legionella  (ATCC)


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    Structured Review

    ATCC legionella
    Summation of TLR3, TLR4, and other PPRs required for the human macrophage response to L . pneumophila infection. (A) The TLR3 and TLR4 signaling axes. TLR4 recognizes L . pneumophila ( Lpn ) LPS at both the macrophage surface and the endosomal / <t>Legionella</t> -containing vacuole (LCV) compartment. TLR4 at the surface signals via MyD88, whereas endosomal-localized TLR4 requires the TRIF/TRAM adaptors. TLR3 recognizes dsRNA presumably originating from the LCV and then utilizes the TRIF adaptor to begin signal transduction. TLR4/MyD88, TLR4/TRAM/TRIF, and TLR3/TRIF all engage downstream TBK1 and finally TRAF6 leading to transcription factor (e.g., NF-κΒ {shown}, AP-1) activation, which induces cytokine gene transcription (e.g., TNFα and IL-6) and its associated protein synthesis and secretion (dashed line arrows). In this study, we confirmed the TLR4- and TLR3-dependency of IL-6 and TNFα as well as IL-1β and IL-10. (B) Human PRRs that recognize and respond to Lpn infection, based on the results from the current study as well as past work (see main text for references). At the macrophage surface, TLR4 and its co-receptor CD14 work to recognize LPS, TLR2 likely senses a lipoprotein(s) and/or a component of outer membrane vesicles, and TLR5 detects flagellin. At the level of the endosome / LCV, TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, while TLR4 recognizes LPS. Within the macrophage cytosol, DNA-PK and cGAS/STING sense DNA, while RIG-I/MAVS recognizes dsRNA species, including those generated by the action of Pol III on released DNA, and NLR’s NOD1 and/or NOD2 recognize peptidoglycan. Finally, cytoplasmic inflammasomes, both AIM2 and hNAIP-dependent ones, recognize DNA, peptidoglycan, LPS, and flagellin. Regardless of the PRR or its location, signal transduction leads to the upregulation of cytokine gene transcription (solid black arrows). Cytokines that are known to be produced and secreted by human macrophages upon L . pneumophila infection include IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα (dashed line arrows). PPRs that have been examined by KO analysis but were found not to be required for the production of cytokines (as measured by IL-6 and TNFα levels) include TLR9, MCL, and the Malt1-dependent CLRs. Diagrams were created with BioRender.com .
    Legionella, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Human macrophages utilize a wide range of pathogen recognition receptors to recognize Legionella pneumophila, including Toll-Like Receptor 4 engaging Legionella lipopolysaccharide and the Toll-like Receptor 3 nucleic-acid sensor"

    Article Title: Human macrophages utilize a wide range of pathogen recognition receptors to recognize Legionella pneumophila, including Toll-Like Receptor 4 engaging Legionella lipopolysaccharide and the Toll-like Receptor 3 nucleic-acid sensor

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009781

    Summation of TLR3, TLR4, and other PPRs required for the human macrophage response to L . pneumophila infection. (A) The TLR3 and TLR4 signaling axes. TLR4 recognizes L . pneumophila ( Lpn ) LPS at both the macrophage surface and the endosomal / Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) compartment. TLR4 at the surface signals via MyD88, whereas endosomal-localized TLR4 requires the TRIF/TRAM adaptors. TLR3 recognizes dsRNA presumably originating from the LCV and then utilizes the TRIF adaptor to begin signal transduction. TLR4/MyD88, TLR4/TRAM/TRIF, and TLR3/TRIF all engage downstream TBK1 and finally TRAF6 leading to transcription factor (e.g., NF-κΒ {shown}, AP-1) activation, which induces cytokine gene transcription (e.g., TNFα and IL-6) and its associated protein synthesis and secretion (dashed line arrows). In this study, we confirmed the TLR4- and TLR3-dependency of IL-6 and TNFα as well as IL-1β and IL-10. (B) Human PRRs that recognize and respond to Lpn infection, based on the results from the current study as well as past work (see main text for references). At the macrophage surface, TLR4 and its co-receptor CD14 work to recognize LPS, TLR2 likely senses a lipoprotein(s) and/or a component of outer membrane vesicles, and TLR5 detects flagellin. At the level of the endosome / LCV, TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, while TLR4 recognizes LPS. Within the macrophage cytosol, DNA-PK and cGAS/STING sense DNA, while RIG-I/MAVS recognizes dsRNA species, including those generated by the action of Pol III on released DNA, and NLR’s NOD1 and/or NOD2 recognize peptidoglycan. Finally, cytoplasmic inflammasomes, both AIM2 and hNAIP-dependent ones, recognize DNA, peptidoglycan, LPS, and flagellin. Regardless of the PRR or its location, signal transduction leads to the upregulation of cytokine gene transcription (solid black arrows). Cytokines that are known to be produced and secreted by human macrophages upon L . pneumophila infection include IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα (dashed line arrows). PPRs that have been examined by KO analysis but were found not to be required for the production of cytokines (as measured by IL-6 and TNFα levels) include TLR9, MCL, and the Malt1-dependent CLRs. Diagrams were created with BioRender.com .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Summation of TLR3, TLR4, and other PPRs required for the human macrophage response to L . pneumophila infection. (A) The TLR3 and TLR4 signaling axes. TLR4 recognizes L . pneumophila ( Lpn ) LPS at both the macrophage surface and the endosomal / Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) compartment. TLR4 at the surface signals via MyD88, whereas endosomal-localized TLR4 requires the TRIF/TRAM adaptors. TLR3 recognizes dsRNA presumably originating from the LCV and then utilizes the TRIF adaptor to begin signal transduction. TLR4/MyD88, TLR4/TRAM/TRIF, and TLR3/TRIF all engage downstream TBK1 and finally TRAF6 leading to transcription factor (e.g., NF-κΒ {shown}, AP-1) activation, which induces cytokine gene transcription (e.g., TNFα and IL-6) and its associated protein synthesis and secretion (dashed line arrows). In this study, we confirmed the TLR4- and TLR3-dependency of IL-6 and TNFα as well as IL-1β and IL-10. (B) Human PRRs that recognize and respond to Lpn infection, based on the results from the current study as well as past work (see main text for references). At the macrophage surface, TLR4 and its co-receptor CD14 work to recognize LPS, TLR2 likely senses a lipoprotein(s) and/or a component of outer membrane vesicles, and TLR5 detects flagellin. At the level of the endosome / LCV, TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, while TLR4 recognizes LPS. Within the macrophage cytosol, DNA-PK and cGAS/STING sense DNA, while RIG-I/MAVS recognizes dsRNA species, including those generated by the action of Pol III on released DNA, and NLR’s NOD1 and/or NOD2 recognize peptidoglycan. Finally, cytoplasmic inflammasomes, both AIM2 and hNAIP-dependent ones, recognize DNA, peptidoglycan, LPS, and flagellin. Regardless of the PRR or its location, signal transduction leads to the upregulation of cytokine gene transcription (solid black arrows). Cytokines that are known to be produced and secreted by human macrophages upon L . pneumophila infection include IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα (dashed line arrows). PPRs that have been examined by KO analysis but were found not to be required for the production of cytokines (as measured by IL-6 and TNFα levels) include TLR9, MCL, and the Malt1-dependent CLRs. Diagrams were created with BioRender.com .

    Techniques Used: Infection, Transduction, Activation Assay, Generated, Produced

    2) Product Images from "Spatial Arrangement of Legionella Colonies in Intact Biofilms from a Model Cooling Water System"

    Article Title: Spatial Arrangement of Legionella Colonies in Intact Biofilms from a Model Cooling Water System

    Journal: Microbiology Insights

    doi: 10.4137/MBI.S12196

    Legionella appeared in 3 distinct colony morphologies, either present associated with or encapsulated within protozoa ( A ), as closely grouped collections of cells ( B ), or as individual cells apparently dispersing from a roughly central origin ( C ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Legionella appeared in 3 distinct colony morphologies, either present associated with or encapsulated within protozoa ( A ), as closely grouped collections of cells ( B ), or as individual cells apparently dispersing from a roughly central origin ( C ).

    Techniques Used:

    Typical representations of FISH tagged biofilms from this system. ( A ) is annotated to highlight Legionella colonies (indicated by arrows), with inset image showing transverse view displaying undulating surface. Fluorescent tags have been artificially colored to increase image contrast. Eukaryotes appear green, Legionella, blue, and all other bacteria, red.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Typical representations of FISH tagged biofilms from this system. ( A ) is annotated to highlight Legionella colonies (indicated by arrows), with inset image showing transverse view displaying undulating surface. Fluorescent tags have been artificially colored to increase image contrast. Eukaryotes appear green, Legionella, blue, and all other bacteria, red.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    3) Product Images from "Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping"

    Article Title: Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.41.1.34-43.2003

    Comparative analysis of the Eco RI ribotypes obtained with the RiboPrinter for the ATCC collection of Legionella strains. Clustering was performed by the UPGMA method, and similarity analysis was based on the use of the Dice coefficient (see Materials and Methods). In the dendrogram scale, correlation levels were converted to percent homology levels. TS, type strain; RS, reference strain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative analysis of the Eco RI ribotypes obtained with the RiboPrinter for the ATCC collection of Legionella strains. Clustering was performed by the UPGMA method, and similarity analysis was based on the use of the Dice coefficient (see Materials and Methods). In the dendrogram scale, correlation levels were converted to percent homology levels. TS, type strain; RS, reference strain.

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "The Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii Metallo-?-Lactamase: a New Member of the Highly Divergent Lineage of Molecular-Subclass B3 ?-Lactamases"

    Article Title: The Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii Metallo-?-Lactamase: a New Member of the Highly Divergent Lineage of Molecular-Subclass B3 ?-Lactamases

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi:

    Physical map of the insert of plasmid pLLB-8AI and subcloning strategy. Thick lines represent cloned DNA, while thin lines correspond to vector sequences. Production of metallo-β-lactamase activity (β-lact.) was assayed on crude extracts prepared from cells collected in the late-exponential phase of growth ( A 600 , 1.5 to 1.8), using meropenem as the substrate. The location of the bla FEZ-1 ORF is also indicated. The Bam HI site labeled with an asterisk was generated after cloning of the Sau 3AI genomic DNA fragment in the Bam HI site of the plasmid vector and is not present in the Legionella chromosomal DNA, as indicated by the results of Southern blot experiments (see text). Abbreviations for restriction enzymes: B, Bam HI; B/S, Bam HI/ Sau 3AI junction; H, Hin dIII; Hc, Hin cII; Sa, Sal I; V, Eco RV; X, Xba I.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Physical map of the insert of plasmid pLLB-8AI and subcloning strategy. Thick lines represent cloned DNA, while thin lines correspond to vector sequences. Production of metallo-β-lactamase activity (β-lact.) was assayed on crude extracts prepared from cells collected in the late-exponential phase of growth ( A 600 , 1.5 to 1.8), using meropenem as the substrate. The location of the bla FEZ-1 ORF is also indicated. The Bam HI site labeled with an asterisk was generated after cloning of the Sau 3AI genomic DNA fragment in the Bam HI site of the plasmid vector and is not present in the Legionella chromosomal DNA, as indicated by the results of Southern blot experiments (see text). Abbreviations for restriction enzymes: B, Bam HI; B/S, Bam HI/ Sau 3AI junction; H, Hin dIII; Hc, Hin cII; Sa, Sal I; V, Eco RV; X, Xba I.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Subcloning, Clone Assay, Activity Assay, Labeling, Generated, Southern Blot

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    ATCC atcc 33152 dsm 7513
    Principal component analysis and correlation matrices for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained from 1464 L. <t>pneumophila</t> isolates. (A) PCA of indices of the isolates. Isolates are shown as dots and colored red. Indices are shown as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the plot represented the relationship between variables and principal components. (B) Correlation matrix for isolates’ indices (MICs). WPC, weak positive correlation, 0.2
    Atcc 33152 Dsm 7513, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Principal component analysis and correlation matrices for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained from 1464 L. pneumophila isolates. (A) PCA of indices of the isolates. Isolates are shown as dots and colored red. Indices are shown as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the plot represented the relationship between variables and principal components. (B) Correlation matrix for isolates’ indices (MICs). WPC, weak positive correlation, 0.2

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Principal component analysis and correlation matrices for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained from 1464 L. pneumophila isolates. (A) PCA of indices of the isolates. Isolates are shown as dots and colored red. Indices are shown as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the plot represented the relationship between variables and principal components. (B) Correlation matrix for isolates’ indices (MICs). WPC, weak positive correlation, 0.2

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques:

    Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of L. pneumophila belonging to different sgs or from different environmental sources or regions in China. (A) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to different sgs. (B) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from different sources. W, water sources; S, soil sources. (C) PCA biplot of MICs of the isolates. Isolates are shown as dots and colored by groups based on the sources and sgs. Indices are given as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the biplot represents the relationship between variables and principal components. The gray shadow indicates 95% confidence for sg2-15 isolates from water sources. A dashed ellipse indicates significantly correlated variables. (D) Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to different sgs and from different sources. W1, sg1 isolates from water sources; W2-15, sg2-15 isolates from water sources; S1, isolates from soil sources; S2-15, sg2-15 isolates from water sources. Data are shown as floating bars with the max and min and mean values. Dotted lines indicate that log MICs are different in W2-15 isolates when compared with the other three types of isolates. (E) Regions of China where the tested isolates were obtained are shown. Cities where the isolates were obtained in each region are shown. (F) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from different regions of China. Colored regions indicate the provinces where the isolates are from. We defined those MICs were 1.25 times higher/lower (log MIC gap > 0.969) than the contrast with P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of L. pneumophila belonging to different sgs or from different environmental sources or regions in China. (A) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to different sgs. (B) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from different sources. W, water sources; S, soil sources. (C) PCA biplot of MICs of the isolates. Isolates are shown as dots and colored by groups based on the sources and sgs. Indices are given as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the biplot represents the relationship between variables and principal components. The gray shadow indicates 95% confidence for sg2-15 isolates from water sources. A dashed ellipse indicates significantly correlated variables. (D) Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to different sgs and from different sources. W1, sg1 isolates from water sources; W2-15, sg2-15 isolates from water sources; S1, isolates from soil sources; S2-15, sg2-15 isolates from water sources. Data are shown as floating bars with the max and min and mean values. Dotted lines indicate that log MICs are different in W2-15 isolates when compared with the other three types of isolates. (E) Regions of China where the tested isolates were obtained are shown. Cities where the isolates were obtained in each region are shown. (F) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from different regions of China. Colored regions indicate the provinces where the isolates are from. We defined those MICs were 1.25 times higher/lower (log MIC gap > 0.969) than the contrast with P

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques:

    Design of lepAB primers with genomic sequences from L. pneumophila harboring the lpeAB efflux, and multiplex PCR to detect lpeAB genes and their spatial arrangement. (A) Arrangement of the lpeAB is shown using L. pneumophila str. Paris as a reference. Primers and DNA sequences of lpeAB , and GenBank accession numbers are shown, and the blue italics indicate the gene location in the selected sequences of the strains. (B) PCR amplification conditions. (C) Representative results for detection of lpeAB efflux in L. pneumophila isolates. DNA electrophoresis shows specific lpeA targets (green arrow, 152 bp), lpeB targets (blue arrow, 499 bp), and lpeA-lpeB combined targets (red arrow, 1009 bp), which indicate the right arrangement of the two genes. Lanes 1-9 show positive for lpeAB efflux; lanes 10-11 show negative for lpeAB efflux; n.c. indicates negative control which used sterile water as a template.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Design of lepAB primers with genomic sequences from L. pneumophila harboring the lpeAB efflux, and multiplex PCR to detect lpeAB genes and their spatial arrangement. (A) Arrangement of the lpeAB is shown using L. pneumophila str. Paris as a reference. Primers and DNA sequences of lpeAB , and GenBank accession numbers are shown, and the blue italics indicate the gene location in the selected sequences of the strains. (B) PCR amplification conditions. (C) Representative results for detection of lpeAB efflux in L. pneumophila isolates. DNA electrophoresis shows specific lpeA targets (green arrow, 152 bp), lpeB targets (blue arrow, 499 bp), and lpeA-lpeB combined targets (red arrow, 1009 bp), which indicate the right arrangement of the two genes. Lanes 1-9 show positive for lpeAB efflux; lanes 10-11 show negative for lpeAB efflux; n.c. indicates negative control which used sterile water as a template.

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques: Genomic Sequencing, Multiplex Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Negative Control

    Wild-type cutoff (COWT) of the eight antibiotics against L. pneumophila using the ECOFFinder method. (A–H) MIC distributions of the eight antibiotics, fitted curves, and ECOFF were obtained by the ECOFFinder. (I) Relevant data table obtained by the ECOFFinder. Asterisks indicate the possible largest WT MICs.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Wild-type cutoff (COWT) of the eight antibiotics against L. pneumophila using the ECOFFinder method. (A–H) MIC distributions of the eight antibiotics, fitted curves, and ECOFF were obtained by the ECOFFinder. (I) Relevant data table obtained by the ECOFFinder. Asterisks indicate the possible largest WT MICs.

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques:

    Presence of lpeAB efflux in L. pneumophila and its distribution in the isolates belonging to different sgs or from different sources and regions in China. (A) Presence of lpeAB efflux in AZI-sensitive and –resistant isolates. (B) PCA biplot of indices of the isolates harboring or not harboring lpeAB efflux. Isolates are shown as dots and colored by groups based on the presence of lpeAB efflux. Indices showed as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the biplot represented the relationship between variables and principal components. The red shadow indicates 95% confidence for lpeAB + isolates. (C) Average MICs between isolates with or without lpeAB efflux. Data are shown as floating bars with the max and min and mean values. (D). Different distribution patterns of lpeAB in the isolates belonging to different sgs or from different sources and regions of China. *** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Presence of lpeAB efflux in L. pneumophila and its distribution in the isolates belonging to different sgs or from different sources and regions in China. (A) Presence of lpeAB efflux in AZI-sensitive and –resistant isolates. (B) PCA biplot of indices of the isolates harboring or not harboring lpeAB efflux. Isolates are shown as dots and colored by groups based on the presence of lpeAB efflux. Indices showed as lines with arrows and colored. The configuration of indices in the biplot represented the relationship between variables and principal components. The red shadow indicates 95% confidence for lpeAB + isolates. (C) Average MICs between isolates with or without lpeAB efflux. Data are shown as floating bars with the max and min and mean values. (D). Different distribution patterns of lpeAB in the isolates belonging to different sgs or from different sources and regions of China. *** P

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques:

    Average minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among the eight antibiotics against L. pneumophila. Data are shown as floating bars with the max, min, and mean values.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and tentative epidemiological cutoff values of Legionella pneumophila from environmental water and soil sources in China

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.924709

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Average minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among the eight antibiotics against L. pneumophila. Data are shown as floating bars with the max, min, and mean values.

    Article Snippet: Regarding the control strain, L. pneumophila sg 1 ATCC 33152 (two repetitions) showed higher sensitivities (MIC of ATCC33152 ≤ MIC50 of the environmental isolates) to all the eight antibiotics, including RIF (0.0005 mg/L), ERY (0.125 mg/L), CLA (0.016 mg/L), AZI (0.25 mg/L), CIP (0.063 mg/L), MOX (0.031 mg/L), LEV (0.031 mg/L), and DOX (8 mg/L).

    Techniques: