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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher bhi broth
    E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on <t>BHI‐agar;</t> ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). <t>Enterobacter</t> sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).
    Bhi Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 551 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bhi broth/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 551 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bhi broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore broth lb
    E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on <t>BHI‐agar;</t> ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). <t>Enterobacter</t> sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).
    Broth Lb, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 130 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/broth lb/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 130 article reviews
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    broth lb - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore ec broth
    E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on <t>BHI‐agar;</t> ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). <t>Enterobacter</t> sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).
    Ec Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 24 article reviews
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    ec broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Thermo Fisher lb broth
    E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on <t>BHI‐agar;</t> ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). <t>Enterobacter</t> sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).
    Lb Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1575 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 1575 article reviews
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    99
    Millipore macconkey broth
    Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and <t>MacConkey</t> medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.
    Macconkey Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    macconkey broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore mrs broth
    Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and <t>MacConkey</t> medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.
    Mrs Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 24 article reviews
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    mrs broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore terrific broth
    Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and <t>MacConkey</t> medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.
    Terrific Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 788 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    terrific broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Thermo Fisher terrific broth
    Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and <t>MacConkey</t> medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.
    Terrific Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 639 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore thioglycolate broth
    Peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in mice fed a calorie-restricted diet. Six-month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% (wt/wt) corn oil AL or the same diet whose calories were restricted 40% (CR). Peritoneal macrophages were harvested 96 h after injection of <t>thioglycolate</t> intraperitoneally. Phagocytosis of latex beads and zymosan was assessed before and 4 h after LPS stimulation (1 μg/ml) ( n = 6). ∗, significant differences between the group fed AL and the group fed a calorie-restricted diet ( P
    Thioglycolate Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 88 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    thioglycolate broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore thioglycollate broth
    KLF6 is required for macrophage motility. A , Lyz2 cre and Lyz2 cre :KLF6 fl/fl mice were subjected to <t>thioglycollate-induced</t> peritonitis. Responding inflammatory cells from the peritoneal cavity were harvested using sterile 1× PBS, and the number
    Thioglycollate Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 332 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    thioglycollate broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore ypd broth
    Inactivation of ADA2 enhances agar invasion. (A) C. <t>glabrata</t> strains were grown overnight in <t>YPD</t> at 37°C, washed twice with dH 2 O, and diluted to an OD 600 of 1 unit/ml. Then, 3 μl of cells was spotted onto solid YPD and incubated at 37°C for 10 days. Colonies were photographed before and after washing with dH 2 O. (B) The colonies from the assay whose results are shown in panel A were washed, excised, and microscopically observed from the top and side. Arrows, the agar surface.
    Ypd Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 139 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher ypd broth
    Growth of wild-type (WT) ( <t>SRR1</t> / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on <t>YPD</t> agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter
    Ypd Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 124 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    TaKaRa ypda broth
    Growth of wild-type (WT) ( <t>SRR1</t> / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on <t>YPD</t> agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter
    Ypda Broth, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 12 article reviews
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    ypda broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore bolton broth
    Growth of wild-type (WT) ( <t>SRR1</t> / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on <t>YPD</t> agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter
    Bolton Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    bolton broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    92
    Bio-Rad fraser broth
    Growth of wild-type (WT) ( <t>SRR1</t> / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on <t>YPD</t> agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter
    Fraser Broth, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    fraser broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore m9 broth
    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
    M9 Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 36 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore photobacterium broth
    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
    Photobacterium Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    photobacterium broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    92
    Millipore actinomyces broth
    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
    Actinomyces Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    actinomyces broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    99
    Millipore caso broth
    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
    Caso Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 9 article reviews
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    caso broth - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
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    Millipore nzcym broth
    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
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    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or <t>M9-mucus</t> broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Representative <t>SEM</t> images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits
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    Elimination (recovery) (A) and cell uptake (B) of U from <t>BG-11</t> medium supplemented with 4 mg U L −1 by the artificially selected ChlSG strain after 48 days in free suspension. The amount of U significantly decreased in the supernatant (A) and the biomass (B) showed a positive slope in the U uptake over time. No significant differences can be observed in terms of U uptake g −1 DB over time (C) , with a mean value of ~6 mg U g −1 DB of ChlSG.
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    Elimination (recovery) (A) and cell uptake (B) of U from <t>BG-11</t> medium supplemented with 4 mg U L −1 by the artificially selected ChlSG strain after 48 days in free suspension. The amount of U significantly decreased in the supernatant (A) and the biomass (B) showed a positive slope in the U uptake over time. No significant differences can be observed in terms of U uptake g −1 DB over time (C) , with a mean value of ~6 mg U g −1 DB of ChlSG.
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    Image Search Results


    E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on BHI‐agar; ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). Enterobacter sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).

    Journal: Microbial biotechnology

    Article Title: Decreasing Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) food contamination level with bacteriophages: prospects and problems

    doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7915.2008.00058.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: E. sakazakii host strain differentiation. From left to right: Dendrogram of 39 strains of E. sakazakii (A) (the scale bar shows the percentage of similarity), obtained after restriction with EcoRI. Groups 1–4 indicate assignment of the strains to 16S rRNA groups ( Iversen et al. , 2007a ). The FSM strain designation (with reference strains in italics) is shown (B). The star symbol (*) indicates the presence of a prophage and the strain designation in parenthesis corresponds to the indicator strain used to reveal it. Origins (N, the Netherlands; F, France; S, Switzerland; M, Malaysia; G, Germany; U, USA) of the selected strains (C). Susceptibility of the E. sakazakii strain from the corresponding row to infection with E. sakazakii phages F, 23, 81, 82 and 83 as determined by the plaque assay using 10 5 pfu ml −1 on BHI‐agar; ‘X’ indicates observation of phage plaques (D). Enterobacter sakazakii challenge test in infant formula using a cocktail of the five phages showing the broadest host range on E. sakazakii ; ‘X’ indicates prevention of outgrowth of 10 2 cfu ml −1 E. sakazakii when phage was added at 10 8 pfu ml −1 (E).

    Article Snippet: Enterobacter sakazakii strains were grown at 30°C and 37°C in BHI broth (Oxoid) and in reconstituted powdered infant formula (Nestlé).

    Techniques: Infection, Plaque Assay

    Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and MacConkey medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.

    Journal: FEMS microbiology letters

    Article Title: Environmental regulation of the long polar fimbriae 2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12513

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of growth medium, temperature and Fur complementation on lpf2 expression (A) Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 strain grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) and MacConkey medium at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, in iron rich and depleted conditions. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5) medium in presence of iron and the variations in up- or down-regulation are related to this value. As a control for constitutive expression, the 16S RNA transcript was used. (B). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933 and EHECΔ fur grown at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2 in DMEM (pH 6.5) with and without supplementation of 0.1 mM of iron, 0.15% of bile salts or both. Data were also normalized to the EHECwt grown in DMEM (pH 6.5). (C). Real time RT-PCR using RNA from EHECwt EDL933, EHECΔ fur , EHECΔ fur + fur and EHECΔ lpfA2 strains grown in MacConkey broth at 25°C and an OD 600 of 1.2, with and without iron. Data were normalized to the EHECwt grown in MacConkey medium in presence of iron. The EHEC lpfA2 mutant was used as negative control.

    Article Snippet: One to three colonies were used to inoculate 30 ml of DMEM or MacConkey broth in iron-rich and iron-depleted conditions (0.125 μM 2,2′-dipirydil) or DMEM (pH 6.5) supplemented with either 0.1 mM de FeCl3 , 0.15% bile salts (Sigma) or both and incubated at 37°C or 25°C ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mutagenesis, Negative Control

    Peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in mice fed a calorie-restricted diet. Six-month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% (wt/wt) corn oil AL or the same diet whose calories were restricted 40% (CR). Peritoneal macrophages were harvested 96 h after injection of thioglycolate intraperitoneally. Phagocytosis of latex beads and zymosan was assessed before and 4 h after LPS stimulation (1 μg/ml) ( n = 6). ∗, significant differences between the group fed AL and the group fed a calorie-restricted diet ( P

    Journal: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

    Article Title: Effects of Calorie Restriction on Polymicrobial Peritonitis Induced by Cecum Ligation and Puncture in Young C57BL/6 Mice

    doi: 10.1128/CDLI.8.5.1003-1011.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis in mice fed a calorie-restricted diet. Six-month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% (wt/wt) corn oil AL or the same diet whose calories were restricted 40% (CR). Peritoneal macrophages were harvested 96 h after injection of thioglycolate intraperitoneally. Phagocytosis of latex beads and zymosan was assessed before and 4 h after LPS stimulation (1 μg/ml) ( n = 6). ∗, significant differences between the group fed AL and the group fed a calorie-restricted diet ( P

    Article Snippet: Ninety-six hours before the mice were killed, the mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 2.0 ml of thioglycolate broth (Sigma Chemical Co.).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection

    KLF6 is required for macrophage motility. A , Lyz2 cre and Lyz2 cre :KLF6 fl/fl mice were subjected to thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Responding inflammatory cells from the peritoneal cavity were harvested using sterile 1× PBS, and the number

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Kruppel-like Factor 6 Promotes Macrophage-mediated Inflammation by Suppressing B Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma 6 Expression *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.738617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: KLF6 is required for macrophage motility. A , Lyz2 cre and Lyz2 cre :KLF6 fl/fl mice were subjected to thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Responding inflammatory cells from the peritoneal cavity were harvested using sterile 1× PBS, and the number

    Article Snippet: LPS, 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), hematoxylin, eosin, and thioglycollate broth were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Analysis of expression of activation surface markers MHC class II and CD86 on macrophages with knockdown of Egr2 under inflammatory conditions in vitro and in vivo . Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from B6 (A) or DsRed transgenic (B) mice were transfected with Egr2 siRNA or Control siRNA for 24 h, and after which the cells were used as unstimulated or activated in vitro with IL-4 or IFNγ for another 24 h-time period (A) or in vivo for 4 days in the model of thioglycollate-induced inflammation as described in Materials and Methods . (A) After in vitro incubation in media, IL-4 or IFNγ, the cells were washed, stained for surface markers F4/80, MHC class II and CD86 and F4/80 + gated macrophages were analyzed for the expression of MHC class II and CD86 by three-color follow cytometry as described in Materials and Methods . The expressions for MHC class II (top histograms) and CD86 (bottom histograms) of untreated (left histograms) or activated with IL-4 (middle histograms) or IFNγ (right histograms) macrophages transfected with Egr2 siRNA (solid line) vs. control siRNA (dotted line) are shown on representative histogram graphs. Staining with isotype-matched control mAbs is shown by shaded histograms. (B) The transfected DsRed-positive macrophages were injected i.p. into a group of 4-5 mice and peritoneal inflammation was induced by injection of thioglycollate medium as described in Materials and Methods . On day 4 after induction of inflammation, the cells were isolated by peritoneal lavage and cells were washed, stained for surface markers F4/80, MHC class II and CD86. F4/80 + DsRed + gated macrophages were analyzed for the expression of MHC class II and CD86 by four-color follow cytometry as described in Materials and Methods . The expressions for MHC class II (left histograms) and CD86 (right histograms) on F4/80 + DsRed + macrophages transfected with Egr2 siRNA (solid line) vs. control siRNA (dotted line) are shown on representative histogram graphs. Staining with isotype-matched control mAbs is shown by shaded histograms. (C) In (A,B) , quantifications and statistics are shown in Table 2 .

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Early Growth Response Gene-2 Is Essential for M1 and M2 Macrophage Activation and Plasticity by Modulation of the Transcription Factor CEBPβ

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02515

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of expression of activation surface markers MHC class II and CD86 on macrophages with knockdown of Egr2 under inflammatory conditions in vitro and in vivo . Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from B6 (A) or DsRed transgenic (B) mice were transfected with Egr2 siRNA or Control siRNA for 24 h, and after which the cells were used as unstimulated or activated in vitro with IL-4 or IFNγ for another 24 h-time period (A) or in vivo for 4 days in the model of thioglycollate-induced inflammation as described in Materials and Methods . (A) After in vitro incubation in media, IL-4 or IFNγ, the cells were washed, stained for surface markers F4/80, MHC class II and CD86 and F4/80 + gated macrophages were analyzed for the expression of MHC class II and CD86 by three-color follow cytometry as described in Materials and Methods . The expressions for MHC class II (top histograms) and CD86 (bottom histograms) of untreated (left histograms) or activated with IL-4 (middle histograms) or IFNγ (right histograms) macrophages transfected with Egr2 siRNA (solid line) vs. control siRNA (dotted line) are shown on representative histogram graphs. Staining with isotype-matched control mAbs is shown by shaded histograms. (B) The transfected DsRed-positive macrophages were injected i.p. into a group of 4-5 mice and peritoneal inflammation was induced by injection of thioglycollate medium as described in Materials and Methods . On day 4 after induction of inflammation, the cells were isolated by peritoneal lavage and cells were washed, stained for surface markers F4/80, MHC class II and CD86. F4/80 + DsRed + gated macrophages were analyzed for the expression of MHC class II and CD86 by four-color follow cytometry as described in Materials and Methods . The expressions for MHC class II (left histograms) and CD86 (right histograms) on F4/80 + DsRed + macrophages transfected with Egr2 siRNA (solid line) vs. control siRNA (dotted line) are shown on representative histogram graphs. Staining with isotype-matched control mAbs is shown by shaded histograms. (C) In (A,B) , quantifications and statistics are shown in Table 2 .

    Article Snippet: Thioglycollate-induced in vivo inflammation Thioglycollate-induced peritonitis was initiated in the group of 4–5 B6 mice by i.p. injection of 2 ml of 4% thioglycollate broth media (Sigma) in PBS.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activation Assay, In Vitro, In Vivo, Derivative Assay, Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay, Transfection, Incubation, Staining, Cytometry, Injection, Isolation

    Inactivation of ADA2 enhances agar invasion. (A) C. glabrata strains were grown overnight in YPD at 37°C, washed twice with dH 2 O, and diluted to an OD 600 of 1 unit/ml. Then, 3 μl of cells was spotted onto solid YPD and incubated at 37°C for 10 days. Colonies were photographed before and after washing with dH 2 O. (B) The colonies from the assay whose results are shown in panel A were washed, excised, and microscopically observed from the top and side. Arrows, the agar surface.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Deletion of ADA2 Increases Antifungal Drug Susceptibility and Virulence in Candida glabrata

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01924-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inactivation of ADA2 enhances agar invasion. (A) C. glabrata strains were grown overnight in YPD at 37°C, washed twice with dH 2 O, and diluted to an OD 600 of 1 unit/ml. Then, 3 μl of cells was spotted onto solid YPD and incubated at 37°C for 10 days. Colonies were photographed before and after washing with dH 2 O. (B) The colonies from the assay whose results are shown in panel A were washed, excised, and microscopically observed from the top and side. Arrows, the agar surface.

    Article Snippet: C. glabrata strains were grown overnight in YPD broth at 37°C, washed twice with dH2 O, stained with 1 mg/ml calcofluor white (Fluorescent Brighter 28; Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature, and then washed once with dH2 O. Stained cell suspensions were spotted onto slides and visualized at a ×1,000 magnification under a bright field and UV light.

    Techniques: Incubation

    ADA2 control of antifungal drug tolerance and cell wall integrity is mediated by ERG6 . The erg6 mutants were susceptible to echinocandins, fluconazole, cell wall-perturbing agents, and the ER stress chemical tunicamycin but not amphotericin B. Cells were grown overnight in YPD at 37°C and washed twice with dH 2 O, 5-fold serially diluted, and spotted onto YPD medium containing MCF, CSF, ANF, FLC, PSC, VRC, SDS, CFW, CR, DTT, or TM at the indicated concentration. Strains were spotted onto SC medium with or without 50 ng/ml AmB to test tolerance to amphotericin B. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 30 h.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Deletion of ADA2 Increases Antifungal Drug Susceptibility and Virulence in Candida glabrata

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01924-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ADA2 control of antifungal drug tolerance and cell wall integrity is mediated by ERG6 . The erg6 mutants were susceptible to echinocandins, fluconazole, cell wall-perturbing agents, and the ER stress chemical tunicamycin but not amphotericin B. Cells were grown overnight in YPD at 37°C and washed twice with dH 2 O, 5-fold serially diluted, and spotted onto YPD medium containing MCF, CSF, ANF, FLC, PSC, VRC, SDS, CFW, CR, DTT, or TM at the indicated concentration. Strains were spotted onto SC medium with or without 50 ng/ml AmB to test tolerance to amphotericin B. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 30 h.

    Article Snippet: C. glabrata strains were grown overnight in YPD broth at 37°C, washed twice with dH2 O, stained with 1 mg/ml calcofluor white (Fluorescent Brighter 28; Sigma) for 5 min at room temperature, and then washed once with dH2 O. Stained cell suspensions were spotted onto slides and visualized at a ×1,000 magnification under a bright field and UV light.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Incubation

    Growth of wild-type (WT) ( SRR1 / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on YPD agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter

    Journal: Eukaryotic Cell

    Article Title: Mitochondrial Two-Component Signaling Systems in Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1128/EC.00048-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of wild-type (WT) ( SRR1 / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ , srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 , and srr1Δ/Δ+SRR1 -GFP strains of C. albicans at 30°C for 48 h on YPD agar (control) (A) and YPD agar containing 7 mM H 2 O 2 (B). Five-microliter

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted as described above from wild-type ( SRR1 / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ ( srr1 / srr1 ), and gene-reconstituted ( srr1Δ/Δ + SRR1 ) strains grown in YPD broth at 30°C, and cDNA synthesized by using the SuperScript indirect cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen) following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques:

    Expression of SRR1 -dependent genes. C. albicans strains were grown to log phase in YPD broth at 30°C and treated with H 2 O 2 . qPCR was done to determine the RNA levels of GOA1 (a), MRF1 (b), MAM33 (c), orf19.2175 (d), and orf19.7365 (e). Each gene's

    Journal: Eukaryotic Cell

    Article Title: Mitochondrial Two-Component Signaling Systems in Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1128/EC.00048-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of SRR1 -dependent genes. C. albicans strains were grown to log phase in YPD broth at 30°C and treated with H 2 O 2 . qPCR was done to determine the RNA levels of GOA1 (a), MRF1 (b), MAM33 (c), orf19.2175 (d), and orf19.7365 (e). Each gene's

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted as described above from wild-type ( SRR1 / SRR1 ), srr1Δ/Δ ( srr1 / srr1 ), and gene-reconstituted ( srr1Δ/Δ + SRR1 ) strains grown in YPD broth at 30°C, and cDNA synthesized by using the SuperScript indirect cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen) following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or M9-mucus broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: The Rhomboid Protease GlpG Promotes the Persistence of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli within the Gut

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00866-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mucus-specific candidate fitness genes are important for growth on the LCFA oleate. Four genes were chosen from the Tn-seq mucus-specific candidate fitness gene list, disrupted, and competed against the WT during microaerobic growth in M9-glucose broth (A) or M9-mucus broth (B). WT strain F11 and each mutant strain were mixed 1:1 and grown microaerobically for 24 h in the indicated medium and then subcultured 1:100 and grown for another 24 h. The titers in the cultures were determined at both the 24- and 48-h time points. The log 10 CI was calculated by dividing the mutant titers by the WT titers (Δ/WT). *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (B) Bacteria were grown and titers were determined as described in the legend to panel A, except that the bacteria were grown in M9-mucus medium. *, the CI was significantly different from 0 by the one-sample t test ( P ≤ 0.05). (C) Mutant strains that exhibited defects in M9-mucus broth were complemented with plasmids that expressed the specified target genes under the control of their native promoters (F11 Δ fadL was complemented with pCWR37, the Δ fbp mutant was complemented with pCWR38, and the Δ glpG mutant was complemented with pCWR39). The graph shows the results from competitive assays between the WT strain carrying the empty vector pCWR40 and mutant strains that were either complemented or transformed with pCWR40. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. **, P ≤ 0.01; ****, P ≤ 0.0001. The bars in panels A to C indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (D and E) The Δ fadL , Δ fbp , and Δ glpG mutants carrying either an empty vector control or a complementation plasmid, as described in the legend to panel C, were streaked onto agar plates containing oleate (D) or glucose (E) as the sole carbon source.

    Article Snippet: In addition, for the M9-mucus broth, 0.5% porcine gastric mucus (catalog number M1778; Sigma) was used in place of glucose.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation, Transformation Assay

    The Δ glpG mutant exhibits a defect in the downstream gene glpR . (A) A schematic of the glpEGR operon, with promoter locations indicated by black arrows. Below the operon are listed the fitness scores (FS; log 2 scale) and P values for each gene in mucus broth determined by Tn-seq. (B) Each glp mutant carrying the empty vector control (pCWR40), a plasmid expressing glpEGR (pCWR39), or a plasmid expressing glpEG (pCWR50) was grown in competition with WT strain F11 carrying the control plasmid. The bacteria were grown in M9-mucus broth for 24 h microaerobically and then subcultured into fresh medium and grown for an additional 24 h. After 48 h of growth, the titer of each culture was determined to enumerate WT and mutant levels. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. *, P ≤ 0.05; ****, P ≤ 0.0001; ns, not significant. Bars indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (C and D) The WT and Δ glpEGR mutant strains carrying either the empty vector control or the glpEGR or glpEG expression construct, as indicated, were grown on minimal medium agar containing oleate (C) or glucose (D) as the sole source of carbon.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: The Rhomboid Protease GlpG Promotes the Persistence of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli within the Gut

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00866-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The Δ glpG mutant exhibits a defect in the downstream gene glpR . (A) A schematic of the glpEGR operon, with promoter locations indicated by black arrows. Below the operon are listed the fitness scores (FS; log 2 scale) and P values for each gene in mucus broth determined by Tn-seq. (B) Each glp mutant carrying the empty vector control (pCWR40), a plasmid expressing glpEGR (pCWR39), or a plasmid expressing glpEG (pCWR50) was grown in competition with WT strain F11 carrying the control plasmid. The bacteria were grown in M9-mucus broth for 24 h microaerobically and then subcultured into fresh medium and grown for an additional 24 h. After 48 h of growth, the titer of each culture was determined to enumerate WT and mutant levels. P values were determined by an unpaired Student's t test. *, P ≤ 0.05; ****, P ≤ 0.0001; ns, not significant. Bars indicate mean values ± SEMs from three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (C and D) The WT and Δ glpEGR mutant strains carrying either the empty vector control or the glpEGR or glpEG expression construct, as indicated, were grown on minimal medium agar containing oleate (C) or glucose (D) as the sole source of carbon.

    Article Snippet: In addition, for the M9-mucus broth, 0.5% porcine gastric mucus (catalog number M1778; Sigma) was used in place of glucose.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Construct

    Representative SEM images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits

    Journal: BDJ Open

    Article Title: The antibacterial efficacy of a foam mouthwash and its ability to remove biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41405-018-0005-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative SEM images of enamel surfaces. a – c After biofilm formation, before foam or saline rinsing; a1, b1—after foam rinsing, c1—after saline rinsing. Black arrows indicate biofilm location site. White arrows indicate erosive pits

    Article Snippet: After primary SEM imaging the teeth were transferred into 20 mL A. C. Broth (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) containing pooled human saliva and incubated for 48 h at 37 °C on a MaxQ 4000 rocker platform.

    Techniques:

    Elimination (recovery) (A) and cell uptake (B) of U from BG-11 medium supplemented with 4 mg U L −1 by the artificially selected ChlSG strain after 48 days in free suspension. The amount of U significantly decreased in the supernatant (A) and the biomass (B) showed a positive slope in the U uptake over time. No significant differences can be observed in terms of U uptake g −1 DB over time (C) , with a mean value of ~6 mg U g −1 DB of ChlSG.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Improvement of the Uranium Sequestration Ability of a Chlamydomonas sp. (ChlSP Strain) Isolated From Extreme Uranium Mine Tailings Through Selection for Potential Bioremediation Application

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00523

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Elimination (recovery) (A) and cell uptake (B) of U from BG-11 medium supplemented with 4 mg U L −1 by the artificially selected ChlSG strain after 48 days in free suspension. The amount of U significantly decreased in the supernatant (A) and the biomass (B) showed a positive slope in the U uptake over time. No significant differences can be observed in terms of U uptake g −1 DB over time (C) , with a mean value of ~6 mg U g −1 DB of ChlSG.

    Article Snippet: For regular maintenance, strains were grown in 50–250 mL cell culture flasks (Greiner, Bio-One Inc., Longwood, USA) with filtered U mine water or freshwater enriched with BG-11 broth (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany), and maintained at 20 ± 2°C and a constant irradiance of 80 μmol photons m−2 s−1 over the waveband 400–700 nm from cool white fluorescent tubes.

    Techniques: