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  • 95
    New England Biolabs fpg
    A) Fluorescence emission of 4 μM probe OGR1 in <t>Fpg</t> reaction buffer at 37 °C without Fpg (gray) and after 25 min with Fpg (black). B) Time course of 4 μM probe OGR1 emission at 465 nm following addition of 658 nM Fpg (black triangles) or <t>hOGG1</t> (gray circles) at 37 °C. This is a representative curve of n=1.
    Fpg, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 277 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Thermo Fisher gene exp fpgs hs00191956 m1
    A) Fluorescence emission of 4 μM probe OGR1 in <t>Fpg</t> reaction buffer at 37 °C without Fpg (gray) and after 25 min with Fpg (black). B) Time course of 4 μM probe OGR1 emission at 465 nm following addition of 658 nM Fpg (black triangles) or <t>hOGG1</t> (gray circles) at 37 °C. This is a representative curve of n=1.
    Gene Exp Fpgs Hs00191956 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore mutm protein
    MTH1/OGG1 deficiency significantly increased accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in the mitochondrial DNA of cortical neurons in the absence of antioxidants. ( a ) 8-Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) detected in MAP2-positive neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy. Fixed neurons pre-treated with <t>RNase</t> were subjected to a mild denaturation with 25 mM NaOH before reacting with antibodies. Adult cortical neurons isolated from Mth1/Ogg1 -DKO (TO-DKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were cultured for 2 days in the absence (−AO) or presence (+AO) of antioxidants. Green: 8-oxo-dG; red: MAP2: blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 20 μm. Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity was increased in TO-DKO neurons maintained in the absence of antioxidant. ( b ) 8-Oxo-dG immunoreactivity in TO-DKO neurons in the absence of antioxidants was completely abolished by pre-treatment with <t>MutM</t> 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( c ) Mitochondrial localization of 8-oxo-dG in a TO-DKO neuron. Immunofluorescence signals for mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, red) were co-localized with the cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunofluorescence (green). Orthogonal views obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy are shown. Blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( d ) Quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG in adult cortical neurons with (+AO) or without (−AO) antioxidants. More than 203 cells were examined for each group. 8-Oxo-dG indexes were calculated and are presented as whisker-box plots. Outliers are shown as dots. Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis tests, chi square test p
    Mutm Protein, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Marinus mutm
    MTH1/OGG1 deficiency significantly increased accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in the mitochondrial DNA of cortical neurons in the absence of antioxidants. ( a ) 8-Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) detected in MAP2-positive neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy. Fixed neurons pre-treated with <t>RNase</t> were subjected to a mild denaturation with 25 mM NaOH before reacting with antibodies. Adult cortical neurons isolated from Mth1/Ogg1 -DKO (TO-DKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were cultured for 2 days in the absence (−AO) or presence (+AO) of antioxidants. Green: 8-oxo-dG; red: MAP2: blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 20 μm. Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity was increased in TO-DKO neurons maintained in the absence of antioxidant. ( b ) 8-Oxo-dG immunoreactivity in TO-DKO neurons in the absence of antioxidants was completely abolished by pre-treatment with <t>MutM</t> 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( c ) Mitochondrial localization of 8-oxo-dG in a TO-DKO neuron. Immunofluorescence signals for mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, red) were co-localized with the cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunofluorescence (green). Orthogonal views obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy are shown. Blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( d ) Quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG in adult cortical neurons with (+AO) or without (−AO) antioxidants. More than 203 cells were examined for each group. 8-Oxo-dG indexes were calculated and are presented as whisker-box plots. Outliers are shown as dots. Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis tests, chi square test p
    Mutm, supplied by Marinus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Trevigen fpg fpg flare assay kit
    Frequencies of nucleoid classes observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from uninfected Swiss mice treated with meglumine antimoniate ( n = 5 per group) by conventional comet assay (A) and comet assay followed by <t>Fpg</t> digestion (B) and their respective <t>DNA</t> damage scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) (C). Statistical differences were calculated using the Student t test (*, P
    Fpg Fpg Flare Assay Kit, supplied by Trevigen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Biorbyt fpg enzyme
    Frequencies of nucleoid classes observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from uninfected Swiss mice treated with meglumine antimoniate ( n = 5 per group) by conventional comet assay (A) and comet assay followed by <t>Fpg</t> digestion (B) and their respective <t>DNA</t> damage scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) (C). Statistical differences were calculated using the Student t test (*, P
    Fpg Enzyme, supplied by Biorbyt, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Millipore fpg enzyme
    Frequencies of nucleoid classes observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from uninfected Swiss mice treated with meglumine antimoniate ( n = 5 per group) by conventional comet assay (A) and comet assay followed by <t>Fpg</t> digestion (B) and their respective <t>DNA</t> damage scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) (C). Statistical differences were calculated using the Student t test (*, P
    Fpg Enzyme, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Trevigen fpg enzyme
    Correlation between the levels of <t>DNA</t> damage obtained in different assays. Correlation of the values obtained in standard comet assay and (A) buffer exposed slides, (B) <t>Fpg</t> exposed slides and (C) net 8-oxoG sites; full line—regression line; dashed line—95 confidence level.
    Fpg Enzyme, supplied by Trevigen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Trevigen formamidopyrimidine glycosylase fpg
    Correlation between the levels of <t>DNA</t> damage obtained in different assays. Correlation of the values obtained in standard comet assay and (A) buffer exposed slides, (B) <t>Fpg</t> exposed slides and (C) net 8-oxoG sites; full line—regression line; dashed line—95 confidence level.
    Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase Fpg, supplied by Trevigen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Millipore fpg
    Correlation between the levels of <t>DNA</t> damage obtained in different assays. Correlation of the values obtained in standard comet assay and (A) buffer exposed slides, (B) <t>Fpg</t> exposed slides and (C) net 8-oxoG sites; full line—regression line; dashed line—95 confidence level.
    Fpg, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 53 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Trevigen fpg
    SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- <t>Fpg/T4endoV.</t> The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p
    Fpg, supplied by Trevigen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 116 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Siemens AG fpg
    SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- <t>Fpg/T4endoV.</t> The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p
    Fpg, supplied by Siemens AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    fpg  (srl inc)
    92
    srl inc fpg
    SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- <t>Fpg/T4endoV.</t> The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p
    Fpg, supplied by srl inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fpg/product/srl inc
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    93
    Medtronic fpgs
    SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- <t>Fpg/T4endoV.</t> The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p
    Fpgs, supplied by Medtronic, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Schiff Nutrition International fpg
    Modes of termination of DNA polymerases at DNA–protein cross-links in the template strand of single-stranded DNA. (A) Scheme of the DPC substrate. The chemical structure of the reduced <t>Schiff</t> base at the site of the cross-link through Pro1 of <t>Fpg</t> is shown in the inset. *p, 32 P-labeled 5′-end of the primer. (B) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site with the primer degradation: E . coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (Family A). (C) Synthesis extends to the cross-link site: phage RB69 DNA polymerase (Family B). (D) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site: human DNA polymerase κ (Family Y). Lanes 1–3 , size markers corresponding to the primer ( lane 1 , 11 nt long), full-size product ( lane 2 , 40 nt), and primer extended to the cross-link site ( lane 3 , 23 nt). Lane 4 , the substrate in the absence of DNA polymerase, lanes 5–8 , extension by the DNA polymerase for the indicated time. In lane 8 , the reaction was carried out with a primer–undamaged template substrate.
    Fpg, supplied by Schiff Nutrition International, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Xenobiotics fpg
    Modes of termination of DNA polymerases at DNA–protein cross-links in the template strand of single-stranded DNA. (A) Scheme of the DPC substrate. The chemical structure of the reduced <t>Schiff</t> base at the site of the cross-link through Pro1 of <t>Fpg</t> is shown in the inset. *p, 32 P-labeled 5′-end of the primer. (B) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site with the primer degradation: E . coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (Family A). (C) Synthesis extends to the cross-link site: phage RB69 DNA polymerase (Family B). (D) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site: human DNA polymerase κ (Family Y). Lanes 1–3 , size markers corresponding to the primer ( lane 1 , 11 nt long), full-size product ( lane 2 , 40 nt), and primer extended to the cross-link site ( lane 3 , 23 nt). Lane 4 , the substrate in the absence of DNA polymerase, lanes 5–8 , extension by the DNA polymerase for the indicated time. In lane 8 , the reaction was carried out with a primer–undamaged template substrate.
    Fpg, supplied by Xenobiotics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    fpg  (Olympus)
    93
    Olympus fpg
    Modes of termination of DNA polymerases at DNA–protein cross-links in the template strand of single-stranded DNA. (A) Scheme of the DPC substrate. The chemical structure of the reduced <t>Schiff</t> base at the site of the cross-link through Pro1 of <t>Fpg</t> is shown in the inset. *p, 32 P-labeled 5′-end of the primer. (B) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site with the primer degradation: E . coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (Family A). (C) Synthesis extends to the cross-link site: phage RB69 DNA polymerase (Family B). (D) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site: human DNA polymerase κ (Family Y). Lanes 1–3 , size markers corresponding to the primer ( lane 1 , 11 nt long), full-size product ( lane 2 , 40 nt), and primer extended to the cross-link site ( lane 3 , 23 nt). Lane 4 , the substrate in the absence of DNA polymerase, lanes 5–8 , extension by the DNA polymerase for the indicated time. In lane 8 , the reaction was carried out with a primer–undamaged template substrate.
    Fpg, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 55 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    A) Fluorescence emission of 4 μM probe OGR1 in Fpg reaction buffer at 37 °C without Fpg (gray) and after 25 min with Fpg (black). B) Time course of 4 μM probe OGR1 emission at 465 nm following addition of 658 nM Fpg (black triangles) or hOGG1 (gray circles) at 37 °C. This is a representative curve of n=1.

    Journal: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology

    Article Title: In Vitro Fluorogenic Real-time Assay of the Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    doi: 10.1002/cbic.201500184

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A) Fluorescence emission of 4 μM probe OGR1 in Fpg reaction buffer at 37 °C without Fpg (gray) and after 25 min with Fpg (black). B) Time course of 4 μM probe OGR1 emission at 465 nm following addition of 658 nM Fpg (black triangles) or hOGG1 (gray circles) at 37 °C. This is a representative curve of n=1.

    Article Snippet: Fpg, hOGG1, Fpg reaction buffer (NEB buffer 1: 10 mM Bis-Tris-Propane-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM dithiothreitol, pH 7.0 at 25 °C), hOGG1 reaction buffer (NEB buffer 4: 50 mM potassium acetate, 20 mM Tris-acetate, 10 mM magnesium acetate, 1 mM dithiothreitol, pH 7.9 at 25 °C), and BSA (10 mg/mL) were purchased from New England Biolabs.

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    A and B) PAGE analysis of 4 μM probe OGR1 radiolabeled at the 5′ end with [ 32 P]-phosphate and reacted with 658 nM hOGG1 (A) or Fpg (B) at 37 °C for various times. Piperidine (200 mM, 95 °C, 5 min), which cleaves the DNA backbone at abasic sites, was added to samples as indicated to identify the 8-oxoguanine excision product and the backbone cleavage product. C and D) MALDI mass spectrometry analysis of probe OGR1 following overnight reaction with hOGG1 (C) or Fpg (D).

    Journal: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology

    Article Title: In Vitro Fluorogenic Real-time Assay of the Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    doi: 10.1002/cbic.201500184

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A and B) PAGE analysis of 4 μM probe OGR1 radiolabeled at the 5′ end with [ 32 P]-phosphate and reacted with 658 nM hOGG1 (A) or Fpg (B) at 37 °C for various times. Piperidine (200 mM, 95 °C, 5 min), which cleaves the DNA backbone at abasic sites, was added to samples as indicated to identify the 8-oxoguanine excision product and the backbone cleavage product. C and D) MALDI mass spectrometry analysis of probe OGR1 following overnight reaction with hOGG1 (C) or Fpg (D).

    Article Snippet: Fpg, hOGG1, Fpg reaction buffer (NEB buffer 1: 10 mM Bis-Tris-Propane-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM dithiothreitol, pH 7.0 at 25 °C), hOGG1 reaction buffer (NEB buffer 4: 50 mM potassium acetate, 20 mM Tris-acetate, 10 mM magnesium acetate, 1 mM dithiothreitol, pH 7.9 at 25 °C), and BSA (10 mg/mL) were purchased from New England Biolabs.

    Techniques: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Mass Spectrometry

    MTH1/OGG1 deficiency significantly increased accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in the mitochondrial DNA of cortical neurons in the absence of antioxidants. ( a ) 8-Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) detected in MAP2-positive neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy. Fixed neurons pre-treated with RNase were subjected to a mild denaturation with 25 mM NaOH before reacting with antibodies. Adult cortical neurons isolated from Mth1/Ogg1 -DKO (TO-DKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were cultured for 2 days in the absence (−AO) or presence (+AO) of antioxidants. Green: 8-oxo-dG; red: MAP2: blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 20 μm. Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity was increased in TO-DKO neurons maintained in the absence of antioxidant. ( b ) 8-Oxo-dG immunoreactivity in TO-DKO neurons in the absence of antioxidants was completely abolished by pre-treatment with MutM 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( c ) Mitochondrial localization of 8-oxo-dG in a TO-DKO neuron. Immunofluorescence signals for mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, red) were co-localized with the cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunofluorescence (green). Orthogonal views obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy are shown. Blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( d ) Quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG in adult cortical neurons with (+AO) or without (−AO) antioxidants. More than 203 cells were examined for each group. 8-Oxo-dG indexes were calculated and are presented as whisker-box plots. Outliers are shown as dots. Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis tests, chi square test p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: 8-Oxoguanine accumulation in mitochondrial DNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs neuritogenesis in cultured adult mouse cortical neurons under oxidative conditions

    doi: 10.1038/srep22086

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MTH1/OGG1 deficiency significantly increased accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in the mitochondrial DNA of cortical neurons in the absence of antioxidants. ( a ) 8-Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) detected in MAP2-positive neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy. Fixed neurons pre-treated with RNase were subjected to a mild denaturation with 25 mM NaOH before reacting with antibodies. Adult cortical neurons isolated from Mth1/Ogg1 -DKO (TO-DKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were cultured for 2 days in the absence (−AO) or presence (+AO) of antioxidants. Green: 8-oxo-dG; red: MAP2: blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 20 μm. Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity was increased in TO-DKO neurons maintained in the absence of antioxidant. ( b ) 8-Oxo-dG immunoreactivity in TO-DKO neurons in the absence of antioxidants was completely abolished by pre-treatment with MutM 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( c ) Mitochondrial localization of 8-oxo-dG in a TO-DKO neuron. Immunofluorescence signals for mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, red) were co-localized with the cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG immunofluorescence (green). Orthogonal views obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy are shown. Blue: DAPI. Scale bar = 10 μm. ( d ) Quantitative evaluation of mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG in adult cortical neurons with (+AO) or without (−AO) antioxidants. More than 203 cells were examined for each group. 8-Oxo-dG indexes were calculated and are presented as whisker-box plots. Outliers are shown as dots. Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis tests, chi square test p

    Article Snippet: Cells treated with RNase were incubated with 10 µg/ml of MutM protein (F3174, Fapy DNA glycosylase, Sigma-Aldrich) in nicking buffer [10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 5 mM ZnCl2 , 0.5 mM DTT, 0.5 mM EDTA, 1.5% glycerol, 100 µg/ml BSA] for 1 h at 37 °C.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Confocal Microscopy, Whisker Assay

    Frequencies of nucleoid classes observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from uninfected Swiss mice treated with meglumine antimoniate ( n = 5 per group) by conventional comet assay (A) and comet assay followed by Fpg digestion (B) and their respective DNA damage scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) (C). Statistical differences were calculated using the Student t test (*, P

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Genistein and Ascorbic Acid Reduce Oxidative Stress-Derived DNA Damage Induced by the Antileishmanial Meglumine Antimoniate

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00456-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Frequencies of nucleoid classes observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from uninfected Swiss mice treated with meglumine antimoniate ( n = 5 per group) by conventional comet assay (A) and comet assay followed by Fpg digestion (B) and their respective DNA damage scores (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) (C). Statistical differences were calculated using the Student t test (*, P

    Article Snippet: To evaluate oxidative damage to DNA caused by meglumine antimoniate, we also conducted a comet assay using formamide pyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) (Fpg Flare assay kit; Trevigen, Gaithersburg, MD) ( ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, Standard Deviation

    Correlation between the levels of DNA damage obtained in different assays. Correlation of the values obtained in standard comet assay and (A) buffer exposed slides, (B) Fpg exposed slides and (C) net 8-oxoG sites; full line—regression line; dashed line—95 confidence level.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Evaluation of Genotoxic Pressure along the Sava River

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162450

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlation between the levels of DNA damage obtained in different assays. Correlation of the values obtained in standard comet assay and (A) buffer exposed slides, (B) Fpg exposed slides and (C) net 8-oxoG sites; full line—regression line; dashed line—95 confidence level.

    Article Snippet: In all cases digestion with Fpg enzyme led to significant increase of DNA damage in comparison with corresponding standard alkaline and buffer treated control.

    Techniques: Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis

    SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- Fpg/T4endoV. The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Keratinocyte stem cells are more resistant to UVA radiation than their direct progeny

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203863

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SSB, ALS and 8oxoG repair of UVA-irradiated KSCs and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) using comet assay +- Fpg/T4endoV. The results are expressed as the median % of remaining lesions. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD. Statistical analyses were performed for each population (dotted line for TAs and black line for KSCs) between each time and the previous time; * p

    Article Snippet: For revealing oxidized purines and pyrimidine dimers, Fpg (Trevigen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and T4endoV (BioLabs, Ipswich, MA, USA) were added after the lysis step at 0.05 U/μL for 45 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis

    SSB, ALS, 8oxoG and thymine dimer induction in UVA-irradiated KSCS and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) by comet assay +- Fpg/T4 endoV. The results are expressed as the median % tail intensity. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of the comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD; * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Keratinocyte stem cells are more resistant to UVA radiation than their direct progeny

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203863

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SSB, ALS, 8oxoG and thymine dimer induction in UVA-irradiated KSCS and TAs (at 10 J/cm 2 ) by comet assay +- Fpg/T4 endoV. The results are expressed as the median % tail intensity. The results for 8oxoG and TT-dimers were obtained by subtraction of the comet assay results with and without Fpg and T4endoV, respectively; the mean of samples from 3 donors +- SD; * p

    Article Snippet: For revealing oxidized purines and pyrimidine dimers, Fpg (Trevigen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and T4endoV (BioLabs, Ipswich, MA, USA) were added after the lysis step at 0.05 U/μL for 45 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Irradiation, Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis

    Modes of termination of DNA polymerases at DNA–protein cross-links in the template strand of single-stranded DNA. (A) Scheme of the DPC substrate. The chemical structure of the reduced Schiff base at the site of the cross-link through Pro1 of Fpg is shown in the inset. *p, 32 P-labeled 5′-end of the primer. (B) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site with the primer degradation: E . coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (Family A). (C) Synthesis extends to the cross-link site: phage RB69 DNA polymerase (Family B). (D) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site: human DNA polymerase κ (Family Y). Lanes 1–3 , size markers corresponding to the primer ( lane 1 , 11 nt long), full-size product ( lane 2 , 40 nt), and primer extended to the cross-link site ( lane 3 , 23 nt). Lane 4 , the substrate in the absence of DNA polymerase, lanes 5–8 , extension by the DNA polymerase for the indicated time. In lane 8 , the reaction was carried out with a primer–undamaged template substrate.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Variable termination sites of DNA polymerases encountering a DNA–protein cross-link

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198480

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Modes of termination of DNA polymerases at DNA–protein cross-links in the template strand of single-stranded DNA. (A) Scheme of the DPC substrate. The chemical structure of the reduced Schiff base at the site of the cross-link through Pro1 of Fpg is shown in the inset. *p, 32 P-labeled 5′-end of the primer. (B) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site with the primer degradation: E . coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (Family A). (C) Synthesis extends to the cross-link site: phage RB69 DNA polymerase (Family B). (D) Synthesis stops before the cross-link site: human DNA polymerase κ (Family Y). Lanes 1–3 , size markers corresponding to the primer ( lane 1 , 11 nt long), full-size product ( lane 2 , 40 nt), and primer extended to the cross-link site ( lane 3 , 23 nt). Lane 4 , the substrate in the absence of DNA polymerase, lanes 5–8 , extension by the DNA polymerase for the indicated time. In lane 8 , the reaction was carried out with a primer–undamaged template substrate.

    Article Snippet: Fpg forms a Schiff base between the enzyme’s active site amino group and C1′ of the damaged nucleoside as a reaction intermediate, which can be reduced to a stable covalent amine [ ] ( , inset), a reaction that was used to prepare Fpg–DNA conjugate in large quantities for crystallization [ ].

    Techniques: Labeling