isoflurane  (Millipore)

 
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 97
    Name:
    Isoflurane
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    CDS019936
    Price:
    None
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Millipore isoflurane
    Isoflurane

    https://www.bioz.com/result/isoflurane/product/Millipore
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    isoflurane - by Bioz Stars, 2021-04
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Studies on the mechanism of general anesthesia"

    Article Title: Studies on the mechanism of general anesthesia

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.2004259117

    Phospholipase D (PLD) regulates anesthetic sensitivity in D. melanogaster . ( A ) Diagram depicting the setup of the anesthetic treatment and the positional recordings of the flies. Fly positions were used to confirm anesthesia. ( B ) Sedation curves showing the percent of unconscious flies over time after chloroform treatment (2.8 mmol/L of air volume) in both WT and PLD null flies. ( C ) Confocal images showing robust labeling of GM1 rafts (CTxB, green) in the membranes of labeled neurons (pan-neuronal Elav antibody, purple) of the whole fly brain. (Scale bar, 500 µm and 25 µm for the zoomed panel.) ( D and E ) Flies were treated with chloroform and the GM1 rafts of whole-brain tissue were assayed for anesthetic-induced disruption by super-resolution imaging (dSTORM). ( D ) Super-resolution images with ( Right ) and without ( Left ) sedating chloroform. ( E ) Quantitation of apparent raft size diameter from fixed whole fly brain with and without chloroform. Similar to raft disruption in tissue culture, the GM1 rafts expand in brains of flies treated with chloroform (96.5 ± 0.7 nm vs. 86.0 ± 0.5 nm, respectively). Gray dotted lines indicate a hypothetical zoom compared to the low-resolution imaging of confocal in C . (mean ± SEM, n = 16,000 to 17,500, where n is the measurement of an individual raft size). ( F – I ) PLD assays on fly neuronal cells (ML-DmBG2-c2) confirming the activation of PLD by anesthetics: diethyl ether (1 mM) ( F ) chloroform (1 mM) ( G ), isoflurane (1 mM) ( H ), and propofol (50 µM) ( I ). ( J ) Bar graph of normalized activity of PLD in F – I at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 3 to 4) (Student’s t test results: *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phospholipase D (PLD) regulates anesthetic sensitivity in D. melanogaster . ( A ) Diagram depicting the setup of the anesthetic treatment and the positional recordings of the flies. Fly positions were used to confirm anesthesia. ( B ) Sedation curves showing the percent of unconscious flies over time after chloroform treatment (2.8 mmol/L of air volume) in both WT and PLD null flies. ( C ) Confocal images showing robust labeling of GM1 rafts (CTxB, green) in the membranes of labeled neurons (pan-neuronal Elav antibody, purple) of the whole fly brain. (Scale bar, 500 µm and 25 µm for the zoomed panel.) ( D and E ) Flies were treated with chloroform and the GM1 rafts of whole-brain tissue were assayed for anesthetic-induced disruption by super-resolution imaging (dSTORM). ( D ) Super-resolution images with ( Right ) and without ( Left ) sedating chloroform. ( E ) Quantitation of apparent raft size diameter from fixed whole fly brain with and without chloroform. Similar to raft disruption in tissue culture, the GM1 rafts expand in brains of flies treated with chloroform (96.5 ± 0.7 nm vs. 86.0 ± 0.5 nm, respectively). Gray dotted lines indicate a hypothetical zoom compared to the low-resolution imaging of confocal in C . (mean ± SEM, n = 16,000 to 17,500, where n is the measurement of an individual raft size). ( F – I ) PLD assays on fly neuronal cells (ML-DmBG2-c2) confirming the activation of PLD by anesthetics: diethyl ether (1 mM) ( F ) chloroform (1 mM) ( G ), isoflurane (1 mM) ( H ), and propofol (50 µM) ( I ). ( J ) Bar graph of normalized activity of PLD in F – I at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 3 to 4) (Student’s t test results: *** P

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Imaging, Quantitation Assay, Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    Inhaled anesthetics activates phospholipase D (PLD) through raft disruption. ( A ) Live-cell assays showing the effect of anesthetics on PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) activity in N2A cells. Chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and propofol (50 µM) increased the PLD activity as compared with the control cells. The nonimmobilizer F6, at predicted Overton–Meyer concentrations, had no effect on the PLD activity and the activity was inhibited by a PLD-specific inhibitor (2.5 to 5 µM) (mean ± SEM, n = 4). ( B ) Summary of normalized anesthetic-induced activity of PLD in A – G at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 4) (Student’s t test results: ns P > 0.05; * P ≤ 0.05; ** P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001; **** P ≤ 0.0001). ( C and D ) Dose–response of chloroform (EC 50 = ∼1.0 mM) ( C ) and isoflurane (EC 50 = ∼0.8 mM) ( D ) on PLD activity through raft disruption. ( E and F ) Representative I–V curves showing the effects of propofol on TREK-1 in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp ( E ), and with xPLD2 ( F ). ( G ) Summary of TREK-1 currents showing an approximately twofold increase when activated by propofol (25 to 50 µM) ( n = 6) at +40 mV (±SEM) (Student’s t test results: * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics activates phospholipase D (PLD) through raft disruption. ( A ) Live-cell assays showing the effect of anesthetics on PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) activity in N2A cells. Chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and propofol (50 µM) increased the PLD activity as compared with the control cells. The nonimmobilizer F6, at predicted Overton–Meyer concentrations, had no effect on the PLD activity and the activity was inhibited by a PLD-specific inhibitor (2.5 to 5 µM) (mean ± SEM, n = 4). ( B ) Summary of normalized anesthetic-induced activity of PLD in A – G at 60 min (mean ± SEM, n = 4) (Student’s t test results: ns P > 0.05; * P ≤ 0.05; ** P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001; **** P ≤ 0.0001). ( C and D ) Dose–response of chloroform (EC 50 = ∼1.0 mM) ( C ) and isoflurane (EC 50 = ∼0.8 mM) ( D ) on PLD activity through raft disruption. ( E and F ) Representative I–V curves showing the effects of propofol on TREK-1 in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp ( E ), and with xPLD2 ( F ). ( G ) Summary of TREK-1 currents showing an approximately twofold increase when activated by propofol (25 to 50 µM) ( n = 6) at +40 mV (±SEM) (Student’s t test results: * P

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Patch Clamp

    Inhaled anesthetics disrupt GM1 domain’s apparent structure. ( A ) Representative reconstructed super-resolution (dSTORM) images of GM1 rafts before and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), or MβCD (100 µM). (Scale bars, 1 µm.) ( B and C ) Bar graphs comparing the apparent raft sizes ( B ) and areas ( C ) quantified by cluster analysis (±SEM, n = 2,842 to 7,382). ( D and E ) Quantified number of rafts per cell ( D ) and total area of rafts per cell ( E ) (±SEM, n = 10) (Student’s t test results: ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics disrupt GM1 domain’s apparent structure. ( A ) Representative reconstructed super-resolution (dSTORM) images of GM1 rafts before and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), or MβCD (100 µM). (Scale bars, 1 µm.) ( B and C ) Bar graphs comparing the apparent raft sizes ( B ) and areas ( C ) quantified by cluster analysis (±SEM, n = 2,842 to 7,382). ( D and E ) Quantified number of rafts per cell ( D ) and total area of rafts per cell ( E ) (±SEM, n = 10) (Student’s t test results: ** P

    Techniques Used:

    Inhaled anesthetics displace PLD2 from GM1 rafts. ( A ) Representative super-resolution (dSTORM) images of fluorescently labeled CTxB (lipid raft) and PLD2 before treatment (control) and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and MβCD (100 µM) in N2A cells (Scale bars, 0.5 µm.) ( B ) Average cross-correlation functions [C(r)] showing a decrease in PLD2 association with ordered GM1 rafts after treatment with anesthetic or MβCD. ( C ) Comparison of the first data point in B (5-nm radius) (±SEM, n = 10 to 17) (Student’s t test results: *** P ≤ 0.001). ( D ) Schematic representation of PLD2 in GM1 rafts before ( Left ) and after ( Right ) anesthetic treatment. Palmitoylation drives PLD2 into GM1 rafts (blue rectangle) away from its unsaturated PC substrate (yellow circle). Anesthetics (orange hexagon) disrupts GM1 rafts causing the enzyme to translocate where it finds its substrate PC in the disordered region of the cell.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Inhaled anesthetics displace PLD2 from GM1 rafts. ( A ) Representative super-resolution (dSTORM) images of fluorescently labeled CTxB (lipid raft) and PLD2 before treatment (control) and after treatment with chloroform (1 mM), isoflurane (1 mM), and MβCD (100 µM) in N2A cells (Scale bars, 0.5 µm.) ( B ) Average cross-correlation functions [C(r)] showing a decrease in PLD2 association with ordered GM1 rafts after treatment with anesthetic or MβCD. ( C ) Comparison of the first data point in B (5-nm radius) (±SEM, n = 10 to 17) (Student’s t test results: *** P ≤ 0.001). ( D ) Schematic representation of PLD2 in GM1 rafts before ( Left ) and after ( Right ) anesthetic treatment. Palmitoylation drives PLD2 into GM1 rafts (blue rectangle) away from its unsaturated PC substrate (yellow circle). Anesthetics (orange hexagon) disrupts GM1 rafts causing the enzyme to translocate where it finds its substrate PC in the disordered region of the cell.

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    2) Product Images from "Neurovascular coupling and bilateral connectivity during NREM and REM sleep"

    Article Title: Neurovascular coupling and bilateral connectivity during NREM and REM sleep

    Journal: eLife

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.62071

    Isoflurane drives larger vasodilations than sleep. Example showing the blood volume and neural changes accompanying transitions between NREM and awake states followed by administration of isoflurane. Isoflurane is a potent vasodilator and causes the cortical vasculature to reach a maximum or near-maximum saturation in blood volume. ( A ) Plot of nuchal muscle EMG power and body motion via a pressure sensor located beneath the mouse. Large oscillations in EMG are due to heavy breathing during anesthesia. ( B ) Plot of the whisker position and heart rate. ( C ) Changes in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROIs over the putative vibrissa cortex. Inset shows images of the two windows and respective ROIs. ( D ) Normalized left vibrissae cortex LFP power (∆P/P). ( E ) Normalized right vibrissae cortex LFP power. ( F ) Normalized CA1 LFP power. ( G ) Average change in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROI during different arousal states. Circles represent individual hemispheres of each mouse and diamonds represent population averages, with error bar showing ±1 standard deviation (n = 14 mice, 28 hemispheres; Isoflurane: n = 9, 18 hemispheres). *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane drives larger vasodilations than sleep. Example showing the blood volume and neural changes accompanying transitions between NREM and awake states followed by administration of isoflurane. Isoflurane is a potent vasodilator and causes the cortical vasculature to reach a maximum or near-maximum saturation in blood volume. ( A ) Plot of nuchal muscle EMG power and body motion via a pressure sensor located beneath the mouse. Large oscillations in EMG are due to heavy breathing during anesthesia. ( B ) Plot of the whisker position and heart rate. ( C ) Changes in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROIs over the putative vibrissa cortex. Inset shows images of the two windows and respective ROIs. ( D ) Normalized left vibrissae cortex LFP power (∆P/P). ( E ) Normalized right vibrissae cortex LFP power. ( F ) Normalized CA1 LFP power. ( G ) Average change in total hemoglobin ∆[HbT] within the ROI during different arousal states. Circles represent individual hemispheres of each mouse and diamonds represent population averages, with error bar showing ±1 standard deviation (n = 14 mice, 28 hemispheres; Isoflurane: n = 9, 18 hemispheres). *p

    Techniques Used: Whisker Assay, Standard Deviation, Mouse Assay

    3) Product Images from ""

    Article Title:

    Journal: The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

    doi: 10.1124/jpet.111.187237

    The ratio of CO 2 production divided by O 2 consumption, also known as the respiratory quotient, does not change significantly from baseline (black) with exposure to hydrogen sulfide at 80 ppm (green), 0.5% isoflurane (purple), 0.5% halothane (red), or
    Figure Legend Snippet: The ratio of CO 2 production divided by O 2 consumption, also known as the respiratory quotient, does not change significantly from baseline (black) with exposure to hydrogen sulfide at 80 ppm (green), 0.5% isoflurane (purple), 0.5% halothane (red), or

    Techniques Used:

    Isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex dose-response curves with 95% confidence limits bracketing the best-fit results for isoflurane (black), isoflurane + 80 ppm H 2 S (light green), and isoflurane + 250 ppm H 2 S (dark green). Sigmoidal dose-response
    Figure Legend Snippet: Isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex dose-response curves with 95% confidence limits bracketing the best-fit results for isoflurane (black), isoflurane + 80 ppm H 2 S (light green), and isoflurane + 250 ppm H 2 S (dark green). Sigmoidal dose-response

    Techniques Used:

    Related Articles

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Cytokine and Chemokine Responses of Lung Exposed to Surrogate Viral and Bacterial Infections
    Article Snippet: Beginning at dark onset on the initial day of a behavioral experiment, mice were monitored for baseline locomotor activity, running wheel activity, core temperature, and daily consumption of food, water, and saccharin. .. Immediately prior to dark onset on the next day, mice were lightly anesthetized with isoflurane and inoculated intranasally with 25 µL of pyrogen-free saline (PFS) containing 100 µg pIC or 10 µg LPS (both from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO). ..

    other:

    Article Title: Anesthetic agents affect urodynamic parameters and anesthetic depth at doses necessary to facilitate preclinical testing in felines
    Article Snippet: The cats remained on isoflurane for an addition period of time (3–5.5 h) before being transitioned to α-chloralose over a duration of 45 min (70 mg/kg induction, 20 mg/kg maintenance every 4–6 h or as needed [MilliporeSigma, Burlington, MA]) supplemented with 0.01 mg/kg buprenorphine .

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 97
    Millipore isoflurane pdtc groups
    CaN activation mediates <t>isoflurane-induced</t> NF-κB activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. CsA (7 mg/kg) or <t>PDTC</t> (100 mg/kg) was administered 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure through intraperitoneal injection. (A) Western blot analysis and quantification of (B) IκBα and (C) p-IκBα protein expression levels relative to β-actin. IκBα expression decreased and p-IκBα expression increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced alterations in IκBα expression, and CsA treatment alone did not affect IκBα expression. (D) Immunofluorescence images, demonstrating that the nuclear distribution of RelA increased following isoflurane exposure in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 hippocampal region. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced RelA nuclear translocation, whereas CsA treatment alone did not affect RelA distribution. The white arrows indicate the typical RelA distribution, which are provided as high magnification images (magnification, ×400; scale bar, 20 µm). (E) Western blot analysis and (F) quantification of cleaved CaN expression. The expression of cleaved CaN increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. PDTC did not affect the expression of cleaved CaN in untreated controls or isoflurane treated rats. (G) CaN activity increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure, and PDTC did not affect CaN activity after isoflurane exposure or in the control group. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=6). *P
    Isoflurane Pdtc Groups, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/isoflurane pdtc groups/product/Millipore
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    isoflurane pdtc groups - by Bioz Stars, 2021-04
    97/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Millipore isoflurane
    Intrinsic imaging setup. ( a ) Intrinsic imaging rig overview. ( b ) Close-up of mouse head frame holder, <t>isoflurane</t> mask, and light guides. ( c ) Mouse position in relation to the monitor, viewed from the top of the setup (INTRODUCTION). The orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus. ( d ) Mouse position viewed from the front (orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus). The mouse is positioned 10 cm away from the monitor, and the perpendicular bisector of the eye is approximately perpendicular to the monitor. ( e ) Diagram of connectivity between master and slave computers and associated hardware. Details on each piece of equipment can be found in the ‘EQUIPMENT’ and ‘EQUIPMENT SETUP’ sections.
    Isoflurane, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/isoflurane/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    isoflurane - by Bioz Stars, 2021-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    CaN activation mediates isoflurane-induced NF-κB activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. CsA (7 mg/kg) or PDTC (100 mg/kg) was administered 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure through intraperitoneal injection. (A) Western blot analysis and quantification of (B) IκBα and (C) p-IκBα protein expression levels relative to β-actin. IκBα expression decreased and p-IκBα expression increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced alterations in IκBα expression, and CsA treatment alone did not affect IκBα expression. (D) Immunofluorescence images, demonstrating that the nuclear distribution of RelA increased following isoflurane exposure in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 hippocampal region. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced RelA nuclear translocation, whereas CsA treatment alone did not affect RelA distribution. The white arrows indicate the typical RelA distribution, which are provided as high magnification images (magnification, ×400; scale bar, 20 µm). (E) Western blot analysis and (F) quantification of cleaved CaN expression. The expression of cleaved CaN increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. PDTC did not affect the expression of cleaved CaN in untreated controls or isoflurane treated rats. (G) CaN activity increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure, and PDTC did not affect CaN activity after isoflurane exposure or in the control group. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=6). *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Calcineurin/nuclear factor-κB signaling mediates isoflurane-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive impairment in aged rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CaN activation mediates isoflurane-induced NF-κB activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. CsA (7 mg/kg) or PDTC (100 mg/kg) was administered 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure through intraperitoneal injection. (A) Western blot analysis and quantification of (B) IκBα and (C) p-IκBα protein expression levels relative to β-actin. IκBα expression decreased and p-IκBα expression increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced alterations in IκBα expression, and CsA treatment alone did not affect IκBα expression. (D) Immunofluorescence images, demonstrating that the nuclear distribution of RelA increased following isoflurane exposure in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1 hippocampal region. CsA attenuated isoflurane-induced RelA nuclear translocation, whereas CsA treatment alone did not affect RelA distribution. The white arrows indicate the typical RelA distribution, which are provided as high magnification images (magnification, ×400; scale bar, 20 µm). (E) Western blot analysis and (F) quantification of cleaved CaN expression. The expression of cleaved CaN increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. PDTC did not affect the expression of cleaved CaN in untreated controls or isoflurane treated rats. (G) CaN activity increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure, and PDTC did not affect CaN activity after isoflurane exposure or in the control group. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n=6). *P

    Article Snippet: Rats in CsA and isoflurane + CsA groups received intraperitoneal CsA (7 mg/kg; Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and rats in the PDTC and isoflurane + PDTC groups received 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal PDTC (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 0.9% saline (total volume 0.5 ml) at 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Injection, Western Blot, Expressing, Immunofluorescence, Translocation Assay, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation

    CsA and PDTC attenuates isoflurane exposure-induced hippocampal IL-1β elevation in aged rats. (A) IL-1β expression levels increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. (B) CsA and PDTC attenuated isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation to a similar level, whereas CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect IL-1β expression levels. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n=6). **P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Calcineurin/nuclear factor-κB signaling mediates isoflurane-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive impairment in aged rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CsA and PDTC attenuates isoflurane exposure-induced hippocampal IL-1β elevation in aged rats. (A) IL-1β expression levels increased significantly at 6 h following isoflurane exposure. (B) CsA and PDTC attenuated isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation to a similar level, whereas CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect IL-1β expression levels. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n=6). **P

    Article Snippet: Rats in CsA and isoflurane + CsA groups received intraperitoneal CsA (7 mg/kg; Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and rats in the PDTC and isoflurane + PDTC groups received 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal PDTC (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 0.9% saline (total volume 0.5 ml) at 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure.

    Techniques: Expressing, Standard Deviation

    CsA and PDTC attenuates isoflurane exposure-induced spatial memory impairment in aged rats. (A) Isoflurane exposure increased escape latency, and CsA and PDTC attenuated isoflurane-induced increase in escape latency to a similar level. (B) CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect escape latency. (C) Isoflurane, isoflurane + CsA or isoflurane + PDTC treatment did not affect swim speed. (D) CsA or PDTC treatment did not affect swim speed. (E) Isoflurane exposure decreased target quadrant dwell time, and CsA and PDTC attenuated the isoflurane-induced decrease in target quadrant dwell time to a similar level. CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect target quadrant dwell time. Data are presented as the mean ± standard error (n=12). *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Calcineurin/nuclear factor-κB signaling mediates isoflurane-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive impairment in aged rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5967

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CsA and PDTC attenuates isoflurane exposure-induced spatial memory impairment in aged rats. (A) Isoflurane exposure increased escape latency, and CsA and PDTC attenuated isoflurane-induced increase in escape latency to a similar level. (B) CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect escape latency. (C) Isoflurane, isoflurane + CsA or isoflurane + PDTC treatment did not affect swim speed. (D) CsA or PDTC treatment did not affect swim speed. (E) Isoflurane exposure decreased target quadrant dwell time, and CsA and PDTC attenuated the isoflurane-induced decrease in target quadrant dwell time to a similar level. CsA or PDTC treatment alone did not affect target quadrant dwell time. Data are presented as the mean ± standard error (n=12). *P

    Article Snippet: Rats in CsA and isoflurane + CsA groups received intraperitoneal CsA (7 mg/kg; Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and rats in the PDTC and isoflurane + PDTC groups received 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal PDTC (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 0.9% saline (total volume 0.5 ml) at 30 min prior to isoflurane exposure.

    Techniques:

    Breathing frequency of pups and neurochemical profile of the hippocampi of untreated and isoflurane-treated neonatal rats on PD3. (a) Breathing frequency of 3-day-old rat pups during restraint procedure and under isoflurane anesthesia. * p

    Journal: Interdisciplinary Toxicology

    Article Title: The neurochemical profile of the hippocampus in isoflurane-treated and unanesthetized rat pups

    doi: 10.1515/intox-2015-0017

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Breathing frequency of pups and neurochemical profile of the hippocampi of untreated and isoflurane-treated neonatal rats on PD3. (a) Breathing frequency of 3-day-old rat pups during restraint procedure and under isoflurane anesthesia. * p

    Article Snippet: Isoflurane was purchased from Sigma Chemical Company (St. Louis, USA).

    Techniques:

    Transmission electron microscopy of the bilateral hippocampus. C21 reduced isoflurane-induced morphological changes. Arrows indicate the condensed chromatin and triangles indicate synapses. C21, compound 21.

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Effects of compound 21, a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on general anesthesia-induced cerebral injury in neonatal rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy of the bilateral hippocampus. C21 reduced isoflurane-induced morphological changes. Arrows indicate the condensed chromatin and triangles indicate synapses. C21, compound 21.

    Article Snippet: Post-natal day 7 rats inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for 3 h each day for a consecutive 3 days.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of PPAR-α expression. C21 increased PPAR-α levels following isoflurane administration. *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Effects of compound 21, a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on general anesthesia-induced cerebral injury in neonatal rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of PPAR-α expression. C21 increased PPAR-α levels following isoflurane administration. *P

    Article Snippet: Post-natal day 7 rats inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for 3 h each day for a consecutive 3 days.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing

    TUNEL assay. C21 reduced isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the (A) cortex, (B) hippocampus, (C) hypothalamus and (D) amygdala. Scale bar, 100 µm. TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling; C21, compound 21.

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Effects of compound 21, a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on general anesthesia-induced cerebral injury in neonatal rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TUNEL assay. C21 reduced isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the (A) cortex, (B) hippocampus, (C) hypothalamus and (D) amygdala. Scale bar, 100 µm. TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling; C21, compound 21.

    Article Snippet: Post-natal day 7 rats inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for 3 h each day for a consecutive 3 days.

    Techniques: TUNEL Assay

    C21 reduces isoflurane-induced cerebral neuronal apoptosis. (A) Representative images of flow cytometric analysis of each brain section. (B) Quantification of the flow cytometry results. *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Effects of compound 21, a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on general anesthesia-induced cerebral injury in neonatal rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C21 reduces isoflurane-induced cerebral neuronal apoptosis. (A) Representative images of flow cytometric analysis of each brain section. (B) Quantification of the flow cytometry results. *P

    Article Snippet: Post-natal day 7 rats inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for 3 h each day for a consecutive 3 days.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting was performed to determine Bcl-2 gene and protein expression. (A) C21 increased Bcl-2 mRNA and (B) protein expression following isoflurane administration. (C) Western blotting results were quantified by densitometric analysis. *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Effects of compound 21, a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist, on general anesthesia-induced cerebral injury in neonatal rats

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting was performed to determine Bcl-2 gene and protein expression. (A) C21 increased Bcl-2 mRNA and (B) protein expression following isoflurane administration. (C) Western blotting results were quantified by densitometric analysis. *P

    Article Snippet: Post-natal day 7 rats inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for 3 h each day for a consecutive 3 days.

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Expressing

    Intrinsic imaging setup. ( a ) Intrinsic imaging rig overview. ( b ) Close-up of mouse head frame holder, isoflurane mask, and light guides. ( c ) Mouse position in relation to the monitor, viewed from the top of the setup (INTRODUCTION). The orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus. ( d ) Mouse position viewed from the front (orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus). The mouse is positioned 10 cm away from the monitor, and the perpendicular bisector of the eye is approximately perpendicular to the monitor. ( e ) Diagram of connectivity between master and slave computers and associated hardware. Details on each piece of equipment can be found in the ‘EQUIPMENT’ and ‘EQUIPMENT SETUP’ sections.

    Journal: Nature protocols

    Article Title: Automated identification of mouse visual areas with intrinsic signal imaging

    doi: 10.1038/nprot.2016.158

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intrinsic imaging setup. ( a ) Intrinsic imaging rig overview. ( b ) Close-up of mouse head frame holder, isoflurane mask, and light guides. ( c ) Mouse position in relation to the monitor, viewed from the top of the setup (INTRODUCTION). The orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus. ( d ) Mouse position viewed from the front (orange ‘x’ marks the center of the stimulus). The mouse is positioned 10 cm away from the monitor, and the perpendicular bisector of the eye is approximately perpendicular to the monitor. ( e ) Diagram of connectivity between master and slave computers and associated hardware. Details on each piece of equipment can be found in the ‘EQUIPMENT’ and ‘EQUIPMENT SETUP’ sections.

    Article Snippet: Mini Dissecting Scissors, 8.5 cm, straight, sharp tips (WPI, cat. no. 503667) Tweezer, no. 5 (Kent Scientific, cat. no. INS600098) Isoflurane (Isothesia; Allivet, cat. no. 50562) Chlorprothixene hydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich, cat. no. C1671) Agarose Type III-A (Sigma-Aldrich, cat. no. A9793) Carpofen (Rimadyl Injectable; Allivet, cat. no. 27180) C & B Metabond Radiopaque L-Powder (Parkell, cat. no. S396) C & B Metabond ‘B’ Quick Base (Parkell, cat. no. S398) C & B Metabond ‘C’ Universal TBB Catalyst (Parkell, cat. no. S371) Adjustable Precision Applicator Brushes (Parkell, cat. no. S379) Nair Hair Removal (Amazon, cat. no. ASIN B001G7PTWU) Vetbond (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, cat. no. sc-361931) Eye ointment (Rugby, cat. no. 370435) Silicon oil (OFNA Racing, cat. no. 10236) ) Kwik-Cast Sealant (World Precision Instruments, cat. no. KWIK-CAST) Lidocaine (VWR International, cat. no. 95033-980) Ibuprofen Oral Suspension (Perrigo, cat. no. 45802-952-43) 1-ml syringes (BD, cat. no. 309659) Sterilized saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection; Hospira, cat. no. 0409-4888-10) Sterilized water for injection (Hospira, cat. no. 0409-4887-10) Kimwipes (Kimtech, cat. no. 34120)

    Techniques: Imaging