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  • 94
    Addgene inc pcscmv tdtomato
    Pcscmv Tdtomato, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 48 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pcscmv tdtomato/product/Addgene inc
    Average 94 stars, based on 48 article reviews
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    92
    Addgene inc tdp 43 5fl
    RNA binding ability of <t>TDP-43</t> is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 <t>5FL</t> (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p
    Tdp 43 5fl, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Addgene inc rfp lamp1
    RNA binding ability of <t>TDP-43</t> is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 <t>5FL</t> (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p
    Rfp Lamp1, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 30 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rfp lamp1/product/Addgene inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 30 article reviews
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    92
    Addgene inc full length human fus
    RNA binding ability of <t>TDP-43</t> is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 <t>5FL</t> (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p
    Full Length Human Fus, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/full length human fus/product/Addgene inc
    Average 92 stars, based on 6 article reviews
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    93
    Addgene inc α synuclein
    FUS and <t>α</t> -synuclein proteinopathies are associated with changes in histone H2B phosphorylation levels. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of H2BT129ph for (a) TDP-43 and FUS and (b) α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n ≥ 3) for each modification. *, p
    α Synuclein, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Addgene inc meos3 2 tag
    FUS and <t>α</t> -synuclein proteinopathies are associated with changes in histone H2B phosphorylation levels. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of H2BT129ph for (a) TDP-43 and FUS and (b) α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n ≥ 3) for each modification. *, p
    Meos3 2 Tag, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Addgene inc length human tdp 43
    <t>TDP-43</t> overexpression reduces dendritic complexity by suppressing dendritic growth. ( a ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus at DIV 4 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 61), ( b ) DIV 5 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), and (c) DIV 6 (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), respectively. ****p
    Length Human Tdp 43, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/length human tdp 43/product/Addgene inc
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    93
    Addgene inc plasmids plasmids
    <t>TDP-43</t> overexpression reduces dendritic complexity by suppressing dendritic growth. ( a ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus at DIV 4 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 61), ( b ) DIV 5 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), and (c) DIV 6 (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), respectively. ****p
    Plasmids Plasmids, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 59 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/plasmids plasmids/product/Addgene inc
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    92
    Addgene inc egfp tag
    RNP granules containing G298S and M337V <t>TDP-43</t> are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing <t>EGFP–TDP-43</t> G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin
    Egfp Tag, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Addgene inc tdp 43 construct
    RNP granules containing G298S and M337V <t>TDP-43</t> are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin
    Tdp 43 Construct, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    RNA binding ability of TDP-43 is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 5FL (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA binding ability of TDP-43 is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 5FL (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids expressing full-length human FUS (Addgene plasmid # 29609) and TDP-43 5FL (Addgene plasmid # 84914) was a gift from Aaron Gitler (Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford CA). pCSCMV:tdTomato was a gift from Gerhart Ryffel (Addgene plasmid # 30530).

    Techniques: RNA Binding Assay, Over Expression

    FUS and α -synuclein proteinopathies are associated with changes in histone H2B phosphorylation levels. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of H2BT129ph for (a) TDP-43 and FUS and (b) α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n ≥ 3) for each modification. *, p

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: FUS and α -synuclein proteinopathies are associated with changes in histone H2B phosphorylation levels. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of H2BT129ph for (a) TDP-43 and FUS and (b) α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n ≥ 3) for each modification. *, p

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Modification

    α -Synuclein and TDP-43 proteinopathy models display decreases in histone H3 di- and trimethylation, respectively, on lysine 36. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, c) H3K36me2 and (b, d) H3K36me3 for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate the +SEM ( n = 3–7) for each modification. **, p

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: α -Synuclein and TDP-43 proteinopathy models display decreases in histone H3 di- and trimethylation, respectively, on lysine 36. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, c) H3K36me2 and (b, d) H3K36me3 for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate the +SEM ( n = 3–7) for each modification. **, p

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Modification

    FUS overexpression correlates with changes in phosphorylation on serine 10 and acetylation on lysine 14 and lysine 56 of histone H3. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, d) H3S10ph, (b, e) H3K14ac, and (c, f) H3K56ac for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n = 3–6) for each modification. **, p

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: FUS overexpression correlates with changes in phosphorylation on serine 10 and acetylation on lysine 14 and lysine 56 of histone H3. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, d) H3S10ph, (b, e) H3K14ac, and (c, f) H3K56ac for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n = 3–6) for each modification. **, p

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Modification

    FUS and TDP-43 overexpression correlate with changes in arginine dimethylation and lysine acetylation of histone H4. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, d) H4R3me2, (b, e) H4K12ac, and (c, f) H4K16ac for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n = 3–6) for each modification. *, p

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: FUS and TDP-43 overexpression correlate with changes in arginine dimethylation and lysine acetylation of histone H4. Shown are representative immunoblots displaying the levels of (a, d) H4R3me2, (b, e) H4K12ac, and (c, f) H4K16ac for TDP-43 and FUS and for α -synuclein yeast proteinopathy models, respectively. Quantitation histograms compiling multiple biological replicates are presented alongside the blots. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in modification levels for each group based on densitometric analysis of Western blots. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n = 3–6) for each modification. *, p

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Western Blot, Quantitation Assay, Modification

    RNA levels are decreased in a FUS overexpression ALS model. (a) Total RNA levels in yeast control cells and cells overexpressing TDP-43 and FUS. (b) Total RNA levels in yeast control cells and cells overexpressing  α -synuclein. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in total RNA levels for each group. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n  = 3) for each group. *,  p

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA levels are decreased in a FUS overexpression ALS model. (a) Total RNA levels in yeast control cells and cells overexpressing TDP-43 and FUS. (b) Total RNA levels in yeast control cells and cells overexpressing α -synuclein. All of the graphs display the mean fold change in total RNA levels for each group. Error bars indicate +SEM ( n = 3) for each group. *, p

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Over Expression

    Histone modifications are altered in the context of yeast overexpressing TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein ( α -Syn). Shown are p values for the ratios of histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 PTM abundances in yeast strains expressing TDP-43, FUS, and α -Syn relative to control cells. The scale is based on p values derived from statistical analysis of Western blotting experiments. The p values were calculated using a two-tailed t test with Welch’s modification. Green indicates more statistically significant decreased modification levels, while red indicates more statistically significant increased modification levels.

    Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience

    Article Title: Neurodegenerative Disease Proteinopathies Are Connected to Distinct Histone Post-translational Modification Landscapes

    doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00297

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histone modifications are altered in the context of yeast overexpressing TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein ( α -Syn). Shown are p values for the ratios of histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 PTM abundances in yeast strains expressing TDP-43, FUS, and α -Syn relative to control cells. The scale is based on p values derived from statistical analysis of Western blotting experiments. The p values were calculated using a two-tailed t test with Welch’s modification. Green indicates more statistically significant decreased modification levels, while red indicates more statistically significant increased modification levels.

    Article Snippet: Vectors encoding TDP-43, FUS, and α -synuclein (pAG303GAL-TDP-43, pAG303GAL-FUS, and pAG303GAL- α -synu-clein-GFP, respectively) were a gift from A. Gitler., , A pAG303GAL-ccdB vector, which was used as a control, was a gift from Susan Lindquist (Addgene plasmid no. 14133).

    Techniques: Expressing, Derivative Assay, Western Blot, Two Tailed Test, Modification

    TDP-43 overexpression reduces dendritic complexity by suppressing dendritic growth. ( a ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus at DIV 4 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 61), ( b ) DIV 5 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), and (c) DIV 6 (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), respectively. ****p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TDP-43 overexpression reduces dendritic complexity by suppressing dendritic growth. ( a ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus at DIV 4 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 61), ( b ) DIV 5 (Control, N = 59, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), and (c) DIV 6 (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60), respectively. ****p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids Plasmids expressing full length human TDP-43 (Addgene plasmid # 28206) and C-terminal truncated human TDP-43 (hTDP-43170–414 ; Addgene plasmid # 28196) were a gift from Dr. Zuoshang Xu (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA) .

    Techniques: Over Expression, Fluorescence, Immunostaining

    Human TDP-43 mutations do not exacerbate the reduced branching phenotype ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating location of A315T point mutation. NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1, RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60, TDP-43 A315T overexpression, N = 60). ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating location of M337V point mutation; abbreviations as in a. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60, TDP-43 M337V overexpression, N = 50). Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Human TDP-43 mutations do not exacerbate the reduced branching phenotype ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating location of A315T point mutation. NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1, RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60, TDP-43 A315T overexpression, N = 60). ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating location of M337V point mutation; abbreviations as in a. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 60, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 60, TDP-43 M337V overexpression, N = 50). Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids Plasmids expressing full length human TDP-43 (Addgene plasmid # 28206) and C-terminal truncated human TDP-43 (hTDP-43170–414 ; Addgene plasmid # 28196) were a gift from Dr. Zuoshang Xu (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA) .

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Over Expression

    Overexpression of TDP-43 leads to reduced dendritic complexity. Representative images showing DIV 7 ( a ) hippocampal neurons and ( c ) cortical neurons transfected at DIV 2 with a plasmid expressing GFP and an empty vector control, TDP-43 (200 ng/well), or TDP-43 (500 ng/well). Sholl analysis for indicated conditions in ( b ) hippocampal neurons (Control, N = 97; TDP-43 overexpression (200 ng/well), N = 100; TDP-43 overexpression (500 ng/well, N = 80) and (d) cortical neurons (N = 90 for each condition). Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s Test, *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of TDP-43 leads to reduced dendritic complexity. Representative images showing DIV 7 ( a ) hippocampal neurons and ( c ) cortical neurons transfected at DIV 2 with a plasmid expressing GFP and an empty vector control, TDP-43 (200 ng/well), or TDP-43 (500 ng/well). Sholl analysis for indicated conditions in ( b ) hippocampal neurons (Control, N = 97; TDP-43 overexpression (200 ng/well), N = 100; TDP-43 overexpression (500 ng/well, N = 80) and (d) cortical neurons (N = 90 for each condition). Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s Test, *p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids Plasmids expressing full length human TDP-43 (Addgene plasmid # 28206) and C-terminal truncated human TDP-43 (hTDP-43170–414 ; Addgene plasmid # 28196) were a gift from Dr. Zuoshang Xu (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA) .

    Techniques: Over Expression, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing

    RNA binding ability of TDP-43 is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 5FL (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA binding ability of TDP-43 is important for regulating dendritic branching ( a ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating the C-terminal fragment (CTF, amino acid residues 170–414) being overexpressed. RRM2: RNA Recognition Motif, NES: Nuclear Export Signal, GRD: Glycine Rich Domain. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (N = 60 for all conditions). The colour of the *represents the experimental condition being tested against control. ( b ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 ∆N (amino acid residues 10–414). NLS: Nuclear Localization Signal, RRM1: RNA Recognition Motif. (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 57, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 45, TDP-43 ∆N overexpression, N = 54). ( c ) (top) Schematic of TDP-43 protein demonstrating TDP-43 5FL (F147L/F149L/F194L/F229L/F231L). (bottom) Sholl analysis for indicated conditions (Control, N = 87, TDP-43 overexpression, N = 76, TDP-43 5FL overexpression, N = 90). The colour of the *represent the experimental condition being tested against control. ( a–c ) Grey vs pink = not significant. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, *p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids Plasmids expressing full length human TDP-43 (Addgene plasmid # 28206) and C-terminal truncated human TDP-43 (hTDP-43170–414 ; Addgene plasmid # 28196) were a gift from Dr. Zuoshang Xu (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA) .

    Techniques: RNA Binding Assay, Over Expression

    Knocking down TDP-43 expression results in reduced dendritic complexity. ( a ) Representative images of DIV 7 cortical neurons transfected on DIV 2 with GFP and either an empty vector or a short-hairpin targeting TDP-43 (shTDP; 33 ng/well). Neurons were stained using antibodies recognizing TDP-43 (magenta) and TFIIS (cyan) as a control. ( b ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus (Control, N = 65; shTDP (33 ng/well), N = 58; shTDP (100 ng/well), N = 48; One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, ****p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: TDP-43 misexpression causes defects in dendritic growth

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15914-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Knocking down TDP-43 expression results in reduced dendritic complexity. ( a ) Representative images of DIV 7 cortical neurons transfected on DIV 2 with GFP and either an empty vector or a short-hairpin targeting TDP-43 (shTDP; 33 ng/well). Neurons were stained using antibodies recognizing TDP-43 (magenta) and TFIIS (cyan) as a control. ( b ) Average fluorescence intensity of TDP-43 immunostaining in the soma (nucleus and cytoplasm) normalized to average fluorescence intensity of TFIIS in the nucleus (Control, N = 65; shTDP (33 ng/well), N = 58; shTDP (100 ng/well), N = 48; One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s test, ****p

    Article Snippet: Plasmids Plasmids expressing full length human TDP-43 (Addgene plasmid # 28206) and C-terminal truncated human TDP-43 (hTDP-43170–414 ; Addgene plasmid # 28196) were a gift from Dr. Zuoshang Xu (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA) .

    Techniques: Expressing, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Staining, Fluorescence, Immunostaining

    RNP granules containing G298S and M337V TDP-43 are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNP granules containing G298S and M337V TDP-43 are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Axonal TDP-43 RNP granule interactions often result in trajectory changes. ( A ) TDP-43 granules are observed along the axon of a primary cortical neuron (days in vitro 7–10) expressing EGFP–TDP-43 WT. The boxed area is enlarged in B . (

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Axonal TDP-43 RNP granule interactions often result in trajectory changes. ( A ) TDP-43 granules are observed along the axon of a primary cortical neuron (days in vitro 7–10) expressing EGFP–TDP-43 WT. The boxed area is enlarged in B . (

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Expressing

    ).Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 demonstrates

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ).Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 demonstrates

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Imaging

    WT TDP-43 granules incorporate RNA, whereas TDP-43 RNA binding mutant does not form axonal granules. ( A , Left ) Cortical neurons (DIV7–9) expressing Halo– or EGFP–TDP-43 WT yields strong nuclear TDP-43 expression and TDP-43 puncta

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WT TDP-43 granules incorporate RNA, whereas TDP-43 RNA binding mutant does not form axonal granules. ( A , Left ) Cortical neurons (DIV7–9) expressing Halo– or EGFP–TDP-43 WT yields strong nuclear TDP-43 expression and TDP-43 puncta

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: RNA Binding Assay, Mutagenesis, Expressing

    Disruption of weak hydrophobic interactions dissolves TDP-43 granules in the mid axon but not in the proximal axon. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Disruption of weak hydrophobic interactions dissolves TDP-43 granules in the mid axon but not in the proximal axon. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    ( A – C ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows localization of TDP-43 puncta to the soma, dendrites, and axon in DIV7–10 primary cortical neurons. ( D ) NND analysis of EGFP–TDP-43 WT in the proximal and mid axon (related to

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A – C ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows localization of TDP-43 puncta to the soma, dendrites, and axon in DIV7–10 primary cortical neurons. ( D ) NND analysis of EGFP–TDP-43 WT in the proximal and mid axon (related to

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence

    Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 granules demonstrates sporadic fission events (related to ). ( A ) Cortical neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 were tracked to identify fission events that alter the ratio of EGFP–TDP-43/Halo–TDP-43.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 granules demonstrates sporadic fission events (related to ). ( A ) Cortical neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 were tracked to identify fission events that alter the ratio of EGFP–TDP-43/Halo–TDP-43.

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Imaging

    RNP granules containing G298S and M337V TDP-43 are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNP granules containing G298S and M337V TDP-43 are resistant to 1,6-hexanediol. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 G298S ( A ) or EGFP–TDP-43 M337V ( B ) were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Interactions between TDP-43 granules facilitate transfer of material between granules. ( A ) Photobleaching experiments demonstrate transference of fluorescence intensity from nonbleached TDP-43 RNP granules to a bleached granule. A single axonal TDP-43

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interactions between TDP-43 granules facilitate transfer of material between granules. ( A ) Photobleaching experiments demonstrate transference of fluorescence intensity from nonbleached TDP-43 RNP granules to a bleached granule. A single axonal TDP-43

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Superresolution STED microscopy reveals proximal TDP-43 granules are less round, possess more irregular contours, and are distributed at a higher density compared with mid axonal granules. ( A ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows a higher density

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Superresolution STED microscopy reveals proximal TDP-43 granules are less round, possess more irregular contours, and are distributed at a higher density compared with mid axonal granules. ( A ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows a higher density

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Immunofluorescence

    Motility characteristics of axonal TDP-43 RNP transport granules (related to ). ( A ) Frequency distribution and histogram of instantaneous velocities of motile TDP-43 granules. Motile granules are defined as those granules with ≥10 μm

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Motility characteristics of axonal TDP-43 RNP transport granules (related to ). ( A ) Frequency distribution and histogram of instantaneous velocities of motile TDP-43 granules. Motile granules are defined as those granules with ≥10 μm

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    Axonal TDP-43 RNP granule interactions often result in trajectory changes. ( A ) TDP-43 granules are observed along the axon of a primary cortical neuron (days in vitro 7–10) expressing EGFP–TDP-43 WT. The boxed area is enlarged in B . (

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Axonal TDP-43 RNP granule interactions often result in trajectory changes. ( A ) TDP-43 granules are observed along the axon of a primary cortical neuron (days in vitro 7–10) expressing EGFP–TDP-43 WT. The boxed area is enlarged in B . (

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Expressing

    Neuronal TDP-43 RNP Granules Display Liquid-Like Properties in the Axon.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Neuronal TDP-43 RNP Granules Display Liquid-Like Properties in the Axon.

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    ).Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 demonstrates

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ).Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 demonstrates

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Imaging

    Comparison of mitochondria, LAMP1, and TDP-43 deformation with increasing instantaneous velocity (related to ). ( A ) Mitochondria do not show significant shape changes with transport, regardless of instantaneous velocity. Data are represented in

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of mitochondria, LAMP1, and TDP-43 deformation with increasing instantaneous velocity (related to ). ( A ) Mitochondria do not show significant shape changes with transport, regardless of instantaneous velocity. Data are represented in

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    WT TDP-43 granules incorporate RNA, whereas TDP-43 RNA binding mutant does not form axonal granules. ( A , Left ) Cortical neurons (DIV7–9) expressing Halo– or EGFP–TDP-43 WT yields strong nuclear TDP-43 expression and TDP-43 puncta

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WT TDP-43 granules incorporate RNA, whereas TDP-43 RNA binding mutant does not form axonal granules. ( A , Left ) Cortical neurons (DIV7–9) expressing Halo– or EGFP–TDP-43 WT yields strong nuclear TDP-43 expression and TDP-43 puncta

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: RNA Binding Assay, Mutagenesis, Expressing

    Summary schematic: Mid axonal TDP-43 granules comprise a dynamic population of RNP granules that are distinct from proximal TDP-43 granules. Mid axonal TDP-43 RNP granules show rapid exchange with the soluble pool of TDP-43, display rapid internal rearrangement,

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Summary schematic: Mid axonal TDP-43 granules comprise a dynamic population of RNP granules that are distinct from proximal TDP-43 granules. Mid axonal TDP-43 RNP granules show rapid exchange with the soluble pool of TDP-43, display rapid internal rearrangement,

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    ALS-linked mutant TDP-43 RNP transport granules show subprocessive motility and increased granule viscosity. ( A ) Representative TDP-43 WT, M337V, and G298S kymographs with motile, processive tracks traced. (Scale bars: 5 μm, 60 s.) ( B ) Time series

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ALS-linked mutant TDP-43 RNP transport granules show subprocessive motility and increased granule viscosity. ( A ) Representative TDP-43 WT, M337V, and G298S kymographs with motile, processive tracks traced. (Scale bars: 5 μm, 60 s.) ( B ) Time series

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Disruption of weak hydrophobic interactions dissolves TDP-43 granules in the mid axon but not in the proximal axon. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Disruption of weak hydrophobic interactions dissolves TDP-43 granules in the mid axon but not in the proximal axon. Cortical neurons expressing EGFP–TDP-43 were treated with 5 μg/mL digitonin alone (control) or 5 μg/mL digitonin

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing

    TDP-43 RNP granules show liquid-like behaviors. ( A ) TDP-43 granules (purple bars) deform with increasing instantaneous velocity, as assessed by AR (maximum diameter/minimum diameter). TDP-43 granules moving at speeds above the median instantaneous velocity

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TDP-43 RNP granules show liquid-like behaviors. ( A ) TDP-43 granules (purple bars) deform with increasing instantaneous velocity, as assessed by AR (maximum diameter/minimum diameter). TDP-43 granules moving at speeds above the median instantaneous velocity

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    ( A – C ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows localization of TDP-43 puncta to the soma, dendrites, and axon in DIV7–10 primary cortical neurons. ( D ) NND analysis of EGFP–TDP-43 WT in the proximal and mid axon (related to

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A – C ) Immunofluorescence for endogenous TDP-43 shows localization of TDP-43 puncta to the soma, dendrites, and axon in DIV7–10 primary cortical neurons. ( D ) NND analysis of EGFP–TDP-43 WT in the proximal and mid axon (related to

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence

    Biophysical differences in proximal and mid axonal TDP-43 granules may reflect different maturational states (related to ). ( A ), and expressed in cortical neurons

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biophysical differences in proximal and mid axonal TDP-43 granules may reflect different maturational states (related to ). ( A ), and expressed in cortical neurons

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    FRAP identifies distinct populations of axonal TDP43 granules. TDP-43 granules in the mid axon display rapid recovery after whole-bleach ( A ) and half-bleach ( B ) experiments, suggesting that both reorganization within TDP-43 granules and dynamic exchange

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: FRAP identifies distinct populations of axonal TDP43 granules. TDP-43 granules in the mid axon display rapid recovery after whole-bleach ( A ) and half-bleach ( B ) experiments, suggesting that both reorganization within TDP-43 granules and dynamic exchange

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    Photobleaching experiments of TDP-43, mitochondria, and LAMP1-positive endosomes in axons of primary cortical neurons (related to ). TDP-43 granules in the axon display robust fluorescent recovery after photobleaching ( A ), whereas mitochondria (

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Photobleaching experiments of TDP-43, mitochondria, and LAMP1-positive endosomes in axons of primary cortical neurons (related to ). TDP-43 granules in the axon display robust fluorescent recovery after photobleaching ( A ), whereas mitochondria (

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques:

    TDP-43 RNP Granules Along the Mid Axon Show Rapid Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TDP-43 RNP Granules Along the Mid Axon Show Rapid Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching.

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 granules demonstrates sporadic fission events (related to ). ( A ) Cortical neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 were tracked to identify fission events that alter the ratio of EGFP–TDP-43/Halo–TDP-43.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutations increase the viscosity of liquid-like TDP-43 RNP granules in neurons

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614462114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-lapse imaging of axonal TDP-43 granules demonstrates sporadic fission events (related to ). ( A ) Cortical neurons coexpressing EGFP–TDP-43 and Halo–TDP-43 were tracked to identify fission events that alter the ratio of EGFP–TDP-43/Halo–TDP-43.

    Article Snippet: The EGFP tag on the TDP-43 construct was replaced with either Halo tag or mEos3.2 tag (Addgene; no. 54550) to generate Halo– and mEos3.2–TDP-43 WT constructs, respectively.

    Techniques: Imaging