gap43 Search Results


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  • 94
    Thermo Fisher rat gap 43
    Time course of <t>GAP-43</t> expression after ischemia: effect of 3-AB treatment. Western blots were prepared after 8 d, 15 d and 30 d of ischemia from P1 (A) and P2 (B) samples. Representative immunoblots are shown and densitometric analysis was performed after normalization of GAP-43 expression on β-actin levels. Photothrombotic ischemia induces an increase in GAP-43 expression from 8 d of ischemia in P1 and 15 d in P2. 3-AB treatment repressed GAP-43 expression in P1 at 30 d. In P2, the overall GAP-43 expression was lower in 3-AB treated animals but a significant decrease was found at 8 d only. Values are expressed as means±S.E.M. and are representative of 5 to 6 animals. ( # P
    Rat Gap 43, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore gap 43
    Innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice in the midbasal turn at P4 and P15 analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A , Staining of the immature synaptophysin-immunopositive efferent innervation at P4. Note the close localization of the efferent projections at the base of the IHCs in both mice specimens (compare the distance of the arrowhead and asterisk in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice at P4). B , Immunostaining of the afferent and efferent fibers by double-labeling at P15. GluR4-immunopositive afferent nerve endings were observed at the base of inner hair cell of BDNF +/+ and −/− mice ( GluR4 , filled arrowheads ). In BDNF +/+ mice, <t>GAP-43-immunopositive</t> presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were localized in a distance to the base of the inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). In contrast to control, in BDNF −/− mice, GAP-43-immunopositive presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were observed at the hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), indicating the persistence of axosomatic LOC synapses in BDNF −/− mice. Note the distance between the two arrowheads in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. The experiment was repeated in triplicate with similar results. C , Comparison of efferent innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice at P15 by laser scanning confocal microscopy using an anti-synaptophysin antibody. In BDNF +/+ mice, a scattered elongated synaptophysin-immunopositive pattern was observed below the inner hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), whereas in BDNF −/− the synaptophysin staining was concentrated at the base of inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). Differences in colors from blue to green to red mirror an intensity gradient of immunoreactivity. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. Scale bars, 10 μm.
    Gap 43, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 44 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc anti gap 43
    Regulation of <t>GAP-43</t> levels in the hippocampus by SOCG treatment in CRS animals. a Western blot analysis of GAP-43 in the hippocampal tissue. Images in the upper panel show the representatives from 4 independent experiments, and quantitation of protein band intensity relative to actin control are shown in the lower panel. * P
    Anti Gap 43, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Novus Biologicals gap43
    OSN apoptosis in Camk2a-hAPP mice. A, Strategies to generate mutant lines with olfactory-specific or broad CNS-specific overexpression of hAPP by using OMP or Camk2a promoter, respectively, and the tTA-TetO system. B, Diagram showing the organization of the OE, with markers for mature and immature OSNs highlighted. C , Left panels, Camk2a (red) and hAPP (green) immunohistochemical signal in the olfactory epithelium from 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP and tetO-hAPP mice, respectively. Camk2a was broadly expressed in OSNs and mostly colocalized with hAPP in Camk2a-hAPP mice. Right panels, <t>GAP43</t> (immature OSN marker, red) and OMP (mature OSN marker, green) immunohistochemical signal in the epithelium. Note that Camk2a-hAPP animals had less mature OSNs and thinner epithelia than controls. D , E , The 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP animal had many more cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the epithelium than the control animal ( D ), which colocalized in hAPP-expressing neurons ( E , arrowheads). Scale bars: C , E , 20 µm; D , 100 µm.
    Gap43, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Abcam gap 43 antibody
    Protein expression was increased during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (A) The synapsin-1 and <t>GAP-43</t> levels in the 1640+0.5% FBS group. (B) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 protein levels in the Opti-MEM+0.5% FBS group. (C and D) Quantification of the GAP-43 and synapsin-1 protein levels in the two groups on days 2, 4 and 6. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (n=4). *** P
    Gap 43 Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Novus Biologicals rabbit anti gap43
    Protein expression was increased during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (A) The synapsin-1 and <t>GAP-43</t> levels in the 1640+0.5% FBS group. (B) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 protein levels in the Opti-MEM+0.5% FBS group. (C and D) Quantification of the GAP-43 and synapsin-1 protein levels in the two groups on days 2, 4 and 6. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (n=4). *** P
    Rabbit Anti Gap43, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Abcam anti gap 43
    The mTOR pathway regulates <t>GAP-43</t> expression. A , naïve TSC2KO DRGs show enhanced cell body and axonal GAP-43 expression in culture. Arrows indicate cell body, and arrowheads indicate axonal tips. B , injury to the sciatic nerve of TSC2KO and control
    Anti Gap 43, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 95 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Epitomics gap 43
    Effect of XSEC or EE and their combination on the expressions of <t>GAP-43,</t> NogoA/NgR and RhoA/ROCK2 in MCAO rats. Quantitative analysis of the protein (A,C,E) and mRNA (B,D,F) levels of GAP-43, NogoA/NgR, and RhoA/ROCK2, respectively (one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test, n = 4 per group). # P
    Gap 43, supplied by Epitomics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 97 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Novus Biologicals gap 43 antibody
    Axonal regeneration within acellular nerve grafts predegenerated in vitro . Normal and cultured (2 d, 2% serum) nerve grafts were freeze-killed, trimmed to 10 mm in length, and used as interpositional grafts for the repair of transected sciatic nerves. Host rats received bilateral grafts, one normal (uncultured) and one predegenerated (cultured). Axonal regeneration was assessed after 8 d by scoring <t>GAP-43-immunopositive</t> profiles (expressed as total pixel count) in transverse sections. A , Representative sections of control and predegenerated grafts from two animals are shown. Sections show the axonal regeneration at 1.5 mm into the grafts. Pixel values of the immunofluorescent images were inverted. B , Quantitative analysis was performed at measured distances within the grafts. Data represent means ± SEM of six nerves in each condition. Scale bar, 200 μm.
    Gap 43 Antibody, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 82 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Thermo Fisher mouse anti gap 43
    Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on expression of growth associated protein-43 <t>(GAP-43)</t> in the cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia. (A–H) Immunohistochemical staining of GAP-43-positive cells in the cerebral cortex at 1, 7 and 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; C, E, G) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (D, F, H) and in the hippocampus at 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the MCAO (A) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (B) (counterstained with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole, × 400; scale bars: 25 μm). (I) Quantification of GAP-43-positive cell expression in the cerebral cortex. a P
    Mouse Anti Gap 43, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Novus Biologicals anti gap43
    Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on expression of growth associated protein-43 <t>(GAP-43)</t> in the cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia. (A–H) Immunohistochemical staining of GAP-43-positive cells in the cerebral cortex at 1, 7 and 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; C, E, G) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (D, F, H) and in the hippocampus at 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the MCAO (A) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (B) (counterstained with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole, × 400; scale bars: 25 μm). (I) Quantification of GAP-43-positive cell expression in the cerebral cortex. a P
    Anti Gap43, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Novus Biologicals antibodies against gap 43
    NGF-treated PC-12 cells. PC-12/Vector control cells ( A ) and PC-12-overexpressing wild-type PS-1 cells ( B ) exhibit extensive neurite outgrowth after 8 days of exposure to NGF. ( C ) PC-12 cells expressing mutant PS-1(L286V) do not display significant neurites under the same culture conditions. Immunofluorescence of <t>GAP-43</t> (green), a molecular marker of neurite outgrowth, demonstrates intense staining in the neurites of vector-transfected ( D ) and overexpressing wild-type PS-1 ( E ) PC-12 cells. ( F ) Lack of neurite outgrowth corresponds to the weak GAP-43 immunostaining in the PC-12 cells overexpressing mutant PS-1. ( G ) GAP-43 (green) was significantly elevated in the mutant cells that were treated with NGF and ICG-001. This neuronal protein was also observed in the neurites.
    Antibodies Against Gap 43, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore α gap 43
    NFAT-3 is nuclear and occupies the <t>GAP-43</t> promoter in the developing mouse cortex. A , NFAT-3 is localized in the nucleus of cortical neurons. Fixed mouse P1 brain was probed for immunohistochemistry with α-NFAT-3, <t>α-GAP-43,</t> and DAPI nuclear
    α Gap 43, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore antibody against gap 43
    Expression of <t>GAP-43</t> in the ventral cochlear nucleus (A, B) and auditory nerve (C, D) at high magnification, in one experimental animal (# 8959) 31 days after receiving carboplatin on the right round window, which resulted in loss of IHC and OHC in the
    Antibody Against Gap 43, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore gap 43 antibody
    Higher-magnification photomicrographs of growth-associated protein 43 <t>(GAP-43)</t> immunocytochemistry-stained sections to illustrate the semiquantitative grading of GAP-43 stained cell surface (Rim) and puctate/tubular structures as described in the Patients and Methods section. (A) Score of 8 (Rim = 4 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 4), (B) score of 6 (Rim = 3 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 3), (C) score of 4 (Rim = 2 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 2), (D) score of 2 (Rim = 1 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 1). Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Gap 43 Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Abcam rabbit anti gap 43
    Histological study of cardiac nerve fibers at infarct border in sham-operated and infarcted hearts. (A–D) <t>GAP-43-positive</t> nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. Few GAP43-positive nerve fibers were observed in the sham-operated and MI-SiRNA groups. (E–H) TH-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. In the MI-GFP and MI-control groups, nerve fibers were disordered or unevenly distributed. Conversely, relatively normal nerve fibers were observed in the MI-SiRNA group. Bar = 100 µm.
    Rabbit Anti Gap 43, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Thermo Fisher polyclonal anti gap 43
    Histological study of cardiac nerve fibers at infarct border in sham-operated and infarcted hearts. (A–D) <t>GAP-43-positive</t> nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. Few GAP43-positive nerve fibers were observed in the sham-operated and MI-SiRNA groups. (E–H) TH-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. In the MI-GFP and MI-control groups, nerve fibers were disordered or unevenly distributed. Conversely, relatively normal nerve fibers were observed in the MI-SiRNA group. Bar = 100 µm.
    Polyclonal Anti Gap 43, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Time course of GAP-43 expression after ischemia: effect of 3-AB treatment. Western blots were prepared after 8 d, 15 d and 30 d of ischemia from P1 (A) and P2 (B) samples. Representative immunoblots are shown and densitometric analysis was performed after normalization of GAP-43 expression on β-actin levels. Photothrombotic ischemia induces an increase in GAP-43 expression from 8 d of ischemia in P1 and 15 d in P2. 3-AB treatment repressed GAP-43 expression in P1 at 30 d. In P2, the overall GAP-43 expression was lower in 3-AB treated animals but a significant decrease was found at 8 d only. Values are expressed as means±S.E.M. and are representative of 5 to 6 animals. ( # P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Microglial Involvement in Neuroplastic Changes Following Focal Brain Ischemia in Rats

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008101

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time course of GAP-43 expression after ischemia: effect of 3-AB treatment. Western blots were prepared after 8 d, 15 d and 30 d of ischemia from P1 (A) and P2 (B) samples. Representative immunoblots are shown and densitometric analysis was performed after normalization of GAP-43 expression on β-actin levels. Photothrombotic ischemia induces an increase in GAP-43 expression from 8 d of ischemia in P1 and 15 d in P2. 3-AB treatment repressed GAP-43 expression in P1 at 30 d. In P2, the overall GAP-43 expression was lower in 3-AB treated animals but a significant decrease was found at 8 d only. Values are expressed as means±S.E.M. and are representative of 5 to 6 animals. ( # P

    Article Snippet: The rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synaptophysin (RB-1461-P) and the mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing rat GAP-43 (Zymed 33–5000) were purchased respectively from Interchim (Montluçon, France) and Invitrogen (Cergy-Pontoise, France).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Weekly intravitreal injections and daily eye drop application of PEDF-34 promote RGC axon regeneration at 21 days after ONC. Representative GAP-43 + immunohistochemistry to show axons growing in the optic nerve after (A), ONC + PBS, (B), ONC + weekly intravitreal injections of PEDF-34 and (C), ONC + daily eye drops of PEDF-34 (scale bars = 100 μm). (D) Quantification of the number of GAP-43 + axons growing in the distal optic nerve stump at 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 μm from the lesion centre. * = P

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences

    Article Title: Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration

    doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.08.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Weekly intravitreal injections and daily eye drop application of PEDF-34 promote RGC axon regeneration at 21 days after ONC. Representative GAP-43 + immunohistochemistry to show axons growing in the optic nerve after (A), ONC + PBS, (B), ONC + weekly intravitreal injections of PEDF-34 and (C), ONC + daily eye drops of PEDF-34 (scale bars = 100 μm). (D) Quantification of the number of GAP-43 + axons growing in the distal optic nerve stump at 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 μm from the lesion centre. * = P

    Article Snippet: Monoclonal anti-GAP-43 antibody (1:500 dilution; Invitrogen) stained regenerating axons in optic nerve sections ( ).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry

    mRNA levels (mean±SEM ) of GAP-43 (A) and synapsin I (B) in ipsilateral L4–L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and lumbar spinal cord segments of rats with Matrigel w/o cells or SCphysiol transplants and housed for 7d sedentary or running.

    Journal:

    Article Title: The effects of FGF-2 gene therapy combined with voluntary exercise on axonal regeneration across peripheral nerve gaps

    doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.087

    Figure Lengend Snippet: mRNA levels (mean±SEM ) of GAP-43 (A) and synapsin I (B) in ipsilateral L4–L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and lumbar spinal cord segments of rats with Matrigel w/o cells or SCphysiol transplants and housed for 7d sedentary or running.

    Article Snippet: The mRNAs for GAP-43 and SYN-I were measured by TaqMan real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using an ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Techniques:

    mRNA levels (mean±SEM) of GAP-43 (A) and synapsin I (B) in ipsilateral lumbar spinal cord after SC transplantation and FGF-2 21/23kD gene therapy in sedentary or running rehabilitation for approx. 4 weeks after surgery.

    Journal:

    Article Title: The effects of FGF-2 gene therapy combined with voluntary exercise on axonal regeneration across peripheral nerve gaps

    doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.087

    Figure Lengend Snippet: mRNA levels (mean±SEM) of GAP-43 (A) and synapsin I (B) in ipsilateral lumbar spinal cord after SC transplantation and FGF-2 21/23kD gene therapy in sedentary or running rehabilitation for approx. 4 weeks after surgery.

    Article Snippet: The mRNAs for GAP-43 and SYN-I were measured by TaqMan real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using an ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, USA).

    Techniques: Transplantation Assay

    Overexpression of Nex1 induces expression of several genes associated with neuronal differentiation in the absence of NGF. Western blot analyses comparing the expression of neuronal marker protein using equal amounts of total protein from PC12 cells and the three PC12–Nex1-M(A), PC12–Nex1-M(B), and PC12–Nex1-M(C) clones. The specific antibodies used for this study are described in Materials and Methods. The antigen–antibody complexes were detected by chemiluminescence. Overexpression of Nex1 in untreated cells stimulates the expression of the GAP-43 protein ( A ), the neuronal specific βIII-tubulin protein ( B ), the bHLH differentiation factor NeuroD ( C ), and the mitotic inhibitor p21 WAF1 protein ( D ). As expected, PC12 cells do not express GAP-43 and NeuroD proteins. The p21 WAF1 protein and the neuronal-specific βIII-tubulin protein are expressed at much lower levels in PC12 cells.

    Journal: Journal of neuroscience research

    Article Title: Constitutive Overexpression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Nex1/MATH-2 Transcription Factor Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells and Neurite Regeneration

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of Nex1 induces expression of several genes associated with neuronal differentiation in the absence of NGF. Western blot analyses comparing the expression of neuronal marker protein using equal amounts of total protein from PC12 cells and the three PC12–Nex1-M(A), PC12–Nex1-M(B), and PC12–Nex1-M(C) clones. The specific antibodies used for this study are described in Materials and Methods. The antigen–antibody complexes were detected by chemiluminescence. Overexpression of Nex1 in untreated cells stimulates the expression of the GAP-43 protein ( A ), the neuronal specific βIII-tubulin protein ( B ), the bHLH differentiation factor NeuroD ( C ), and the mitotic inhibitor p21 WAF1 protein ( D ). As expected, PC12 cells do not express GAP-43 and NeuroD proteins. The p21 WAF1 protein and the neuronal-specific βIII-tubulin protein are expressed at much lower levels in PC12 cells.

    Article Snippet: A mouse monoclonal anti-GAP-43 antibody (Zymed, South San Francisco, CA) was used at a 1:1,000 dilution, a mouse monoclonal anti-βIII-tubulin (Covance, Richmond, CA) at a 1:1,000 dilution, and a mouse monoclonal anti-p21WAF1 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) was used at a 1:400 dilution.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Expressing, Western Blot, Marker, Clone Assay

    Innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice in the midbasal turn at P4 and P15 analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A , Staining of the immature synaptophysin-immunopositive efferent innervation at P4. Note the close localization of the efferent projections at the base of the IHCs in both mice specimens (compare the distance of the arrowhead and asterisk in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice at P4). B , Immunostaining of the afferent and efferent fibers by double-labeling at P15. GluR4-immunopositive afferent nerve endings were observed at the base of inner hair cell of BDNF +/+ and −/− mice ( GluR4 , filled arrowheads ). In BDNF +/+ mice, GAP-43-immunopositive presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were localized in a distance to the base of the inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). In contrast to control, in BDNF −/− mice, GAP-43-immunopositive presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were observed at the hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), indicating the persistence of axosomatic LOC synapses in BDNF −/− mice. Note the distance between the two arrowheads in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. The experiment was repeated in triplicate with similar results. C , Comparison of efferent innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice at P15 by laser scanning confocal microscopy using an anti-synaptophysin antibody. In BDNF +/+ mice, a scattered elongated synaptophysin-immunopositive pattern was observed below the inner hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), whereas in BDNF −/− the synaptophysin staining was concentrated at the base of inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). Differences in colors from blue to green to red mirror an intensity gradient of immunoreactivity. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. Scale bars, 10 μm.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: A Changing Pattern of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression Correlates with the Rearrangement of Fibers during Cochlear Development of Rats and Mice

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-08-03033.1999

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice in the midbasal turn at P4 and P15 analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A , Staining of the immature synaptophysin-immunopositive efferent innervation at P4. Note the close localization of the efferent projections at the base of the IHCs in both mice specimens (compare the distance of the arrowhead and asterisk in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice at P4). B , Immunostaining of the afferent and efferent fibers by double-labeling at P15. GluR4-immunopositive afferent nerve endings were observed at the base of inner hair cell of BDNF +/+ and −/− mice ( GluR4 , filled arrowheads ). In BDNF +/+ mice, GAP-43-immunopositive presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were localized in a distance to the base of the inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). In contrast to control, in BDNF −/− mice, GAP-43-immunopositive presumptive LOC terminals ( GAP-43 , open arrowheads ) were observed at the hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), indicating the persistence of axosomatic LOC synapses in BDNF −/− mice. Note the distance between the two arrowheads in BDNF +/+ and −/− mice. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. The experiment was repeated in triplicate with similar results. C , Comparison of efferent innervation of inner hair cells in control and BDNF gene-deleted mice at P15 by laser scanning confocal microscopy using an anti-synaptophysin antibody. In BDNF +/+ mice, a scattered elongated synaptophysin-immunopositive pattern was observed below the inner hair cell base ( filled arrowheads ), whereas in BDNF −/− the synaptophysin staining was concentrated at the base of inner hair cell ( filled arrowheads ). Differences in colors from blue to green to red mirror an intensity gradient of immunoreactivity. Asterisks mark the hair cell nucleus. Scale bars, 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: Mouse cochlea sections were permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS, blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin in PBS, and incubated overnight at 4°C with monoclonal antibody to GAP-43 (1:50, clone GAP-7B10; Sigma) or rabbit polyclonal antibodies to GluR4 (1:50; Chemicon), GluR2/3 (1:50; Chemicon), NF-200 (1:1000; Sigma), or synaptophysin (1:10; Chemicon).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunostaining, Labeling, Confocal Microscopy

    Regulation of GAP-43 levels in the hippocampus by SOCG treatment in CRS animals. a Western blot analysis of GAP-43 in the hippocampal tissue. Images in the upper panel show the representatives from 4 independent experiments, and quantitation of protein band intensity relative to actin control are shown in the lower panel. * P

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: Modulation of hippocampal neuronal activity by So-ochim-tang-gamibang in mice subjected to chronic restraint stress

    doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1963-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Regulation of GAP-43 levels in the hippocampus by SOCG treatment in CRS animals. a Western blot analysis of GAP-43 in the hippocampal tissue. Images in the upper panel show the representatives from 4 independent experiments, and quantitation of protein band intensity relative to actin control are shown in the lower panel. * P

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies used in the present study were anti-phospho-Erk1/2 kinase (1:4000, Cell Signaling, cat no. 9101 L), anti-GAP-43 (1:4000, Cell Signaling, cat no. ab16054), and anti-actin (1:10,000, MP Bio, cat no. A1978) antibodies.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Quantitation Assay

    The fast neuritogenic effect of S100A4 is probably mediated by a cell surface receptor. (A to D) Confocal images of hippocampal neurons treated for the indicated lengths of time with 5 μM dimeric (A) or oligomeric (B to D) S100A4. The cells were immunostained for GAP-43. Representative neurons are shown. Bars, 5 μm. (E) (Top) Increase in GAP-43 phosphorylation induced by carbachol (Cch; 500 nM), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 1 μM), and S100A4 (A4; 5 μM). Ctl, control. (Bottom) Results from four independent experiments. (F to H) Hippocampal neurons, grown for 7 days in vitro and not treated (F) or treated (G and H) with 5 μM S100A4 for 10 or 30 min, were coimmunostained for S100A4 (green) and GAP-43 (red). The times of treatment are indicated. Bars, 10 μm.

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Ca2+ Signaling in Neurons Induced by the S100A4 Protein

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.26.9.3625-3638.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The fast neuritogenic effect of S100A4 is probably mediated by a cell surface receptor. (A to D) Confocal images of hippocampal neurons treated for the indicated lengths of time with 5 μM dimeric (A) or oligomeric (B to D) S100A4. The cells were immunostained for GAP-43. Representative neurons are shown. Bars, 5 μm. (E) (Top) Increase in GAP-43 phosphorylation induced by carbachol (Cch; 500 nM), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 1 μM), and S100A4 (A4; 5 μM). Ctl, control. (Bottom) Results from four independent experiments. (F to H) Hippocampal neurons, grown for 7 days in vitro and not treated (F) or treated (G and H) with 5 μM S100A4 for 10 or 30 min, were coimmunostained for S100A4 (green) and GAP-43 (red). The times of treatment are indicated. Bars, 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: To estimate the total amount of PLCγ1, PLCγ2, or GAP-43, membranes were stripped and reprobed with anti-PLCγ1, anti-PLCγ2, or anti-GAP-43 antibodies (all developed in rabbits; Cell Signaling).

    Techniques: Cell Surface Receptor Assay, CTL Assay, In Vitro

    S100A4 increases neurite outgrowth and [Ca 2+ ] i in primary neurons. (A, B, D, E) Neuritogenic response of primary hippocampal (A, B) and cerebellar (D, E) neurons to dimeric (A, D) or oligomeric (B, E) S100A4 at a concentration of 5 μM. (C and F) Ca 2+ responses induced by 15 μM S100A4 in primary hippocampal and cerebellar neurons, respectively. (G) Primary hippocampal neurons were treated with 5 μM S100A4 for the indicated lengths of time and further immunoblotted for Tyr204-phosphorylated ERK1 and -2. Representative immunoblots of two to four individual experiments are shown. (H) Neuritogenic responses of primary hippocampal neurons to oligomeric S100A4 at a concentration of 15 μM. (I) Dose-response relationship for S100A4-triggered [Ca 2+ ] i rise in hippocampal neurons. All images represent confocal micrographs of neurons stained for the neuronal marker GAP-43 at 24 h in vitro. In all fluorometric experiments, n = 40 to 60. Bars, 10 μm.

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Ca2+ Signaling in Neurons Induced by the S100A4 Protein

    doi: 10.1128/MCB.26.9.3625-3638.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S100A4 increases neurite outgrowth and [Ca 2+ ] i in primary neurons. (A, B, D, E) Neuritogenic response of primary hippocampal (A, B) and cerebellar (D, E) neurons to dimeric (A, D) or oligomeric (B, E) S100A4 at a concentration of 5 μM. (C and F) Ca 2+ responses induced by 15 μM S100A4 in primary hippocampal and cerebellar neurons, respectively. (G) Primary hippocampal neurons were treated with 5 μM S100A4 for the indicated lengths of time and further immunoblotted for Tyr204-phosphorylated ERK1 and -2. Representative immunoblots of two to four individual experiments are shown. (H) Neuritogenic responses of primary hippocampal neurons to oligomeric S100A4 at a concentration of 15 μM. (I) Dose-response relationship for S100A4-triggered [Ca 2+ ] i rise in hippocampal neurons. All images represent confocal micrographs of neurons stained for the neuronal marker GAP-43 at 24 h in vitro. In all fluorometric experiments, n = 40 to 60. Bars, 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: To estimate the total amount of PLCγ1, PLCγ2, or GAP-43, membranes were stripped and reprobed with anti-PLCγ1, anti-PLCγ2, or anti-GAP-43 antibodies (all developed in rabbits; Cell Signaling).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Western Blot, Staining, Marker, In Vitro

    (A-E, J, L, M) The immunofluorescence and western blot assay of GAP-43 in injured spinal cord at 7d after BMSCs transplantation. Scale bars: 50μm. (A) Control group, (B) SCI + vehicle group, (C) SCI+BMSCs group, (D) SCI+BMSCs+TSP-1 group, (E) SCI+BMSCs-TSP-1 group, (J) The mean density of GAP-43 in SCI+vehicle, SCI+BMSCs, SCI+BMSCs+TSP-1 and SCI+BMSCs-TSP-1 group at 7d. ** P

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Thrombospondin-1 modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) promote neurite outgrowth and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22018

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A-E, J, L, M) The immunofluorescence and western blot assay of GAP-43 in injured spinal cord at 7d after BMSCs transplantation. Scale bars: 50μm. (A) Control group, (B) SCI + vehicle group, (C) SCI+BMSCs group, (D) SCI+BMSCs+TSP-1 group, (E) SCI+BMSCs-TSP-1 group, (J) The mean density of GAP-43 in SCI+vehicle, SCI+BMSCs, SCI+BMSCs+TSP-1 and SCI+BMSCs-TSP-1 group at 7d. ** P

    Article Snippet: Western blot The primary antibodies were used as follows: TSP-1 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), TGF-β1 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), smad2 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), p-Smad2 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), and β-actin antibody (1:5000; Sigma, USA).

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Transplantation Assay

    The expression of GAP-43, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 in VSC4 1 by western blot assay in the Control, OGD, OGD+BMSCs, OGD+BMSCs+TSP-1 and OGD+BMSCs-TSP-1 group. * P

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Thrombospondin-1 modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) promote neurite outgrowth and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22018

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The expression of GAP-43, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 in VSC4 1 by western blot assay in the Control, OGD, OGD+BMSCs, OGD+BMSCs+TSP-1 and OGD+BMSCs-TSP-1 group. * P

    Article Snippet: Western blot The primary antibodies were used as follows: TSP-1 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), TGF-β1 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), smad2 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), p-Smad2 antibody (1:1000, Cell signaling technology, USA), and β-actin antibody (1:5000; Sigma, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    OSN apoptosis in Camk2a-hAPP mice. A, Strategies to generate mutant lines with olfactory-specific or broad CNS-specific overexpression of hAPP by using OMP or Camk2a promoter, respectively, and the tTA-TetO system. B, Diagram showing the organization of the OE, with markers for mature and immature OSNs highlighted. C , Left panels, Camk2a (red) and hAPP (green) immunohistochemical signal in the olfactory epithelium from 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP and tetO-hAPP mice, respectively. Camk2a was broadly expressed in OSNs and mostly colocalized with hAPP in Camk2a-hAPP mice. Right panels, GAP43 (immature OSN marker, red) and OMP (mature OSN marker, green) immunohistochemical signal in the epithelium. Note that Camk2a-hAPP animals had less mature OSNs and thinner epithelia than controls. D , E , The 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP animal had many more cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the epithelium than the control animal ( D ), which colocalized in hAPP-expressing neurons ( E , arrowheads). Scale bars: C , E , 20 µm; D , 100 µm.

    Journal: eNeuro

    Article Title: APP Overexpression Causes Aβ-Independent Neuronal Death through Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway

    doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0150-16.2016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: OSN apoptosis in Camk2a-hAPP mice. A, Strategies to generate mutant lines with olfactory-specific or broad CNS-specific overexpression of hAPP by using OMP or Camk2a promoter, respectively, and the tTA-TetO system. B, Diagram showing the organization of the OE, with markers for mature and immature OSNs highlighted. C , Left panels, Camk2a (red) and hAPP (green) immunohistochemical signal in the olfactory epithelium from 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP and tetO-hAPP mice, respectively. Camk2a was broadly expressed in OSNs and mostly colocalized with hAPP in Camk2a-hAPP mice. Right panels, GAP43 (immature OSN marker, red) and OMP (mature OSN marker, green) immunohistochemical signal in the epithelium. Note that Camk2a-hAPP animals had less mature OSNs and thinner epithelia than controls. D , E , The 3-week-old Camk2a-hAPP animal had many more cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the epithelium than the control animal ( D ), which colocalized in hAPP-expressing neurons ( E , arrowheads). Scale bars: C , E , 20 µm; D , 100 µm.

    Article Snippet: The following primary antibodies were used: hAPP, 1:1000 (6E10, Covance); OMP, 1:5000 (Wako); Gap43, 1:1000 (Novus Biologicals); cleaved caspase-3, 1:1000 (Cell Signaling Technology); Camk2a, 1:1000 (Abcam); and cleaved caspase-9, 1:200 (Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Over Expression, Immunohistochemistry, Marker, Expressing

    Protein expression was increased during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (A) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 levels in the 1640+0.5% FBS group. (B) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 protein levels in the Opti-MEM+0.5% FBS group. (C and D) Quantification of the GAP-43 and synapsin-1 protein levels in the two groups on days 2, 4 and 6. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (n=4). *** P

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: A novel method of neural differentiation of PC12 cells by using Opti-MEM as a basic induction medium

    doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3195

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protein expression was increased during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. (A) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 levels in the 1640+0.5% FBS group. (B) The synapsin-1 and GAP-43 protein levels in the Opti-MEM+0.5% FBS group. (C and D) Quantification of the GAP-43 and synapsin-1 protein levels in the two groups on days 2, 4 and 6. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (n=4). *** P

    Article Snippet: MTT (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), poly-L-lysine (PLL; Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA), fetal bovine serum (FBS) and HS (both from Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA), GAP-43 antibody (ab75810; Abcam), synapsin-1 antibody (SAB1412529; Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA), PBS tablet (BD Biosciences), NGF (Hiteck Biological Pharma Co., Ltd., Wuhan, China), Protease Inhibitor Cocktail Set I (539131; Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA), and anti-tubulin-βIII antibody (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA).

    Techniques: Expressing

    The mTOR pathway regulates GAP-43 expression. A , naïve TSC2KO DRGs show enhanced cell body and axonal GAP-43 expression in culture. Arrows indicate cell body, and arrowheads indicate axonal tips. B , injury to the sciatic nerve of TSC2KO and control

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activation Increases Axonal Growth Capacity of Injured Peripheral Nerves *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.125336

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The mTOR pathway regulates GAP-43 expression. A , naïve TSC2KO DRGs show enhanced cell body and axonal GAP-43 expression in culture. Arrows indicate cell body, and arrowheads indicate axonal tips. B , injury to the sciatic nerve of TSC2KO and control

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used: anti-tuberin/TSC2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, C-terminal), anti-phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (Cell Signaling, serine 240/244), anti-S6 ribosomal (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-α-tubulin (Sigma), SMI-31 and SMI-32 (Sternberger Monoclonals, Inc.), anti-β-actin (Sigma), anti-peripherin (Millipore), anti-caspase-3 (Millipore), anti-GAP-43 (Abcam), anti-Tau (Synaptic Systems), and anti-GAP-43 (Chemicon) when used with anti-Tau.

    Techniques: Expressing

    TSC2 deletion leads to abnormal target innervation and axon morphology. A , posterior hind paw glaborous skin sections were stained with α-GAP-43 to visualize axonal endings innervating skin. Red dashed lines indicate epidermal layer. Low magnification

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activation Increases Axonal Growth Capacity of Injured Peripheral Nerves *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.125336

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TSC2 deletion leads to abnormal target innervation and axon morphology. A , posterior hind paw glaborous skin sections were stained with α-GAP-43 to visualize axonal endings innervating skin. Red dashed lines indicate epidermal layer. Low magnification

    Article Snippet: The following antibodies were used: anti-tuberin/TSC2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, C-terminal), anti-phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (Cell Signaling, serine 240/244), anti-S6 ribosomal (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-α-tubulin (Sigma), SMI-31 and SMI-32 (Sternberger Monoclonals, Inc.), anti-β-actin (Sigma), anti-peripherin (Millipore), anti-caspase-3 (Millipore), anti-GAP-43 (Abcam), anti-Tau (Synaptic Systems), and anti-GAP-43 (Chemicon) when used with anti-Tau.

    Techniques: Staining

    Involvement of ERK and AKT signals in Rd-induced neurite outgrowth. ( a , b ) The effects of ERK inhibitor PD98059 (PD) and AKT inhibitor LY294002 (LY) on the percentages of LN-( a ) and BN-bearing cells ( b ) when PC12 cells were treated with 10 μM Rd at 3 days; ( c , d ) Western blot showed the effects of PD98059 and LY294002 on the expression of GAP-43 in PC12 cells treated with 10 μM Rd at 3 days. GAPDH was used as the internal control. # p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Ginsenoside-Rd Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells through MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-Dependent Pathways

    doi: 10.3390/ijms17020177

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Involvement of ERK and AKT signals in Rd-induced neurite outgrowth. ( a , b ) The effects of ERK inhibitor PD98059 (PD) and AKT inhibitor LY294002 (LY) on the percentages of LN-( a ) and BN-bearing cells ( b ) when PC12 cells were treated with 10 μM Rd at 3 days; ( c , d ) Western blot showed the effects of PD98059 and LY294002 on the expression of GAP-43 in PC12 cells treated with 10 μM Rd at 3 days. GAPDH was used as the internal control. # p

    Article Snippet: Anti-GAP-43 antibody was from Abcam (Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Effect of XSEC or EE and their combination on the expressions of GAP-43, NogoA/NgR and RhoA/ROCK2 in MCAO rats. Quantitative analysis of the protein (A,C,E) and mRNA (B,D,F) levels of GAP-43, NogoA/NgR, and RhoA/ROCK2, respectively (one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test, n = 4 per group). # P

    Journal: Frontiers in Physiology

    Article Title: MRI Evaluation of Axonal Remodeling After Combination Treatment With Xiaoshuan Enteric-Coated Capsule and Enriched Environment in Rats After Ischemic Stroke

    doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01528

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of XSEC or EE and their combination on the expressions of GAP-43, NogoA/NgR and RhoA/ROCK2 in MCAO rats. Quantitative analysis of the protein (A,C,E) and mRNA (B,D,F) levels of GAP-43, NogoA/NgR, and RhoA/ROCK2, respectively (one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test, n = 4 per group). # P

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated overnight at 4°C with the primary antibodies against the following proteins: NG2 (1:2000), CNPase (1:2000), GAP-43 (Epitomics, #2259-1, 1:5000), NogoA (Abcam; ab62024; 1:5000), NgR (Abcam; ab26291; 1:5000), RhoA (Abcam; ab68826; 1:20000), ROCK2 (Abcam; ab125025; 1:40000), and GAPDH (Neobioscience; NBL01c; 1:40000).

    Techniques:

    Axonal regeneration within acellular nerve grafts predegenerated in vitro . Normal and cultured (2 d, 2% serum) nerve grafts were freeze-killed, trimmed to 10 mm in length, and used as interpositional grafts for the repair of transected sciatic nerves. Host rats received bilateral grafts, one normal (uncultured) and one predegenerated (cultured). Axonal regeneration was assessed after 8 d by scoring GAP-43-immunopositive profiles (expressed as total pixel count) in transverse sections. A , Representative sections of control and predegenerated grafts from two animals are shown. Sections show the axonal regeneration at 1.5 mm into the grafts. Pixel values of the immunofluorescent images were inverted. B , Quantitative analysis was performed at measured distances within the grafts. Data represent means ± SEM of six nerves in each condition. Scale bar, 200 μm.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Metalloproteinase-Dependent Predegeneration In Vitro Enhances Axonal Regeneration within Acellular Peripheral Nerve Grafts

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-23-10408.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Axonal regeneration within acellular nerve grafts predegenerated in vitro . Normal and cultured (2 d, 2% serum) nerve grafts were freeze-killed, trimmed to 10 mm in length, and used as interpositional grafts for the repair of transected sciatic nerves. Host rats received bilateral grafts, one normal (uncultured) and one predegenerated (cultured). Axonal regeneration was assessed after 8 d by scoring GAP-43-immunopositive profiles (expressed as total pixel count) in transverse sections. A , Representative sections of control and predegenerated grafts from two animals are shown. Sections show the axonal regeneration at 1.5 mm into the grafts. Pixel values of the immunofluorescent images were inverted. B , Quantitative analysis was performed at measured distances within the grafts. Data represent means ± SEM of six nerves in each condition. Scale bar, 200 μm.

    Article Snippet: Neurite length (cryoculture) and axonal regeneration (grafting) were assessed by immunolabeling with polyclonal anti-GAP-43 IgG (2 μg/ml) ( ) (NB300-143; Novus Biological, Littleton, CO).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Cell Culture

    Cryoculture assay of nerve explant cultures. A , Freshly excised rat sciatic nerve explants were cultured for 1, 2, 4, and 7 d in DMEM/N2 containing 0, 2, or 10% FBS. B , Nerve explants were cultured for 2 d in DMEM/N2 containing 2% serum (culture standard) with and without the addition of GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). The nerves were then cryosectioned, and embryonic DRG neurons were seeded onto the tissue sections in DMEM/N2 containing NGF. After 24 hr, DRG neurons were immunostained for GAP-43, and neuritic growth was measured by digital photomicroscopy and image analysis. The control condition was normal nerve (0 d in culture). Data represent the mean ± SEM neurite lengths of > 250 neurons scored in each condition from at least four separate nerve explant cultures tested in two or more separate experiments.

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Metalloproteinase-Dependent Predegeneration In Vitro Enhances Axonal Regeneration within Acellular Peripheral Nerve Grafts

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-23-10408.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cryoculture assay of nerve explant cultures. A , Freshly excised rat sciatic nerve explants were cultured for 1, 2, 4, and 7 d in DMEM/N2 containing 0, 2, or 10% FBS. B , Nerve explants were cultured for 2 d in DMEM/N2 containing 2% serum (culture standard) with and without the addition of GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). The nerves were then cryosectioned, and embryonic DRG neurons were seeded onto the tissue sections in DMEM/N2 containing NGF. After 24 hr, DRG neurons were immunostained for GAP-43, and neuritic growth was measured by digital photomicroscopy and image analysis. The control condition was normal nerve (0 d in culture). Data represent the mean ± SEM neurite lengths of > 250 neurons scored in each condition from at least four separate nerve explant cultures tested in two or more separate experiments.

    Article Snippet: Neurite length (cryoculture) and axonal regeneration (grafting) were assessed by immunolabeling with polyclonal anti-GAP-43 IgG (2 μg/ml) ( ) (NB300-143; Novus Biological, Littleton, CO).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia. (A–H) Immunohistochemical staining of GAP-43-positive cells in the cerebral cortex at 1, 7 and 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; C, E, G) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (D, F, H) and in the hippocampus at 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the MCAO (A) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (B) (counterstained with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole, × 400; scale bars: 25 μm). (I) Quantification of GAP-43-positive cell expression in the cerebral cortex. a P

    Journal: Neural Regeneration Research

    Article Title: Buyang Huanwu Decoction regulates neural stem cell behavior in ischemic brain

    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.25.004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia. (A–H) Immunohistochemical staining of GAP-43-positive cells in the cerebral cortex at 1, 7 and 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; C, E, G) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (D, F, H) and in the hippocampus at 14 days after cerebral ischemia in the MCAO (A) and MCAO + BYHWD groups (B) (counterstained with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole, × 400; scale bars: 25 μm). (I) Quantification of GAP-43-positive cell expression in the cerebral cortex. a P

    Article Snippet: The expression of mouse anti-GAP-43 (1:200; Zymed Laboratories) was monitored using immunohistochemistry as described above.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    NGF-treated PC-12 cells. PC-12/Vector control cells ( A ) and PC-12-overexpressing wild-type PS-1 cells ( B ) exhibit extensive neurite outgrowth after 8 days of exposure to NGF. ( C ) PC-12 cells expressing mutant PS-1(L286V) do not display significant neurites under the same culture conditions. Immunofluorescence of GAP-43 (green), a molecular marker of neurite outgrowth, demonstrates intense staining in the neurites of vector-transfected ( D ) and overexpressing wild-type PS-1 ( E ) PC-12 cells. ( F ) Lack of neurite outgrowth corresponds to the weak GAP-43 immunostaining in the PC-12 cells overexpressing mutant PS-1. ( G ) GAP-43 (green) was significantly elevated in the mutant cells that were treated with NGF and ICG-001. This neuronal protein was also observed in the neurites.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Specific inhibition of CBP/?-catenin interaction rescues defects in neuronal differentiation caused by a presenilin-1 mutation

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.0504600102

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NGF-treated PC-12 cells. PC-12/Vector control cells ( A ) and PC-12-overexpressing wild-type PS-1 cells ( B ) exhibit extensive neurite outgrowth after 8 days of exposure to NGF. ( C ) PC-12 cells expressing mutant PS-1(L286V) do not display significant neurites under the same culture conditions. Immunofluorescence of GAP-43 (green), a molecular marker of neurite outgrowth, demonstrates intense staining in the neurites of vector-transfected ( D ) and overexpressing wild-type PS-1 ( E ) PC-12 cells. ( F ) Lack of neurite outgrowth corresponds to the weak GAP-43 immunostaining in the PC-12 cells overexpressing mutant PS-1. ( G ) GAP-43 (green) was significantly elevated in the mutant cells that were treated with NGF and ICG-001. This neuronal protein was also observed in the neurites.

    Article Snippet: Cells were then incubated with antibodies against Gap-43 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO) for 40 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Mutagenesis, Immunofluorescence, Marker, Staining, Transfection, Immunostaining

    NFAT-3 is nuclear and occupies the GAP-43 promoter in the developing mouse cortex. A , NFAT-3 is localized in the nucleus of cortical neurons. Fixed mouse P1 brain was probed for immunohistochemistry with α-NFAT-3, α-GAP-43, and DAPI nuclear

    Journal:

    Article Title: NFAT-3 Is a Transcriptional Repressor of the Growth-associated Protein 43 during Neuronal Maturation *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.015719

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NFAT-3 is nuclear and occupies the GAP-43 promoter in the developing mouse cortex. A , NFAT-3 is localized in the nucleus of cortical neurons. Fixed mouse P1 brain was probed for immunohistochemistry with α-NFAT-3, α-GAP-43, and DAPI nuclear

    Article Snippet: For immunoblotting, the following antibodies were used: α-NFAT-3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, sc-1153), α-GAP-43 (Chemicon/Millipore, AB5220), α-β-actin (Sigma, A5441) and α-GAPDH (Cell Signaling, 2118), α- rabbit-HRP (Thermo Fisher Scientific, 31460), α-mouse-HRP (Thermo Fisher Scientific, 31430).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry

    Expression of GAP-43 in the ventral cochlear nucleus (A, B) and auditory nerve (C, D) at high magnification, in one experimental animal (# 8959) 31 days after receiving carboplatin on the right round window, which resulted in loss of IHC and OHC in the

    Journal: Hearing research

    Article Title: Up-regulation of GAP-43 in the chinchilla ventral cochlear nucleus after carboplatin-induced hearing loss: Correlations with inner hair cell loss and outer hair cell loss

    doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.05.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of GAP-43 in the ventral cochlear nucleus (A, B) and auditory nerve (C, D) at high magnification, in one experimental animal (# 8959) 31 days after receiving carboplatin on the right round window, which resulted in loss of IHC and OHC in the

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were exposed for 2 h at room temperature to an antibody against GAP-43 (MAB347; made in mouse; clone 9-1E12; Millipore, Billerika, MA), which has been shown to specifically detect and bind GAP-43 ( ; ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry

    Expression of GAP-43 in VCN of a naive control animal (A) and in the left and right VCN (contralateraly and ipsilaterally to treatment respectively) of one experimental animal with loss of all hair cells (#8959) 31 days after carboplatin application on

    Journal: Hearing research

    Article Title: Up-regulation of GAP-43 in the chinchilla ventral cochlear nucleus after carboplatin-induced hearing loss: Correlations with inner hair cell loss and outer hair cell loss

    doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.05.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of GAP-43 in VCN of a naive control animal (A) and in the left and right VCN (contralateraly and ipsilaterally to treatment respectively) of one experimental animal with loss of all hair cells (#8959) 31 days after carboplatin application on

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were exposed for 2 h at room temperature to an antibody against GAP-43 (MAB347; made in mouse; clone 9-1E12; Millipore, Billerika, MA), which has been shown to specifically detect and bind GAP-43 ( ; ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    A) Scattergrams showing hair cell loss (IHC, triangles; OHC, squares) plotted against the ipsi-to-contralateral (i:c) GAP-43 staining ratios in the VCN for matching frequencies and animals: Data pairs (N=24) were obtained separately from low-frequency

    Journal: Hearing research

    Article Title: Up-regulation of GAP-43 in the chinchilla ventral cochlear nucleus after carboplatin-induced hearing loss: Correlations with inner hair cell loss and outer hair cell loss

    doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.05.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A) Scattergrams showing hair cell loss (IHC, triangles; OHC, squares) plotted against the ipsi-to-contralateral (i:c) GAP-43 staining ratios in the VCN for matching frequencies and animals: Data pairs (N=24) were obtained separately from low-frequency

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were exposed for 2 h at room temperature to an antibody against GAP-43 (MAB347; made in mouse; clone 9-1E12; Millipore, Billerika, MA), which has been shown to specifically detect and bind GAP-43 ( ; ).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    3.1. Hair cell loss and GAP-43 expression in VCN

    Journal: Hearing research

    Article Title: Up-regulation of GAP-43 in the chinchilla ventral cochlear nucleus after carboplatin-induced hearing loss: Correlations with inner hair cell loss and outer hair cell loss

    doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.05.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3.1. Hair cell loss and GAP-43 expression in VCN

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were exposed for 2 h at room temperature to an antibody against GAP-43 (MAB347; made in mouse; clone 9-1E12; Millipore, Billerika, MA), which has been shown to specifically detect and bind GAP-43 ( ; ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Cochleograms showing the degree of hair cell loss in the right ear and photomicrographs showing GAP-43 expression in the right VCN 31 days after carboplatin application on the right round window in four experimental animals: Cochleograms show percent

    Journal: Hearing research

    Article Title: Up-regulation of GAP-43 in the chinchilla ventral cochlear nucleus after carboplatin-induced hearing loss: Correlations with inner hair cell loss and outer hair cell loss

    doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.05.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cochleograms showing the degree of hair cell loss in the right ear and photomicrographs showing GAP-43 expression in the right VCN 31 days after carboplatin application on the right round window in four experimental animals: Cochleograms show percent

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, sections were exposed for 2 h at room temperature to an antibody against GAP-43 (MAB347; made in mouse; clone 9-1E12; Millipore, Billerika, MA), which has been shown to specifically detect and bind GAP-43 ( ; ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Higher-magnification photomicrographs of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) immunocytochemistry-stained sections to illustrate the semiquantitative grading of GAP-43 stained cell surface (Rim) and puctate/tubular structures as described in the Patients and Methods section. (A) Score of 8 (Rim = 4 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 4), (B) score of 6 (Rim = 3 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 3), (C) score of 4 (Rim = 2 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 2), (D) score of 2 (Rim = 1 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 1). Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Journal: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology

    Article Title: Growth-associated protein 43 and progressive epilepsy in cortical dysplasia

    doi: 10.1002/acn3.69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Higher-magnification photomicrographs of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) immunocytochemistry-stained sections to illustrate the semiquantitative grading of GAP-43 stained cell surface (Rim) and puctate/tubular structures as described in the Patients and Methods section. (A) Score of 8 (Rim = 4 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 4), (B) score of 6 (Rim = 3 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 3), (C) score of 4 (Rim = 2 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 2), (D) score of 2 (Rim = 1 and intensity of punctate or tubular elements = 1). Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was done on free-floating sections (30-μ m) as described previously., Specifically, we used GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, rabbit polyclonal; Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St Louise, MO).

    Techniques: Immunocytochemistry, Staining

    Western blot analyses of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) protein in three patients. Each patient had subdural grids characterized epileptic area and nonepileptic area: nonepileptic areas (lanes A, B, and C) and epileptic areas (lanes A′, B′, and C′). A and A′ are from one patient, B and B′ are from a second patient, and C and C′ are from another patient. Note the greater GAP-43 protein in the epileptic areas as compared to nonepiletic areas, respectively, in all three patients. Quantitative optical densitometry of GAP-43 blot bands by using Image Pro Plus v6.1 Analyzer. The gray values of each band are shown in histograms which represent the relative densities of GAP-43 protein at each band from the three patients. Hatched bars, the quantified protein densities in nonepileptic cortical regions; solid bars, the quantified protein densities in epileptic areas.

    Journal: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology

    Article Title: Growth-associated protein 43 and progressive epilepsy in cortical dysplasia

    doi: 10.1002/acn3.69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot analyses of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) protein in three patients. Each patient had subdural grids characterized epileptic area and nonepileptic area: nonepileptic areas (lanes A, B, and C) and epileptic areas (lanes A′, B′, and C′). A and A′ are from one patient, B and B′ are from a second patient, and C and C′ are from another patient. Note the greater GAP-43 protein in the epileptic areas as compared to nonepiletic areas, respectively, in all three patients. Quantitative optical densitometry of GAP-43 blot bands by using Image Pro Plus v6.1 Analyzer. The gray values of each band are shown in histograms which represent the relative densities of GAP-43 protein at each band from the three patients. Hatched bars, the quantified protein densities in nonepileptic cortical regions; solid bars, the quantified protein densities in epileptic areas.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was done on free-floating sections (30-μ m) as described previously., Specifically, we used GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, rabbit polyclonal; Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St Louise, MO).

    Techniques: Western Blot

    Characterization of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal and dysplastic cortex. Photomicrograph cresyl echt violet (CV) and GAP-43 (IHC) staining from normal-appearing cortex (A, C, and E) and dysplastic cortex (B, D, and F–I). In the normal-appearing cortex (A, C, and E): CV-stained section (A) shows well-laminated cortical pyramidal cells with their dendrites appropriately positioned toward the pial surface. The adjacent section with GAP-43 IHC (C) shows only background staining. At higher magnification (E), no specific GAP-43 immunostaining can be seen in cell bodies or intercellular space. By contrast, in the dysplastic cortex (B, D, and F–I): CV-stained section (B) show that the vertical and horizontal laminations are disrupted and dysmorphic cells are darkly stained. In this area, GAP-43 (D) shows increased immunoreactivity. At higher magnification (F), it reveals that GAP-43 stained cell surface as rim appearance and also stained punctate clumps or tubular structures. Those GAP-43 stained patterns in dysplastic cortex are illustrated at higher magnification (I). The balloon cells are strikingly large opalescent cytoplasm with eccentric nuclei (G). Some of these balloon cells are faintly stained with GAP-43 in the cytoplasm (H). Scale bars: 200 μ m in (A, B, C, and D); 100 μ m in (E–H); 50 μ m in (I).

    Journal: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology

    Article Title: Growth-associated protein 43 and progressive epilepsy in cortical dysplasia

    doi: 10.1002/acn3.69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal and dysplastic cortex. Photomicrograph cresyl echt violet (CV) and GAP-43 (IHC) staining from normal-appearing cortex (A, C, and E) and dysplastic cortex (B, D, and F–I). In the normal-appearing cortex (A, C, and E): CV-stained section (A) shows well-laminated cortical pyramidal cells with their dendrites appropriately positioned toward the pial surface. The adjacent section with GAP-43 IHC (C) shows only background staining. At higher magnification (E), no specific GAP-43 immunostaining can be seen in cell bodies or intercellular space. By contrast, in the dysplastic cortex (B, D, and F–I): CV-stained section (B) show that the vertical and horizontal laminations are disrupted and dysmorphic cells are darkly stained. In this area, GAP-43 (D) shows increased immunoreactivity. At higher magnification (F), it reveals that GAP-43 stained cell surface as rim appearance and also stained punctate clumps or tubular structures. Those GAP-43 stained patterns in dysplastic cortex are illustrated at higher magnification (I). The balloon cells are strikingly large opalescent cytoplasm with eccentric nuclei (G). Some of these balloon cells are faintly stained with GAP-43 in the cytoplasm (H). Scale bars: 200 μ m in (A, B, C, and D); 100 μ m in (E–H); 50 μ m in (I).

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was done on free-floating sections (30-μ m) as described previously., Specifically, we used GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, rabbit polyclonal; Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St Louise, MO).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunostaining

    Analysis of GAP-43 and epilepsy duration (in years) in three groups of patients. (A) Twelve patients with FCD IIA/B pathology; (B) nine patients with FCD IA pathology; (C) 20 patients with mTLE/HS. There is no significant difference in epilepsy duration between FCD IIA/B and FCD IA groups despite two patients with epilepsy duration longer than 20 years in FCD IIA/B group. Note only in patients with FCD IIA/B pathology, the association between epilepsy duration and GAP-43 score is significant ( P

    Journal: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology

    Article Title: Growth-associated protein 43 and progressive epilepsy in cortical dysplasia

    doi: 10.1002/acn3.69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of GAP-43 and epilepsy duration (in years) in three groups of patients. (A) Twelve patients with FCD IIA/B pathology; (B) nine patients with FCD IA pathology; (C) 20 patients with mTLE/HS. There is no significant difference in epilepsy duration between FCD IIA/B and FCD IA groups despite two patients with epilepsy duration longer than 20 years in FCD IIA/B group. Note only in patients with FCD IIA/B pathology, the association between epilepsy duration and GAP-43 score is significant ( P

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was done on free-floating sections (30-μ m) as described previously., Specifically, we used GAP-43 antibody (1:1000, rabbit polyclonal; Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St Louise, MO).

    Techniques: IA

    Histological study of cardiac nerve fibers at infarct border in sham-operated and infarcted hearts. (A–D) GAP-43-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. Few GAP43-positive nerve fibers were observed in the sham-operated and MI-SiRNA groups. (E–H) TH-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. In the MI-GFP and MI-control groups, nerve fibers were disordered or unevenly distributed. Conversely, relatively normal nerve fibers were observed in the MI-SiRNA group. Bar = 100 µm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Targeted NGF siRNA Delivery Attenuates Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Deteriorates Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats with Myocardial Infarction

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095106

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histological study of cardiac nerve fibers at infarct border in sham-operated and infarcted hearts. (A–D) GAP-43-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. Few GAP43-positive nerve fibers were observed in the sham-operated and MI-SiRNA groups. (E–H) TH-positive nerve fibers (arrows) in sham-operated, MI-control, MI-GFP, and MI-SiRNA groups, respectively. In the MI-GFP and MI-control groups, nerve fibers were disordered or unevenly distributed. Conversely, relatively normal nerve fibers were observed in the MI-SiRNA group. Bar = 100 µm.

    Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Masson’s Trichrome Staining Expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) were examined by IHC staining using mouse anti-TH (1∶500; Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) and rabbit anti-GAP-43 (1∶100; Abcam, Cambridge, UK) as primary antibodies.

    Techniques: