Structured Review

PerkinElmer kynurenine
Major metabolites of the <t>kynurenine</t> pathway of tryptophan degradation. KMO, located in a pivotal position of the pathway, is responsible for the conversion of kynurenine to neurotoxic metabolites (such as 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid) in the main branch of the enzymatic cascade. However, kynurenine can also be enzymatically converted to anthranilic acid or to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. The kynurenine pathway normally accounts for > 95% of tryptophan metabolism in mammals.
Kynurenine, supplied by PerkinElmer, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 244 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Average 92 stars, based on 244 article reviews
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kynurenine - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
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1) Product Images from "Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice"

Article Title: Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice

Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.503813

Major metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. KMO, located in a pivotal position of the pathway, is responsible for the conversion of kynurenine to neurotoxic metabolites (such as 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid) in the main branch of the enzymatic cascade. However, kynurenine can also be enzymatically converted to anthranilic acid or to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. The kynurenine pathway normally accounts for > 95% of tryptophan metabolism in mammals.
Figure Legend Snippet: Major metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. KMO, located in a pivotal position of the pathway, is responsible for the conversion of kynurenine to neurotoxic metabolites (such as 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid) in the main branch of the enzymatic cascade. However, kynurenine can also be enzymatically converted to anthranilic acid or to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. The kynurenine pathway normally accounts for > 95% of tryptophan metabolism in mammals.

Techniques Used:

KP metabolites in the liver. A , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, the levels of tryptophan are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. B , D , and E , compared with Kmo +/+ mice, the levels of kynurenine, KYNA, and anthranilic acid are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. C , the levels of 3-HK are significantly reduced in Kmo −/− mice, F , QUIN levels are eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. G , the levels of NAD + are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 5–9/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: KP metabolites in the liver. A , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, the levels of tryptophan are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. B , D , and E , compared with Kmo +/+ mice, the levels of kynurenine, KYNA, and anthranilic acid are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. C , the levels of 3-HK are significantly reduced in Kmo −/− mice, F , QUIN levels are eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. G , the levels of NAD + are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 5–9/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

KP metabolites in plasma. A , C , and D , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, the levels of kynurenine ( A ), KYNA ( C ), and anthranilic acid ( D ) are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. B , levels of 3-HK are greatly reduced in Kmo −/− mice. E , QUIN is essentially eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 5–9/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. *, p
Figure Legend Snippet: KP metabolites in plasma. A , C , and D , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, the levels of kynurenine ( A ), KYNA ( C ), and anthranilic acid ( D ) are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. B , levels of 3-HK are greatly reduced in Kmo −/− mice. E , QUIN is essentially eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 5–9/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. *, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

KP metabolites in brain. A , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, tryptophan levels are slightly reduced in the brain of Kmo −/− mice. B , D , and E , the levels of kynurenine ( B ), KYNA ( D ), and anthranilic acid ( E ) are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. C , the levels of 3-HK are significantly reduced in the mutant animals. F , Kmo −/− mice exhibit a moderate, but significant, reduction in QUIN levels compared with Kmo +/+ controls. G , no significant differences between the levels of NAD + in Kmo +/+ and Kmo −/− genotypes. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–7/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. *, p
Figure Legend Snippet: KP metabolites in brain. A , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) controls, tryptophan levels are slightly reduced in the brain of Kmo −/− mice. B , D , and E , the levels of kynurenine ( B ), KYNA ( D ), and anthranilic acid ( E ) are significantly elevated in Kmo −/− mice. C , the levels of 3-HK are significantly reduced in the mutant animals. F , Kmo −/− mice exhibit a moderate, but significant, reduction in QUIN levels compared with Kmo +/+ controls. G , no significant differences between the levels of NAD + in Kmo +/+ and Kmo −/− genotypes. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–7/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. *, p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis

KP enzyme activities in brain. A , KMO activity is eliminated in cortical homogenates of Kmo −/− mice. B–F , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) mice, the activities of KAT II, kynureninase (using either kynurenine or 3-HK as a substrate), 3-HAO, and QPRT are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–8/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: KP enzyme activities in brain. A , KMO activity is eliminated in cortical homogenates of Kmo −/− mice. B–F , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) mice, the activities of KAT II, kynureninase (using either kynurenine or 3-HK as a substrate), 3-HAO, and QPRT are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–8/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Mouse Assay

KP enzyme activities in the liver. A , KMO activity is eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. B–F , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) mice, the activities of KAT II, kynureninase (using either kynurenine or 3-HK as a substrate), 3-HAO, and QPRT are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–7/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p
Figure Legend Snippet: KP enzyme activities in the liver. A , KMO activity is eliminated in Kmo −/− mice. B–F , compared with wild-type ( Kmo +/+ ) mice, the activities of KAT II, kynureninase (using either kynurenine or 3-HK as a substrate), 3-HAO, and QPRT are unchanged in Kmo −/− mice. The data are the means ± S.E. ( n = 6–7/group). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. ***, p

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Mouse Assay

Related Articles

High Performance Liquid Chromatography:

Article Title: Effects of 1-Methyltryptophan on Immune Responses and the Kynurenine Pathway after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pigs
Article Snippet: .. Quantification of 1-MT and TRP Metabolites The determination of 1-MT, TRP, KYN, KYNA and QUIN in EDTA plasma and tissues was performed using methods that have been previously described in detail [ , ] using an HPLC-system (Perkin Elmer, series 200, Darmstadt, Germany) and an API2000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source (ABSciex, Darmstadt, Germany). ..

Article Title: Effects of 1-Methyltryptophan on Immune Responses and the Kynurenine Pathway after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pigs
Article Snippet: .. The determination of 1-MT, TRP, KYN, KYNA and QUIN in EDTA plasma and tissues was performed using methods that have been previously described in detail [ , ] using an HPLC-system (Perkin Elmer, series 200, Darmstadt, Germany) and an API2000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source (ABSciex, Darmstadt, Germany). ..

Fluorescence:

Article Title: PRE- AND POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO KYNURENINE CAUSES COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN ADULTHOOD
Article Snippet: .. In the eluate, kynurenine was detected fluorimetrically (excitation: 365 nm, emission: 480 nm; Perkin Elmer Series 200 fluorescence detector, Waltham, MA). ..

Article Title: CONTINUOUS KYNURENINE ADMINISTRATION DURING THE PRENATAL PERIOD, BUT NOT DURING ADOLESCENCE, CAUSES LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN ADULT RATS
Article Snippet: .. In the eluate, kynurenine was detected fluorimetrically (excitation: 365 nm, emission: 480 nm; Perkin Elmer Series 200 fluorescence detector, Waltham, MA) at a retention time of approximately 6 min. ..

Article Title: Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice
Article Snippet: .. Kynurenine was detected fluorimetrically (excitation wavelength, 365 nm; emission wavelength, 480 nm; S200 fluorescence detector, PerkinElmer Life Sciences). ..

Mass Spectrometry:

Article Title: Effects of 1-Methyltryptophan on Immune Responses and the Kynurenine Pathway after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pigs
Article Snippet: .. Quantification of 1-MT and TRP Metabolites The determination of 1-MT, TRP, KYN, KYNA and QUIN in EDTA plasma and tissues was performed using methods that have been previously described in detail [ , ] using an HPLC-system (Perkin Elmer, series 200, Darmstadt, Germany) and an API2000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source (ABSciex, Darmstadt, Germany). ..

Article Title: Effects of 1-Methyltryptophan on Immune Responses and the Kynurenine Pathway after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pigs
Article Snippet: .. The determination of 1-MT, TRP, KYN, KYNA and QUIN in EDTA plasma and tissues was performed using methods that have been previously described in detail [ , ] using an HPLC-system (Perkin Elmer, series 200, Darmstadt, Germany) and an API2000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source (ABSciex, Darmstadt, Germany). ..

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