Structured Review

AbbVie ritonavir
Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and <t>ritonavir);</t> data shown as means ± SEM; * P
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Images

1) Product Images from "Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of autoimmune biliary disease"

Article Title: Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of autoimmune biliary disease

Journal: Liver International

doi: 10.1111/liv.12699

Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

2) Product Images from "Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review"

Article Title: Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review

Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.585331

Mechanism of action of repurposing drugs against SARS-CoV-2 within a host cell. Chloroquine inhibits SARS-CoV-2 at the cellular level ( Wang M. et al., 2020 ) when the pH environment is disrupted. HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir and ritonavir may demonstrate an antiviral effect through binding to the SARS-CoV 3CL pro enzyme ( Nukoolkarn et al., 2008 ), whereas nucleotides analogues (remdesivir and favipiravir) disrupt the viral RNA synthesis through chain termination ( Sangawa et al., 2013 ; Abdelnabi et al., 2017 ). On the other hand, Shuang Huang Lian Kou Fu Ye and Qing Fei Pai Du Tang are suspected to inhibit the binding on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) owing to the presence of baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis ( Yang et al., 2020 ). The action of oseltamivir and the other two alternative and complementary medicines (Combination of Bu Huan Jin Zheng Qi San and Da Yuan Yin and Xue Bi Jing Injection ) remained unknown and are suspected to inhibit the viral neuraminidase according to their previous antiviral effect in influenza virus particles ( Mulangu et al., 2019 ; Harrison, 2020 ) and altering of the TLR7 signaling pathway ( Cheng et al., 2016 ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanism of action of repurposing drugs against SARS-CoV-2 within a host cell. Chloroquine inhibits SARS-CoV-2 at the cellular level ( Wang M. et al., 2020 ) when the pH environment is disrupted. HIV protease inhibitors such as lopinavir and ritonavir may demonstrate an antiviral effect through binding to the SARS-CoV 3CL pro enzyme ( Nukoolkarn et al., 2008 ), whereas nucleotides analogues (remdesivir and favipiravir) disrupt the viral RNA synthesis through chain termination ( Sangawa et al., 2013 ; Abdelnabi et al., 2017 ). On the other hand, Shuang Huang Lian Kou Fu Ye and Qing Fei Pai Du Tang are suspected to inhibit the binding on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) owing to the presence of baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis ( Yang et al., 2020 ). The action of oseltamivir and the other two alternative and complementary medicines (Combination of Bu Huan Jin Zheng Qi San and Da Yuan Yin and Xue Bi Jing Injection ) remained unknown and are suspected to inhibit the viral neuraminidase according to their previous antiviral effect in influenza virus particles ( Mulangu et al., 2019 ; Harrison, 2020 ) and altering of the TLR7 signaling pathway ( Cheng et al., 2016 ).

Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Injection

3) Product Images from "Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interactions between Direct-Acting Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Combination Regimens and the HIV-1 Antiretroviral Agents Raltegravir, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine"

Article Title: Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interactions between Direct-Acting Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Combination Regimens and the HIV-1 Antiretroviral Agents Raltegravir, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.02605-15

Study design of drug-drug interaction studies. All study drugs were administered under nonfasting conditions. Paritaprevir/ritonavir and ombitasvir once-daily doses were administered in the morning, and dasabuvir was administered in the morning and evening.
Figure Legend Snippet: Study design of drug-drug interaction studies. All study drugs were administered under nonfasting conditions. Paritaprevir/ritonavir and ombitasvir once-daily doses were administered in the morning, and dasabuvir was administered in the morning and evening.

Techniques Used:

Effect of HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs on the C max , AUC τ , and C trough values of paritaprevir, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. AUC τ , area under the plasma concentration-time curve during a dosing interval; CI, confidence interval;
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs on the C max , AUC τ , and C trough values of paritaprevir, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. AUC τ , area under the plasma concentration-time curve during a dosing interval; CI, confidence interval;

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "Development and validation of a UPLC–MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of paritaprevir and ritonavir in rat liver"

Article Title: Development and validation of a UPLC–MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of paritaprevir and ritonavir in rat liver

Journal: Bioanalysis

doi: 10.4155/bio-2016-0040

Effect of tissue weight on the recovery of drug from rat liver tissue. PTV and RTV were spiked into the homogenization solution derived from three tissue samples of varying weights (either 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 mg) and processed as described. Since no matrix-related trends were observed, we conclude that varying tissue mass (5–30 mg) does not affect the detection of the PTV or RTV in rat liver tissue samples. PTV: Paritaprevir; RTV: Ritonavir.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tissue weight on the recovery of drug from rat liver tissue. PTV and RTV were spiked into the homogenization solution derived from three tissue samples of varying weights (either 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 mg) and processed as described. Since no matrix-related trends were observed, we conclude that varying tissue mass (5–30 mg) does not affect the detection of the PTV or RTV in rat liver tissue samples. PTV: Paritaprevir; RTV: Ritonavir.

Techniques Used: Homogenization, Derivative Assay

Stability of paritaprevir and ritonavir in sectioned rat liver tissue (n = 6), FNA (n = 3, mean of one-, three- and five-pass FNA samples) and CNB samples (n = 1). Fresh samples were snap frozen immediately after collection while stability samples were left on the bench top for 1 h after collection before snap freezing. CNB: Core needle biopsy; FNA: Fine needle aspirate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Stability of paritaprevir and ritonavir in sectioned rat liver tissue (n = 6), FNA (n = 3, mean of one-, three- and five-pass FNA samples) and CNB samples (n = 1). Fresh samples were snap frozen immediately after collection while stability samples were left on the bench top for 1 h after collection before snap freezing. CNB: Core needle biopsy; FNA: Fine needle aspirate.

Techniques Used:

5) Product Images from "Lack of an Effect of Ritonavir Alone and Lopinavir-Ritonavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Fenofibric Acid in Healthy Volunteers"

Article Title: Lack of an Effect of Ritonavir Alone and Lopinavir-Ritonavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Fenofibric Acid in Healthy Volunteers

Journal: Pharmacotherapy

doi: 10.1002/phar.1682

Study schematic for fenofibrate administered alone (phase 1), fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir (phase 2), and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir (phase 3) in 13 healthy human subjects. PK = pharmacokinetic; FFA = fenofibric acid;
Figure Legend Snippet: Study schematic for fenofibrate administered alone (phase 1), fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir (phase 2), and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir (phase 3) in 13 healthy human subjects. PK = pharmacokinetic; FFA = fenofibric acid;

Techniques Used:

Fenofibrate mean plasma concentration–time curves following fenofibrate administration alone, fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir, and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in 13 healthy human subjects. RTV = ritonavir; LPV/r
Figure Legend Snippet: Fenofibrate mean plasma concentration–time curves following fenofibrate administration alone, fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir, and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in 13 healthy human subjects. RTV = ritonavir; LPV/r

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

6) Product Images from "Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interactions between Direct-Acting Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Combination Regimens and the HIV-1 Antiretroviral Agents Raltegravir, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine"

Article Title: Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interactions between Direct-Acting Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Combination Regimens and the HIV-1 Antiretroviral Agents Raltegravir, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.02605-15

Study design of drug-drug interaction studies. All study drugs were administered under nonfasting conditions. Paritaprevir/ritonavir and ombitasvir once-daily doses were administered in the morning, and dasabuvir was administered in the morning and evening.
Figure Legend Snippet: Study design of drug-drug interaction studies. All study drugs were administered under nonfasting conditions. Paritaprevir/ritonavir and ombitasvir once-daily doses were administered in the morning, and dasabuvir was administered in the morning and evening.

Techniques Used:

Effect of HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs on the C max , AUC τ , and C trough values of paritaprevir, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. AUC τ , area under the plasma concentration-time curve during a dosing interval; CI, confidence interval;
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs on the C max , AUC τ , and C trough values of paritaprevir, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. AUC τ , area under the plasma concentration-time curve during a dosing interval; CI, confidence interval;

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

7) Product Images from "Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran"

Article Title: Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.01201-17

Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.
Figure Legend Snippet: Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.

Techniques Used:

Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran"

Article Title: Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.01201-17

Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.
Figure Legend Snippet: Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.

Techniques Used:

Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

9) Product Images from "Hemeoxygenase-1 as a novel driver in ritonavir-induced insulin resistance in HIV-1-infected patients"

Article Title: Hemeoxygenase-1 as a novel driver in ritonavir-induced insulin resistance in HIV-1-infected patients

Journal: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001223

HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir treatment increases the expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro . A , THP-1 cells, a human monocyte cell line, were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of 50 μg/ml RTV. B , THP-1 cells were cultured for
Figure Legend Snippet: HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir treatment increases the expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro . A , THP-1 cells, a human monocyte cell line, were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of 50 μg/ml RTV. B , THP-1 cells were cultured for

Techniques Used: Protease Inhibitor, Expressing, In Vitro, Cell Culture

HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir treatment increases hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression in vitro . A , THP-1 cells, a human monocyte cell line, were incubated for 24 hours with increasing doses of HIV-1 integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) or protease
Figure Legend Snippet: HIV-1 protease inhibitor ritonavir treatment increases hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression in vitro . A , THP-1 cells, a human monocyte cell line, were incubated for 24 hours with increasing doses of HIV-1 integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) or protease

Techniques Used: Protease Inhibitor, Expressing, In Vitro, Incubation

10) Product Images from "Lack of an Effect of Ritonavir Alone and Lopinavir-Ritonavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Fenofibric Acid in Healthy Volunteers"

Article Title: Lack of an Effect of Ritonavir Alone and Lopinavir-Ritonavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Fenofibric Acid in Healthy Volunteers

Journal: Pharmacotherapy

doi: 10.1002/phar.1682

Study schematic for fenofibrate administered alone (phase 1), fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir (phase 2), and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir (phase 3) in 13 healthy human subjects. PK = pharmacokinetic; FFA = fenofibric acid;
Figure Legend Snippet: Study schematic for fenofibrate administered alone (phase 1), fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir (phase 2), and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir (phase 3) in 13 healthy human subjects. PK = pharmacokinetic; FFA = fenofibric acid;

Techniques Used:

Fenofibrate mean plasma concentration–time curves following fenofibrate administration alone, fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir, and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in 13 healthy human subjects. RTV = ritonavir; LPV/r
Figure Legend Snippet: Fenofibrate mean plasma concentration–time curves following fenofibrate administration alone, fenofibrate in combination with ritonavir, and fenofibrate in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in 13 healthy human subjects. RTV = ritonavir; LPV/r

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

11) Product Images from "Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran"

Article Title: Differential Influence of the Antiretroviral Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Ritonavir and Cobicistat on Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Transport and the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Disposition of Dabigatran

Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

doi: 10.1128/AAC.01201-17

Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.
Figure Legend Snippet: Study design. Abbreviations: COBI, cobicistat; DE, dabigatran etexilate; PD, pharmacodynamics; PK, pharmacokinetics; RTV, ritonavir.

Techniques Used:

Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean ± SEM dabigatran concentration-versus-time curves after administration of dabigatran alone, administration of dabigatran separated by 2 h from administration of ritonavir (RTV) (A) or cobicistat (COBI) (B), and simultaneous administration of dabigatran with ritonavir (A) and cobicistat (B). DE, dabigatran etexilate.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

12) Product Images from "Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial"

Article Title: Lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for critically ill patients with COVID-19: REMAP-CAP randomized controlled trial

Journal: Intensive Care Medicine

doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06448-5

Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively
Figure Legend Snippet: Organ support-free days and mortality. A Organ support-free days in patients allocated to lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control among critically ill patients in the COVID-19 Antiviral Therapy Domain of the REMAP-CAP trial. Distributions of organ support-free days are displayed as the cumulative proportion ( y axis) for each study group by day ( x axis). Curves that rise more slowly are more favorable. The height of each curve at “ − 1” indicates the in‐hospital mortality for each intervention. The height of each curve at any time point indicates the proportion of patients who had that number of organ support-free days or fewer. The difference in the height of the curves at any point represents the difference in the percentile in the distribution of organ support-free days associated with that number of days alive and free of organ support. B Organ support-free days are displayed as horizontally stacked proportions by study group. Red represents worse values and blue represents better values. On primary analysis of organ support-free days, the three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control, with corresponding median adjusted ORs and 95% credible intervals of 0.73 (0.55–0.99), 0.57 (0.35–0.83) and 0.41 (0.24–0.72), respectively, yielding high posterior probabilities of futility (99% or greater) and high posterior probabilities of harm compared to control (98%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). C Empirical distribution of survival for lopinavir–ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy and control. Lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and combination therapy resulted in reduced survival over 90 days compared to control, with adjusted median hazard ratios (95% CrI) of 0.83 (0.65, 1.07), 0.71 (0.45, 0.97), 0.58 (0.36, 0.92), yielding high probabilities of harm compared with control of 92% and 98.4% and 98.7%, respectively

Techniques Used:

13) Product Images from "Shared IVIVR for Five Commercial Enabling Formulations Using the BiPHa+ Biphasic Dissolution Assay"

Article Title: Shared IVIVR for Five Commercial Enabling Formulations Using the BiPHa+ Biphasic Dissolution Assay

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13020285

Comparisons of in vivo absorption profiles (%) and relative in vitro partitioning profiles of the 10 mg in vitro dose (%) plotted against time (min) without lag-time for ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole; ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir; red line: fraction absorbed time profile in vivo; blue line: relative organic partitioning profiles corrected by Levy plot (t(Levy) = t × 0.51); grey line: untreated relative organic partitioning profiles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparisons of in vivo absorption profiles (%) and relative in vitro partitioning profiles of the 10 mg in vitro dose (%) plotted against time (min) without lag-time for ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole; ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir; red line: fraction absorbed time profile in vivo; blue line: relative organic partitioning profiles corrected by Levy plot (t(Levy) = t × 0.51); grey line: untreated relative organic partitioning profiles.

Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro

Plasma concentration time profiles for ( A ) aprepitant, ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole, ( D ) nimodipine, and ( E ) ritonavir. Modelled in vivo profile with time-scale correction (blue line); Modelled profile without time scale correction (grey line); Plasma concentration time profiles from humans (red dots).
Figure Legend Snippet: Plasma concentration time profiles for ( A ) aprepitant, ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole, ( D ) nimodipine, and ( E ) ritonavir. Modelled in vivo profile with time-scale correction (blue line); Modelled profile without time scale correction (grey line); Plasma concentration time profiles from humans (red dots).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, In Vivo

Relative C dec,max (%) and absolute C dec,max (mg/mL) values of the organic partitioning profiles with different amounts of drug (mg or µmol) investigated in the BiPHa+ assay after 4.5 h: ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole *, ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir; dotted black line represents the in vivo oral fraction absorbed (%). * For keeping the decanol sink above 5 fold, itraconazole assays were carried out with 100 mL of decanol instead of 50 mL.
Figure Legend Snippet: Relative C dec,max (%) and absolute C dec,max (mg/mL) values of the organic partitioning profiles with different amounts of drug (mg or µmol) investigated in the BiPHa+ assay after 4.5 h: ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole *, ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir; dotted black line represents the in vivo oral fraction absorbed (%). * For keeping the decanol sink above 5 fold, itraconazole assays were carried out with 100 mL of decanol instead of 50 mL.

Techniques Used: In Vivo

Biphasic dissolution profiles at 10 mg in vitro dose strength for ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole; ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir. Drug concentration in the aqueous layer (black line), and in the organic layer (red line); pH in the aqueous layer during dissolution test (blue line); crystalline drug solubility in the aqueous layer (black dotted line).
Figure Legend Snippet: Biphasic dissolution profiles at 10 mg in vitro dose strength for ( A ) aprepitant; ( B ) celecoxib, ( C ) itraconazole; ( D ) nimodipine; ( E ) ritonavir. Drug concentration in the aqueous layer (black line), and in the organic layer (red line); pH in the aqueous layer during dissolution test (blue line); crystalline drug solubility in the aqueous layer (black dotted line).

Techniques Used: In Vitro, Concentration Assay, Solubility

( A ) Levy Plot/ time-scaling; time to have X% absorbed in vivo vs. partitioned in vitro without lag-time, ( B ) IVIVR of the five model drugs without lag-time both including confidence interval 95% (grey dashed lines), aprepitant (blue symbols), celecoxib (pink symbols), itraconazole (dark blue symbols), nimodipine (green symbols), red: ritonavir (red symbols).
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Levy Plot/ time-scaling; time to have X% absorbed in vivo vs. partitioned in vitro without lag-time, ( B ) IVIVR of the five model drugs without lag-time both including confidence interval 95% (grey dashed lines), aprepitant (blue symbols), celecoxib (pink symbols), itraconazole (dark blue symbols), nimodipine (green symbols), red: ritonavir (red symbols).

Techniques Used: In Vivo, In Vitro

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other:

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Article Snippet: 2.1 Study drugsBiltricide (PZQ brand) scored 600 mg tablets were obtained from Merck‐Bayer, efavirenz 200 mg tablets were obtained from Strides (Bangalore and India), 100 mg Norvir (ritonavir brand) tablets were obtained from Abbvie.

Article Title: The ASSURE study: HIV‐1 suppression is maintained with bone and renal biomarker improvement 48 weeks after ritonavir discontinuation and randomized switch to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir †
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Protease Inhibitor:

Article Title: Drug Interactions with the Direct-Acting Antiviral Combination of Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir-Ritonavir
Article Snippet: .. Ombitasvir, a potent NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir, a potent NS3/4A protease inhibitor identified for clinical development by AbbVie and Enanta, both show in vitro antiviral activity against HCV subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 6a ( ). ..

In Vitro:

Article Title: Drug Interactions with the Direct-Acting Antiviral Combination of Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir-Ritonavir
Article Snippet: .. Ombitasvir, a potent NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir, a potent NS3/4A protease inhibitor identified for clinical development by AbbVie and Enanta, both show in vitro antiviral activity against HCV subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 6a ( ). ..

Activity Assay:

Article Title: Drug Interactions with the Direct-Acting Antiviral Combination of Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir-Ritonavir
Article Snippet: .. Ombitasvir, a potent NS5A inhibitor, and paritaprevir, a potent NS3/4A protease inhibitor identified for clinical development by AbbVie and Enanta, both show in vitro antiviral activity against HCV subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 6a ( ). ..

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    AbbVie ritonavir
    Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and <t>ritonavir);</t> data shown as means ± SEM; * P
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    86
    AbbVie ombitasvir paritaprevir ritonavir
    The proportion of HCV-infected patients exhibiting viral suppression in response to DAA treatment. Therapies consisted of DCV/ASV, SOF/LDV, OBV/PTV/r, and EBV/GZR. The cumulative proportions of patients in the four different groups who achieved viral suppression at 4 weeks after the start of treatment, during treatment ongoing, at the ETR, and at 4 and 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR4 and SVR12) were shown. Patient numbers are also shown in the bar graph. No significant differences were observed in the RVR, ETR, SVR4, and SVR12 rates among the four groups. ETR, end of treatment; HCV, hepatitis C virus; DCV/ASV, daclatasvir/asunaprevir; SOF/LDV, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir; OBT/PTV/r, <t>ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir;</t> EBV/GZR, elbasvir/grazoprevir; RVR, rapid virological response; SVR, sustained virological response.
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    86
    AbbVie norvir
    Drug dissolution profiles of <t>RTV</t> polymorphs I and II (neat drug), RTV conventional (CP1 and CP2) and liquisolid (LP1 and LP2) pellets, and <t>Norvir®</t> tablets. Each point is expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).
    Norvir, supplied by AbbVie, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    AbbVie lopinavir ritonavir
    Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R <t>lopinavir/ritonavir,</t> OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2
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    Image Search Results


    Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P

    Journal: Liver International

    Article Title: Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of autoimmune biliary disease

    doi: 10.1111/liv.12699

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antiretroviral regimens associated with reduction in serum liver enzyme levels from baseline. (A) After 4 weeks of treatment, only mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra experienced a significant mean reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to placebo, whereas by the end of 12 weeks therapy mice treated with regimens containing Truvada with or without Kaletra experienced significant reduction. (B) A significant reduction in serum alanine transaminase levels was observed in mice receiving Truvada and Kaletra but not Combivir and Kaletra [Combivir (zidovudine and lamivudine), Truvada (tenofovir and emtricitabine), Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir); data shown as means ± SEM; * P

    Article Snippet: To evaluate the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy, the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra™; AbbVie, North Chicago, IL, USA) were also used where the ritonavir acts to potentiate the activity of lopinavir .

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The proportion of HCV-infected patients exhibiting viral suppression in response to DAA treatment. Therapies consisted of DCV/ASV, SOF/LDV, OBV/PTV/r, and EBV/GZR. The cumulative proportions of patients in the four different groups who achieved viral suppression at 4 weeks after the start of treatment, during treatment ongoing, at the ETR, and at 4 and 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR4 and SVR12) were shown. Patient numbers are also shown in the bar graph. No significant differences were observed in the RVR, ETR, SVR4, and SVR12 rates among the four groups. ETR, end of treatment; HCV, hepatitis C virus; DCV/ASV, daclatasvir/asunaprevir; SOF/LDV, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir; OBT/PTV/r, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir; EBV/GZR, elbasvir/grazoprevir; RVR, rapid virological response; SVR, sustained virological response.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Efficacy and tolerability of interferon-free regimen for patients with genotype-1 HCV infection

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.6481

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The proportion of HCV-infected patients exhibiting viral suppression in response to DAA treatment. Therapies consisted of DCV/ASV, SOF/LDV, OBV/PTV/r, and EBV/GZR. The cumulative proportions of patients in the four different groups who achieved viral suppression at 4 weeks after the start of treatment, during treatment ongoing, at the ETR, and at 4 and 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR4 and SVR12) were shown. Patient numbers are also shown in the bar graph. No significant differences were observed in the RVR, ETR, SVR4, and SVR12 rates among the four groups. ETR, end of treatment; HCV, hepatitis C virus; DCV/ASV, daclatasvir/asunaprevir; SOF/LDV, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir; OBT/PTV/r, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir; EBV/GZR, elbasvir/grazoprevir; RVR, rapid virological response; SVR, sustained virological response.

    Article Snippet: The remaining 287 patients included 84 who were treated for 24 weeks with daclatasvir/asunaprevir (DCV/ASV; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA), 95 treated for 12 weeks with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV; Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA), 74 treated for 12 weeks with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r; AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA), and 34 treated for 12 weeks with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBV/GZR; MSD, Tokyo, Japan) ( ).

    Techniques: Infection

    Drug dissolution profiles of RTV polymorphs I and II (neat drug), RTV conventional (CP1 and CP2) and liquisolid (LP1 and LP2) pellets, and Norvir® tablets. Each point is expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).

    Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

    Article Title: Liquisolid pellets: A pharmaceutical technology strategy to improve the dissolution rate of ritonavir

    doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2019.04.005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Drug dissolution profiles of RTV polymorphs I and II (neat drug), RTV conventional (CP1 and CP2) and liquisolid (LP1 and LP2) pellets, and Norvir® tablets. Each point is expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).

    Article Snippet: Norvir® (RTV 100 mg) tablets (batch number 1040149) were manufactured by AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG (Germany) and imported by Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil Ltda. (Brazil).

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

    Journal: Annals of Intensive Care

    Article Title: Characteristics and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French intensive care units according to antiviral strategies: the COVADIS multicentre observational study

    doi: 10.1186/s13613-020-00751-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of antiviral strategies effect on being alive and extubated at day 28 after adjustment on age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, plateau pressure and P/F ratio. Standard of care served as reference. ORs (CI95%) are indicated after each variable and were obtained through a generalized linear mixed model with center as random effect ( N = 412). L/R lopinavir/ritonavir, OHQ hydroxychloroquine, P/F PaO 2 /FiO 2

    Article Snippet: Absence of independent association between lopinavir/ritonavir and AKI after adjustment can be related to overfitting and/or to our sensitive threshold for definition of AKI, highlighted by high rates of AKI as compared to other cohorts with yet similar rate of RRT in groups not receiving L/R [ , ].

    Techniques: