gly Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 96
    Thermo Fisher northernmax gly kit
    Northernmax Gly Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 683 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/northernmax gly kit/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 96 stars, based on 683 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    northernmax gly kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    96/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore rgd peptide
    Rgd Peptide, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 214 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rgd peptide/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 214 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rgd peptide - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Novartis ind gly
    Study design. Note: POWER study design (groups switched to <t>IND/GLY).</t> Abbreviations: bid, twice daily; h, hours; IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; od, once daily; <t>SFC,</t> salmeterol/fluticasone.
    Ind Gly, supplied by Novartis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 78 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ind gly/product/Novartis
    Average 99 stars, based on 78 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ind gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore gly
    Disease response after infection with KEI 1025 and <t>GLY</t> or <t>CBX</t> treatment. Clinical scores ( A ) were reduced significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days PI in GLY- versus PBS-treated mice, but only at 3 days PI after CBX versus PBS treatment ( D ). Photographs taken with a slit lamp camera at 5 days PI from PBS ( B ) and GLY- ( C ) or PBS- ( E ) and CBX- ( F ) treated mice confirmed reduced opacity, but GLY-treated eyes appeared to have less infiltrate. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. Magnification, ×8; n = 10/group/time.
    Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 221 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 221 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Cytoskeleton Inc cap gly
    Overview of the structures of microtubule, dynactin, <t>CAP-Gly</t> domain of dynactin. a , schematic representation of microtubules. b , negatively stained TEM images of microtubules ( left panel ) and CAP-Gly/microtubule assembly ( right panel ) prepared for MAS NMR experiments in this work. c , domain structure of dynactin. d )). e ).
    Cap Gly, supplied by Cytoskeleton Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 64 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cap gly/product/Cytoskeleton Inc
    Average 89 stars, based on 64 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cap gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Mimetics gly sar
    Inhibition of apical [ 14 <t>C]Gly-Sar</t> uptake in Caco-2 cells by <t>5-HTP</t> and Bip-Pro. Uptake of (A) 1 mM or (B) 30 mM Gly-Sar measured in the absence or presence of 10 mM 5-HTP (+ 5-HTP), 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ Bip-Pro) or 10 mM 5-HTP and 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ 5-HTP + Bip-Pro). Each column represents mean ± SEM measured in triplicate in three different cell passages. ** Denotes P
    Gly Sar, supplied by Mimetics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 99 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly sar/product/Mimetics
    Average 89 stars, based on 99 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly sar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Bachem z gly gly arg amc
    Spatiotemporally resolved imaging of thrombin activity in blood plasma from a healthy individual reveals a propagating wave. ( A ) Overall experimental design: A layer of immobilized tissue factor (1) induces fibrin clot propagation (2) in nonstirred plasma (3). The sample is illuminated in turn by red (4) or UV LEDs (5) through an excitation filter (6). Light scattered by fibrin (7) and fluorescence of the thrombin-generated <t>AMC</t> (8) pass through a multiband emission filter (9) and macro lens (10) and are recorded by a charge-coupled device (11). ( B ) Fluorogenic substrate <t>Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC</t> is cleaved by thrombin to yield fluorescent AMC. ( C ) Time-lapse images: Light scattering from the growing fibrin clot ( red ) or AMC fluorescence ( blue ). ( D ) AMC concentration distribution obtained from fluorescence ( C ). ( E ) Fibrin concentration distribution obtained from light scattering ( C ). ( F ) Thrombin distribution as a function of space and time obtained from the AMC distribution ( E ) by solving a reverse reaction-diffusion problem. Plasma is supplemented with 10 μ M phospholipids; activation is with 90 pmol TF/m 2 .
    Z Gly Gly Arg Amc, supplied by Bachem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 61 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/z gly gly arg amc/product/Bachem
    Average 89 stars, based on 61 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    z gly gly arg amc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore fmoc gly oh
    Spatiotemporally resolved imaging of thrombin activity in blood plasma from a healthy individual reveals a propagating wave. ( A ) Overall experimental design: A layer of immobilized tissue factor (1) induces fibrin clot propagation (2) in nonstirred plasma (3). The sample is illuminated in turn by red (4) or UV LEDs (5) through an excitation filter (6). Light scattered by fibrin (7) and fluorescence of the thrombin-generated <t>AMC</t> (8) pass through a multiband emission filter (9) and macro lens (10) and are recorded by a charge-coupled device (11). ( B ) Fluorogenic substrate <t>Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC</t> is cleaved by thrombin to yield fluorescent AMC. ( C ) Time-lapse images: Light scattering from the growing fibrin clot ( red ) or AMC fluorescence ( blue ). ( D ) AMC concentration distribution obtained from fluorescence ( C ). ( E ) Fibrin concentration distribution obtained from light scattering ( C ). ( F ) Thrombin distribution as a function of space and time obtained from the AMC distribution ( E ) by solving a reverse reaction-diffusion problem. Plasma is supplemented with 10 μ M phospholipids; activation is with 90 pmol TF/m 2 .
    Fmoc Gly Oh, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 86 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fmoc gly oh/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 86 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fmoc gly oh - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    GenScript gly sifamide
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Gly Sifamide, supplied by GenScript, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly sifamide/product/GenScript
    Average 88 stars, based on 32 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly sifamide - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Thermo Fisher northernmax gly
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Northernmax Gly, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 159 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/northernmax gly/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 95 stars, based on 159 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    northernmax gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore gly pro p nitroanilide
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Gly Pro P Nitroanilide, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 64 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly pro p nitroanilide/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 64 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly pro p nitroanilide - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore arg gly asp ser
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Arg Gly Asp Ser, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/arg gly asp ser/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    arg gly asp ser - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore gly sar
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Gly Sar, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly sar/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 29 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly sar - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Bachem fluorogenic substrate z gly gly arg amc
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Fluorogenic Substrate Z Gly Gly Arg Amc, supplied by Bachem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 97 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fluorogenic substrate z gly gly arg amc/product/Bachem
    Average 88 stars, based on 97 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fluorogenic substrate z gly gly arg amc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore gly gly
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Gly Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 67 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly gly/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 67 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore p nitroanilide
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    P Nitroanilide, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 145 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/p nitroanilide/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 145 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    p nitroanilide - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore higg
    <t>Gly-SIFamide</t> injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression
    Higg, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 79 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/higg/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 79 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    higg - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore anti tcf4
    Down regulation of mrhl RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment in Gc1-Spg cells. Mouse spermatogonial Gc1-Spg cells were treated with Wnt3a CM for different time durations (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h). ( A ) Western blot analysis (using nuclear lysate) for β-catenin. Presence of histone H3 and absence of GAPDH shows purity of nuclear fractions. ( B ) Expression analysis of Sox17 and Ccnd1 which are known targets of Wnt signaling during spermatogenesis. ( C ) Genomic organization of mrhl RNA gene embedded within the 15th intron of phkb gene. The locations of TATA box, CAT box and <t>TCF4</t> binding site are depicted in the 1 kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene while different repeat elements are shown in the body of mrhl RNA gene. ( D ) Luciferase activity of the 1kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene. ( E ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA and phkb RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment. For (B), (D) and (E) the data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).
    Anti Tcf4, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 143 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti tcf4/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 143 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti tcf4 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore gly arg gly asp ser
    Dark-field microscopy images of the cellular internalization of AuNPrs. Cell nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). ( A ) Vero cells as negative control, and treated with ( B ) 1100NPr-PEG, ( C ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG, and ( D ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG functionalized with a <t>Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser</t> (RGD) sequence (1100NPr-GSH-PEG-RGD). Concentration 50 μg/mL was used for all the <t>NPrs.</t> Scale bars correspond to 50 μm.
    Gly Arg Gly Asp Ser, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gly arg gly asp ser/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 13 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gly arg gly asp ser - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore glycerol gly
    Dark-field microscopy images of the cellular internalization of AuNPrs. Cell nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). ( A ) Vero cells as negative control, and treated with ( B ) 1100NPr-PEG, ( C ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG, and ( D ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG functionalized with a <t>Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser</t> (RGD) sequence (1100NPr-GSH-PEG-RGD). Concentration 50 μg/mL was used for all the <t>NPrs.</t> Scale bars correspond to 50 μm.
    Glycerol Gly, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/glycerol gly/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 23 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    glycerol gly - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Study design. Note: POWER study design (groups switched to IND/GLY). Abbreviations: bid, twice daily; h, hours; IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; od, once daily; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone.

    Journal: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Article Title: Real-life effectiveness of indacaterol–glycopyrronium after switching from tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD: the POWER study

    doi: 10.2147/COPD.S185485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Study design. Note: POWER study design (groups switched to IND/GLY). Abbreviations: bid, twice daily; h, hours; IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; od, once daily; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone.

    Article Snippet: As opposed to double-blind RCTs of IND/GLY vs SFC at a dose of 50/500 µg bid including ILLUMINATE, LANTERN, and FLAME, , , a majority of SFC patients who switched to IND/GLY in POWER were on a lower dose of 50/250 µg bid, which may have contributed to the greater effect size observed.

    Techniques:

    Change from baseline in CAT score at Week 16 (ITT population). Note: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Abbreviations: CAT, COPD assessment test; IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Journal: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Article Title: Real-life effectiveness of indacaterol–glycopyrronium after switching from tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD: the POWER study

    doi: 10.2147/COPD.S185485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Change from baseline in CAT score at Week 16 (ITT population). Note: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Abbreviations: CAT, COPD assessment test; IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Article Snippet: As opposed to double-blind RCTs of IND/GLY vs SFC at a dose of 50/500 µg bid including ILLUMINATE, LANTERN, and FLAME, , , a majority of SFC patients who switched to IND/GLY in POWER were on a lower dose of 50/250 µg bid, which may have contributed to the greater effect size observed.

    Techniques:

    Change from baseline in TDI score at Week 16 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. The dotted line represents MCID. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; MCID, minimal clinically important difference; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; TDI, transition dyspnea index; Tio, tiotropium.

    Journal: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Article Title: Real-life effectiveness of indacaterol–glycopyrronium after switching from tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD: the POWER study

    doi: 10.2147/COPD.S185485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Change from baseline in TDI score at Week 16 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. The dotted line represents MCID. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; MCID, minimal clinically important difference; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; TDI, transition dyspnea index; Tio, tiotropium.

    Article Snippet: As opposed to double-blind RCTs of IND/GLY vs SFC at a dose of 50/500 µg bid including ILLUMINATE, LANTERN, and FLAME, , , a majority of SFC patients who switched to IND/GLY in POWER were on a lower dose of 50/250 µg bid, which may have contributed to the greater effect size observed.

    Techniques:

    Change from baseline in trough FEV 1 at Week 16 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Δ, change from baseline. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Journal: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Article Title: Real-life effectiveness of indacaterol–glycopyrronium after switching from tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD: the POWER study

    doi: 10.2147/COPD.S185485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Change from baseline in trough FEV 1 at Week 16 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Δ, change from baseline. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Article Snippet: As opposed to double-blind RCTs of IND/GLY vs SFC at a dose of 50/500 µg bid including ILLUMINATE, LANTERN, and FLAME, , , a majority of SFC patients who switched to IND/GLY in POWER were on a lower dose of 50/250 µg bid, which may have contributed to the greater effect size observed.

    Techniques:

    Change from baseline in trough FEV 1 at Week 4 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Δ, change from baseline. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Journal: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Article Title: Real-life effectiveness of indacaterol–glycopyrronium after switching from tiotropium or salmeterol/fluticasone therapy in patients with symptomatic COPD: the POWER study

    doi: 10.2147/COPD.S185485

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Change from baseline in trough FEV 1 at Week 4 (ITT population). Notes: Data are presented as mean ± 95% CI. Δ, change from baseline. Abbreviations: IND/GLY, indacaterol/glycopyrronium; ITT, intention-to-treat; SFC, salmeterol/fluticasone; Tio, tiotropium.

    Article Snippet: As opposed to double-blind RCTs of IND/GLY vs SFC at a dose of 50/500 µg bid including ILLUMINATE, LANTERN, and FLAME, , , a majority of SFC patients who switched to IND/GLY in POWER were on a lower dose of 50/250 µg bid, which may have contributed to the greater effect size observed.

    Techniques:

    Disease response after infection with KEI 1025 and GLY or CBX treatment. Clinical scores ( A ) were reduced significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days PI in GLY- versus PBS-treated mice, but only at 3 days PI after CBX versus PBS treatment ( D ). Photographs taken with a slit lamp camera at 5 days PI from PBS ( B ) and GLY- ( C ) or PBS- ( E ) and CBX- ( F ) treated mice confirmed reduced opacity, but GLY-treated eyes appeared to have less infiltrate. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. Magnification, ×8; n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Disease response after infection with KEI 1025 and GLY or CBX treatment. Clinical scores ( A ) were reduced significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days PI in GLY- versus PBS-treated mice, but only at 3 days PI after CBX versus PBS treatment ( D ). Photographs taken with a slit lamp camera at 5 days PI from PBS ( B ) and GLY- ( C ) or PBS- ( E ) and CBX- ( F ) treated mice confirmed reduced opacity, but GLY-treated eyes appeared to have less infiltrate. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. Magnification, ×8; n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. ( A – G ) At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( D ), and TNF-α ( G ) were reduced significantly only in GLY-treated corneas; RAGE ( B ) was not different statistically between groups; IL-1β ( C ), TLR4 ( E ), and CXCL2 ( F ) were reduced significantly after GLY and CBX versus PBS treatment. No difference in mRNA levels was seen for normal uninfected (N) cornea except the significant reduction for RAGE ( B ) in GLY-treated mice. Data are mean + SEM analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. ( A – G ) At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of HMGB1 ( A ), TLR2 ( D ), and TNF-α ( G ) were reduced significantly only in GLY-treated corneas; RAGE ( B ) was not different statistically between groups; IL-1β ( C ), TLR4 ( E ), and CXCL2 ( F ) were reduced significantly after GLY and CBX versus PBS treatment. No difference in mRNA levels was seen for normal uninfected (N) cornea except the significant reduction for RAGE ( B ) in GLY-treated mice. Data are mean + SEM analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Histopathology, ELISA, MPO assay, and plate count after KEI 1025 infection. Corneal protein levels of IL-1β ( A ) were reduced significantly at 5 days PI with no difference at 3 days PI after GLY treatment. CXCL2 ( B ) protein levels were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea. Levels of MPO ( C ) and viable bacterial plate count was reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea ( E ), but only at 5 days PI in CBX versus PBS-treated cornea ( F ). All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). Histopathology ( D ) revealed a heavy cellular infiltrate in the stroma and anterior chamber of the PBS-treated eyes at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ a ], D [ c ], respectively). The eyes of GLY-treated mice showed fewer infiltrated cells into cornea and anterior chamber, and less edema, at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ b ], D [ d ], respectively). Inset shows a predominant neutrophil infiltrate which is greatly reduced in the GLY-treated mice. Magnification, ×30; inset, ×490, n = 3/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histopathology, ELISA, MPO assay, and plate count after KEI 1025 infection. Corneal protein levels of IL-1β ( A ) were reduced significantly at 5 days PI with no difference at 3 days PI after GLY treatment. CXCL2 ( B ) protein levels were reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea. Levels of MPO ( C ) and viable bacterial plate count was reduced significantly at 3 and 5 days PI in GLY versus PBS-treated cornea ( E ), but only at 5 days PI in CBX versus PBS-treated cornea ( F ). All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using a 2-tailed Student's t -test ( n = 5/group/time). Histopathology ( D ) revealed a heavy cellular infiltrate in the stroma and anterior chamber of the PBS-treated eyes at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ a ], D [ c ], respectively). The eyes of GLY-treated mice showed fewer infiltrated cells into cornea and anterior chamber, and less edema, at 3 and 5 days PI ( D [ b ], D [ d ], respectively). Inset shows a predominant neutrophil infiltrate which is greatly reduced in the GLY-treated mice. Magnification, ×30; inset, ×490, n = 3/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Histopathology, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, MPO Assay, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of: NLRP3 ( A ) and TGF-β ( D ) were reduced significantly after GLY or CBX treatment; NLRC4 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ), IL-10 ( E ), and ST2 ( G ) were reduced significantly only after GLY treatment; SIGIRR ( F ) was increased significantly only with CBX treatment. No difference between groups was seen for normal uninfected cornea. All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: Glycyrrhizin Reduces HMGB1 and Bacterial Load in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR after infection with KEI 1025. At 5 days PI, corneal mRNA levels of: NLRP3 ( A ) and TGF-β ( D ) were reduced significantly after GLY or CBX treatment; NLRC4 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ), IL-10 ( E ), and ST2 ( G ) were reduced significantly only after GLY treatment; SIGIRR ( F ) was increased significantly only with CBX treatment. No difference between groups was seen for normal uninfected cornea. All data are mean + SEM and were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. n = 10/group/time.

    Article Snippet: GLY or CBX Treatment The left eyes of B6 mice (n = 5/group/time) were injected with 5 μL of GLY 2 μg/μL (Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, MO, USA) or PBS (control) subconjunctivally, 1 day before infection.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Infection

    Overview of the structures of microtubule, dynactin, CAP-Gly domain of dynactin. a , schematic representation of microtubules. b , negatively stained TEM images of microtubules ( left panel ) and CAP-Gly/microtubule assembly ( right panel ) prepared for MAS NMR experiments in this work. c , domain structure of dynactin. d )). e ).

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overview of the structures of microtubule, dynactin, CAP-Gly domain of dynactin. a , schematic representation of microtubules. b , negatively stained TEM images of microtubules ( left panel ) and CAP-Gly/microtubule assembly ( right panel ) prepared for MAS NMR experiments in this work. c , domain structure of dynactin. d )). e ).

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques: Staining, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    15 N- 13 C SPECIFIC-CP (NCA) MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( a ), U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. EB1 complex ( b ), and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly ( c ) as a function of temperature.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 15 N- 13 C SPECIFIC-CP (NCA) MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( a ), U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. EB1 complex ( b ), and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly ( c ) as a function of temperature.

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    13 C CPMAS spectra ( black ) overlaid with 13 C direct excitation MAS spectra ( red ) of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly, shown as a function of temperature.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 13 C CPMAS spectra ( black ) overlaid with 13 C direct excitation MAS spectra ( red ) of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly, shown as a function of temperature.

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    13 C CPMAS spectra ( black ) overlaid on 13 C direct excitation MAS spectra ( green ) of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( a ), U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. EB1 complex ( b ), and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly ( c ) as a function of temperature. The measurements have been conducted up to +32 and +27 °C for free CAP-Gly and CAP-Gly/microtubule assembly, above which the samples deteriorate in the rotor.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 13 C CPMAS spectra ( black ) overlaid on 13 C direct excitation MAS spectra ( green ) of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( a ), U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. EB1 complex ( b ), and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly ( c ) as a function of temperature. The measurements have been conducted up to +32 and +27 °C for free CAP-Gly and CAP-Gly/microtubule assembly, above which the samples deteriorate in the rotor.

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    Experimental 1 H- 13 C dipolar order parameters plotted as a function of the residue number for U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly assembled on n.a. microtubules ( green circles , T = −2 °C; black circles , T = −19 °C) and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( purple circles , T = −2 °C). The data were recorded at 19.9 T. The average dipolar order parameter values for each sample and condition are shown with dashed lines of the corresponding color.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental 1 H- 13 C dipolar order parameters plotted as a function of the residue number for U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly assembled on n.a. microtubules ( green circles , T = −2 °C; black circles , T = −19 °C) and U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly ( purple circles , T = −2 °C). The data were recorded at 19.9 T. The average dipolar order parameter values for each sample and condition are shown with dashed lines of the corresponding color.

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    Angular probability distributions and angular excursions of the H- α C bond vectors ( a ) and H-N ( b ) bond vectors for two representative residues in CAP-Gly, Val-58 (rigid residue) and Asp-70 (flexible residue constituting the GKND loop motif), plotted on the surface of a three-dimensional sphere. They are shown as a function of temperature. Note the drastic temperature dependence of the Asp-70 mobility, not present for Val-58.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Angular probability distributions and angular excursions of the H- α C bond vectors ( a ) and H-N ( b ) bond vectors for two representative residues in CAP-Gly, Val-58 (rigid residue) and Asp-70 (flexible residue constituting the GKND loop motif), plotted on the surface of a three-dimensional sphere. They are shown as a function of temperature. Note the drastic temperature dependence of the Asp-70 mobility, not present for Val-58.

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    Two-dimensional 13 C- 13 C DARR correlation MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly acquired at different temperatures ( a–d ). The magnetic field strength is 19.9 T. Acquisition and processing parameters are summarized under “Experimental Procedures.”

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Two-dimensional 13 C- 13 C DARR correlation MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly/n.a. microtubule assembly acquired at different temperatures ( a–d ). The magnetic field strength is 19.9 T. Acquisition and processing parameters are summarized under “Experimental Procedures.”

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    a–e , two-dimensional 13 C- 13 C DARR correlation MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly acquired at different temperatures. f , an overlay of DARR spectra acquired at −18 °C ( black ) and 5 °C ( green ). At 5 °C, a very large number of resonances disappear or get broadened, because of motions occurring on the time scales of the experiment (micro- to milliseconds). Note that the signal disappearance and broadening occur predominantly for correlations involving backbone carbons, whereas the side chain resonances are broadened to a significantly lesser extent, presumably because of the mobility of the corresponding atoms on faster time scales. The magnetic field strength is 14.1 T. Acquisition and processing parameters are summarized under “Experimental Procedures.”

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Internal Dynamics of Dynactin CAP-Gly Is Regulated by Microtubules and Plus End Tracking Protein EB1 *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a–e , two-dimensional 13 C- 13 C DARR correlation MAS spectra of U- 13 C, 15 N-CAP-Gly acquired at different temperatures. f , an overlay of DARR spectra acquired at −18 °C ( black ) and 5 °C ( green ). At 5 °C, a very large number of resonances disappear or get broadened, because of motions occurring on the time scales of the experiment (micro- to milliseconds). Note that the signal disappearance and broadening occur predominantly for correlations involving backbone carbons, whereas the side chain resonances are broadened to a significantly lesser extent, presumably because of the mobility of the corresponding atoms on faster time scales. The magnetic field strength is 14.1 T. Acquisition and processing parameters are summarized under “Experimental Procedures.”

    Article Snippet: Taken together, the temperature dependences of the various dipolar-based MAS spectra indicate that there is considerable dynamics in free CAP-Gly and in CAP-Gly assembled on microtubules, occurring on time scales of micro- to milliseconds throughout the entire protein.

    Techniques:

    Inhibition of apical [ 14 C]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells by 5-HTP and Bip-Pro. Uptake of (A) 1 mM or (B) 30 mM Gly-Sar measured in the absence or presence of 10 mM 5-HTP (+ 5-HTP), 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ Bip-Pro) or 10 mM 5-HTP and 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ 5-HTP + Bip-Pro). Each column represents mean ± SEM measured in triplicate in three different cell passages. ** Denotes P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), transports Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar and other Gly-Gly mimetics

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00888.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of apical [ 14 C]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells by 5-HTP and Bip-Pro. Uptake of (A) 1 mM or (B) 30 mM Gly-Sar measured in the absence or presence of 10 mM 5-HTP (+ 5-HTP), 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ Bip-Pro) or 10 mM 5-HTP and 0.5 mM Bip-Pro (+ 5-HTP + Bip-Pro). Each column represents mean ± SEM measured in triplicate in three different cell passages. ** Denotes P

    Article Snippet: With 30 mM Gly-Sar, which is closer to its affinity for SLC36A1, and a concentration where SLC15A1 should be saturated, we found that SLC36A1 had a pronounced impact on the total uptake of Gly-Sar; both 5-HTP and Bip-Pro reduced the uptake of Gly-Sar by approximately 20%.

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Functional expression of SLC36A1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Normalized currents obtained by application of 20 mM compound unless otherwise stated (5-HTP, 10 mM; Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar, 20, 50 and 100 mM; Gly-Ala, Gly-Pro and Gly-Phe; 20 and 100 mM). Each column represents mean ± SEM for n = 6–15 different oocytes.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), transports Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar and other Gly-Gly mimetics

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00888.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Functional expression of SLC36A1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Normalized currents obtained by application of 20 mM compound unless otherwise stated (5-HTP, 10 mM; Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar, 20, 50 and 100 mM; Gly-Ala, Gly-Pro and Gly-Phe; 20 and 100 mM). Each column represents mean ± SEM for n = 6–15 different oocytes.

    Article Snippet: With 30 mM Gly-Sar, which is closer to its affinity for SLC36A1, and a concentration where SLC15A1 should be saturated, we found that SLC36A1 had a pronounced impact on the total uptake of Gly-Sar; both 5-HTP and Bip-Pro reduced the uptake of Gly-Sar by approximately 20%.

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Expressing

    Concentration-dependent SLC36A1-mediated current induced by Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar in Xenopus laevis giving K m values of (A) 21 ± 2.2 mM for Gly-Gly and (B) 49 ± 9 mM for Gly-Sar. Each data point represents mean ± SEM for n = 6–12 different oocytes.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), transports Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar and other Gly-Gly mimetics

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00888.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration-dependent SLC36A1-mediated current induced by Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar in Xenopus laevis giving K m values of (A) 21 ± 2.2 mM for Gly-Gly and (B) 49 ± 9 mM for Gly-Sar. Each data point represents mean ± SEM for n = 6–12 different oocytes.

    Article Snippet: With 30 mM Gly-Sar, which is closer to its affinity for SLC36A1, and a concentration where SLC15A1 should be saturated, we found that SLC36A1 had a pronounced impact on the total uptake of Gly-Sar; both 5-HTP and Bip-Pro reduced the uptake of Gly-Sar by approximately 20%.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Comparison of SLC36A1-mediated current evoked by Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar to current evoked by Gly. Representative traces showing inward current obtained by application of increasing concentrations of (A) Gly-Gly or (B) Gly-Sar to the current evoked by increasing concentrations of Gly. Upper traces: water injected oocyte; lower traces: SLC36A1 cRNA injected oocyte. Experiments on at least eight different oocytes showed similar results.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), transports Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar and other Gly-Gly mimetics

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00888.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of SLC36A1-mediated current evoked by Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar to current evoked by Gly. Representative traces showing inward current obtained by application of increasing concentrations of (A) Gly-Gly or (B) Gly-Sar to the current evoked by increasing concentrations of Gly. Upper traces: water injected oocyte; lower traces: SLC36A1 cRNA injected oocyte. Experiments on at least eight different oocytes showed similar results.

    Article Snippet: With 30 mM Gly-Sar, which is closer to its affinity for SLC36A1, and a concentration where SLC15A1 should be saturated, we found that SLC36A1 had a pronounced impact on the total uptake of Gly-Sar; both 5-HTP and Bip-Pro reduced the uptake of Gly-Sar by approximately 20%.

    Techniques: Injection

    Spatiotemporally resolved imaging of thrombin activity in blood plasma from a healthy individual reveals a propagating wave. ( A ) Overall experimental design: A layer of immobilized tissue factor (1) induces fibrin clot propagation (2) in nonstirred plasma (3). The sample is illuminated in turn by red (4) or UV LEDs (5) through an excitation filter (6). Light scattered by fibrin (7) and fluorescence of the thrombin-generated AMC (8) pass through a multiband emission filter (9) and macro lens (10) and are recorded by a charge-coupled device (11). ( B ) Fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC is cleaved by thrombin to yield fluorescent AMC. ( C ) Time-lapse images: Light scattering from the growing fibrin clot ( red ) or AMC fluorescence ( blue ). ( D ) AMC concentration distribution obtained from fluorescence ( C ). ( E ) Fibrin concentration distribution obtained from light scattering ( C ). ( F ) Thrombin distribution as a function of space and time obtained from the AMC distribution ( E ) by solving a reverse reaction-diffusion problem. Plasma is supplemented with 10 μ M phospholipids; activation is with 90 pmol TF/m 2 .

    Journal: Biophysical Journal

    Article Title: Thrombin Activity Propagates in Space During Blood Coagulation as an Excitation Wave

    doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.10.011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spatiotemporally resolved imaging of thrombin activity in blood plasma from a healthy individual reveals a propagating wave. ( A ) Overall experimental design: A layer of immobilized tissue factor (1) induces fibrin clot propagation (2) in nonstirred plasma (3). The sample is illuminated in turn by red (4) or UV LEDs (5) through an excitation filter (6). Light scattered by fibrin (7) and fluorescence of the thrombin-generated AMC (8) pass through a multiband emission filter (9) and macro lens (10) and are recorded by a charge-coupled device (11). ( B ) Fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC is cleaved by thrombin to yield fluorescent AMC. ( C ) Time-lapse images: Light scattering from the growing fibrin clot ( red ) or AMC fluorescence ( blue ). ( D ) AMC concentration distribution obtained from fluorescence ( C ). ( E ) Fibrin concentration distribution obtained from light scattering ( C ). ( F ) Thrombin distribution as a function of space and time obtained from the AMC distribution ( E ) by solving a reverse reaction-diffusion problem. Plasma is supplemented with 10 μ M phospholipids; activation is with 90 pmol TF/m 2 .

    Article Snippet: Reagents were obtained from the following sources: 7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO); Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC (Bachem, Torrance, CA); rabbit thromboplastin, factor VIII assay (Renam, Moscow, Russia); brain phosphatidylserine and egg phosphatidylcholine (Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL); low melting point agarose (Fluka Chemie AG, Buchs, Switzerland); corn trypsin inhibitor (Gamma, Pushchino, Russia); factor VIII (Hemophil M, Baxter Russia, Moscow, Russia); factor XI and rabbit lung thrombomodulin (Haematologic Technologies, Essex Junction, VT); Actichrome TF test (American Diagnostica, Stamford, CT); factor VIII-deficient plasma (George King Biomedical, Overland Park, KS); and factor XI-deficient plasma (HRF, Raleigh, NC).

    Techniques: Imaging, Activity Assay, Fluorescence, Generated, Concentration Assay, Diffusion-based Assay, Activation Assay

    Gly-SIFamide injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression

    Journal: The Biological bulletin

    Article Title: GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gly-SIFamide injection into BCs. Effect on the mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the BCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). When the BCs were injected, they further increased their aggression

    Article Snippet: While held in this position, the prawn then received a single injection of Gly-SIFamide (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ) at a concentration of 1 × 10−3 mol l−1 (dissolved in prawn saline or Ringer) using a syringe needle (Hamilton, 30 gauge) inserted into the dorsal abdominal artery, just before it entered the heart.

    Techniques: Injection

    Effects of Gly-SIFamide on specific parameters of aggressive behavior

    Journal: The Biological bulletin

    Article Title: GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of Gly-SIFamide on specific parameters of aggressive behavior

    Article Snippet: While held in this position, the prawn then received a single injection of Gly-SIFamide (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ) at a concentration of 1 × 10−3 mol l−1 (dissolved in prawn saline or Ringer) using a syringe needle (Hamilton, 30 gauge) inserted into the dorsal abdominal artery, just before it entered the heart.

    Techniques:

    Gly-SIFamide injection into YCs. Effect on mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the YCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). Before the injection, BCs established themselves as the dominant

    Journal: The Biological bulletin

    Article Title: GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gly-SIFamide injection into YCs. Effect on mean dominance index (DI) before (pre) and after (post) injection of the YCs with 1 × 10 −3 mol l −1 Gly-SIFamide ( n = 5). Before the injection, BCs established themselves as the dominant

    Article Snippet: While held in this position, the prawn then received a single injection of Gly-SIFamide (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ) at a concentration of 1 × 10−3 mol l−1 (dissolved in prawn saline or Ringer) using a syringe needle (Hamilton, 30 gauge) inserted into the dorsal abdominal artery, just before it entered the heart.

    Techniques: Injection

    Down regulation of mrhl RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment in Gc1-Spg cells. Mouse spermatogonial Gc1-Spg cells were treated with Wnt3a CM for different time durations (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h). ( A ) Western blot analysis (using nuclear lysate) for β-catenin. Presence of histone H3 and absence of GAPDH shows purity of nuclear fractions. ( B ) Expression analysis of Sox17 and Ccnd1 which are known targets of Wnt signaling during spermatogenesis. ( C ) Genomic organization of mrhl RNA gene embedded within the 15th intron of phkb gene. The locations of TATA box, CAT box and TCF4 binding site are depicted in the 1 kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene while different repeat elements are shown in the body of mrhl RNA gene. ( D ) Luciferase activity of the 1kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene. ( E ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA and phkb RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment. For (B), (D) and (E) the data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Down regulation of mrhl RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment in Gc1-Spg cells. Mouse spermatogonial Gc1-Spg cells were treated with Wnt3a CM for different time durations (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h). ( A ) Western blot analysis (using nuclear lysate) for β-catenin. Presence of histone H3 and absence of GAPDH shows purity of nuclear fractions. ( B ) Expression analysis of Sox17 and Ccnd1 which are known targets of Wnt signaling during spermatogenesis. ( C ) Genomic organization of mrhl RNA gene embedded within the 15th intron of phkb gene. The locations of TATA box, CAT box and TCF4 binding site are depicted in the 1 kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene while different repeat elements are shown in the body of mrhl RNA gene. ( D ) Luciferase activity of the 1kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene. ( E ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA and phkb RNA upon Wnt3a CM treatment. For (B), (D) and (E) the data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Binding Assay, Luciferase, Activity Assay

    Model summarizing the findings of present study. The model depicts the changes occurring at the proximal promoter region of mrhl RNA at the TCF4 binding site upon Wnt signaling activation with respect to the binding of different proteins like β-catenin, TCF4, Ctbp1 and Ctbp1 associated proteins (p300, G9a, Hdac1 and Hdac2). p300 binds at the TCF4 binding site even in the absence of Wnt3a and other proteins (?) could be associated with p300 for regulation of mrhl RNA expression. The changes in histone modifications are also shown. In the presence of Wnt3a, mrhl RNA down regulation possibly leads to meiotic commitment and differentiation.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Model summarizing the findings of present study. The model depicts the changes occurring at the proximal promoter region of mrhl RNA at the TCF4 binding site upon Wnt signaling activation with respect to the binding of different proteins like β-catenin, TCF4, Ctbp1 and Ctbp1 associated proteins (p300, G9a, Hdac1 and Hdac2). p300 binds at the TCF4 binding site even in the absence of Wnt3a and other proteins (?) could be associated with p300 for regulation of mrhl RNA expression. The changes in histone modifications are also shown. In the presence of Wnt3a, mrhl RNA down regulation possibly leads to meiotic commitment and differentiation.

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Activation Assay, RNA Expression

    Ctbp1, but not Chd8 binds the mrhl RNA promoter at the TCF4 binding site [ Mrhl (−175 bp)]. ( A and B ) Ctbp1 (A) and Chd8 (B) ChIP in Gc1-Spg cells (Ctrl, Wnt3a CM treated) and mouse testis (P7, P21) with Nkd2 as positive control for Chd8 occupancy. Ctbp1 but not Chd8 occupies Mrhl (−175bp) only upon Wnt signaling activation. ( C–F) Sequential ChIP analysis showing the co occupancy of β-catenin and Ctbp1 (C, D) on Mrhl (-175bp) and co-occupancy of TCF4 and Ctbp1(E, F) on Mrhl (−175 bp) upon Wnt signaling activation. Data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ctbp1, but not Chd8 binds the mrhl RNA promoter at the TCF4 binding site [ Mrhl (−175 bp)]. ( A and B ) Ctbp1 (A) and Chd8 (B) ChIP in Gc1-Spg cells (Ctrl, Wnt3a CM treated) and mouse testis (P7, P21) with Nkd2 as positive control for Chd8 occupancy. Ctbp1 but not Chd8 occupies Mrhl (−175bp) only upon Wnt signaling activation. ( C–F) Sequential ChIP analysis showing the co occupancy of β-catenin and Ctbp1 (C, D) on Mrhl (-175bp) and co-occupancy of TCF4 and Ctbp1(E, F) on Mrhl (−175 bp) upon Wnt signaling activation. Data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Positive Control, Activation Assay

    β-catenin and TCF4 are required for the down regulation of mrhl RNA upon Wnt signaling activation. ( A ) Over expression of dominant negative TCF4 (dnTCF4) with pcDNA as empty vector control and expression analysis of mrhl RNA. ( B ) Western blot showing drastic down regulation of β-catenin and TCF4 upon treatment of Gc1-Spg cells with β-catenin shRNA and TCF4 shRNA respectively. ( C ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA upon treatment with β-catenin shRNA or TCF4 shRNA. ( D ) Expression analysis of β-catenin and TCF4 by western after treatment of Gc1-Spg cells with shRNAs targeting the UTR region of β-catenin or TCF4 mRNA as well as after over expression/rescue of β-catenin or TCF4 protein. ( E ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA upon treatment with shRNAs targeting the 3′ UTR region of β-catenin or TCF4 mRNA as well as after over expression/rescue of β-catenin or TCF4 protein. Data in (A), (C) and (E) are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test). N.S.: not significant.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-catenin and TCF4 are required for the down regulation of mrhl RNA upon Wnt signaling activation. ( A ) Over expression of dominant negative TCF4 (dnTCF4) with pcDNA as empty vector control and expression analysis of mrhl RNA. ( B ) Western blot showing drastic down regulation of β-catenin and TCF4 upon treatment of Gc1-Spg cells with β-catenin shRNA and TCF4 shRNA respectively. ( C ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA upon treatment with β-catenin shRNA or TCF4 shRNA. ( D ) Expression analysis of β-catenin and TCF4 by western after treatment of Gc1-Spg cells with shRNAs targeting the UTR region of β-catenin or TCF4 mRNA as well as after over expression/rescue of β-catenin or TCF4 protein. ( E ) Expression analysis of mrhl RNA upon treatment with shRNAs targeting the 3′ UTR region of β-catenin or TCF4 mRNA as well as after over expression/rescue of β-catenin or TCF4 protein. Data in (A), (C) and (E) are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test). N.S.: not significant.

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Over Expression, Dominant Negative Mutation, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Western Blot, shRNA

    β-Catenin and TCF4 occupancy of the mrhl RNA promoter at the TCF4 binding site. ( A ) Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using TCF4 protein and DNA oligos with either a wild type or a mutant TCF4 binding site. Two different concentrations (2μg and 4μg) of TCF4 protein were used in the assay. ( B ) Luciferase assay in Gc1-Spg cells treated with control medium or Wnt3a CM using plasmid constructs containing 1 kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene with either wild type TCF4 binding site or a mutant TCF4 binding site. ( C and D ) TCF4 (C) and β-catenin (D) ChIP showing their occupancy on the mrhl RNA promoter region containing the TCF4 binding site [ Mrhl (−175 bp)] selectively upon Wnt signaling activation. P7 testis represents Wnt repressed state while P21 testis represents Wnt activated state. Data in (B), (C) and (D) are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: β-Catenin and TCF4 occupancy of the mrhl RNA promoter at the TCF4 binding site. ( A ) Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using TCF4 protein and DNA oligos with either a wild type or a mutant TCF4 binding site. Two different concentrations (2μg and 4μg) of TCF4 protein were used in the assay. ( B ) Luciferase assay in Gc1-Spg cells treated with control medium or Wnt3a CM using plasmid constructs containing 1 kb upstream promoter region of mrhl RNA gene with either wild type TCF4 binding site or a mutant TCF4 binding site. ( C and D ) TCF4 (C) and β-catenin (D) ChIP showing their occupancy on the mrhl RNA promoter region containing the TCF4 binding site [ Mrhl (−175 bp)] selectively upon Wnt signaling activation. P7 testis represents Wnt repressed state while P21 testis represents Wnt activated state. Data in (B), (C) and (D) are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005, ** P ≤ 0.005, * P ≤ 0.05 ( t -test).

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Mutagenesis, Luciferase, Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Activation Assay

    Ctbp1 functions as the co-repressor for mrhl RNA down regulation upon Wnt signaling activation. ( A ) Western blot showing significant down regulation of Ctbp1 upon shRNA treatment. ( B ) Mrhl RNA expression upon Ctbp1 down regulation. ( C ) Occupancy of Ctbp1 on mrhl RNA promoter upon down regulation of β-catenin or TCF4. ( D ) Occupancy of few of the known Ctbp1 associated proteins (G9a, p300, Hdac1 and Hdac2) on mrhl RNA promoter. Data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005 ( t -test). N.S.: not significant.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv1023

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ctbp1 functions as the co-repressor for mrhl RNA down regulation upon Wnt signaling activation. ( A ) Western blot showing significant down regulation of Ctbp1 upon shRNA treatment. ( B ) Mrhl RNA expression upon Ctbp1 down regulation. ( C ) Occupancy of Ctbp1 on mrhl RNA promoter upon down regulation of β-catenin or TCF4. ( D ) Occupancy of few of the known Ctbp1 associated proteins (G9a, p300, Hdac1 and Hdac2) on mrhl RNA promoter. Data are plotted as mean ± SD, n = 4. *** P ≤ 0.0005 ( t -test). N.S.: not significant.

    Article Snippet: The list of antibodies used in the present study is given below with their manufacturer and catalogue number in brackets: β-catenin (BD Transduction, 610154), TCF4 (Millipore, 05-511), Phospho S9 Gsk3β (Cell Signaling, 9336), Phospho S33/S37/T41 (Cell Signaling, 9561), Histone H3 (Abcam, ab6002), Alpha tubulin (Sigma–Aldrich, T8203), GAPDH (Abcam, ab8245), Ctbp1 (Abcam, ab129181), Chd8 (Abcam, ab84527), G9a (Cell Signaling, 3306), p300 (Sigma–Aldrich, P2859), Hdac1 (Cell Signaling, 5356), Hdac2 (Cell Signaling 5113), H3K9ac (Abcam, ab4441), H3K9me3 (Abcam, ab8893), H3K14ac (Abcam, ab52946), RFP (Abcam, ab62341), Lamin B (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-6217), Scp3 (Abcam, ab97672).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot, shRNA, RNA Expression

    Dark-field microscopy images of the cellular internalization of AuNPrs. Cell nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). ( A ) Vero cells as negative control, and treated with ( B ) 1100NPr-PEG, ( C ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG, and ( D ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG functionalized with a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD) sequence (1100NPr-GSH-PEG-RGD). Concentration 50 μg/mL was used for all the NPrs. Scale bars correspond to 50 μm.

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    Article Title: Surfactant-Free Synthesis and Scalable Purification of Triangular Gold Nanoprisms with Low Non-Specific Cellular Uptake

    doi: 10.3390/nano10030539

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dark-field microscopy images of the cellular internalization of AuNPrs. Cell nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). ( A ) Vero cells as negative control, and treated with ( B ) 1100NPr-PEG, ( C ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG, and ( D ) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG functionalized with a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD) sequence (1100NPr-GSH-PEG-RGD). Concentration 50 μg/mL was used for all the NPrs. Scale bars correspond to 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: Derivatization of NPrs with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD peptide) (1100NPr-GSH-PEG-RGD) 1100NPr-GSH-PEG were derivatized with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD peptide) (Sigma-Aldrich, San Luis, MO, USA) for promoting cellular uptake.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Staining, Negative Control, Sequencing, Concentration Assay