 1 µg/Kg BW. At the end of the study, fasting HbA1c, lipidemia, and body weight were measured and an OGTT was performed. ( a ) AUC of glycemia after OGTT, ( b ) HbA1c, ( c ) lipidemia, ( d ) body weight. Mean ± SD values are shown. p values by unpaired, two-tailed t -test.

    Journal: Nutrients

    Article Title: Chronic Intake of Micrograms of Abscisic Acid Improves Glycemia and Lipidemia in a Human Study and in High-Glucose Fed Mice

    doi: 10.3390/nu10101495

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Low-dose synthetic ABA improves metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-glucose diet. Seven-week-old male CD1 mice (nine/group) were fed for 4 months a high-glucose diet containing 1 g/Kg BW glucose (administered with the drinking water) without (controls) or with ABA at approximately 1 µg/Kg BW. At the end of the study, fasting HbA1c, lipidemia, and body weight were measured and an OGTT was performed. ( a ) AUC of glycemia after OGTT, ( b ) HbA1c, ( c ) lipidemia, ( d ) body weight. Mean ± SD values are shown. p values by unpaired, two-tailed t -test.

    Article Snippet: After 4 months of treatment, blood was drawn after overnight fasting to measure HbA1c (Crystal Chem Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL, USA), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (Abcam, Cambridge, UK) and body weight was measured.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Two Tailed Test

    Haemoglobin A 1c analysis by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing. (A) Normal control. (B) HbH samples - HbA1c cannot be measured (in parenthesis) due to overlapping with the HbBart’s fraction.

    Journal: Biochemia Medica

    Article Title: Measurement of HbA1c and HbA2 by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c programme for simultaneous management of diabetes and screening for thalassemia

    doi: 10.11613/BM.2017.030704

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Haemoglobin A 1c analysis by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing. (A) Normal control. (B) HbH samples - HbA1c cannot be measured (in parenthesis) due to overlapping with the HbBart’s fraction.

    Article Snippet: For method comparison, HbA1c was quantified by Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) in 98 thalassaemia patients samples.

    Techniques:

    BCG pre-administration reduces hyperglycemia in chemically-induced (Streptozocin) mice but does not induce hypoglycemia in normal mice. a Normal BALB/c mice were first studied in a normoglycemic state with ( n = 12) and without BCG ( n = 12) treatment for blood sugars and weight (left panels). BALB/c mice were rendered chemically diabetic (arrows) and studied with and without BCG treatment six weeks earlier with preventative pre-injections (right panels). Most mice became severely hyperglycemic after treatment with streptozocin (STZ) which selectively kills the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. All mice were monitored for blood sugar levels and weighed on a weekly basis. BCG-treated mice gained weight at the same rate as untreated control mice and had normal blood sugars with no indication of hypoglycemia (left panels, blue lines). After STZ induction of hyperglycemia, the control mice rapidly started to lose weight and became severely hyperglycemic within one week (right, black lines). In contrast, mice first treated with BCG before STZ treatment were able to maintain their weight and had markedly lower levels of hyperglycemia (right, blue line). b Measurements of HbA1c values in STZ-treated BALB/c mice after 6 weeks with and without prior BCG treatment show the protection afforded by BCG and the resulting lower HbA1c values of 85 ± 6.6 mmol/mol (9.9 ± 0.6% NGSP) without BCG vs. 67 ± 5.5 mmol/mol (8.3 ± 0.5% NGSP) with BCG treatment; p = 0.02, n = 19 surviving mice). c At 8 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, the BCG-treated mice had statistically lowered HbA1c values

    Journal: NPJ Vaccines

    Article Title: Long-term reduction in hyperglycemia in advanced type 1 diabetes: the value of induced aerobic glycolysis with BCG vaccinations

    doi: 10.1038/s41541-018-0062-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BCG pre-administration reduces hyperglycemia in chemically-induced (Streptozocin) mice but does not induce hypoglycemia in normal mice. a Normal BALB/c mice were first studied in a normoglycemic state with ( n = 12) and without BCG ( n = 12) treatment for blood sugars and weight (left panels). BALB/c mice were rendered chemically diabetic (arrows) and studied with and without BCG treatment six weeks earlier with preventative pre-injections (right panels). Most mice became severely hyperglycemic after treatment with streptozocin (STZ) which selectively kills the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. All mice were monitored for blood sugar levels and weighed on a weekly basis. BCG-treated mice gained weight at the same rate as untreated control mice and had normal blood sugars with no indication of hypoglycemia (left panels, blue lines). After STZ induction of hyperglycemia, the control mice rapidly started to lose weight and became severely hyperglycemic within one week (right, black lines). In contrast, mice first treated with BCG before STZ treatment were able to maintain their weight and had markedly lower levels of hyperglycemia (right, blue line). b Measurements of HbA1c values in STZ-treated BALB/c mice after 6 weeks with and without prior BCG treatment show the protection afforded by BCG and the resulting lower HbA1c values of 85 ± 6.6 mmol/mol (9.9 ± 0.6% NGSP) without BCG vs. 67 ± 5.5 mmol/mol (8.3 ± 0.5% NGSP) with BCG treatment; p = 0.02, n = 19 surviving mice). c At 8 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, the BCG-treated mice had statistically lowered HbA1c values

    Article Snippet: We determined HbA1c from mouse blood samples using the A1CNow + kit from PTS Diagnostics (Indianapolis, IN).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Long-term improvement of glycemic control in T1Ds after BCG treatment. a , b Glucose control was tracked through measurements of HbA1c. HbA1c levels in the control T1D groups (saline-treated placebo group n = 3 or the untreated reference group n = 40) remained unchanged over the 8-year observation period (placebo) or 5-year observation period (untreated reference group) as measured by a % change ( a ) or as raw HbA1c values ( b ) ( p = 0.73). The percentage change was calculated from pre-trial values to post-trial values measured every 6 months or yearly. In contrast, a decrease in HbA1c for the 8 year long followed BCG-treated patients uniformly occurred after year 03 and thereafter showed sustained lowering, with an 18% decrease from baseline at year 04. After the drop in HbA1c values in the BCG-treated group, HbA1c values remained lower for the next 5 years of monitoring and was statistically different from placebo ( p = 0.0002 at year 8) and from reference subjects ( p = 0.02 at year 5). In short, relative (percent) change rate of HbA1c was compared using the linear mixed effects model with subject-level random effects. The change rates in the control, placebo and BCG groups were compared based on the statistical significance of the interaction term between time and group indicator in the linear mixed effects model. The subject traits and sample sizes are given in Supplementary Figure S1a , S1b . c An in vivo glucagon stimulation test was performed to induce pancreatic insulin secretion as measured with C-peptide assays at trial enrollment (baseline), at 12 weeks and at 208 weeks after two BCG vaccinations in 6 T1D subjects (Supplementary Table S1b —8 year long treated subjects). The BCG-treated patients showed a clinically negligible, but statistically significant, return of stimulated serum C-peptide levels upon glucagon administration only at 208 weeks (upper panel), whereas the C-peptide response to glucagon in the reference-T1D and placebo-T1D groups remained unchanged (lower panel). For the glucagon stimulation test statistics, we used the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. On all 8 year followed subjects with the data presented at year 04 i.e., 208 weeks. Figure inserts at 208 weeks after treatment highlight the minor changes and the standard error bars

    Journal: NPJ Vaccines

    Article Title: Long-term reduction in hyperglycemia in advanced type 1 diabetes: the value of induced aerobic glycolysis with BCG vaccinations

    doi: 10.1038/s41541-018-0062-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Long-term improvement of glycemic control in T1Ds after BCG treatment. a , b Glucose control was tracked through measurements of HbA1c. HbA1c levels in the control T1D groups (saline-treated placebo group n = 3 or the untreated reference group n = 40) remained unchanged over the 8-year observation period (placebo) or 5-year observation period (untreated reference group) as measured by a % change ( a ) or as raw HbA1c values ( b ) ( p = 0.73). The percentage change was calculated from pre-trial values to post-trial values measured every 6 months or yearly. In contrast, a decrease in HbA1c for the 8 year long followed BCG-treated patients uniformly occurred after year 03 and thereafter showed sustained lowering, with an 18% decrease from baseline at year 04. After the drop in HbA1c values in the BCG-treated group, HbA1c values remained lower for the next 5 years of monitoring and was statistically different from placebo ( p = 0.0002 at year 8) and from reference subjects ( p = 0.02 at year 5). In short, relative (percent) change rate of HbA1c was compared using the linear mixed effects model with subject-level random effects. The change rates in the control, placebo and BCG groups were compared based on the statistical significance of the interaction term between time and group indicator in the linear mixed effects model. The subject traits and sample sizes are given in Supplementary Figure S1a , S1b . c An in vivo glucagon stimulation test was performed to induce pancreatic insulin secretion as measured with C-peptide assays at trial enrollment (baseline), at 12 weeks and at 208 weeks after two BCG vaccinations in 6 T1D subjects (Supplementary Table S1b —8 year long treated subjects). The BCG-treated patients showed a clinically negligible, but statistically significant, return of stimulated serum C-peptide levels upon glucagon administration only at 208 weeks (upper panel), whereas the C-peptide response to glucagon in the reference-T1D and placebo-T1D groups remained unchanged (lower panel). For the glucagon stimulation test statistics, we used the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. On all 8 year followed subjects with the data presented at year 04 i.e., 208 weeks. Figure inserts at 208 weeks after treatment highlight the minor changes and the standard error bars

    Article Snippet: We determined HbA1c from mouse blood samples using the A1CNow + kit from PTS Diagnostics (Indianapolis, IN).

    Techniques: In Vivo

    Quality chain of IFCC-RMP-standardized HbA1c testing. The manufacturer uses calibrators, to which values have been assigned with the IFCC-RMP, to assign values to the kit calibrators. The EQA/PT provider uses samples also targeted by the IFCC-RMP. Good performance of the whole chain is demonstrated when the laboratory (clinical chemist), using the kit calibrators of the manufacturer, measures the correct HbA1c values in EQA/PT samples. Subsequently, all results of patients are traceable to the IFCC-RMP, and diabetologists can use universal reference values and decision limits. Abbreviations: IFCC-RMP, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Reference Measurement Procedure; EQA, external quality assessment; PT, proficiency testing.

    Journal: Annals of Laboratory Medicine

    Article Title: HbA1c: A Review of Analytical and Clinical Aspects

    doi: 10.3343/alm.2013.33.6.393

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quality chain of IFCC-RMP-standardized HbA1c testing. The manufacturer uses calibrators, to which values have been assigned with the IFCC-RMP, to assign values to the kit calibrators. The EQA/PT provider uses samples also targeted by the IFCC-RMP. Good performance of the whole chain is demonstrated when the laboratory (clinical chemist), using the kit calibrators of the manufacturer, measures the correct HbA1c values in EQA/PT samples. Subsequently, all results of patients are traceable to the IFCC-RMP, and diabetologists can use universal reference values and decision limits. Abbreviations: IFCC-RMP, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Reference Measurement Procedure; EQA, external quality assessment; PT, proficiency testing.

    Article Snippet: Apart from HbA1c, the most common derivatives are HbCarb and pre-HbA1c (a Schiff base) [ ].

    Techniques:

    Analytical concepts of HbA1c measurement methods and their traceability to the IFCC-RMP. Abbreviations: IFCC, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry; RMP, Reference Measurement Procedure.

    Journal: Annals of Laboratory Medicine

    Article Title: HbA1c: A Review of Analytical and Clinical Aspects

    doi: 10.3343/alm.2013.33.6.393

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analytical concepts of HbA1c measurement methods and their traceability to the IFCC-RMP. Abbreviations: IFCC, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry; RMP, Reference Measurement Procedure.

    Article Snippet: Apart from HbA1c, the most common derivatives are HbCarb and pre-HbA1c (a Schiff base) [ ].

    Techniques: