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1) Product Images from "Studies on the mechanism of general anesthesia"
Article Title: Studies on the mechanism of general anesthesia
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Figure Legend Snippet: Phospholipase D (PLD) regulates anesthetic sensitivity in D. melanogaster . ( A ) Diagram depicting the setup of the anesthetic treatment and the positional recordings of the flies. Fly positions were used to confirm anesthesia. ( B ) Sedation curves showing the percent of unconscious flies over time after chloroform treatment (2.8 mmol/L of air volume) in both WT and PLD null flies. ( C ) Confocal images showing robust labeling of GM1 rafts (CTxB, green) in the membranes of labeled neurons (pan-neuronal Elav antibody, purple) of the whole fly brain. (Scale bar, 500 µm and 25 µm for the zoomed panel.) ( D and E ) Flies were treated with chloroform and the GM1 rafts of whole-brain tissue were assayed for anesthetic-induced disruption by super-resolution imaging (dSTORM). ( D ) Super-resolution images with ( Right ) and without ( Left ) sedating chloroform. ( E ) Quantitation of apparent raft size diameter from fixed whole fly brain with and without chloroform. Similar to raft disruption in tissue culture, the GM1 rafts expand in brains of flies treated with chloroform (96.5 ± 0.7 nm vs. 86.0 ± 0.5 nm, respectively). Gray dotted lines indicate a hypothetical zoom compared to the low-resolution imaging of confocal in C . (mean ± SEM, n = 16,000 to 17,500, where n is the measurement of an individual raft size). ( F – I ) PLD assays on fly neuronal cells (ML-DmBG2-c2) confirming the activation of PLD by anesthetics: diethyl ether (1 mM) ( F ) chloroform (1 mM) ( G ), isoflurane (1 mM) ( H ), and propofol (50 µM) ( I ). ( J ) Bar graph of normalized activity of PLD in F – I at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 3 to 4) (Student’s t test results: *** P
Techniques Used: Labeling, Imaging, Quantitation Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics activates phospholipase D (PLD) through raft disruption. ( A ) Live-cell assays showing the effect of anesthetics on PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) activity in N2A cells. Chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and propofol (50 µM) increased the PLD activity as compared with the control cells. The nonimmobilizer F6, at predicted Overton–Meyer concentrations, had no effect on the PLD activity and the activity was inhibited by a PLD-specific inhibitor (2.5 to 5 µM) (mean ± SEM, n = 4). ( B ) Summary of normalized anesthetic-induced activity of PLD in A – G at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 4) (Student’s t test results: ns P > 0.05; * P ≤ 0.05; ** P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001; **** P ≤ 0.0001). ( C and D ) Dose–response of chloroform (EC 50 = ∼1.0 mM) ( C ) and isoflurane (EC 50 = ∼0.8 mM) ( D ) on PLD activity through raft disruption. ( E and F ) Representative I–V curves showing the effects of propofol on TREK-1 in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp ( E ), and with xPLD2 ( F ). ( G ) Summary of TREK-1 currents showing an approximately twofold increase when activated by propofol (25 to 50 µM) ( n = 6) at +40 mV (±SEM) (Student’s t test results: * P
Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Patch Clamp
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics disrupt GM1 domain’s apparent structure. ( A ) Representative reconstructed super-resolution (dSTORM) images of GM1 rafts before and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), or MβCD (100 µM). (Scale bars, 1 µm.) ( B and C ) Bar graphs comparing the apparent raft sizes ( B ) and areas ( C ) quantified by cluster analysis (±SEM, n = 2,842 to 7,382). ( D and E ) Quantified number of rafts per cell ( D ) and total area of rafts per cell ( E ) (±SEM, n = 10) (Student’s t test results: ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics displace PLD2 from GM1 rafts. ( A ) Representative super-resolution (dSTORM) images of fluorescently labeled CTxB (lipid raft) and PLD2 before treatment (control) and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and MβCD (100 µM) in N2A cells (Scale bars, 0.5 µm.) ( B ) Average cross-correlation functions [C(r)] showing a decrease in PLD2 association with ordered GM1 rafts after treatment with anesthetic or MβCD. ( C ) Comparison of the first data point in B (5-nm radius) (±SEM, n = 10 to 17) (Student’s t test results: *** P ≤ 0.001). ( D ) Schematic representation of PLD2 in GM1 rafts before ( Left ) and after ( Right ) anesthetic treatment. Palmitoylation drives PLD2 into GM1 rafts (blue rectangle) away from its unsaturated PC substrate (yellow circle). Anesthetics (orange hexagon) disrupts GM1 rafts causing the enzyme to translocate where it finds its substrate PC in the disordered region of the cell.
Techniques Used: Labeling
2) Product Images from "Neurovascular coupling and bilateral connectivity during NREM and REM sleep"
Article Title: Neurovascular coupling and bilateral connectivity during NREM and REM sleep
Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane drives larger vasodilations than sleep. Example showing the blood volume and neural changes accompanying transitions between NREM and awake states followed by administration of isoflurane. Isoflurane is a potent vasodilator and causes the cortical vasculature to reach a maximum or near-maximum saturation in blood volume. ( A ) Plot of nuchal muscle EMG power and body motion via a pressure sensor located beneath the mouse. Large oscillations in EMG are due to heavy breathing during anesthesia. ( B ) Plot of the whisker position and heart rate. ( C ) Changes in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROIs over the putative vibrissa cortex. Inset shows images of the two windows and respective ROIs. ( D ) Normalized left vibrissae cortex LFP power (∆P/P). ( E ) Normalized right vibrissae cortex LFP power. ( F ) Normalized CA1 LFP power. ( G ) Average change in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROI during different arousal states. Circles represent individual hemispheres of each mouse and diamonds represent population averages, with error bar showing ±1 standard deviation (n = 14 mice, 28 hemispheres; Isoflurane: n = 9, 18 hemispheres). *p
Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Standard Deviation, Mouse Assay
3) Product Images from ""
Journal: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Figure Legend Snippet: The ratio of CO 2 production divided by O 2 consumption, also known as the respiratory quotient, does not change significantly from baseline (black) with exposure to hydrogen sulfide at 80 ppm (green), 0.5% isoflurane (purple), 0.5% halothane (red), or
Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex dose-response curves with 95% confidence limits bracketing the best-fit results for isoflurane (black), isoflurane + 80 ppm H 2 S (light green), and isoflurane + 250 ppm H 2 S (dark green). Sigmoidal dose-response
Article Title: Cytokine and Chemokine Responses of Lung Exposed to Surrogate Viral and Bacterial Infections
Article Snippet: Beginning at dark onset on the initial day of a behavioral experiment, mice were monitored for baseline locomotor activity, running wheel activity, core temperature, and daily consumption of food, water, and saccharin. .. Immediately prior to dark onset on the next day, mice were lightly anesthetized with
Article Title: Anesthetic agents affect urodynamic parameters and anesthetic depth at doses necessary to facilitate preclinical testing in felines
Article Snippet: The cats remained on isoflurane for an addition period of time (3–5.5 h) before being transitioned to