ryanodine  (Millipore)


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    Ryanodine
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    sml1106
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    Structured Review

    Millipore ryanodine
    Ryanodine

    https://www.bioz.com/result/ryanodine/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 10 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ryanodine - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) mediates cAMP activation of p38 MAPK and modulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in cerebellar neurons"

    Article Title: Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) mediates cAMP activation of p38 MAPK and modulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in cerebellar neurons

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611031104

    Epac mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ activates BK channels. ( A ) Representative trace of 8-pCPT-induced activation of a BK channel recorded in Ca 2+ -free external medium. ( B ) Inhibition of 8-pCPT-induced activation of BK channels by ryanodine (10 μM) in normal external medium. ( C ) BK channels activated by 8-pCPT after 30-min treatment with xestospongin-C (7.5 μM) in normal external medium. ( D ) Quantification of the 8-pCPT-induced activation of BK channels in normal, Ca 2+ -free, and ryanodine- and xestospongin-C-containing external medium.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Epac mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ activates BK channels. ( A ) Representative trace of 8-pCPT-induced activation of a BK channel recorded in Ca 2+ -free external medium. ( B ) Inhibition of 8-pCPT-induced activation of BK channels by ryanodine (10 μM) in normal external medium. ( C ) BK channels activated by 8-pCPT after 30-min treatment with xestospongin-C (7.5 μM) in normal external medium. ( D ) Quantification of the 8-pCPT-induced activation of BK channels in normal, Ca 2+ -free, and ryanodine- and xestospongin-C-containing external medium.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Inhibition

    2) Product Images from "Contribution of transient and sustained calcium influx, and sensitization to depolarization-induced contractions of the intact mouse aorta"

    Article Title: Contribution of transient and sustained calcium influx, and sensitization to depolarization-induced contractions of the intact mouse aorta

    Journal: BMC Physiology

    doi: 10.1186/1472-6793-12-9

    Ca 2+ from intracellular Ca 2+ stores does not contribute to K + contractions. Effects of 15 μM ryanodine on baseline isometric tension ( A ), and on force evoked by 20 mM caffeine ( B ) or 50 mM K + ( C ). Results show mean ± s.e.m, n = 4. *, ***: P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ca 2+ from intracellular Ca 2+ stores does not contribute to K + contractions. Effects of 15 μM ryanodine on baseline isometric tension ( A ), and on force evoked by 20 mM caffeine ( B ) or 50 mM K + ( C ). Results show mean ± s.e.m, n = 4. *, ***: P

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Arachidonate-Regulated Ca2+ Influx in Human Airway Smooth Muscle"

    Article Title: Arachidonate-Regulated Ca2+ Influx in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0144OC

    Proposed model of ARC channels in human ASM. Regardless of the source (agonist- or cytokine-induced production), AA activates plasma membrane ARC channels that are within caveolae. Such activation is facilitated by plasma membrane STIM1, and involves repeated SR Ca 2+ release. IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; RyR, ryanodine receptor; SERCA, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed model of ARC channels in human ASM. Regardless of the source (agonist- or cytokine-induced production), AA activates plasma membrane ARC channels that are within caveolae. Such activation is facilitated by plasma membrane STIM1, and involves repeated SR Ca 2+ release. IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; RyR, ryanodine receptor; SERCA, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    4) Product Images from "The Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55 Modulates Pain Perception in the Periaqueductal Gray"

    Article Title: The Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55 Modulates Pain Perception in the Periaqueductal Gray

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    doi: 10.1124/mol.115.099333

    LPI mobilizes inositol 1,4,5-trisphoshate–sensitive Ca 2+ stores. (A) Characteristic examples of Ca 2+ responses triggered by LPI (10 μ M) administration in PAG neurons incubated with Ca 2+ -free saline in the absence or presence of two pore channel blocker Ned-19, IP 3 R blockers xestospongin C (XeC), and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or ryanodine receptor blocker ryanodine (Ry); the effect of LPI administration in Ca 2+ -containing saline is depicted by the gray trace in the first panel (included for comparison purposes). (B) Comparison of the Ca 2+ responses produced by the indicated treatments; P
    Figure Legend Snippet: LPI mobilizes inositol 1,4,5-trisphoshate–sensitive Ca 2+ stores. (A) Characteristic examples of Ca 2+ responses triggered by LPI (10 μ M) administration in PAG neurons incubated with Ca 2+ -free saline in the absence or presence of two pore channel blocker Ned-19, IP 3 R blockers xestospongin C (XeC), and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or ryanodine receptor blocker ryanodine (Ry); the effect of LPI administration in Ca 2+ -containing saline is depicted by the gray trace in the first panel (included for comparison purposes). (B) Comparison of the Ca 2+ responses produced by the indicated treatments; P

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Produced

    5) Product Images from "G?? subunits inhibit Epac-induced melanoma cell migration"

    Article Title: G?? subunits inhibit Epac-induced melanoma cell migration

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-256

    Gβγ induces Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space . SK-Mel-2 cells were subjected to Ca 2+ signal measurements. a and b) SK-Mel-2 cells were incubated with L9A (20 μM) or mSIRK (20 μM) followed by 8-pMeOPT stimulation (200 μM). mSIRK, but not L9A, increased Ca 2+ signal. 8-pMeOPT failed to show an additional increase of Ca 2+ signal after mSIRK. c, d and e) mSIRK-induced Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by pretreatment with GDPβS (100 μM) for 5 min (c), by Ca 2+ removal from the media (d) or by depletion of Ca 2+ in the extracellular space with EGTA (5 mM) (e). SK-Mel-2 cells were subjected to Ca 2+ signal measurements. f, g and h) Inhibition of IP3 receptors with 2-APB (1 μM) (f) or xestopongin C (1 μM) (g), and blocking of ryanodine receptor with ryanodine (10 μM) (h), did not inhibit mSIRK-induced Ca 2+ elevation. i) mSIRK increases Ca 2+ signal SK-Mel-2 cells after depletion of Ca 2+ in the ER with thapsigargin (2 μM).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Gβγ induces Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space . SK-Mel-2 cells were subjected to Ca 2+ signal measurements. a and b) SK-Mel-2 cells were incubated with L9A (20 μM) or mSIRK (20 μM) followed by 8-pMeOPT stimulation (200 μM). mSIRK, but not L9A, increased Ca 2+ signal. 8-pMeOPT failed to show an additional increase of Ca 2+ signal after mSIRK. c, d and e) mSIRK-induced Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by pretreatment with GDPβS (100 μM) for 5 min (c), by Ca 2+ removal from the media (d) or by depletion of Ca 2+ in the extracellular space with EGTA (5 mM) (e). SK-Mel-2 cells were subjected to Ca 2+ signal measurements. f, g and h) Inhibition of IP3 receptors with 2-APB (1 μM) (f) or xestopongin C (1 μM) (g), and blocking of ryanodine receptor with ryanodine (10 μM) (h), did not inhibit mSIRK-induced Ca 2+ elevation. i) mSIRK increases Ca 2+ signal SK-Mel-2 cells after depletion of Ca 2+ in the ER with thapsigargin (2 μM).

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Inhibition, Blocking Assay

    6) Product Images from "Non-random nature of spontaneous mIPSCs in mouse auditory brainstem neurons revealed by recurrence quantification analysis"

    Article Title: Non-random nature of spontaneous mIPSCs in mouse auditory brainstem neurons revealed by recurrence quantification analysis

    Journal: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

    doi: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3258

    Recurrence quantification analysis summary for mIPSCs from normal and deaf mice, and following ryanodine. ( a ) Mean %recurrence, ( b ) mean %determinism, ( c ) mean entropy and ( d ) mean maximal Lyapunov exponent for normal mice control (black bars, left) and
    Figure Legend Snippet: Recurrence quantification analysis summary for mIPSCs from normal and deaf mice, and following ryanodine. ( a ) Mean %recurrence, ( b ) mean %determinism, ( c ) mean entropy and ( d ) mean maximal Lyapunov exponent for normal mice control (black bars, left) and

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Glycinergic mIPSC frequency, amplitude and kinetics are not altered by ryanodine. ( a ) Voltage-clamp recordings showing mIPSC frequency does not change after addition of ryanodine (left). mIPSCs from normal and deaf mice (right). Datasets with similar
    Figure Legend Snippet: Glycinergic mIPSC frequency, amplitude and kinetics are not altered by ryanodine. ( a ) Voltage-clamp recordings showing mIPSC frequency does not change after addition of ryanodine (left). mIPSCs from normal and deaf mice (right). Datasets with similar

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    7) Product Images from "Age-associated abnormalities of intrinsic automaticity of sinoatrial nodal cells are linked to deficient cAMP-PKA-Ca2+ signaling"

    Article Title: Age-associated abnormalities of intrinsic automaticity of sinoatrial nodal cells are linked to deficient cAMP-PKA-Ca2+ signaling

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology

    doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00088.2014

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and RyR effects on the beating rate in single SAN pacemaker cells. Spontaneous AP firing rate in response to ryanodine (10 μM; A ) and CPA (1–10 μM; B ) are shown. ●, Data from adult mice; ◇, data from aged mice. n = 5–7 cells for each data point were isolated from 4 adult and 4 aged mice. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and RyR effects on the beating rate in single SAN pacemaker cells. Spontaneous AP firing rate in response to ryanodine (10 μM; A ) and CPA (1–10 μM; B ) are shown. ●, Data from adult mice; ◇, data from aged mice. n = 5–7 cells for each data point were isolated from 4 adult and 4 aged mice. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Isolation

    AP-induced Ca 2+ transients characteristics in adult and aged single SAN pacemaker cells. Representative Ca 2+ transients ( A ), ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca 2+ release flux, indexed by the maximum positive derivative of change in peak value normalized to minimal fluorescence (dF/F 0 /d t max ; B ), and the Ca 2+ transient duration (ms) at 85% Ca 2+ transient decay time (CaR 85 ; C ) in aged ( n = 7, cells from 4 mice) and adult SAN cells ( n = 6, cells from 4 mice) are shown. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: AP-induced Ca 2+ transients characteristics in adult and aged single SAN pacemaker cells. Representative Ca 2+ transients ( A ), ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca 2+ release flux, indexed by the maximum positive derivative of change in peak value normalized to minimal fluorescence (dF/F 0 /d t max ; B ), and the Ca 2+ transient duration (ms) at 85% Ca 2+ transient decay time (CaR 85 ; C ) in aged ( n = 7, cells from 4 mice) and adult SAN cells ( n = 6, cells from 4 mice) are shown. ** P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry, Mouse Assay

    8) Product Images from "Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles"

    Article Title: Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.222083

    Heterogeneity in the expression of transcripts for ryanodine receptor isoforms in smooth muscle cells of cremaster muscle feed arteries and second-order arterioles
    Figure Legend Snippet: Heterogeneity in the expression of transcripts for ryanodine receptor isoforms in smooth muscle cells of cremaster muscle feed arteries and second-order arterioles

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Ryanodine receptors are not functionally coupled to BK Ca channels in second-order cremaster muscle arterioles
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptors are not functionally coupled to BK Ca channels in second-order cremaster muscle arterioles

    Techniques Used:

    Heterogeneity in the localisation of ryanodine receptor protein in smooth muscle cells of cremaster muscle feed arteries and second-order arterioles
    Figure Legend Snippet: Heterogeneity in the localisation of ryanodine receptor protein in smooth muscle cells of cremaster muscle feed arteries and second-order arterioles

    Techniques Used:

    Ryanodine receptors and BK Ca channels are functionally coupled in cremaster muscle feed arteries
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptors and BK Ca channels are functionally coupled in cremaster muscle feed arteries

    Techniques Used:

    Ryanodine receptors do not contribute to smooth muscle cell Ca 2+ signals or to myogenic tone in second-order mouse cremaster arterioles
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptors do not contribute to smooth muscle cell Ca 2+ signals or to myogenic tone in second-order mouse cremaster arterioles

    Techniques Used:

    Ryanodine receptors contribute to smooth muscle cell Ca 2+ signals and to myogenic tone in mouse cremaster feed arteries
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptors contribute to smooth muscle cell Ca 2+ signals and to myogenic tone in mouse cremaster feed arteries

    Techniques Used:

    9) Product Images from "Mechanism of asynchronous Ca2+ waves underlying agonist-induced contraction in the rat basilar artery"

    Article Title: Mechanism of asynchronous Ca2+ waves underlying agonist-induced contraction in the rat basilar artery

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00063.x

    Effect of ryanodine, tetracaine and caffeine-induced depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ stores on uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP)-induced Ca 2+ waves and tonic contraction in rat basilar artery. (A) Application of a high concentration (200 µmol·L
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ryanodine, tetracaine and caffeine-induced depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ stores on uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP)-induced Ca 2+ waves and tonic contraction in rat basilar artery. (A) Application of a high concentration (200 µmol·L

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) on the ryanodine-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ release channels, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase, L-type Ca 2+ channels and store-operated channels in rat basilar artery. (A) Left: Three
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) on the ryanodine-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ release channels, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase, L-type Ca 2+ channels and store-operated channels in rat basilar artery. (A) Left: Three

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "Ryanodine-Sensitive Component of Calcium Transients Evoked by Nerve Firing at Presynaptic Nerve Terminals"

    Article Title: Ryanodine-Sensitive Component of Calcium Transients Evoked by Nerve Firing at Presynaptic Nerve Terminals

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-21-06703.1996

    Ryanodine clamped nerve-evoked Δ[Ca 2+ ] i near the threshold level of [Ca 2+ ] i for LHRH release. Superimposed [Ca 2+ ] i traces were responses evoked by 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 600, and 1000 stimuli. All stimuli were delivered at 20 Hz. The 0 [Ca 2+ ] i level is indicated by the line at the bottom of each panel. The dotted vertical lines in A and B indicate the time when later stimuli no longer produced net increase in [Ca 2+ ] i . Note that this time corresponded to the 460th stimulus in NR and the 200th stimulus in RY.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine clamped nerve-evoked Δ[Ca 2+ ] i near the threshold level of [Ca 2+ ] i for LHRH release. Superimposed [Ca 2+ ] i traces were responses evoked by 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 600, and 1000 stimuli. All stimuli were delivered at 20 Hz. The 0 [Ca 2+ ] i level is indicated by the line at the bottom of each panel. The dotted vertical lines in A and B indicate the time when later stimuli no longer produced net increase in [Ca 2+ ] i . Note that this time corresponded to the 460th stimulus in NR and the 200th stimulus in RY.

    Techniques Used: Produced

    Summary of the functional capacity of the ryanodine-sensitive store in 12 units. The units are numbered arbitrarily.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Summary of the functional capacity of the ryanodine-sensitive store in 12 units. The units are numbered arbitrarily.

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    Maximum ryanodine inhibitions of the peak [Ca 2+ ] i ([Ca 2+ ] p ) in 19 units are plotted against their corresponding peak [Ca 2+ ] i in normal Ringer solution. The percent inhibition was calculated as 100 × (1 − [Ca 2+ ] peak,RY /[Ca 2+ ] peak,NR ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Maximum ryanodine inhibitions of the peak [Ca 2+ ] i ([Ca 2+ ] p ) in 19 units are plotted against their corresponding peak [Ca 2+ ] i in normal Ringer solution. The percent inhibition was calculated as 100 × (1 − [Ca 2+ ] peak,RY /[Ca 2+ ] peak,NR ).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    11) Product Images from "Caffeine-Sensitive Calcium Stores Regulate Synaptic Transmission from Retinal Rod Photoreceptors"

    Article Title: Caffeine-Sensitive Calcium Stores Regulate Synaptic Transmission from Retinal Rod Photoreceptors

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-17-07249.1999

    Ryanodine and BAPTA reduce the effectiveness of caffeine on I Ca . The rods were held at −70 mV and periodically (0.02 Hz) depolarized with a voltage ramp to +50 mV. The peak of I Ca is plotted in A and B . A , Ryanodine (20 μ m ) suppressed the
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine and BAPTA reduce the effectiveness of caffeine on I Ca . The rods were held at −70 mV and periodically (0.02 Hz) depolarized with a voltage ramp to +50 mV. The peak of I Ca is plotted in A and B . A , Ryanodine (20 μ m ) suppressed the

    Techniques Used:

    Ryanodine completely blocks caffeine-induced transient peaks in [Ca 2+ ] i but only partially blocks the caffeine-induced depression of [Ca 2+ ] i . Left , Caffeine (10 m m ) elicited the two-phased [Ca 2+ ] i response in a rod constantly depolarized with 20 m m KCl.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine completely blocks caffeine-induced transient peaks in [Ca 2+ ] i but only partially blocks the caffeine-induced depression of [Ca 2+ ] i . Left , Caffeine (10 m m ) elicited the two-phased [Ca 2+ ] i response in a rod constantly depolarized with 20 m m KCl.

    Techniques Used:

    Dose dependence and ryanodine sensitivity of the caffeine-evoked reduction in glutamate release. A , The effect of caffeine ( filled bars ) versus control ( open bars ) on release was observed at 5 m m (2.14 ± 0.14 vs 4.37 ± 0.35 control) and
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose dependence and ryanodine sensitivity of the caffeine-evoked reduction in glutamate release. A , The effect of caffeine ( filled bars ) versus control ( open bars ) on release was observed at 5 m m (2.14 ± 0.14 vs 4.37 ± 0.35 control) and

    Techniques Used:

    12) Product Images from "Calcium store-mediated signaling in sustentacular cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium"

    Article Title: Calcium store-mediated signaling in sustentacular cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium

    Journal: Glia

    doi: 10.1002/glia.20792

    Mechanism of G-protein coupled receptor calcium mobilization Activation of GPCRs activates phospholipase C and production of DAG and IP 3 . IP 3 activates the IP 3 receptor with subsequent release of calcium from stores. The increase in cytosolic calcium induces calcium-dependent calcium release via the ryanodine receptor. Large arrows depict pathway of GPCR activation, and thin lines depict pharmacological targets. Abbreviations: 2-APB, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate; ATPase, Ca 2+ -ATPase; CPA, cyclopiazonic acid; DAG, diacylglycerol; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GPCR, G-protein coupled receptor; G, G protein; IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; PLC, phospholipase C; PIP 2 , phosphoinositols; RyR, ryanodine receptor.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of G-protein coupled receptor calcium mobilization Activation of GPCRs activates phospholipase C and production of DAG and IP 3 . IP 3 activates the IP 3 receptor with subsequent release of calcium from stores. The increase in cytosolic calcium induces calcium-dependent calcium release via the ryanodine receptor. Large arrows depict pathway of GPCR activation, and thin lines depict pharmacological targets. Abbreviations: 2-APB, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate; ATPase, Ca 2+ -ATPase; CPA, cyclopiazonic acid; DAG, diacylglycerol; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GPCR, G-protein coupled receptor; G, G protein; IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; PLC, phospholipase C; PIP 2 , phosphoinositols; RyR, ryanodine receptor.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Planar Chromatography

    13) Product Images from "PAC1hop receptor activation facilitates catecholamine secretion selectively through 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ channels in PC12 cells"

    Article Title: PAC1hop receptor activation facilitates catecholamine secretion selectively through 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ channels in PC12 cells

    Journal: Cellular signalling

    doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.05.005

    PACAP-evoked Ca 2+ release from ryanodine receptor gated-intracellular Ca 2+ stores is not related to PACAP-evoked sustained secretion in PC12+bPAC1hop cells
    Figure Legend Snippet: PACAP-evoked Ca 2+ release from ryanodine receptor gated-intracellular Ca 2+ stores is not related to PACAP-evoked sustained secretion in PC12+bPAC1hop cells

    Techniques Used:

    14) Product Images from "Interaction between Metabotropic and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Regulates Neuronal Network Activity"

    Article Title: Interaction between Metabotropic and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Regulates Neuronal Network Activity

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-14-05382.2000

    Effect of an mGluR antagonist and modulators of second messenger pathways on the mGluR-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors. Outlier box plots showing the amplitude of NMDA-induced calcium responses measured as Δ F / F. A, The mGluR antagonist CPCCOEt blocked the DHPG-induced potentiation of NMDA-induced calcium response. B, The potentiation persisted in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor H-7. C, The potentiation persisted in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor H-8. D, Ryanodine had no effect on the potentiation of NMDA response by DHPG.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of an mGluR antagonist and modulators of second messenger pathways on the mGluR-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors. Outlier box plots showing the amplitude of NMDA-induced calcium responses measured as Δ F / F. A, The mGluR antagonist CPCCOEt blocked the DHPG-induced potentiation of NMDA-induced calcium response. B, The potentiation persisted in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor H-7. C, The potentiation persisted in the presence of the protein kinase inhibitor H-8. D, Ryanodine had no effect on the potentiation of NMDA response by DHPG.

    Techniques Used:

    15) Product Images from "Intracellular Ca2+ Oscillations, a Potential Pacemaking Mechanism in Early Embryonic Heart Cells"

    Article Title: Intracellular Ca2+ Oscillations, a Potential Pacemaking Mechanism in Early Embryonic Heart Cells

    Journal: The Journal of General Physiology

    doi: 10.1085/jgp.200609575

    [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations originate from the SR. (A) Application of thapsigargin (2 μM) led to a complete halt of both [Ca 2+ ] i (top) and E m (bottom) oscillations in patch-clamped cells. (B–E) Spontaneous activity ([Ca 2+ ] i oscillations or transients, left) in non (B and C) or perforated patch-clamped (E) and Fura-2-AM–loaded cardiomyocytes was unaltered in the majority of cells upon application of ryanodine (20 μM; B, middle) or 2-APB (100 μM; C, middle), whereas application of both blocked spontaneous activity in all cells (B, C, and E, right). The traces of individual cells (2 in B and 4 in C) were vertically shifted to be better visible. Cells with [Ca 2+ ] i transients could still be field stimulated (C, right, two top traces); APs could be evoked using brief (2-ms) current injections (E, right). (D) Analysis of the experiments shown in B and C.
    Figure Legend Snippet: [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations originate from the SR. (A) Application of thapsigargin (2 μM) led to a complete halt of both [Ca 2+ ] i (top) and E m (bottom) oscillations in patch-clamped cells. (B–E) Spontaneous activity ([Ca 2+ ] i oscillations or transients, left) in non (B and C) or perforated patch-clamped (E) and Fura-2-AM–loaded cardiomyocytes was unaltered in the majority of cells upon application of ryanodine (20 μM; B, middle) or 2-APB (100 μM; C, middle), whereas application of both blocked spontaneous activity in all cells (B, C, and E, right). The traces of individual cells (2 in B and 4 in C) were vertically shifted to be better visible. Cells with [Ca 2+ ] i transients could still be field stimulated (C, right, two top traces); APs could be evoked using brief (2-ms) current injections (E, right). (D) Analysis of the experiments shown in B and C.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Mass Spectrometry

    16) Product Images from "Epac-selective cAMP Analog 8-pCPT-2?-O-Me-cAMP as a Stimulus for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release and Exocytosis in Pancreatic β-Cells*"

    Article Title: Epac-selective cAMP Analog 8-pCPT-2?-O-Me-cAMP as a Stimulus for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release and Exocytosis in Pancreatic β-Cells*

    Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M211682200

    Human β -cells are sensitive to 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP A , a single EYFP-positive cell was imaged for fura-2 ( A1 ) and 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP (50 μ M) was applied via a micropipette for 10 s. CICR was measured as a transient increase of [Ca 2+ ] i ( A2 ). The β -cell phenotype was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of this cell to respond to a 10-s application of glyburide ( A2; Glyb ., 100 nM). Identical findings were obtained in a total of 10 human β -cells tested. B , CICR in response to 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP was inhibited by treatment of a human β -cell with ryanodine. Arrows indicate a 10-s application of 100 μ M 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP with or without 10 μ M ryanodine ( Ryan .). Horizontal bar indicates the duration of pretreatment with 10 μ M ryanodine applied directly to the solution bathing the cell. Identical findings were obtained in a total of four cells tested.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Human β -cells are sensitive to 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP A , a single EYFP-positive cell was imaged for fura-2 ( A1 ) and 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP (50 μ M) was applied via a micropipette for 10 s. CICR was measured as a transient increase of [Ca 2+ ] i ( A2 ). The β -cell phenotype was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of this cell to respond to a 10-s application of glyburide ( A2; Glyb ., 100 nM). Identical findings were obtained in a total of 10 human β -cells tested. B , CICR in response to 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP was inhibited by treatment of a human β -cell with ryanodine. Arrows indicate a 10-s application of 100 μ M 8-pCPT-2′- O -Me-cAMP with or without 10 μ M ryanodine ( Ryan .). Horizontal bar indicates the duration of pretreatment with 10 μ M ryanodine applied directly to the solution bathing the cell. Identical findings were obtained in a total of four cells tested.

    Techniques Used:

    17) Product Images from "Ryanodine is a Positive Modulator of Acetylcholine Receptor Gating in Cochlear Hair Cells"

    Article Title: Ryanodine is a Positive Modulator of Acetylcholine Receptor Gating in Cochlear Hair Cells

    Journal: JARO: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology

    doi: 10.1007/s10162-007-0090-y

    Effect of ryanodine on ACh-evoked currents in oocytes expressing the α9α10 nAChR. Representative traces of currents evoked by 10 μM ACh, V hold = −70 mV, in the absence ( black traces ) and presence ( gray traces ) of different concentrations of ryanodine. The effect of ryanodine on the amplitude of ACh-evoked currents was reversible ( arrows indicate the postryanodine control response).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ryanodine on ACh-evoked currents in oocytes expressing the α9α10 nAChR. Representative traces of currents evoked by 10 μM ACh, V hold = −70 mV, in the absence ( black traces ) and presence ( gray traces ) of different concentrations of ryanodine. The effect of ryanodine on the amplitude of ACh-evoked currents was reversible ( arrows indicate the postryanodine control response).

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    The activity of the native cochlear α9α10 nAChR in mouse IHCs is potentiated by ryanodine. A Representative traces of currents evoked by 60 μM ACh in mouse IHCs ( V hold = −90 mV) in the absence ( black trace ) and presence of 200 μM ryanodine ( gray trace ). The patch pipette contained 10 mM BAPTA and the extracellular solution 10 nM apamin so as to record currents through the native α9α10 nAChR in isolation from the SK2 channel. B Bar diagram summarizing the effects of ryanodine 200 μM on the response to ACh in eight IHCs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The activity of the native cochlear α9α10 nAChR in mouse IHCs is potentiated by ryanodine. A Representative traces of currents evoked by 60 μM ACh in mouse IHCs ( V hold = −90 mV) in the absence ( black trace ) and presence of 200 μM ryanodine ( gray trace ). The patch pipette contained 10 mM BAPTA and the extracellular solution 10 nM apamin so as to record currents through the native α9α10 nAChR in isolation from the SK2 channel. B Bar diagram summarizing the effects of ryanodine 200 μM on the response to ACh in eight IHCs.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Transferring, Isolation

    Ryanodine increases the sensitivity of the α9α10 nAChR for ACh. A Mean and standard error of the percent change in response to 10 μM ACh (at −70 mV, internal BAPTA buffering) for different concentrations of ryanodine (30, 60, 100, and 200 μM, n = 3–9 per concentration). B Concentration-response curves to ACh in the absence and presence of 200 μM ryanodine ( n = 3–7 per concentration). Ryanodine increased the apparent affinity of the recombinant α9α10 nAChR for ACh and also the amplitude of responses to saturating concentrations of this agonist. V hold = −70 mV.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine increases the sensitivity of the α9α10 nAChR for ACh. A Mean and standard error of the percent change in response to 10 μM ACh (at −70 mV, internal BAPTA buffering) for different concentrations of ryanodine (30, 60, 100, and 200 μM, n = 3–9 per concentration). B Concentration-response curves to ACh in the absence and presence of 200 μM ryanodine ( n = 3–7 per concentration). Ryanodine increased the apparent affinity of the recombinant α9α10 nAChR for ACh and also the amplitude of responses to saturating concentrations of this agonist. V hold = −70 mV.

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Recombinant

    Effects of ryanodine on the cholinergic response of chicken hair cells. A Inward current at −70 mV in a chicken hair cell buffered internally with 10 mM BAPTA to eliminate calcium-dependent SK current. Application of 100 μM ACh for 100 ms (puffer timing indicated by black bar on x-axis) gave rise to a small inward current under control conditions (∼15 pA). After exposure to 100 μM ryanodine, the same ‘puff’ of ACh produced a fourfold larger inward current ( gray ). B The average percent change produced by 100 μM ryanodine in membrane current evoked by ACh ( n = 13). Peak inward current increased ∼fivefold, time to peak increased two- to threefold, but decay time was essentially unchanged. C Inward current evoked by ACh in chicken short hair cells (puffer timing indicated by black bar on x-axis) and enhanced by 100 μM ryanodine was blocked reversibly ( gray traces before and after strychnine) by exposure to 1 μM strychnine ( black trace ), n = 2.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of ryanodine on the cholinergic response of chicken hair cells. A Inward current at −70 mV in a chicken hair cell buffered internally with 10 mM BAPTA to eliminate calcium-dependent SK current. Application of 100 μM ACh for 100 ms (puffer timing indicated by black bar on x-axis) gave rise to a small inward current under control conditions (∼15 pA). After exposure to 100 μM ryanodine, the same ‘puff’ of ACh produced a fourfold larger inward current ( gray ). B The average percent change produced by 100 μM ryanodine in membrane current evoked by ACh ( n = 13). Peak inward current increased ∼fivefold, time to peak increased two- to threefold, but decay time was essentially unchanged. C Inward current evoked by ACh in chicken short hair cells (puffer timing indicated by black bar on x-axis) and enhanced by 100 μM ryanodine was blocked reversibly ( gray traces before and after strychnine) by exposure to 1 μM strychnine ( black trace ), n = 2.

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry, Produced

    Effect of ryanodine on ACh-evoked SK currents in chicken and rat hair cells. A Outward currents through SK channels in isolated chicken short hair cells (at −40 mV, 10 mM EGTA internal buffer), evoked by 100 μM ACh (100 ms puff at black bar on x-axis), were increased (reversibly) in duration by exposure to 100 μM ryanodine ( gray trace ). B Puff application of ACh (100 ms, 100 μM, at black bar on x-axis) produced outward current at −50 mV ( black trace ) in a rat (P16) OHC (10 mM EGTA internal buffer). Exposure to 100 μM ryanodine lengthened the response ( gray trace ). This effect could be reversed. C Ratio of experimental to control amplitude and duration of SK current (as in A , B ) following exposure to 100 μM ryanodine. In both chicken short ( n = 18) and rat outer ( n = 4) hair cells, the half-amplitude duration of the outward SK current evoked by ACh doubled in ryanodine, while peak amplitude was not changed significantly.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ryanodine on ACh-evoked SK currents in chicken and rat hair cells. A Outward currents through SK channels in isolated chicken short hair cells (at −40 mV, 10 mM EGTA internal buffer), evoked by 100 μM ACh (100 ms puff at black bar on x-axis), were increased (reversibly) in duration by exposure to 100 μM ryanodine ( gray trace ). B Puff application of ACh (100 ms, 100 μM, at black bar on x-axis) produced outward current at −50 mV ( black trace ) in a rat (P16) OHC (10 mM EGTA internal buffer). Exposure to 100 μM ryanodine lengthened the response ( gray trace ). This effect could be reversed. C Ratio of experimental to control amplitude and duration of SK current (as in A , B ) following exposure to 100 μM ryanodine. In both chicken short ( n = 18) and rat outer ( n = 4) hair cells, the half-amplitude duration of the outward SK current evoked by ACh doubled in ryanodine, while peak amplitude was not changed significantly.

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Mass Spectrometry, Produced

    18) Product Images from "Adenoviral gene transfer of Akt enhances myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium handling"

    Article Title: Adenoviral gene transfer of Akt enhances myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium handling

    Journal: Gene therapy

    doi: 10.1038/sj.gt.3302589

    Northern blots from left ventricles RNAs hybridized with probes corresponding to ryanodine receptor, SERCA-2, phospholamban, and calsequestrin. 28S rRNA was used as loading control. The intensity of each signal was normalized by GAPDH signal intensity. No significant differences were found.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Northern blots from left ventricles RNAs hybridized with probes corresponding to ryanodine receptor, SERCA-2, phospholamban, and calsequestrin. 28S rRNA was used as loading control. The intensity of each signal was normalized by GAPDH signal intensity. No significant differences were found.

    Techniques Used: Northern Blot

    Graph and representative Western blots showing ryanodine receptor, SERCA-2, phospholamban, and calsequestrin protein levels in LV tissue in the three study groups. Values are mean±s.e.m. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Graph and representative Western blots showing ryanodine receptor, SERCA-2, phospholamban, and calsequestrin protein levels in LV tissue in the three study groups. Values are mean±s.e.m. * P

    Techniques Used: Western Blot

    19) Product Images from "Synaptic contributions to cochlear outer hair cell Ca2+ homeostasis"

    Article Title: Synaptic contributions to cochlear outer hair cell Ca2+ homeostasis

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.08.02.233205

    Modulation of afferent Ca 2+ influx through VGCC by ryanodine and sorcin. A) Mean traces of the Ca 2+ transients obtained with 300 msec depolarization to +20 mV before (top) and during perfusion of Thapsigargin (bottom). B) Average peak Ca 2+ level (ΔF) for step depolarizations as in A). C) Mean traces of the Ca 2+ transients during with steps to +20 mV, using intracellular solutions containing DMSO or Ryanodine 1 µM. D) Average peak Ca 2+ signal (ΔF/F 0 ) for experiments in C), and also with an antagonistic concentration of ryanodine (Ry) (100 μM) and dantrolene (30 μM). Wilcoxon signed-rank test, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Modulation of afferent Ca 2+ influx through VGCC by ryanodine and sorcin. A) Mean traces of the Ca 2+ transients obtained with 300 msec depolarization to +20 mV before (top) and during perfusion of Thapsigargin (bottom). B) Average peak Ca 2+ level (ΔF) for step depolarizations as in A). C) Mean traces of the Ca 2+ transients during with steps to +20 mV, using intracellular solutions containing DMSO or Ryanodine 1 µM. D) Average peak Ca 2+ signal (ΔF/F 0 ) for experiments in C), and also with an antagonistic concentration of ryanodine (Ry) (100 μM) and dantrolene (30 μM). Wilcoxon signed-rank test, * p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

    Efferent Ca 2+ signals are modulated by cisternal ATPases, but not ryanodine receptors. A) Mean synaptic responses (black) and Ca 2+ transients (red) during 300 msec electrical stimulation at 20,40 and 80 Hz before and after perfusion of Thapsigargin. B) Peak of Ca 2+ transients (as ΔF), C) Charge of synaptic responses and D) duration of Ca 2+ transients (as full width at half maximum, FWHM). Inset: Baseline fluorescence signal before and after perfusion of Thapsigargin. E) Synaptic currents (mean, black) and Ca 2+ transients (red) obtained during efferent fibers stimulation (300 msec, 80 Hz), using an intracellular solution containing vehicle (DMSO), RyR blockers (Ryanodine 100 µM and Dantrolene 30 µM) and a RyR agonist (Ryanodine 1 µM). F) Baseline fluorescence for each condition. G) Duration (FWHM) and H) maximal fluorescence signal (as ΔF/F 0 ) for each intracellular solution. Bar plots are mean ± SEM. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Efferent Ca 2+ signals are modulated by cisternal ATPases, but not ryanodine receptors. A) Mean synaptic responses (black) and Ca 2+ transients (red) during 300 msec electrical stimulation at 20,40 and 80 Hz before and after perfusion of Thapsigargin. B) Peak of Ca 2+ transients (as ΔF), C) Charge of synaptic responses and D) duration of Ca 2+ transients (as full width at half maximum, FWHM). Inset: Baseline fluorescence signal before and after perfusion of Thapsigargin. E) Synaptic currents (mean, black) and Ca 2+ transients (red) obtained during efferent fibers stimulation (300 msec, 80 Hz), using an intracellular solution containing vehicle (DMSO), RyR blockers (Ryanodine 100 µM and Dantrolene 30 µM) and a RyR agonist (Ryanodine 1 µM). F) Baseline fluorescence for each condition. G) Duration (FWHM) and H) maximal fluorescence signal (as ΔF/F 0 ) for each intracellular solution. Bar plots are mean ± SEM. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, * p

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    20) Product Images from "Dual Role of CD38 in Microglial Activation and Activation-induced Cell Death"

    Article Title: Dual Role of CD38 in Microglial Activation and Activation-induced Cell Death

    Journal:

    doi:

    CD38 and cADPR are important players in microglial activation. WT and Cd38 −/− primary microglia were grown without (−) or with (+) LPS/IFNγ in the absence (−) or presence (+) of 8-Br-cADPR (100 μM), ryanodine
    Figure Legend Snippet: CD38 and cADPR are important players in microglial activation. WT and Cd38 −/− primary microglia were grown without (−) or with (+) LPS/IFNγ in the absence (−) or presence (+) of 8-Br-cADPR (100 μM), ryanodine

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    21) Product Images from "Changes in force and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration after length changes in isolated rat ventricular trabeculae"

    Article Title: Changes in force and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration after length changes in isolated rat ventricular trabeculae

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.431bw.x

    Representative plots of force against fluorescence ratio measured throughout the twitches at different lengths The muscles was treated with ryanodine (1 μM) and cyclopiazonic acid (30 μM). The changes in force and fluorescence ratio throughout the twitch are plotted for twitches: in the steady state at L 9 0 (○), in the first minute after muscle re-lengthening to L 0 (•), and after 15 min at L 0 (⋄). Arrows indicate the direction of the loops. Note that the relaxation (left-hand) part of these phase-plane plots is shifted leftwards by the increase in muscle length, suggesting an increase of myofibrillar Ca 2+ sensitivity, but then follows a constant trajectory over the time course of the slow rise of twitch force. Similar results were seen in three other muscles.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative plots of force against fluorescence ratio measured throughout the twitches at different lengths The muscles was treated with ryanodine (1 μM) and cyclopiazonic acid (30 μM). The changes in force and fluorescence ratio throughout the twitch are plotted for twitches: in the steady state at L 9 0 (○), in the first minute after muscle re-lengthening to L 0 (•), and after 15 min at L 0 (⋄). Arrows indicate the direction of the loops. Note that the relaxation (left-hand) part of these phase-plane plots is shifted leftwards by the increase in muscle length, suggesting an increase of myofibrillar Ca 2+ sensitivity, but then follows a constant trajectory over the time course of the slow rise of twitch force. Similar results were seen in three other muscles.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    22) Product Images from "Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels and calcium-ATPase lengthens the period of hepatic clock gene Per1"

    Article Title: Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels and calcium-ATPase lengthens the period of hepatic clock gene Per1

    Journal: Journal of Circadian Rhythms

    doi: 10.1186/1740-3391-9-6

    Per1-luc bioluminescence rhythms in liver explants treated with ryanodine . (A) Representative daily records of Per1-luc expression in liver explants from AL (superior panel) and FR (inferior panel) rats during ryanodine treatment (100 μM). The grey trace represents the DMSO control and the black trace the ryanodine treated culture. The vertical dotted line represents the former meal time of the FR rats. The horizontal black line above the upper panel indicates the onset and duration of drug treatment which ended with washout of the drug on day 6, marked by the horizontal grey dashed line. The subjective night (or dark phase) is marked only on the first day of culture. (B) Period of Per1-luc expression in liver cultures from AL (left bars) and FR (right bars) rats during ryanodine treatment and after washout. All data plotted are presented as means ± SEM, n = 6. *Significant difference vs. the DMSO control, and x means difference against washout (Bonferroni post hoc test, α = 0.01).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Per1-luc bioluminescence rhythms in liver explants treated with ryanodine . (A) Representative daily records of Per1-luc expression in liver explants from AL (superior panel) and FR (inferior panel) rats during ryanodine treatment (100 μM). The grey trace represents the DMSO control and the black trace the ryanodine treated culture. The vertical dotted line represents the former meal time of the FR rats. The horizontal black line above the upper panel indicates the onset and duration of drug treatment which ended with washout of the drug on day 6, marked by the horizontal grey dashed line. The subjective night (or dark phase) is marked only on the first day of culture. (B) Period of Per1-luc expression in liver cultures from AL (left bars) and FR (right bars) rats during ryanodine treatment and after washout. All data plotted are presented as means ± SEM, n = 6. *Significant difference vs. the DMSO control, and x means difference against washout (Bonferroni post hoc test, α = 0.01).

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    23) Product Images from "Expression and coupling of neurokinin receptor subtypes to inositol phosphate and calcium signaling pathways in human airway smooth muscle cells"

    Article Title: Expression and coupling of neurokinin receptor subtypes to inositol phosphate and calcium signaling pathways in human airway smooth muscle cells

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00328.2007

    Ryanodine receptor isoform expression. Representative RT-PCR analysis of total RNA using primers that specially recognize mRNA for each ryanodine receptor isoform (Ryr1, Ryr2, Ryr3) in primary cultures of native (HASM) and NK receptor-transduced (HASM-huNK
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptor isoform expression. Representative RT-PCR analysis of total RNA using primers that specially recognize mRNA for each ryanodine receptor isoform (Ryr1, Ryr2, Ryr3) in primary cultures of native (HASM) and NK receptor-transduced (HASM-huNK

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Effect of SKF-96365 (10 μM), 2-APB (10 μM), ryanodine (100 μM), or caffeine (10 mM) on SOCE in native HASM cells. Data are means ± SE, presented as a percentage of control (ΔF/F
    Figure Legend Snippet: Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Effect of SKF-96365 (10 μM), 2-APB (10 μM), ryanodine (100 μM), or caffeine (10 mM) on SOCE in native HASM cells. Data are means ± SE, presented as a percentage of control (ΔF/F

    Techniques Used:

    24) Product Images from "Ryanodol action on calcium sparks in ventricular myocytes"

    Article Title: Ryanodol action on calcium sparks in ventricular myocytes

    Journal: Pflugers Archiv

    doi: 10.1007/s00424-010-0839-8

    Ryanodol action on Ca 2+ sparks in permeabilized myocytes. a Line scan image of a Ca 2+ spark recorded in a permeabilized cardiac myocyte perfused with 10 μM ryanodine. Shown below is a fluorescence profile trace (F/FO; F = fluorescence signal,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodol action on Ca 2+ sparks in permeabilized myocytes. a Line scan image of a Ca 2+ spark recorded in a permeabilized cardiac myocyte perfused with 10 μM ryanodine. Shown below is a fluorescence profile trace (F/FO; F = fluorescence signal,

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    25) Product Images from "Sarcomere length nanometry in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes expressed with α-actinin–AcGFP in Z discs"

    Article Title: Sarcomere length nanometry in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes expressed with α-actinin–AcGFP in Z discs

    Journal: The Journal of General Physiology

    doi: 10.1085/jgp.201311118

    Cell-SPOC in neonatal cardiomyocytes. (A, top left) Epi-illumination image of an AcGFP-treated myocyte after ionomycin treatment in the presence of 200 µM ryanodine and 4 µM thapsigargin. The area in the yellow outlined rectangle was used for the SL analysis. (top right) Time course of changes in the positions of the Z discs, 1–6. Amplitude of the movement of Z disc 4 was 0.960 ± 0.023 and 0.385 ± 0.055 µm (P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cell-SPOC in neonatal cardiomyocytes. (A, top left) Epi-illumination image of an AcGFP-treated myocyte after ionomycin treatment in the presence of 200 µM ryanodine and 4 µM thapsigargin. The area in the yellow outlined rectangle was used for the SL analysis. (top right) Time course of changes in the positions of the Z discs, 1–6. Amplitude of the movement of Z disc 4 was 0.960 ± 0.023 and 0.385 ± 0.055 µm (P

    Techniques Used:

    26) Product Images from "Two Regions of the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Channel Are Involved in Ca2+-Dependent Inactivation"

    Article Title: Two Regions of the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Channel Are Involved in Ca2+-Dependent Inactivation

    Journal: Biochemistry

    doi: 10.1021/bi401586h

    Two regions are involved in isoform-specificCa 2+ -dependentinactivation of RyRs. (A) Ca 2+ -dependent changes in theactivities of WT RyR1 (●) and WT RyR2 (○) were measuredin [ 3 H]ryanodine binding assays in the absence (left) orpresence
    Figure Legend Snippet: Two regions are involved in isoform-specificCa 2+ -dependentinactivation of RyRs. (A) Ca 2+ -dependent changes in theactivities of WT RyR1 (●) and WT RyR2 (○) were measuredin [ 3 H]ryanodine binding assays in the absence (left) orpresence

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    27) Product Images from "Contractile effects and intracellular Ca2+ signalling induced by emodin in circular smooth muscle cells of rat colon"

    Article Title: Contractile effects and intracellular Ca2+ signalling induced by emodin in circular smooth muscle cells of rat colon

    Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG

    doi: 10.3748/wjg.v9.i8.1804

    Effect of ryanodine and heparin on the change in [Ca 2+ ]i induced by emodin. n = 15 a P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ryanodine and heparin on the change in [Ca 2+ ]i induced by emodin. n = 15 a P

    Techniques Used:

    28) Product Images from "Ryanodine stores and calcium regulation in the inner segments of salamander rods and cones"

    Article Title: Ryanodine stores and calcium regulation in the inner segments of salamander rods and cones

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2002.035683

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are localized to photoreceptor ISs Confocal fluorescence images of retinal cells immunostained with antisera against RyRs and SV2. A and E , Nomarski images of rod and double cone ISs dissociated from the salamander retina. B and F , RyR immunofluorescence is prominent in the synaptic terminal and the ellipsoid region. A moderate RyR signal is also observed in the plasma membrane surrounding the perikaryon. C , G and K , SV2 immunolabels synaptic terminals of retinal neurons. D and H , RyR and SV2 signals colocalize in the synaptic terminals of the rod and the cone. I , Nomarski image from a salamander retinal section. J , the RyR antibody labels photoreceptor perikarya and synaptic terminals. A prominent signal is also observed in Müller cell bodies and processes (arrowheads), in ganglion cell bodies and in synaptic processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Little staining is seen in photoreceptor OSs and in bipolar cell bodies. L , RyR and SV2 colocalize in synaptic processes of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the IPL. ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer. Scale bars are 10 μm in A − H and 50 μm in I − L .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are localized to photoreceptor ISs Confocal fluorescence images of retinal cells immunostained with antisera against RyRs and SV2. A and E , Nomarski images of rod and double cone ISs dissociated from the salamander retina. B and F , RyR immunofluorescence is prominent in the synaptic terminal and the ellipsoid region. A moderate RyR signal is also observed in the plasma membrane surrounding the perikaryon. C , G and K , SV2 immunolabels synaptic terminals of retinal neurons. D and H , RyR and SV2 signals colocalize in the synaptic terminals of the rod and the cone. I , Nomarski image from a salamander retinal section. J , the RyR antibody labels photoreceptor perikarya and synaptic terminals. A prominent signal is also observed in Müller cell bodies and processes (arrowheads), in ganglion cell bodies and in synaptic processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Little staining is seen in photoreceptor OSs and in bipolar cell bodies. L , RyR and SV2 colocalize in synaptic processes of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the IPL. ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer. Scale bars are 10 μm in A − H and 50 μm in I − L .

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    29) Product Images from "Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus"

    Article Title: Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.052571

    A model for calcium entry and release in fundus cells Localized release events and the initial carbachol-induced calcium transient appear to be associated with separate mechanisms (dashed and full lines, respectively). The inhibition of localized release by ryanodine and its (ryanodine-insensitive) stimulation by carbachol can be explained by the direct modulation of IP 3 Rs and/or RyRs by calcium in the immediate vicinity of the receptors. The calcium entry pathway associated with localized release is inhibited in nominally Ca 2+ -free solution. To explain the insensitivity of the initial carbachol-induced calcium release to XeC it is necessary to suppose that the copious production of IP 3 overwhelms the antagonism by this agent. However, 2-APB and U-73122 are effective blockers; neomycin blocks transient calcium release events but, perhaps because it is poorly membrane permeable, was ineffective at blocking the initial carbachol-induced calcium transient. Caffeine is not shown, but in high enough concentrations would act on RyRs to deplete stored calcium.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A model for calcium entry and release in fundus cells Localized release events and the initial carbachol-induced calcium transient appear to be associated with separate mechanisms (dashed and full lines, respectively). The inhibition of localized release by ryanodine and its (ryanodine-insensitive) stimulation by carbachol can be explained by the direct modulation of IP 3 Rs and/or RyRs by calcium in the immediate vicinity of the receptors. The calcium entry pathway associated with localized release is inhibited in nominally Ca 2+ -free solution. To explain the insensitivity of the initial carbachol-induced calcium release to XeC it is necessary to suppose that the copious production of IP 3 overwhelms the antagonism by this agent. However, 2-APB and U-73122 are effective blockers; neomycin blocks transient calcium release events but, perhaps because it is poorly membrane permeable, was ineffective at blocking the initial carbachol-induced calcium transient. Caffeine is not shown, but in high enough concentrations would act on RyRs to deplete stored calcium.

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Blocking Assay, Activated Clotting Time Assay

    30) Product Images from "PCB-95 Modulates the Calcium-Dependent Signaling Pathway Responsible for Activity-Dependent Dendritic Growth"

    Article Title: PCB-95 Modulates the Calcium-Dependent Signaling Pathway Responsible for Activity-Dependent Dendritic Growth

    Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

    doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104833

    Ryanodine blocks amplification of spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations triggered by acute PCB-95 exposure. ( A ) Representative Ca 2+ transient activity captured from soma and distal dendrites of Fluo-4–loaded hippocampal neurons at 7 DIV with perfusion of DMSO (0.01%) vehicle. ( B ) Representative Ca 2+ transient activity captured from soma and distal dendrites of Fluo-4–loaded hippocampal neurons at 7 DIV before and after perfusion of PCB-95 (200 nM) (upper two traces). Neurons pretreated with ryanodine (500 µM, 1 hr) to block all RyR channel activity essentially negated the stimulatory actions of PCB-95 (lower two traces). ( C ) 4CmC (100 µM) which activates RyR1 and RyR2, but not RyR3, was used to confirm the block of Ca 2+ channel activity. Bar graphs at the right summarize Ca 2+ transient responses > 2× mean normalized to baseline fluorescence. Acute exposure to PCB-95 increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous Ca 2+ transients in soma and distal dendrites. Data are presented as mean ± SE ( n = 10–12 neurons from three independent dissections). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine blocks amplification of spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations triggered by acute PCB-95 exposure. ( A ) Representative Ca 2+ transient activity captured from soma and distal dendrites of Fluo-4–loaded hippocampal neurons at 7 DIV with perfusion of DMSO (0.01%) vehicle. ( B ) Representative Ca 2+ transient activity captured from soma and distal dendrites of Fluo-4–loaded hippocampal neurons at 7 DIV before and after perfusion of PCB-95 (200 nM) (upper two traces). Neurons pretreated with ryanodine (500 µM, 1 hr) to block all RyR channel activity essentially negated the stimulatory actions of PCB-95 (lower two traces). ( C ) 4CmC (100 µM) which activates RyR1 and RyR2, but not RyR3, was used to confirm the block of Ca 2+ channel activity. Bar graphs at the right summarize Ca 2+ transient responses > 2× mean normalized to baseline fluorescence. Acute exposure to PCB-95 increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous Ca 2+ transients in soma and distal dendrites. Data are presented as mean ± SE ( n = 10–12 neurons from three independent dissections). * p

    Techniques Used: Amplification, Activity Assay, Blocking Assay, Fluorescence

    31) Product Images from "Effects of NS1608, a BKCa channel agonist, on the contractility of guinea-pig urinary bladder in vitro"

    Article Title: Effects of NS1608, a BKCa channel agonist, on the contractility of guinea-pig urinary bladder in vitro

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706034

    Pharmacological interaction between NS1608 and 4-aminopyridine, apamin or ryanodine on the contractility of guinea-pig detrusor strips. (a–c) Representative tension recordings from strips exposed to 1 m M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, panel a),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacological interaction between NS1608 and 4-aminopyridine, apamin or ryanodine on the contractility of guinea-pig detrusor strips. (a–c) Representative tension recordings from strips exposed to 1 m M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, panel a),

    Techniques Used:

    Effects of IbTX on the functional interaction between NS1608 and apamin or ryanodine in guinea-pig detrusor strips. (a, b) Tension recordings from two strips, which, at the beginning of the tracings, had been exposed to either 100 n M apamin (a)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of IbTX on the functional interaction between NS1608 and apamin or ryanodine in guinea-pig detrusor strips. (a, b) Tension recordings from two strips, which, at the beginning of the tracings, had been exposed to either 100 n M apamin (a)

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    Effects of NS1608 on urinary bladder strips pretreated with ryanodine
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of NS1608 on urinary bladder strips pretreated with ryanodine

    Techniques Used:

    32) Product Images from "Ca2+-sparks constitute elementary building blocks for global Ca2+-signals in myocytes of retinal arterioles"

    Article Title: Ca2+-sparks constitute elementary building blocks for global Ca2+-signals in myocytes of retinal arterioles

    Journal: Cell Calcium

    doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2006.08.005

    Ryanodine inhibited Ca 2+ -sparks and oscillations. (A) Linescan and normalised fluorescence plots for 2 adjacent myocytes in an arteriole under control conditions and during superfusion with 100 μM ryanodine. Time-course data in the graph refers to the indicated regions of interest (R.O.I.). (B) Summary data from 17 cells for spark frequency and amplitude during the 20 s control period and 3 consecutive, 10 s periods of superfusion with ryanodine ( ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ryanodine inhibited Ca 2+ -sparks and oscillations. (A) Linescan and normalised fluorescence plots for 2 adjacent myocytes in an arteriole under control conditions and during superfusion with 100 μM ryanodine. Time-course data in the graph refers to the indicated regions of interest (R.O.I.). (B) Summary data from 17 cells for spark frequency and amplitude during the 20 s control period and 3 consecutive, 10 s periods of superfusion with ryanodine ( ** P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    33) Product Images from "Mini-dystrophin Expression Down-regulates Overactivation of G Protein-mediated IP3 Signaling Pathway in Dystrophin-deficient Muscle Cells"

    Article Title: Mini-dystrophin Expression Down-regulates Overactivation of G Protein-mediated IP3 Signaling Pathway in Dystrophin-deficient Muscle Cells

    Journal: The Journal of General Physiology

    doi: 10.1085/jgp.200509456

    Amplitude and “area under the curve” parameters from K + -evoked calcium increases in Sol cell lines: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Large-scale analysis of K + -evoked fluorescence rises has been realized to compare them in the two myotube types and in the presence of SR Ca 2+ channel inhibitors. All these parameters were represented in histograms as relative values to control conditions in SolD(+) set at 1.0. Parameters have been automatically measured with a computer program developed under IDL 5.3 ( Fig. 3 , inset). (A) Histogram representing the rise amplitude (ΔF/F0) in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars) in controls and with inhibitors (same incubation conditions as in Fig. 1 ). The number of analyzed myotubes is given in histogram bars. (B) Histogram representing the “area under the curve” parameter measured on curves obtained in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars). Each bar graph corresponds to the mean value ± SEM obtained for each type of myotube. ns, not significantly different. ***, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Amplitude and “area under the curve” parameters from K + -evoked calcium increases in Sol cell lines: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Large-scale analysis of K + -evoked fluorescence rises has been realized to compare them in the two myotube types and in the presence of SR Ca 2+ channel inhibitors. All these parameters were represented in histograms as relative values to control conditions in SolD(+) set at 1.0. Parameters have been automatically measured with a computer program developed under IDL 5.3 ( Fig. 3 , inset). (A) Histogram representing the rise amplitude (ΔF/F0) in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars) in controls and with inhibitors (same incubation conditions as in Fig. 1 ). The number of analyzed myotubes is given in histogram bars. (B) Histogram representing the “area under the curve” parameter measured on curves obtained in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars). Each bar graph corresponds to the mean value ± SEM obtained for each type of myotube. ns, not significantly different. ***, P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Incubation

    Kinetics parameters from K + -evoked calcium increases in Sol cell lines: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Inset, measurement of amplitude and kinetic parameters. All these parameters were automatically measured with a computer program developed in our laboratory under IDL 5.3 structured language. F0, basal fluorescence obtained from averaged fluorescence before high K + stimulation. After stimulation, a maximum value is detected in the curve and fluorescence around this value was averaged, giving the F value. Amplitude was determined as F−F0/F0 (ΔF/F0). Area under the curve (area, A.U.s.) was calculated in integrating the curve. Time to peak (TTP, in seconds) was determined as the time between 5% of F and F during the increase. Half decay time (HD, in seconds) was determined as the time between F and F/2 during the decay. Increase slope (in A.U/s) was determined in averaging the derivative of the curve where it was the maximum during the increase, corresponding to the beginning of the increase. All these parameters were represented in histograms as relative values to control conditions in SolD(+) set at 1.0. (A) Histogram representing the “time to peak” parameter in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars) in controls and with inhibitors. The number of analyzed myotubes is given on histogram bars. Histograms representing the “increase slope” (B) and the “half decay” (C) parameters. Each bar graph corresponds to the mean value ± SEM obtained for each type of myotubes. ns, not significantly different. ***, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Kinetics parameters from K + -evoked calcium increases in Sol cell lines: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Inset, measurement of amplitude and kinetic parameters. All these parameters were automatically measured with a computer program developed in our laboratory under IDL 5.3 structured language. F0, basal fluorescence obtained from averaged fluorescence before high K + stimulation. After stimulation, a maximum value is detected in the curve and fluorescence around this value was averaged, giving the F value. Amplitude was determined as F−F0/F0 (ΔF/F0). Area under the curve (area, A.U.s.) was calculated in integrating the curve. Time to peak (TTP, in seconds) was determined as the time between 5% of F and F during the increase. Half decay time (HD, in seconds) was determined as the time between F and F/2 during the decay. Increase slope (in A.U/s) was determined in averaging the derivative of the curve where it was the maximum during the increase, corresponding to the beginning of the increase. All these parameters were represented in histograms as relative values to control conditions in SolD(+) set at 1.0. (A) Histogram representing the “time to peak” parameter in SolC1(−) (white bars) and SolD(+) (black bars) in controls and with inhibitors. The number of analyzed myotubes is given on histogram bars. Histograms representing the “increase slope” (B) and the “half decay” (C) parameters. Each bar graph corresponds to the mean value ± SEM obtained for each type of myotubes. ns, not significantly different. ***, P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    Examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in SolC1(−) and SolD(+) myotubes: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Fluorescence rise from fluo-4–loaded myotubes was recorded as described in MATERIALS AND METHODS. During the recording, high K + -containing solution (47 mM) was perifused near the analyzed myotubes (black arrows), and measurements were stopped after recovery to basal levels. (A) Representative examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in a SolC1(−) and a SolD(+) myotube in control conditions. Examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in the presence of ryanodine (+rya, 100 μM) or 2-APB (+2-APB, 50 μM) in SolC1(−) (B) and in SolD(+) (C). The gray curve represents the sum of the curve in the presence of ryanodine and the curve in the presence of 2-APB in SolC1(−) (B) and in SolD(+) (C). (D) Fluorescence signals obtained in SolC1(−) and SolD(+) myotubes with a combined incubation with ryanodine and 2-APB (+rya +2-APB).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in SolC1(−) and SolD(+) myotubes: effects of ryanodine and 2-APB. Fluorescence rise from fluo-4–loaded myotubes was recorded as described in MATERIALS AND METHODS. During the recording, high K + -containing solution (47 mM) was perifused near the analyzed myotubes (black arrows), and measurements were stopped after recovery to basal levels. (A) Representative examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in a SolC1(−) and a SolD(+) myotube in control conditions. Examples of K + -evoked calcium increase in the presence of ryanodine (+rya, 100 μM) or 2-APB (+2-APB, 50 μM) in SolC1(−) (B) and in SolD(+) (C). The gray curve represents the sum of the curve in the presence of ryanodine and the curve in the presence of 2-APB in SolC1(−) (B) and in SolD(+) (C). (D) Fluorescence signals obtained in SolC1(−) and SolD(+) myotubes with a combined incubation with ryanodine and 2-APB (+rya +2-APB).

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Incubation

    34) Product Images from "Cell adhesion molecules regulate Ca2+-mediated steering of growth cones via cyclic AMP and ryanodine receptor type 3"

    Article Title: Cell adhesion molecules regulate Ca2+-mediated steering of growth cones via cyclic AMP and ryanodine receptor type 3

    Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

    doi: 10.1083/jcb.200503157

    Involvement of cAMP and RyRs in Ca 2 + -induced growth cone turning. (A) The distribution of turning angles of chick DRG growth cones on the three different substrates. Focal Ca 2+ signals were produced on one side of the growth cones by repetitive FLIP of NP-EGTA. Each point represents the percentage of growth cones with turning angles equal to or smaller than that indicated on the abscissa. As a control, loading of BAPTA canceled FLIP-induced growth cone turning. (B) The average turning angles of growth cones on the three different substrates. Treatment of growth cones with the indicated drugs (Sp-cAMPS, Rp-cAMPS, ryanodine, or KT5720) reversed the turning responses to Ca 2+ signals. Growth cones without NP-EGTA loading (blank) did not show a directional response to repetitive laser irradiation. Error bars represent 11–21 growth cones.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Involvement of cAMP and RyRs in Ca 2 + -induced growth cone turning. (A) The distribution of turning angles of chick DRG growth cones on the three different substrates. Focal Ca 2+ signals were produced on one side of the growth cones by repetitive FLIP of NP-EGTA. Each point represents the percentage of growth cones with turning angles equal to or smaller than that indicated on the abscissa. As a control, loading of BAPTA canceled FLIP-induced growth cone turning. (B) The average turning angles of growth cones on the three different substrates. Treatment of growth cones with the indicated drugs (Sp-cAMPS, Rp-cAMPS, ryanodine, or KT5720) reversed the turning responses to Ca 2+ signals. Growth cones without NP-EGTA loading (blank) did not show a directional response to repetitive laser irradiation. Error bars represent 11–21 growth cones.

    Techniques Used: Produced, Irradiation

    CAMs influence RyR-mediated CICR via cAMP. The effects of the indicated drugs on FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals were analyzed in chick DRG growth cones on laminin (A), L1 (B), or N-cadherin (C). As exemplified in Fig. 4 , the amplitude of ΔF/F 0 spikes was defined as ΔF/F 0 values averaged within a 2-μm-diam zone immediately after FLIP. The amplitude of five ΔF/F 0 spikes induced by five laser pulses at 300-ms intervals was averaged and plotted as the ordinate. The abscissa indicates the minutes after an application of Sp-cAMPS, Rp-cAMPS, and/or ryanodine. Each line represents a drug-induced change of the Ca 2+ -signal amplitude in a single growth cone. Datasets with statistically significant changes are marked by asterisks. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: CAMs influence RyR-mediated CICR via cAMP. The effects of the indicated drugs on FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals were analyzed in chick DRG growth cones on laminin (A), L1 (B), or N-cadherin (C). As exemplified in Fig. 4 , the amplitude of ΔF/F 0 spikes was defined as ΔF/F 0 values averaged within a 2-μm-diam zone immediately after FLIP. The amplitude of five ΔF/F 0 spikes induced by five laser pulses at 300-ms intervals was averaged and plotted as the ordinate. The abscissa indicates the minutes after an application of Sp-cAMPS, Rp-cAMPS, and/or ryanodine. Each line represents a drug-induced change of the Ca 2+ -signal amplitude in a single growth cone. Datasets with statistically significant changes are marked by asterisks. **, P

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    Pharmacological dissection of different components of Ca 2 + signals induced by NP-EGTA photolysis. (A and B) Sp-cAMPS augments FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals in a chick DRG growth cone on laminin. Before and after a 5-min treatment with Sp-cAMPS (A and B, respectively), the Ca 2+ signals were analyzed in the same growth cone under the same FLIP conditions. CG-1 fluorescence was imaged at the exposure of 15.7 ms. The pseudocolor images show ΔF/F 0 immediately before or 0.8 ms after single FLIP. The ΔF/F 0 values were averaged within a 2-μm-diam zone centered by the FLIP site and plotted as a function of time. The graphs show five Ca 2+ elevations (ΔF/F 0 spikes) induced by five laser pulses at 300-ms intervals. Note that the amplitude of the Ca 2+ signals is augmented by the Sp-cAMPS treatment (compare A and B). (C and D) A high dose of ryanodine attenuates FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals in a growth cone on N-cadherin. The amplitude of Ca 2+ signals was analyzed in the same growth cone before and after a 5-min treatment with 100 μM ryanodine (C and D, respectively), using experimental methods described in A and B. Bar, 5 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacological dissection of different components of Ca 2 + signals induced by NP-EGTA photolysis. (A and B) Sp-cAMPS augments FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals in a chick DRG growth cone on laminin. Before and after a 5-min treatment with Sp-cAMPS (A and B, respectively), the Ca 2+ signals were analyzed in the same growth cone under the same FLIP conditions. CG-1 fluorescence was imaged at the exposure of 15.7 ms. The pseudocolor images show ΔF/F 0 immediately before or 0.8 ms after single FLIP. The ΔF/F 0 values were averaged within a 2-μm-diam zone centered by the FLIP site and plotted as a function of time. The graphs show five Ca 2+ elevations (ΔF/F 0 spikes) induced by five laser pulses at 300-ms intervals. Note that the amplitude of the Ca 2+ signals is augmented by the Sp-cAMPS treatment (compare A and B). (C and D) A high dose of ryanodine attenuates FLIP-induced Ca 2+ signals in a growth cone on N-cadherin. The amplitude of Ca 2+ signals was analyzed in the same growth cone before and after a 5-min treatment with 100 μM ryanodine (C and D, respectively), using experimental methods described in A and B. Bar, 5 μm.

    Techniques Used: Dissection, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry

    35) Product Images from "Differential Control of Presynaptic CamKII Activation and Translocation to Active Zones"

    Article Title: Differential Control of Presynaptic CamKII Activation and Translocation to Active Zones

    Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0550-11.2011

    Presynaptic CamKII regulation by the RyR and T286 autophosphorylation. A. FRET responses (open bars) after 33 s of 70 Hz stimulation, which produces peak activation in control boutons (Con, n=8), for boutons treated 100 μM ryanodine (Ryan, n=6)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Presynaptic CamKII regulation by the RyR and T286 autophosphorylation. A. FRET responses (open bars) after 33 s of 70 Hz stimulation, which produces peak activation in control boutons (Con, n=8), for boutons treated 100 μM ryanodine (Ryan, n=6)

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    36) Product Images from "Engineered Human Contractile Myofiber Sheets as a Platform for Studies of Skeletal Muscle Physiology"

    Article Title: Engineered Human Contractile Myofiber Sheets as a Platform for Studies of Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32163-1

    Profiles of muscle contraction suppressed by the addition of ryanodine (black square: 50, blue triangle: 100, and red circle: 200 μM). The displacement was normalized to that just after the addition of ryanodine (time = 0 min) as 100% and indicates the rate of decrease (n = 4). EPS (frequency: 1 Hz) was continuously applied in these experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Profiles of muscle contraction suppressed by the addition of ryanodine (black square: 50, blue triangle: 100, and red circle: 200 μM). The displacement was normalized to that just after the addition of ryanodine (time = 0 min) as 100% and indicates the rate of decrease (n = 4). EPS (frequency: 1 Hz) was continuously applied in these experiments.

    Techniques Used:

    37) Product Images from "Different involvement of type 1, 2, and 3 ryanodine receptors in memory processes"

    Article Title: Different involvement of type 1, 2, and 3 ryanodine receptors in memory processes

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1101/lm.929008

    Reversal by 4-Cmc of the amnesia induced by ryanodine in the mouse passive avoidance test. Doses administered (nmol per mouse i.c.v.) are reported below each column. 4-Cmc and ryanodine were injected 30 min before and immediately after the training session,
    Figure Legend Snippet: Reversal by 4-Cmc of the amnesia induced by ryanodine in the mouse passive avoidance test. Doses administered (nmol per mouse i.c.v.) are reported below each column. 4-Cmc and ryanodine were injected 30 min before and immediately after the training session,

    Techniques Used: Injection

    ( A ) Lack of effect of ryanodine in the mouse passive avoidance test. Ryanodine (0.01–1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) was administered 15 min before the training session. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM; * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Lack of effect of ryanodine in the mouse passive avoidance test. Ryanodine (0.01–1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) was administered 15 min before the training session. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM; * P

    Techniques Used:

    Lack of effect of anti-RyR1 (9 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), anti-RyR2 (7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), anti-RyR3 (7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), ryanodine (0.1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), and 4-Cmc (9 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) on mouse spontaneous mobility ( A ) and exploratory
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lack of effect of anti-RyR1 (9 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), anti-RyR2 (7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), anti-RyR3 (7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), ryanodine (0.1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.), and 4-Cmc (9 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) on mouse spontaneous mobility ( A ) and exploratory

    Techniques Used:

    38) Product Images from "Properties of a Novel pH-dependent Ca2+ Permeation Pathway Present in Male Germ Cells with Possible Roles in Spermatogenesis and Mature Sperm Function "

    Article Title: Properties of a Novel pH-dependent Ca2+ Permeation Pathway Present in Male Germ Cells with Possible Roles in Spermatogenesis and Mature Sperm Function

    Journal: The Journal of General Physiology

    doi:

    Effects of agents affecting Ca 2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. ( A ) Ca 2+ recordings obtained from a pachytene spermatocyte and a round spermatid upon repeated applications of NH 4 Cl. When indicated, caffeine (10 mM) was applied from a second puffer pipette. Caffeine neither induced Ca 2+ rises in spermatogenic cells nor affected their responses to subsequent NH 4 Cl applications. ( B ) In another cell pair, 5 μM ryanodine was also ineffective as a Ca 2+ release agent. Although the responses to NH 4 Cl diminished slightly after ryanodine exposure, this result was not observed in other cells tested. ( C ) The effects of 10 μM thapsigargin were tested in a round spermatid and a pachytene spermatocyte. The figure is representative of more than 12 cells similarly examined. Notice that only the relatively less differentiated spermatocyte showed a modest Ca 2+ rise. ( D ) Effects of cyclopiazonic acid ( CPA ) on resting Ca 2+ levels and responses to alkalinization in three spermatogenic cells. CPA induced small Ca 2+ rises in both pachytene spermatocytes, but not in the round spermatid. Responses to NH 4 Cl after incubation with thapsigargin or CPA appear similar to those of untreated cells. ( E ) Effects of ionomycin. When two spermatogenic cells were exposed to 1 μM ionomycin without external Ca 2+ , they exhibit small Ca 2+ rises, suggesting that the Ca 2+ content of the intracellular reservoirs is low. In contrast, the same stimulus induced a large increase of intracellular Ca 2+ when external medium was switched to one containing normal external [Ca 2+ ]. This elevation is likely due to plasmalemmal Ca 2+ influx through ionomycin pores. Reapplication of ionomycin without external Ca 2+ after such a large Ca 2+ load is still unable to release a substantial amount of Ca 2+ .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of agents affecting Ca 2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. ( A ) Ca 2+ recordings obtained from a pachytene spermatocyte and a round spermatid upon repeated applications of NH 4 Cl. When indicated, caffeine (10 mM) was applied from a second puffer pipette. Caffeine neither induced Ca 2+ rises in spermatogenic cells nor affected their responses to subsequent NH 4 Cl applications. ( B ) In another cell pair, 5 μM ryanodine was also ineffective as a Ca 2+ release agent. Although the responses to NH 4 Cl diminished slightly after ryanodine exposure, this result was not observed in other cells tested. ( C ) The effects of 10 μM thapsigargin were tested in a round spermatid and a pachytene spermatocyte. The figure is representative of more than 12 cells similarly examined. Notice that only the relatively less differentiated spermatocyte showed a modest Ca 2+ rise. ( D ) Effects of cyclopiazonic acid ( CPA ) on resting Ca 2+ levels and responses to alkalinization in three spermatogenic cells. CPA induced small Ca 2+ rises in both pachytene spermatocytes, but not in the round spermatid. Responses to NH 4 Cl after incubation with thapsigargin or CPA appear similar to those of untreated cells. ( E ) Effects of ionomycin. When two spermatogenic cells were exposed to 1 μM ionomycin without external Ca 2+ , they exhibit small Ca 2+ rises, suggesting that the Ca 2+ content of the intracellular reservoirs is low. In contrast, the same stimulus induced a large increase of intracellular Ca 2+ when external medium was switched to one containing normal external [Ca 2+ ]. This elevation is likely due to plasmalemmal Ca 2+ influx through ionomycin pores. Reapplication of ionomycin without external Ca 2+ after such a large Ca 2+ load is still unable to release a substantial amount of Ca 2+ .

    Techniques Used: Transferring, Incubation

    39) Product Images from "Ca2+ responses of pulmonary arterial myocytes to acute hypoxia require release from ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors in sarcoplasmic reticulum"

    Article Title: Ca2+ responses of pulmonary arterial myocytes to acute hypoxia require release from ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors in sarcoplasmic reticulum

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00348.2011

    A : time course of mean change in [Ca 2+ ] i from baseline (Δ[Ca 2+ ] i ) caused by 30 mM caffeine ( first row ), 300 μM NE ( second row ), or hypoxia (4% O 2 , third row ) after treatment with ryanodine (10 μM) or xestospongin C (0.1 μM)
    Figure Legend Snippet: A : time course of mean change in [Ca 2+ ] i from baseline (Δ[Ca 2+ ] i ) caused by 30 mM caffeine ( first row ), 300 μM NE ( second row ), or hypoxia (4% O 2 , third row ) after treatment with ryanodine (10 μM) or xestospongin C (0.1 μM)

    Techniques Used:

    A : time course of the mean change in [Ca 2+ ] i from baseline (Δ[Ca 2+ ] i ) induced by hypoxia (4% O 2 ) after treatment with ryanodine (10 μM) or xestospongin C (0.1 μM) beginning at 2 min in rat distal PASMC perfused with normal KRBS.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A : time course of the mean change in [Ca 2+ ] i from baseline (Δ[Ca 2+ ] i ) induced by hypoxia (4% O 2 ) after treatment with ryanodine (10 μM) or xestospongin C (0.1 μM) beginning at 2 min in rat distal PASMC perfused with normal KRBS.

    Techniques Used:

    40) Product Images from "Identification and function of ryanodine receptor subtype 3 in non-pregnant mouse myometrial cells"

    Article Title: Identification and function of ryanodine receptor subtype 3 in non-pregnant mouse myometrial cells

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2001.013046

    Detection of ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (RYRs and Ins P 3 Rs, respectively) in freshly dissociated mouse non-pregnant myometrial cells A-C , cDNA fragments of RYR1 (lane 1), RYR2 (lane 2) and RYR3 (lane 3) were amplified from mouse brain, myometrial and duodenal cells, respectively. The amplified DNA fragments were separated on a 2 % agarose gel and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Molecular size standards are indicated in base pairs (bp). Two alternatively spliced RYR3 variants, RYR3-I (273 bp) and RYR3-II (614 bp), were present in brain and smooth muscle cells. Similar results were obtained from six different mice. D , Western blot analysis on microsomes from mouse brain (150 μg protein) and myometrium (Myo; 70 μg protein), separated on 5 % SDS-PAGE with the anti-RYR3 and anti-Ins P 3 antibodies. Molecular mass is indicated in kilodaltons. Similar results were obtained from three different mice.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (RYRs and Ins P 3 Rs, respectively) in freshly dissociated mouse non-pregnant myometrial cells A-C , cDNA fragments of RYR1 (lane 1), RYR2 (lane 2) and RYR3 (lane 3) were amplified from mouse brain, myometrial and duodenal cells, respectively. The amplified DNA fragments were separated on a 2 % agarose gel and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. Molecular size standards are indicated in base pairs (bp). Two alternatively spliced RYR3 variants, RYR3-I (273 bp) and RYR3-II (614 bp), were present in brain and smooth muscle cells. Similar results were obtained from six different mice. D , Western blot analysis on microsomes from mouse brain (150 μg protein) and myometrium (Myo; 70 μg protein), separated on 5 % SDS-PAGE with the anti-RYR3 and anti-Ins P 3 antibodies. Molecular mass is indicated in kilodaltons. Similar results were obtained from three different mice.

    Techniques Used: Amplification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Mouse Assay, Western Blot, SDS Page

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    Article Title: A Heterologous Reporter Defines the Role of the Tetanus Toxin Interchain Disulfide in Light-Chain Translocation
    Article Snippet: .. βlac-TeNT(RY) and TeNT(RY) were incubated with trypsin (Sigma-Aldrich) at 1:1,000 (wt/wt) trypsin to variant in 20 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.9), 50 mM NaCl for 1 h at 37°C. .. To assess the kinetics of trypsin digestion, 1:2,000 (wt/wt) trypsin to variant was incubated as described above with samples inhibited every 10 min with a 5 M excess of soybean trypsin inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich).

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    PACAP-evoked Ca 2+ release from ryanodine receptor gated-intracellular Ca 2+ stores is not related to PACAP-evoked sustained secretion in PC12+bPAC1hop cells

    Journal: Cellular signalling

    Article Title: PAC1hop receptor activation facilitates catecholamine secretion selectively through 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ channels in PC12 cells

    doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.05.005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PACAP-evoked Ca 2+ release from ryanodine receptor gated-intracellular Ca 2+ stores is not related to PACAP-evoked sustained secretion in PC12+bPAC1hop cells

    Article Snippet: 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), U-73122, U-73343, ryanodine and ET-18-OCH3 (Edelfosine), were obtained from Calbiochem-EMD Biosciences. ω-Conotoxin MVIIC, ω-Conotoxin GVIA, nimodipine, mibefradil dihydrochloride hydrate, ATP and cinnarizine were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques:

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates oxidized Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) increasing serine 2814 on RyR2, and the inhibitory effect of apocynin. (A–F) Representative western blots and quantification of anti-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII), anti-CaMKⅡ (phospho T286, p -CaMKII), oxidized CaMKII, Ryanodine Receptor 2 (RyR2), RyR2-Ser2814 expression in the atrial tissues of mice in the control group, ibrutinib group, and apocynin group with GAPDH as a loading control (n = 3 mice per group, one way ANOVA). Values are presented as mean ± SD. * P

    Journal: Redox Biology

    Article Title: Enhanced cardiomyocyte reactive oxygen species signaling promotes ibrutinib-induced atrial fibrillation

    doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101432

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates oxidized Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) increasing serine 2814 on RyR2, and the inhibitory effect of apocynin. (A–F) Representative western blots and quantification of anti-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII), anti-CaMKⅡ (phospho T286, p -CaMKII), oxidized CaMKII, Ryanodine Receptor 2 (RyR2), RyR2-Ser2814 expression in the atrial tissues of mice in the control group, ibrutinib group, and apocynin group with GAPDH as a loading control (n = 3 mice per group, one way ANOVA). Values are presented as mean ± SD. * P

    Article Snippet: After incubation in closed buffer (0.5% Tween-20 in TBS, 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA)), the membrane was incubated with the following antibodies for 1 h at room temperature: anti-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII, ab181052), anti-CaMKⅡ (phospho T286, ab32678), oxidized CaMKII (methionine 281/282 oxidation, GTX36254), Ryanodine Receptor 2 (RyR2, Millipore, AB9080), RyR2-Ser2814 (badrilla, A010-31), anti-xanthine oxidase (XO, ab109235), anti-NOX4 (ab133303), anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, ab190503), anti-NOXA2/p67-phox (NOX2, ab109366), and anti-Cytochrome b245 Light Chain/p22-phox (ab75941, Abcam, Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Identification and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed atrial tissue proteins in the control group vs. the ibrutinib group. (A) Differential protein expression was verified using Student's t-test and a volcano plot was constructed. (B) Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and enrichment of differentially expressed proteins. (C) KEGG Pathway analysis. (D) The clustering heat map analysis. (E) Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showing twenty-three major nodes. n = 3 mice per group. NCX, calcium and sodium exchangers; RyR2, Ryanodine Receptor 2; CaMKII, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NADPH oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; MPO, myeloperoxidase; HOCL, hypochlorous; MHCI, MHC class I molecule.

    Journal: Redox Biology

    Article Title: Enhanced cardiomyocyte reactive oxygen species signaling promotes ibrutinib-induced atrial fibrillation

    doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101432

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed atrial tissue proteins in the control group vs. the ibrutinib group. (A) Differential protein expression was verified using Student's t-test and a volcano plot was constructed. (B) Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and enrichment of differentially expressed proteins. (C) KEGG Pathway analysis. (D) The clustering heat map analysis. (E) Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showing twenty-three major nodes. n = 3 mice per group. NCX, calcium and sodium exchangers; RyR2, Ryanodine Receptor 2; CaMKII, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NADPH oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; MPO, myeloperoxidase; HOCL, hypochlorous; MHCI, MHC class I molecule.

    Article Snippet: After incubation in closed buffer (0.5% Tween-20 in TBS, 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA)), the membrane was incubated with the following antibodies for 1 h at room temperature: anti-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII, ab181052), anti-CaMKⅡ (phospho T286, ab32678), oxidized CaMKII (methionine 281/282 oxidation, GTX36254), Ryanodine Receptor 2 (RyR2, Millipore, AB9080), RyR2-Ser2814 (badrilla, A010-31), anti-xanthine oxidase (XO, ab109235), anti-NOX4 (ab133303), anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, ab190503), anti-NOXA2/p67-phox (NOX2, ab109366), and anti-Cytochrome b245 Light Chain/p22-phox (ab75941, Abcam, Cambridge, UK).

    Techniques: Expressing, Construct, Mouse Assay

    Investigating the ability of ATP fragments to stimulate [ 3 H]ryanodine binding as effectively as ATP alone. For clarity, in each graph, the ATP data from Fig. 3B is shown as a solid blue line. ( A ) Comparison of the effects of PPPi alone (pink), adenosine alone (green) and adenosine in the presence of 10 mM PPPi (black dashed line). ( B ) Comparison of the effects of PPi alone (pink), AMP alone (green) and AMP in the presence of 10 mM PPi (black dashed line). ( C ) Comparison of the effects of Pi alone (pink), ADP alone (green) and ADP in the presence of 10 mM Pi (black dashed line). Where combinations of ligands were used, they were added simultaneously at the start of the incubation period. The addition of Pi to ADP and PPi to AMP did not significantly increase binding above that observed with ADP (p = 0.2101) or AMP (p = 0.1917) alone whereas the addition of PPPi significantly increased binding above that observed with adenosine alone (**p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Promiscuous attraction of ligands within the ATP binding site of RyR2 promotes diverse gating behaviour

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33328-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Investigating the ability of ATP fragments to stimulate [ 3 H]ryanodine binding as effectively as ATP alone. For clarity, in each graph, the ATP data from Fig. 3B is shown as a solid blue line. ( A ) Comparison of the effects of PPPi alone (pink), adenosine alone (green) and adenosine in the presence of 10 mM PPPi (black dashed line). ( B ) Comparison of the effects of PPi alone (pink), AMP alone (green) and AMP in the presence of 10 mM PPi (black dashed line). ( C ) Comparison of the effects of Pi alone (pink), ADP alone (green) and ADP in the presence of 10 mM Pi (black dashed line). Where combinations of ligands were used, they were added simultaneously at the start of the incubation period. The addition of Pi to ADP and PPi to AMP did not significantly increase binding above that observed with ADP (p = 0.2101) or AMP (p = 0.1917) alone whereas the addition of PPPi significantly increased binding above that observed with adenosine alone (**p

    Article Snippet: Materials [3 H]ryanodine was purchased from New England Nuclear Ltd. Unlabelled ryanodine was purchased from Calbiochem (Nottingham, UK).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Incubation

    Irreversible RyR2 inactivation by PPPi. ( A ) The top trace shows a typical single RyR2 channel activated by 10 μM cytosolic Ca 2+ alone. The subsequent trace shows an example of the inactivating effects of 10 mM PPPi. Occasional, very brief openings were observed initially as shown in the middle trace but after 140 s no further openings were detected. The bottom trace shows that after perfusing away the PPPi from the cytosolic chamber, the channel remains shut (no openings during the 3 min recording period). The holding potential was 0 mV. O and C represent the open and closed channel levels respectively. ( B ) Comparison of the stimulation of [ 3 H]ryanodine binding to vesicles of sheep cardiac heavy SR by ATP (blue) and PPPi (pink). The results are expressed as a percentage of the control binding at 10 μM cytosolic Ca 2+ which was 0.18 ± 0.02 pmol [ 3 H]/mg protein (SEM; n = 10). Where not shown, error bars are within the symbol. The optimum stimulation of [ 3 H]ryanodine binding was significantly greater for ATP than for PPPi (**p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Promiscuous attraction of ligands within the ATP binding site of RyR2 promotes diverse gating behaviour

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33328-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Irreversible RyR2 inactivation by PPPi. ( A ) The top trace shows a typical single RyR2 channel activated by 10 μM cytosolic Ca 2+ alone. The subsequent trace shows an example of the inactivating effects of 10 mM PPPi. Occasional, very brief openings were observed initially as shown in the middle trace but after 140 s no further openings were detected. The bottom trace shows that after perfusing away the PPPi from the cytosolic chamber, the channel remains shut (no openings during the 3 min recording period). The holding potential was 0 mV. O and C represent the open and closed channel levels respectively. ( B ) Comparison of the stimulation of [ 3 H]ryanodine binding to vesicles of sheep cardiac heavy SR by ATP (blue) and PPPi (pink). The results are expressed as a percentage of the control binding at 10 μM cytosolic Ca 2+ which was 0.18 ± 0.02 pmol [ 3 H]/mg protein (SEM; n = 10). Where not shown, error bars are within the symbol. The optimum stimulation of [ 3 H]ryanodine binding was significantly greater for ATP than for PPPi (**p

    Article Snippet: Materials [3 H]ryanodine was purchased from New England Nuclear Ltd. Unlabelled ryanodine was purchased from Calbiochem (Nottingham, UK).

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    Proposed model of ARC channels in human ASM. Regardless of the source (agonist- or cytokine-induced production), AA activates plasma membrane ARC channels that are within caveolae. Such activation is facilitated by plasma membrane STIM1, and involves repeated SR Ca 2+ release. IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; RyR, ryanodine receptor; SERCA, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase.

    Journal: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

    Article Title: Arachidonate-Regulated Ca2+ Influx in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0144OC

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed model of ARC channels in human ASM. Regardless of the source (agonist- or cytokine-induced production), AA activates plasma membrane ARC channels that are within caveolae. Such activation is facilitated by plasma membrane STIM1, and involves repeated SR Ca 2+ release. IP 3 R, IP 3 receptor; RyR, ryanodine receptor; SERCA, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase.

    Article Snippet: Tissue culture reagents (DMEM F/12, FBS) were from Invitrogen, zileuton from R & D Systems Inc. (Minneapolis, MN), xestospongin C (XeC) and ryanodine from Millipore Inc. (Billerica, MA), caveolin-1 and secondary antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (Dallas, TX), STIM1 antibody from Novus (Littleton, CO), and Orai3 antibody from Abcam (Cambridge, MA).

    Techniques: Activation Assay