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  • 96
    Millipore gly gly gly gly gly gly 5
    Changes in glutathione level during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml in a <t>GSH/Gly-Gly</t> medium (see Methods) alone (circles), or in the presence of 10 mM serine/borate (squares) or 10 mM serine/borate and 0.5 mM <t>Cys-Gly</t> (triangles). Closed and open symbols refer to the extra-lenticular level of total glutathione and GSSG, respectively. Inset: bars refer to total glutathione intra-lenticular level measured after 24 h of incubation in the following conditions: a: standard medium; b: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; c: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; d: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with Cys-Gly. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the values measured under different conditions at the same time of incubation. (#): p
    Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly 5, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore tripeptides gly gly ile
    Changes in glutathione level during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml in a <t>GSH/Gly-Gly</t> medium (see Methods) alone (circles), or in the presence of 10 mM serine/borate (squares) or 10 mM serine/borate and 0.5 mM <t>Cys-Gly</t> (triangles). Closed and open symbols refer to the extra-lenticular level of total glutathione and GSSG, respectively. Inset: bars refer to total glutathione intra-lenticular level measured after 24 h of incubation in the following conditions: a: standard medium; b: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; c: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; d: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with Cys-Gly. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the values measured under different conditions at the same time of incubation. (#): p
    Tripeptides Gly Gly Ile, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore dipeptide gly gly
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Dipeptide Gly Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore ni ggh
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Ni Ggh, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Millipore hydrochloride gly
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Hydrochloride Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Millipore leu gly gly
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Leu Gly Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore phe gly
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Phe Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore gly ala
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Gly Ala, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore gly gly phe
    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. <t>GPNA</t> and <t>Gly-Gly</t> were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.
    Gly Gly Phe, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Changes in glutathione level during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml in a GSH/Gly-Gly medium (see Methods) alone (circles), or in the presence of 10 mM serine/borate (squares) or 10 mM serine/borate and 0.5 mM Cys-Gly (triangles). Closed and open symbols refer to the extra-lenticular level of total glutathione and GSSG, respectively. Inset: bars refer to total glutathione intra-lenticular level measured after 24 h of incubation in the following conditions: a: standard medium; b: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; c: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; d: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with Cys-Gly. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the values measured under different conditions at the same time of incubation. (#): p

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Cysteinyl-glycine in the control of glutathione homeostasis in bovine lenses

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in glutathione level during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml in a GSH/Gly-Gly medium (see Methods) alone (circles), or in the presence of 10 mM serine/borate (squares) or 10 mM serine/borate and 0.5 mM Cys-Gly (triangles). Closed and open symbols refer to the extra-lenticular level of total glutathione and GSSG, respectively. Inset: bars refer to total glutathione intra-lenticular level measured after 24 h of incubation in the following conditions: a: standard medium; b: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; c: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; d: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with Cys-Gly. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the values measured under different conditions at the same time of incubation. (#): p

    Article Snippet: Materials Cys-Gly, Gly-Gly, GSH, D,L-dithiothreitol (DTT), L-cysteine, L-serine, cystinyl-bis-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys, N-acetylcysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, bestatin, propargylglycine (PPG), butionilsulfoximine (BSO), sodium tetra-borate deca-hydrate were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Extra-lenticular changes in cysteine, Cys-Gly and γ-Glu-Cys levels during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml of GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM of either cysteine (triangles), Cys-Gly (squares) or γ-Glu-Cys (circles) and at different times extra-lenticular thiol contents were evaluated (see Methods). Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Cysteinyl-glycine in the control of glutathione homeostasis in bovine lenses

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extra-lenticular changes in cysteine, Cys-Gly and γ-Glu-Cys levels during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in a final volume of 40 ml of GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM of either cysteine (triangles), Cys-Gly (squares) or γ-Glu-Cys (circles) and at different times extra-lenticular thiol contents were evaluated (see Methods). Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cys-Gly, Gly-Gly, GSH, D,L-dithiothreitol (DTT), L-cysteine, L-serine, cystinyl-bis-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys, N-acetylcysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, bestatin, propargylglycine (PPG), butionilsulfoximine (BSO), sodium tetra-borate deca-hydrate were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Changes of extra-lenticular level of glutathione under different lens culture conditions. Changes of extra-lenticular level of total glutathione are expressed as Δµmol glutathione, which refers to the difference between the value of extra-lenticular total glutathione (GSH plus GSSG expressed as GSH equivalents) measured at 24 h of incubation and that measured at zero time. Lens incubations were performed in a final volume of 40 ml in the following conditions: A: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; B: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; C: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM Cys-Gly; D: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM cysteine; E: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM γ-Glu-Cys; F: GSH/Gly-Gly medium supplemented with 0.1 mM propargylglycine; G: GSH/Gly-Gly medium supplemented with 2 mM buthionine sulfoximine. See text for details. Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing Δµmol glutathione with respect to A (*) or B (#) conditions. (*, #): p

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Cysteinyl-glycine in the control of glutathione homeostasis in bovine lenses

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes of extra-lenticular level of glutathione under different lens culture conditions. Changes of extra-lenticular level of total glutathione are expressed as Δµmol glutathione, which refers to the difference between the value of extra-lenticular total glutathione (GSH plus GSSG expressed as GSH equivalents) measured at 24 h of incubation and that measured at zero time. Lens incubations were performed in a final volume of 40 ml in the following conditions: A: GSH/Gly-Gly medium; B: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium; C: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM Cys-Gly; D: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM cysteine; E: GSH/Gly-Gly/SB medium supplemented with 0.5 mM γ-Glu-Cys; F: GSH/Gly-Gly medium supplemented with 0.1 mM propargylglycine; G: GSH/Gly-Gly medium supplemented with 2 mM buthionine sulfoximine. See text for details. Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing Δµmol glutathione with respect to A (*) or B (#) conditions. (*, #): p

    Article Snippet: Materials Cys-Gly, Gly-Gly, GSH, D,L-dithiothreitol (DTT), L-cysteine, L-serine, cystinyl-bis-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys, N-acetylcysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, bestatin, propargylglycine (PPG), butionilsulfoximine (BSO), sodium tetra-borate deca-hydrate were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Extra-lenticular changes in Cys-Gly and cystinyl-bis-glycine levels during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in 40 ml of standard medium containing 0.5 mM Cys-Gly alone (squares) or in the presence of 10 µM bestatin (circles); reduced and disulfide forms of the thiol (open and closed symbols, respectively) were measured and reported as % equivalents of the initial CysGly concentration. Diamonds refer to lens incubation performed in standard medium supplemented with 0.25 mM cystinyl-bis-glycine; the concentration of the disulfide in this incubation is reported as % of the initial value. Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Cysteinyl-glycine in the control of glutathione homeostasis in bovine lenses

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extra-lenticular changes in Cys-Gly and cystinyl-bis-glycine levels during lens culture. Bovine lenses were incubated in 40 ml of standard medium containing 0.5 mM Cys-Gly alone (squares) or in the presence of 10 µM bestatin (circles); reduced and disulfide forms of the thiol (open and closed symbols, respectively) were measured and reported as % equivalents of the initial CysGly concentration. Diamonds refer to lens incubation performed in standard medium supplemented with 0.25 mM cystinyl-bis-glycine; the concentration of the disulfide in this incubation is reported as % of the initial value. Values are reported as the mean of at least three different experiments; the error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cys-Gly, Gly-Gly, GSH, D,L-dithiothreitol (DTT), L-cysteine, L-serine, cystinyl-bis-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys, N-acetylcysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, bestatin, propargylglycine (PPG), butionilsulfoximine (BSO), sodium tetra-borate deca-hydrate were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Schematic representation of γ-glutamyl cycle in the bovine lens epithelial-cortical layer. Numbers refer to enzymes involved in the cycle. 1: γ-glutamyltransferase; 2: leucine amino peptidase; 3, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase; 4: glutathione synthetase. “a” and “b” refer to glutathione and Cys-Gly transporters, respectively. The connection of the cycle with trans-sulfuration pathway (5: cystathionine γ-lyase) and the effect of possible modulators of the cycle are also reported. SB: serine /borate; PPG: propargylglycine; BSO: butionilsulfoximine. Inhibition or activation effects are indicated by “- “ or “+,” respectively. Dashed lines refer to the proposed effects on extralenticular GSSG accumulation exerted by exogenous GSH, Cys-Gly or/and its disulfide derivatives (OX Cys-Gly ) as emerged from our results.

    Journal: Molecular Vision

    Article Title: Cysteinyl-glycine in the control of glutathione homeostasis in bovine lenses

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of γ-glutamyl cycle in the bovine lens epithelial-cortical layer. Numbers refer to enzymes involved in the cycle. 1: γ-glutamyltransferase; 2: leucine amino peptidase; 3, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase; 4: glutathione synthetase. “a” and “b” refer to glutathione and Cys-Gly transporters, respectively. The connection of the cycle with trans-sulfuration pathway (5: cystathionine γ-lyase) and the effect of possible modulators of the cycle are also reported. SB: serine /borate; PPG: propargylglycine; BSO: butionilsulfoximine. Inhibition or activation effects are indicated by “- “ or “+,” respectively. Dashed lines refer to the proposed effects on extralenticular GSSG accumulation exerted by exogenous GSH, Cys-Gly or/and its disulfide derivatives (OX Cys-Gly ) as emerged from our results.

    Article Snippet: Materials Cys-Gly, Gly-Gly, GSH, D,L-dithiothreitol (DTT), L-cysteine, L-serine, cystinyl-bis-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys, N-acetylcysteine, cystathionine, homocysteine, bestatin, propargylglycine (PPG), butionilsulfoximine (BSO), sodium tetra-borate deca-hydrate were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activation Assay

    Separation of peptides (left) and nucleotides (right) in HILIC mode using monolith M-11 with clicked [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine. Column: 109 mm × 100 μm i.d. Mobile phase: left - A - 10 mmol/L triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 2.8), B - 5:95 vol.% 10 mmol/L triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 2.8) in acetonitrile, gradient from 100 to 60% B in A in 10 min, flow rate 1.0 μL/min, UV detection at 214 nm; (right) 10:90 vol.% 20 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous buffer (pH 3.2) in acetonitrile, flow rate 0.5 μL/min, UV detection at 254 nm. Peaks: Impurities (1), Phe-Gly-Phe-Gly (2), Val-Try-Val (3), Gly-Leu (4), Gly-Try (5), Lys-Val (6), Gly-Gly-Gly (7), uracil (8), adenosine (9), cytidine (10), guanosine (11).

    Journal: The Analyst

    Article Title: "Thiol-ene" click chemistry: A facile and versatile route to functionalization of porous polymer monoliths

    doi: 10.1039/c2an35706b

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Separation of peptides (left) and nucleotides (right) in HILIC mode using monolith M-11 with clicked [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine. Column: 109 mm × 100 μm i.d. Mobile phase: left - A - 10 mmol/L triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 2.8), B - 5:95 vol.% 10 mmol/L triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 2.8) in acetonitrile, gradient from 100 to 60% B in A in 10 min, flow rate 1.0 μL/min, UV detection at 214 nm; (right) 10:90 vol.% 20 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous buffer (pH 3.2) in acetonitrile, flow rate 0.5 μL/min, UV detection at 254 nm. Peaks: Impurities (1), Phe-Gly-Phe-Gly (2), Val-Try-Val (3), Gly-Leu (4), Gly-Try (5), Lys-Val (6), Gly-Gly-Gly (7), uracil (8), adenosine (9), cytidine (10), guanosine (11).

    Article Snippet: Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), 2,2-dimethyl-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA), benzophenone (BP), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, cyclohexanol, 1-dodecanol, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetic acid, formic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, triethylamine, phosphoric acid, ammonium formate, cystamine dihydrochloride, ethanolamine, propylamine, tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) solution (0.5 mol/L, pH=7 adjusted with ammonium hydroxide), ribonuclease A (bovine heart), cytochrome C (bovine pancreas), myoglobin (horse skeletal muscle), Phe-Gly-Phe-Gly, Val-Try-Val, Gly-Leu, Gly-Try, Lys-Val, Gly-Gly-Gly, adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, uracil, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, butylbenzene, amylbenzene, and HPLC-grade solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, acetone) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques: Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography, Flow Cytometry

    Disease response after infection with KEI 1025 and GLY or CBX treatment. Clinical scores ( A ) were reduced significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days PI in GLY- versus PBS-treated mice, but only at 3 days PI after CBX versus PBS treatment ( D ). Photographs taken with a slit lamp camera at 5 days PI from PBS ( B ) and GLY- ( C ) or PBS- ( E ) and CBX- ( F ) treated mice confirmed reduced opacity, but GLY-treated eyes appeared to have less infiltrate. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. Magnification, ×8; n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Disease response after infection with KEI 1025 and GLY or CBX treatment. Clinical scores ( A ) were reduced significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days PI in GLY- versus PBS-treated mice, but only at 3 days PI after CBX versus PBS treatment ( D ). Photographs taken with a slit lamp camera at 5 days PI from PBS ( B ) and GLY- ( C ) or PBS- ( E ) and CBX- ( F ) treated mice confirmed reduced opacity, but GLY-treated eyes appeared to have less infiltrate. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. Magnification, ×8; n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. ( A – G ) At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( D ), and TNF-α ( G ) were reduced significantly only in GLY-treated corneas; RAGE ( B ) was not different statistically between groups; IL-1β ( C ), TLR4 ( E ), and CXCL2 ( F ) were reduced significantly after GLY and CBX versus PBS treatment. No difference in mRNA levels was seen for normal uninfected (N) cornea except the significant reduction for RAGE ( B ) in GLY-treated mice. Data are mean + SEM analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. ( A – G ) At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( D ), and TNF-α ( G ) were reduced significantly only in GLY-treated corneas; RAGE ( B ) was not different statistically between groups; IL-1β ( C ), TLR4 ( E ), and CXCL2 ( F ) were reduced significantly after GLY and CBX versus PBS treatment. No difference in mRNA levels was seen for normal uninfected (N) cornea except the significant reduction for RAGE ( B ) in GLY-treated mice. Data are mean + SEM analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Histopathology, ELISA, MPO assay, and plate count after KEI 1025 infection. Corneal protein levels of IL-1β ( A ) were reduced significantly at 5 days PI with no difference at 3 days PI after GLY treatment. CXCL2 ( B ) protein levels were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea. Levels of MPO ( C ) and viable bacterial plate count was reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea ( E ), but only at 5 days PI in CBX versus PBS-treated cornea ( F ). All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). Histopathology ( D ) revealed a heavy cellular infiltrate in the stroma and anterior chamber of the PBS-treated eyes at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ a ], D [ c ], respectively). The eyes of GLY-treated mice showed fewer infiltrated cells into cornea and anterior chamber, and less edema, at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ b ], D [ d ], respectively). Inset shows a predominant neutrophil infiltrate which is greatly reduced in the GLY-treated mice. Magnification, ×30; inset, ×490, n = 3/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histopathology, ELISA, MPO assay, and plate count after KEI 1025 infection. Corneal protein levels of IL-1β ( A ) were reduced significantly at 5 days PI with no difference at 3 days PI after GLY treatment. CXCL2 ( B ) protein levels were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea. Levels of MPO ( C ) and viable bacterial plate count was reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea ( E ), but only at 5 days PI in CBX versus PBS-treated cornea ( F ). All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). Histopathology ( D ) revealed a heavy cellular infiltrate in the stroma and anterior chamber of the PBS-treated eyes at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ a ], D [ c ], respectively). The eyes of GLY-treated mice showed fewer infiltrated cells into cornea and anterior chamber, and less edema, at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ b ], D [ d ], respectively). Inset shows a predominant neutrophil infiltrate which is greatly reduced in the GLY-treated mice. Magnification, ×30; inset, ×490, n = 3/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Histopathology, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, MPO Assay, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of: NLRP3 ( A ) and TGF-β ( D ) were reduced significantly after GLY or CBX treatment; NLRC4 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ), IL-10 ( E ), and ST2 ( G ) were reduced significantly only after GLY treatment; SIGIRR ( F ) was increased significantly only with CBX treatment. No difference between groups was seen for normal uninfected cornea. All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of: NLRP3 ( A ) and TGF-β ( D ) were reduced significantly after GLY or CBX treatment; NLRC4 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ), IL-10 ( E ), and ST2 ( G ) were reduced significantly only after GLY treatment; SIGIRR ( F ) was increased significantly only with CBX treatment. No difference between groups was seen for normal uninfected cornea. All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Infection

    Substrate specificity of Gly-Sar and L -Histidine uptake

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Substrate specificity of Gly-Sar and L -Histidine uptake

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques:

    Concentration dependency of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake. Uptake was measured at pH 7.4 with an incubation time of 30 minutes for [ 3 H]Gly-Sar uptake and 15 minutes for [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake. Passive uptake was determined by measuring the uptake

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration dependency of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake. Uptake was measured at pH 7.4 with an incubation time of 30 minutes for [ 3 H]Gly-Sar uptake and 15 minutes for [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake. Passive uptake was determined by measuring the uptake

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Incubation

    Knockdown of PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes reduces the active uptake of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar in PC-3 and LNCaP cells. (A). The PEPT1 siRNA down-regulates PEPT1 mRNA level in PC-3 cells. (B). PEPT1 knockdown reduces the active uptake of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar in PC-3 cells. (C).

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Knockdown of PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes reduces the active uptake of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar in PC-3 and LNCaP cells. (A). The PEPT1 siRNA down-regulates PEPT1 mRNA level in PC-3 cells. (B). PEPT1 knockdown reduces the active uptake of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar in PC-3 cells. (C).

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques:

    Comparison of growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by Gly-Sar and BCH. By inhibiting peptide transporters, Gly-Sar suppressed the growth of LNCaP and PC-3 cells.

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by Gly-Sar and BCH. By inhibiting peptide transporters, Gly-Sar suppressed the growth of LNCaP and PC-3 cells.

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    The time course and pH dependency of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake in three prostate cancer cell lines. ( A ). Uptakes of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine at pH 7.4 were measured over a 240 minute time course. (B). The uptakes by prostate cancer

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The time course and pH dependency of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine uptake in three prostate cancer cell lines. ( A ). Uptakes of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine at pH 7.4 were measured over a 240 minute time course. (B). The uptakes by prostate cancer

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques:

    Eadie-Hofstee plots calculated from the active uptake data of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine in three prostate cancer cell lines. Eadie-Hofstee plot for [ 3 H]Gly-Sar uptake showed straight lines, which indicated a single transporter system. Curvilinear

    Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Expression profile and functional activity of peptide transporters in prostate cancer cells

    doi: 10.1021/mp300364k

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Eadie-Hofstee plots calculated from the active uptake data of [ 3 H]Gly-Sar and [ 3 H] L -Histidine in three prostate cancer cell lines. Eadie-Hofstee plot for [ 3 H]Gly-Sar uptake showed straight lines, which indicated a single transporter system. Curvilinear

    Article Snippet: Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly, Cefadroxil, L -Histidine, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) and 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques:

    Polyclonal MBPhE. 10 11 pfu of each round phage eluted with L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP were checked for binding affinity to PLAP-conjugated magnetic beads (solid bars) against the background binding of phage to the unconjugated beads (white bars). The black bars on top indicate SD.

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-5-33

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Polyclonal MBPhE. 10 11 pfu of each round phage eluted with L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP were checked for binding affinity to PLAP-conjugated magnetic beads (solid bars) against the background binding of phage to the unconjugated beads (white bars). The black bars on top indicate SD.

    Article Snippet: Amino acids and proteins – L-Leucine, L-Phe, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, L-Gly-Gly-Gly, L-Homoarginine and Placental alkaline phosphatase, Bone alkaline phosphatase, Intestinal alkaline phosphatase – Sigma Chemicals Co., USA and Calzyme Inc., USA .

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Magnetic Beads

    Binding features of Type I, Type II and Type III antibodies on MBPhE. 4A. Representative binding of Type I antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP but not by L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD. 4B. Representative binding of Type II antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was inhibited both by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP and L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP and by substrate alone. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD. 4C. Representative binding of Type III antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was not inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP or L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD.

    Journal: BMC Biotechnology

    Article Title: Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-5-33

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Binding features of Type I, Type II and Type III antibodies on MBPhE. 4A. Representative binding of Type I antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP but not by L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD. 4B. Representative binding of Type II antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was inhibited both by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP and L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP and by substrate alone. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD. 4C. Representative binding of Type III antibodies on MBPhE. The binding of these antibodies was not inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly + pNPP or L-Gly-Gly-Gly + pNPP. The unconjugated magnetic beads served as a negative control. The black bars on top indicate SD.

    Article Snippet: Amino acids and proteins – L-Leucine, L-Phe, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, L-Gly-Gly-Gly, L-Homoarginine and Placental alkaline phosphatase, Bone alkaline phosphatase, Intestinal alkaline phosphatase – Sigma Chemicals Co., USA and Calzyme Inc., USA .

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Magnetic Beads, Negative Control

    Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. GPNA and Gly-Gly were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.

    Journal: Plant Physiology

    Article Title: ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. Cellular Localization, Processing, and Biochemical Properties 1

    doi: 10.1104/pp.010887

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Competitive inhibition by GSH of PNA release catalyzed by AtGGT, when added to the standard transpeptidation reaction. GPNA and Gly-Gly were used as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Standard γ-GT activity assays were performed with GPNA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis; ) as donor substrate and the dipeptide Gly-Gly (Sigma) as an acceptor substrate.

    Techniques: Inhibition

    γ-GT activities detected in the transgenic plants expressing D22 cDNA determined by the rate of PNA release in the standard transpeptidation reaction with GPNA as donor and Gly-Gly as acceptor substrates. D22/*, Protein extracts from different transgenic lines incubated with the substrates; control, protein extract from the control plant incubated with the reaction substrates.

    Journal: Plant Physiology

    Article Title: ?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. Cellular Localization, Processing, and Biochemical Properties 1

    doi: 10.1104/pp.010887

    Figure Lengend Snippet: γ-GT activities detected in the transgenic plants expressing D22 cDNA determined by the rate of PNA release in the standard transpeptidation reaction with GPNA as donor and Gly-Gly as acceptor substrates. D22/*, Protein extracts from different transgenic lines incubated with the substrates; control, protein extract from the control plant incubated with the reaction substrates.

    Article Snippet: Standard γ-GT activity assays were performed with GPNA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis; ) as donor substrate and the dipeptide Gly-Gly (Sigma) as an acceptor substrate.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Expressing, Incubation