il 10  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Name:
    Human Interleukin 10 IL 10 Recombinant Protein
    Description:
    Human Interleukin 10 IL 10 Recombinant Protein for Western Blot IP ELISA Ctrl
    Catalog Number:
    ril1025
    Price:
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    Category:
    Proteins Enzymes Peptides
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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher il 10
    Production of IL-6 and <t>IL-10</t> by isolated tissue macrophages. Production of IL-6 and IL-10 by isolated hepatic or splenic Mfs stimulated with LPS is shown as described in the Materials and Methods. ( A ), production of IL-6 by isolated hepatic Mfs; ( B ), production of IL-6 by isolated splenic Mfs; ( C ), production of IL-10 by isolated hepatic Mfs; and ( D ), production of IL-10 by isolated splenic Mfs. Data represent means ± SEM (n = 5 in each group). * p
    Human Interleukin 10 IL 10 Recombinant Protein for Western Blot IP ELISA Ctrl
    https://www.bioz.com/result/il 10/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 58 article reviews
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    il 10 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Changes in Function and Dynamics in Hepatic and Splenic Macrophages in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease"

    Article Title: Changes in Function and Dynamics in Hepatic and Splenic Macrophages in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology

    doi: 10.2147/CEG.S248635

    Production of IL-6 and IL-10 by isolated tissue macrophages. Production of IL-6 and IL-10 by isolated hepatic or splenic Mfs stimulated with LPS is shown as described in the Materials and Methods. ( A ), production of IL-6 by isolated hepatic Mfs; ( B ), production of IL-6 by isolated splenic Mfs; ( C ), production of IL-10 by isolated hepatic Mfs; and ( D ), production of IL-10 by isolated splenic Mfs. Data represent means ± SEM (n = 5 in each group). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of IL-6 and IL-10 by isolated tissue macrophages. Production of IL-6 and IL-10 by isolated hepatic or splenic Mfs stimulated with LPS is shown as described in the Materials and Methods. ( A ), production of IL-6 by isolated hepatic Mfs; ( B ), production of IL-6 by isolated splenic Mfs; ( C ), production of IL-10 by isolated hepatic Mfs; and ( D ), production of IL-10 by isolated splenic Mfs. Data represent means ± SEM (n = 5 in each group). * p

    Techniques Used: Isolation

    2) Product Images from "Enhanced antigen presentation and immunostimulation of dendritic cells using acid-degradable cationic nanoparticles"

    Article Title: Enhanced antigen presentation and immunostimulation of dendritic cells using acid-degradable cationic nanoparticles

    Journal: Journal of Controlled Release

    doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.02.027

    (a) Secretion of IL-12 by BMDCs incubated with acid-degradable 10% cationic nanoparticles coated with unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide (CpG ODN) and (b) IL-10 secretion by BMDCs incubated with 10% cationic nanoparticles coated with anti-IL-10 oligonucleotides (AS10 ODN) for 24 h.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Secretion of IL-12 by BMDCs incubated with acid-degradable 10% cationic nanoparticles coated with unmethylated CpG oligonucleotide (CpG ODN) and (b) IL-10 secretion by BMDCs incubated with 10% cationic nanoparticles coated with anti-IL-10 oligonucleotides (AS10 ODN) for 24 h.

    Techniques Used: Incubation

    3) Product Images from "Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant, Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant"

    Article Title: Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant, Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant

    Journal: Advanced Science

    doi: 10.1002/advs.202000771

    ROS‐mediated DC maturation by CS‐IONzyme in vitro. a) Experimental setting to study DC maturation by induction of CS, IONzyme, and CS‐IONzyme for 24 h. Primary DCs were separated and cultured from murine bone marrow. b) The expressions of phenotypic markers on DCs, including major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), CD40, CD80, and CD86, were analyzed by FCM. c) FCM analysis of CD69 expression. d) TNF‐ α , IL‐1 β , IL‐12p70, IL‐6, and IL‐10 release in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). e) The endocytosis of FITC‐Dextran by DCs was detected by FCM. f) In the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) experiments, the collected DCs were used in two graded cell numbers (DC/T‐cell ratios: 1:1 and 1:5) to stimulate Carboxyfluorescein Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE)‐labeled allogeneic CD4 + T cells (5 × 10 5 responder cells per well). After 5 days, proliferation was detected by FCM. g,h) TEM image of internalization of CS‐IONzyme in the lysosome of DCs. An enlargement of the region in the black frame in panel g (scale bar: 1 µm) is show in panel h (scale bar: 1 µm). i) Cells were stained with DCFH‐DA and analyzed by FCM for ROS detection. j–l) DCs were pretreated with ROS scavengers (NAC, 3 m m ) or not for 1 h, ROS, MHCII, and cytokine secretion (IL‐12p70 and IL‐6) were detected. All of the data are presented as means ± s.d. of three replicates and are representative of three independent experiments. Statistical significance is assessed by One‐way ANOVA analysis to compare the results between the different groups (b–f) or by unpaired Student's two‐sided t ‐test to compare between the two groups (j–l). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: ROS‐mediated DC maturation by CS‐IONzyme in vitro. a) Experimental setting to study DC maturation by induction of CS, IONzyme, and CS‐IONzyme for 24 h. Primary DCs were separated and cultured from murine bone marrow. b) The expressions of phenotypic markers on DCs, including major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), CD40, CD80, and CD86, were analyzed by FCM. c) FCM analysis of CD69 expression. d) TNF‐ α , IL‐1 β , IL‐12p70, IL‐6, and IL‐10 release in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). e) The endocytosis of FITC‐Dextran by DCs was detected by FCM. f) In the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) experiments, the collected DCs were used in two graded cell numbers (DC/T‐cell ratios: 1:1 and 1:5) to stimulate Carboxyfluorescein Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE)‐labeled allogeneic CD4 + T cells (5 × 10 5 responder cells per well). After 5 days, proliferation was detected by FCM. g,h) TEM image of internalization of CS‐IONzyme in the lysosome of DCs. An enlargement of the region in the black frame in panel g (scale bar: 1 µm) is show in panel h (scale bar: 1 µm). i) Cells were stained with DCFH‐DA and analyzed by FCM for ROS detection. j–l) DCs were pretreated with ROS scavengers (NAC, 3 m m ) or not for 1 h, ROS, MHCII, and cytokine secretion (IL‐12p70 and IL‐6) were detected. All of the data are presented as means ± s.d. of three replicates and are representative of three independent experiments. Statistical significance is assessed by One‐way ANOVA analysis to compare the results between the different groups (b–f) or by unpaired Student's two‐sided t ‐test to compare between the two groups (j–l). * P

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Cell Culture, Expressing, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Labeling, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Staining

    4) Product Images from "CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia. CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia"

    Article Title: CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia. CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research

    doi: 10.1002/cre2.228

    High expression of IL‐10 show a significant positive correlation with the numbers of CD163 + MΦs and regulatory T cells in tongue leukoplakia (TL). (a,b) Immunohistochemical images of IL‐10 expressions in normal epithelium of representative TL cases. (c,d) Immunohistochemical images of high and low IL‐10 levels in representative TL cases. (e–h) The expression levels of CD163 + cells and FOXP3 + cells are stronger in the IL‐10 high group compared with the IL‐10 low group (with original magnification: ×400 and scale bars: 20 μm; inset magnification: ×100)
    Figure Legend Snippet: High expression of IL‐10 show a significant positive correlation with the numbers of CD163 + MΦs and regulatory T cells in tongue leukoplakia (TL). (a,b) Immunohistochemical images of IL‐10 expressions in normal epithelium of representative TL cases. (c,d) Immunohistochemical images of high and low IL‐10 levels in representative TL cases. (e–h) The expression levels of CD163 + cells and FOXP3 + cells are stronger in the IL‐10 high group compared with the IL‐10 low group (with original magnification: ×400 and scale bars: 20 μm; inset magnification: ×100)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry

    5) Product Images from "A Nanoparticle-Poly(I:C) Combination Adjuvant Enhances the Breadth of the Immune Response to Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine in Pigs"

    Article Title: A Nanoparticle-Poly(I:C) Combination Adjuvant Enhances the Breadth of the Immune Response to Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine in Pigs

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines8020229

    Cytokine and transcription factor mRNA expression in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs vaccinated with Nano-11 or commercial influenza vaccine and virus challenged. The mRNA expression levels of ( A ) IL-13; ( B ) GATA3; ( C ) IL-10; ( D ) TNF-α; ( E ) IL-2; and ( F ) IL-6 was determined by qRT-PCR. Data represent the mean value of four to five pigs ± SEM. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc comparison. Asterisk refers to statistical difference between the two indicated groups (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine and transcription factor mRNA expression in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs vaccinated with Nano-11 or commercial influenza vaccine and virus challenged. The mRNA expression levels of ( A ) IL-13; ( B ) GATA3; ( C ) IL-10; ( D ) TNF-α; ( E ) IL-2; and ( F ) IL-6 was determined by qRT-PCR. Data represent the mean value of four to five pigs ± SEM. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc comparison. Asterisk refers to statistical difference between the two indicated groups (* p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    6) Product Images from "Autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells combined with sevoflurane ameliorates acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats"

    Article Title: Autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells combined with sevoflurane ameliorates acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70767-8

    Effects of ADSCs and sevoflurane on total protein, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine responses in BALF. ADSCs reduced CLP-induced increases in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, protein, and TGF-β1 levels and neutrophil counts. Sevoflurane also significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β1 levels. IL-10 and KGF were significantly increased in the ADSC group. These changes were increased by ADSC + sevoflurane treatment. ( a ) IL-β1; ( b ) IL-6; ( c ) TNF-α; ( d ) TGF-β1; ( e ) total protein; ( f ) neutrophil count; ( g ) IL-10; and ( h ) KGF. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of ADSCs and sevoflurane on total protein, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine responses in BALF. ADSCs reduced CLP-induced increases in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, protein, and TGF-β1 levels and neutrophil counts. Sevoflurane also significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β1 levels. IL-10 and KGF were significantly increased in the ADSC group. These changes were increased by ADSC + sevoflurane treatment. ( a ) IL-β1; ( b ) IL-6; ( c ) TNF-α; ( d ) TGF-β1; ( e ) total protein; ( f ) neutrophil count; ( g ) IL-10; and ( h ) KGF. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation. *p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    7) Product Images from "Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells, et al. Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells"

    Article Title: Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells, et al. Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells

    Journal: Journal of Cellular Physiology

    doi: 10.1002/jcp.29601

    The effect of mesenchymal stromal cell‐derived exosomes (Exo) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on mediator release. This measure is the opposite of the proliferation rate. The mean ± SEM of IL‐6 (a), TGF‐β (b), and IL‐10 (c) levels in dendritic cell (DC) culture supernatants after 72 hr were measured by an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in n = 3 independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of mesenchymal stromal cell‐derived exosomes (Exo) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on mediator release. This measure is the opposite of the proliferation rate. The mean ± SEM of IL‐6 (a), TGF‐β (b), and IL‐10 (c) levels in dendritic cell (DC) culture supernatants after 72 hr were measured by an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in n = 3 independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    8) Product Images from "Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection by Regulating Heat Stroke-Induced Brain Inflammation"

    Article Title: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection by Regulating Heat Stroke-Induced Brain Inflammation

    Journal: Frontiers in Neurology

    doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00372

    MSCs modulated pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions of HS rats. At different time points after MSCs or saline infusion, the blood of rats in each group was collected, and the IL-10 (A) , IL-1β (B) , IL-6 (C) , and TNF-α (D) levels in the rat's blood serum were assayed. n = 10 rats per group. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: MSCs modulated pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions of HS rats. At different time points after MSCs or saline infusion, the blood of rats in each group was collected, and the IL-10 (A) , IL-1β (B) , IL-6 (C) , and TNF-α (D) levels in the rat's blood serum were assayed. n = 10 rats per group. ** P

    Techniques Used:

    MSC administration modulates inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in the brain tissue of HS rats. At different time points after MSCs or saline infusion, the brain tissue of rats in each group were collected and homogenized in 10 volumes of ice-cold PBS. The IL-1β (A) , IL-6 (B) , TNF-α (C) , IL-10 (D) , MCP-1 (E) , and Rantes (F) levels in the rat's brain tissue lysates were assayed. n = 10 rats per group. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: MSC administration modulates inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in the brain tissue of HS rats. At different time points after MSCs or saline infusion, the brain tissue of rats in each group were collected and homogenized in 10 volumes of ice-cold PBS. The IL-1β (A) , IL-6 (B) , TNF-α (C) , IL-10 (D) , MCP-1 (E) , and Rantes (F) levels in the rat's brain tissue lysates were assayed. n = 10 rats per group. * P

    Techniques Used:

    9) Product Images from "Tregitopes regulate the tolerogenic immune response and decrease the foetal death rate in abortion-prone mouse matings"

    Article Title: Tregitopes regulate the tolerogenic immune response and decrease the foetal death rate in abortion-prone mouse matings

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-66957-z

    Effect of tregitope treatment on regulatory T lymphocytes in a murine abortion-prone pregnancy model. Cells were stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A and monensin and the frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + (a) splenocytes and (b) uterine-draining lymph node cells within CD4 + (c) splenocytes and (d) lymph node cells and the frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + splenocytes (e) and (f) lymph node cells within CD4 + (g) splenocytes and (h) lymph nodes and the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-10 within CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + (i) splenocytes and (j) uterine-draining lymph node cells were measured. The data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (normal distribution) or the Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution) with Dunn’s multiple comparison post hoc test (P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tregitope treatment on regulatory T lymphocytes in a murine abortion-prone pregnancy model. Cells were stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A and monensin and the frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + (a) splenocytes and (b) uterine-draining lymph node cells within CD4 + (c) splenocytes and (d) lymph node cells and the frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + splenocytes (e) and (f) lymph node cells within CD4 + (g) splenocytes and (h) lymph nodes and the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-10 within CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + (i) splenocytes and (j) uterine-draining lymph node cells were measured. The data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (normal distribution) or the Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution) with Dunn’s multiple comparison post hoc test (P

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    Effect of tregitope treatment on regulatory B lymphocytes in a murine abortion-prone pregnancy model. Cells were stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A and monensin and the frequencies of CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + ( a) splenocytes and (b) uterine-draining lymph node cells, and the production of IL-10 by CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + ( c) splenocytes and (d) lymph node cells were analysed by intracellular staining. The data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (normal distribution) or the Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution) with Dunn’s multiple comparison post hoc test (P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of tregitope treatment on regulatory B lymphocytes in a murine abortion-prone pregnancy model. Cells were stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of brefeldin A and monensin and the frequencies of CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + ( a) splenocytes and (b) uterine-draining lymph node cells, and the production of IL-10 by CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + ( c) splenocytes and (d) lymph node cells were analysed by intracellular staining. The data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (normal distribution) or the Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution) with Dunn’s multiple comparison post hoc test (P

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Representative dot plots for the process of regulatory T and B lymphocytes gating in spleen sample. (a) Gating strategy for CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + lymphocytes: G1 represents CD19 + CD1d + cells, G2 represents CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + cells, and G3 represents CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + cells. (b) Gating strategy for CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + lymphocytes: G1 represents CD4 + CD25 + cells, G2 represents overall CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + cells, and G3 represents CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative dot plots for the process of regulatory T and B lymphocytes gating in spleen sample. (a) Gating strategy for CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + lymphocytes: G1 represents CD19 + CD1d + cells, G2 represents CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + cells, and G3 represents CD19 + CD1d + CD5 + IL-10 + cells. (b) Gating strategy for CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + lymphocytes: G1 represents CD4 + CD25 + cells, G2 represents overall CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + cells, and G3 represents CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + IL-10 + cells.

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "Intestinal Macrophages Balance Inflammatory Expression Profiles via Vitamin A and Dectin-1-Mediated Signaling"

    Article Title: Intestinal Macrophages Balance Inflammatory Expression Profiles via Vitamin A and Dectin-1-Mediated Signaling

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00551

    Retinoic acid reduces pro-inflammatory properties in macrophages in vivo . Mice were either raised on a normal control diet (control) or a diet supplemented with retinoic acid (+RA). The small intestine was removed, made into a single cell suspension and CD45 + cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for their proportion of CD11b and CX3CR1 (A,B) . In addition, small intestines of both control mice and mice that were fed with a diet complemented with retinoic acid were analyzed by qPCR for the expression of Arginase-1 (C) , IL-10 (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , and IL-6 ( G ). Significant differences are indicated by * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Retinoic acid reduces pro-inflammatory properties in macrophages in vivo . Mice were either raised on a normal control diet (control) or a diet supplemented with retinoic acid (+RA). The small intestine was removed, made into a single cell suspension and CD45 + cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for their proportion of CD11b and CX3CR1 (A,B) . In addition, small intestines of both control mice and mice that were fed with a diet complemented with retinoic acid were analyzed by qPCR for the expression of Arginase-1 (C) , IL-10 (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , and IL-6 ( G ). Significant differences are indicated by * p

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    The small intestines of vitamin A deficient mice have a more pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. Mice were either raised on a vitamin A deficient (VAD) or a vitamin A conventional (VAC) diet. The small intestine was removed, made into a single cell suspension and CD45 + cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for their proportion of CD11b and CX3CR1 (A) and F4/80 (B) . Additional gating strategies can be found in Supplementary Figure S1 . In addition, small intestines of both VAD and VAC mice were analyzed by qPCR for the expression of Arginase-1 (C) , IL-10 (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , and IL-6 (G) . Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. Relative expression to the control group was shown. Significant differences are indicated by * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The small intestines of vitamin A deficient mice have a more pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. Mice were either raised on a vitamin A deficient (VAD) or a vitamin A conventional (VAC) diet. The small intestine was removed, made into a single cell suspension and CD45 + cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for their proportion of CD11b and CX3CR1 (A) and F4/80 (B) . Additional gating strategies can be found in Supplementary Figure S1 . In addition, small intestines of both VAD and VAC mice were analyzed by qPCR for the expression of Arginase-1 (C) , IL-10 (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , and IL-6 (G) . Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. Relative expression to the control group was shown. Significant differences are indicated by * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Retinoic acid reduces pro-inflammatory properties in macrophages in vitro . Bone-marrow derived macrophages stimulated with LPS and IFNγ or IL-4 or naïve macrophages cultured with (in black) or without (in gray) the presence of retinoic acid for 48 h were analyzed for the expression of Arginase-1 (A) , IL-12 (B) , and TNFα (C) . Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. Concentrations of nitric oxide (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , IL-6 (G) , and IL-10 (H) were determined in supernatants of cell cultures. Data for nitric oxide was normalized to the unstimulated samples. Concentrations of NO and IL-12 did not exceed detection limit in naïve and IL-4 treated cells. IL-10 concentrations could not be quantified in IL-4 treated macrophages. Significant differences are indicated by * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Retinoic acid reduces pro-inflammatory properties in macrophages in vitro . Bone-marrow derived macrophages stimulated with LPS and IFNγ or IL-4 or naïve macrophages cultured with (in black) or without (in gray) the presence of retinoic acid for 48 h were analyzed for the expression of Arginase-1 (A) , IL-12 (B) , and TNFα (C) . Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. Concentrations of nitric oxide (D) , IL-12 (E) , TNFα (F) , IL-6 (G) , and IL-10 (H) were determined in supernatants of cell cultures. Data for nitric oxide was normalized to the unstimulated samples. Concentrations of NO and IL-12 did not exceed detection limit in naïve and IL-4 treated cells. IL-10 concentrations could not be quantified in IL-4 treated macrophages. Significant differences are indicated by * p

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Derivative Assay, Cell Culture, Expressing

    Dectin-1 stimulation results in a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Bone marrow derived macrophages were cultured and skewed toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype using LPS and IFNγ or toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype using IL-4, with or without the addition of retinoic acid for 24 h. Subsequently, macrophages were stimulated with the Dectin-1 ligand curdlan for an additional 24 h (A–D) . Relative expression of Arginase-1 (A) , IL-12 (B) , TNFα (C) , and IL-6 (D) determined by qPCR. Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. (E–H) Concentration of IL-10 (E) , IL-12 (F) , TNFα (G) , and IL-6 (H) in the supernatants of cell cultures of IL-4 stimulated or LPS/IFNγ stimulated macrophages after stimulation with or without curdlan determined by ELISA. IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations did not exceed detection limit in IL-4 treated macrophages without curdlan stimulation. (I) Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of IL-4 stimulated macrophages after stimulation with retinoic acid or curdlan. Various metabolic parameters were determined as described in Supplementary Figure S3 . Changes in OCR and ECAR over time are represented in Supplementary Figure S4 . Significant differences are indicated by * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dectin-1 stimulation results in a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Bone marrow derived macrophages were cultured and skewed toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype using LPS and IFNγ or toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype using IL-4, with or without the addition of retinoic acid for 24 h. Subsequently, macrophages were stimulated with the Dectin-1 ligand curdlan for an additional 24 h (A–D) . Relative expression of Arginase-1 (A) , IL-12 (B) , TNFα (C) , and IL-6 (D) determined by qPCR. Expression was normalized to the reference genes Cyclophylin and Ubiquitin. (E–H) Concentration of IL-10 (E) , IL-12 (F) , TNFα (G) , and IL-6 (H) in the supernatants of cell cultures of IL-4 stimulated or LPS/IFNγ stimulated macrophages after stimulation with or without curdlan determined by ELISA. IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations did not exceed detection limit in IL-4 treated macrophages without curdlan stimulation. (I) Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of IL-4 stimulated macrophages after stimulation with retinoic acid or curdlan. Various metabolic parameters were determined as described in Supplementary Figure S3 . Changes in OCR and ECAR over time are represented in Supplementary Figure S4 . Significant differences are indicated by * p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Cell Culture, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    11) Product Images from "lncRNA MALAT1 Accelerates Skeletal Muscle Cell Apoptosis and Inflammatory Response in Sepsis by Decreasing BRCA1 Expression by Recruiting EZH2"

    Article Title: lncRNA MALAT1 Accelerates Skeletal Muscle Cell Apoptosis and Inflammatory Response in Sepsis by Decreasing BRCA1 Expression by Recruiting EZH2

    Journal: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids

    doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2019.10.028

    lncRNA MALAT1 Is Upregulated and BRCA1 Is Downregulated in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Septic Mice (A) The degree of skeletal muscle tissue injury in septic mice observed by H E staining (×400). (B) The number of neutrophils in peripheral blood in septic mice measured by flow cytometry. (C) The serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-13 measured by ELISA. (D) The apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells measured by TUNEL staining (×400). (E) The expression of MALAT1 and BRCA1 in skeletal muscle tissues determined by qRT-PCR. (F) The expression of BRCA1 normalized to GAPDH in skeletal muscle tissues determined by western blot analysis. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: lncRNA MALAT1 Is Upregulated and BRCA1 Is Downregulated in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Septic Mice (A) The degree of skeletal muscle tissue injury in septic mice observed by H E staining (×400). (B) The number of neutrophils in peripheral blood in septic mice measured by flow cytometry. (C) The serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-13 measured by ELISA. (D) The apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells measured by TUNEL staining (×400). (E) The expression of MALAT1 and BRCA1 in skeletal muscle tissues determined by qRT-PCR. (F) The expression of BRCA1 normalized to GAPDH in skeletal muscle tissues determined by western blot analysis. *p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, TUNEL Assay, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

    lncRNA MALAT1 Affects the Progression of Sepsis in Mice through Regulating BRCA1 via EZH2-Regulated AKT-1 Phosphorylation In Vivo (A) The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in skeletal muscle tissues of mice in response to sh-MALAT1 measured by qRT-PCR. (B) The degree of skeletal muscle injury in response to sh-MALAT1 observed by H E staining (×400). (C) The expression of EZH2 and BRCA1 as well as the extent of AKT-1 phosphorylation normalized to GAPDH in response to sh-MALAT1 determined by western blot analysis. (D) TUNEL staining of skeletal muscle cells in response to sh-MALAT1 (×400). (E) the apoptosis rate of skeletal muscle cells measured by TUNEL staining. (F) The number of neutrophils in peripheral blood in response to sh-MALAT1 measured by flow cytometry. (G) Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-13 in response to sh-MALAT1 determined by ELISA. (H) Localization and expression of BRCA1 in skeletal muscle tissues in response to sh-MALAT1 observed by immunofluorescence assay (×400); *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: lncRNA MALAT1 Affects the Progression of Sepsis in Mice through Regulating BRCA1 via EZH2-Regulated AKT-1 Phosphorylation In Vivo (A) The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in skeletal muscle tissues of mice in response to sh-MALAT1 measured by qRT-PCR. (B) The degree of skeletal muscle injury in response to sh-MALAT1 observed by H E staining (×400). (C) The expression of EZH2 and BRCA1 as well as the extent of AKT-1 phosphorylation normalized to GAPDH in response to sh-MALAT1 determined by western blot analysis. (D) TUNEL staining of skeletal muscle cells in response to sh-MALAT1 (×400). (E) the apoptosis rate of skeletal muscle cells measured by TUNEL staining. (F) The number of neutrophils in peripheral blood in response to sh-MALAT1 measured by flow cytometry. (G) Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-13 in response to sh-MALAT1 determined by ELISA. (H) Localization and expression of BRCA1 in skeletal muscle tissues in response to sh-MALAT1 observed by immunofluorescence assay (×400); *p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Staining, Western Blot, TUNEL Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Immunofluorescence

    12) Product Images from "Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease"

    Article Title: Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells9081824

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    13) Product Images from "Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease"

    Article Title: Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells9081824

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    14) Product Images from "Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease"

    Article Title: Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn’s Disease

    Journal: Cells

    doi: 10.3390/cells9081824

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MoDC derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. Secretion of IL-1β ( A ), IL-23 ( B ), IL-12 ( C ) and IL-10 ( D ) in the supernatants of MoDC derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 24 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of either Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 or +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 or +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL), was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MoDC infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as described in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MoDC infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of probiotic strains on cytokine secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC and CD patients infected with AIEC-LF82 strain. ( A ) TNF-α and ( B ) IL-10 secretion by MDM derived from HD, UC patients or CD patients after 8 h of infection with AIEC-LF82 alone or in the presence of Lactobacillus strains (+L 1 , +L 2 ) or Bifidobacterium strains (+B 1 , +B 2 ) or S. epidermidis ATCC-155 (+S.e.), at 1:1 ratio or in the presence of 6MP (2 µg/mL) was quantified by ELISA. Dot lines (---) represent the median values for cytokine secretion of MDM infected with LF82 alone. Data are represented as explained in Figure 1 . Statistical significance for each condition compared to MDM infected with LF82 alone was reported (* p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Infection, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    15) Product Images from "NMAAP1 Maintains M1 Phenotype in Macrophages Through Binding to IP3R and Activating Calcium-Related Signaling Pathways"

    Article Title: NMAAP1 Maintains M1 Phenotype in Macrophages Through Binding to IP3R and Activating Calcium-Related Signaling Pathways

    Journal: Protein and Peptide Letters

    doi: 10.2174/0929866526666190503105343

    Down-regulation of NMAAP1 promotes macrophage shift from M1 to M2 . ( A ) Gene and protein expression of NMAAP1 in ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western-blotting. ( B ) Genes expression in ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells was detected by qRT-PCR. ( C ) ELISA was used to detect the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-12p40, IL-10 and TGF-β by ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells. (Note: ConNM/RAW264.7: siRNA control sequence transfected cells; SiNM/RAW264.7: NMAAP1 siRNA sequence transfected cells). * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Down-regulation of NMAAP1 promotes macrophage shift from M1 to M2 . ( A ) Gene and protein expression of NMAAP1 in ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western-blotting. ( B ) Genes expression in ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells was detected by qRT-PCR. ( C ) ELISA was used to detect the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-12p40, IL-10 and TGF-β by ConNM/RAW264.7 and SiNM/RAW264.7 cells. (Note: ConNM/RAW264.7: siRNA control sequence transfected cells; SiNM/RAW264.7: NMAAP1 siRNA sequence transfected cells). * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Sequencing, Transfection

    16) Product Images from "Rapamycin enhances LPS induction of tissue factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in macrophages by reducing IL-10 expression"

    Article Title: Rapamycin enhances LPS induction of tissue factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in macrophages by reducing IL-10 expression

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2009.04.011

    LPS induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein in PTEN −/− PMs
    Figure Legend Snippet: LPS induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein in PTEN −/− PMs

    Techniques Used:

    Effect of rapamycin on LPS induction of IL-10 expression in WT PMs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of rapamycin on LPS induction of IL-10 expression in WT PMs

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Effect of a neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody on LPS induction of TF activity and TNFα expression in WT PMs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of a neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody on LPS induction of TF activity and TNFα expression in WT PMs

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Expressing

    Effect of recombinant IL-10 treatment on rapamycin enhanced LPS induction of TF activity and TNFα expression in WT PMs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of recombinant IL-10 treatment on rapamycin enhanced LPS induction of TF activity and TNFα expression in WT PMs

    Techniques Used: Recombinant, Activity Assay, Expressing

    Effect of neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody on LPS induction of TNFα expression and TF activity in PTEN −/− PMs
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody on LPS induction of TNFα expression and TF activity in PTEN −/− PMs

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Activity Assay

    17) Product Images from "Rapamycin is efficacious against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines in vivo by inhibiting autocrine signaling"

    Article Title: Rapamycin is efficacious against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines in vivo by inhibiting autocrine signaling

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-06-028092

    IL-6 and IL-10 counteract the rapamycin-induced growth arrest . (A) Western blot analysis of 4E-BP1 and eIF4E after immunoprecipitation with 7 methyl-GTP Sepharose. Samples are drawn at indicated times after exposure of BC-3 cells to 50 nM rapamycin. (B-C)
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-6 and IL-10 counteract the rapamycin-induced growth arrest . (A) Western blot analysis of 4E-BP1 and eIF4E after immunoprecipitation with 7 methyl-GTP Sepharose. Samples are drawn at indicated times after exposure of BC-3 cells to 50 nM rapamycin. (B-C)

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation

    Cytokine mRNA levels predict PEL class membership . (A) Relative mRNA levels for CCR5, IL-6, and IL-10 as determined by real-time QPCR and expressed as the percentage of HPRT mRNA levels for BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells treated with rapamycin (rapa) or mock-treated;
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine mRNA levels predict PEL class membership . (A) Relative mRNA levels for CCR5, IL-6, and IL-10 as determined by real-time QPCR and expressed as the percentage of HPRT mRNA levels for BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells treated with rapamycin (rapa) or mock-treated;

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    18) Product Images from "Differential Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways by Candida albicans Blastoconidia and Hyphae "

    Article Title: Differential Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways by Candida albicans Blastoconidia and Hyphae

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.11.7458-7464.2005

    TNF-α (A) and IL-10 (B) production by peritoneal macrophages from TLR4 +/+ mice and TLR4 −/− ScCr mice in response to heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml) or hyphae (10 7 CFU/ml), LTA (0.1 μg/ml),
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α (A) and IL-10 (B) production by peritoneal macrophages from TLR4 +/+ mice and TLR4 −/− ScCr mice in response to heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml) or hyphae (10 7 CFU/ml), LTA (0.1 μg/ml),

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    TNF-α (A) and IL-10 (B) production by peritoneal macrophages from TLR2 +/+ mice and TLR2 −/− mice in response to heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml) or hyphae (10 7 CFU/ml), LTA (0.1 μg/ml),
    Figure Legend Snippet: TNF-α (A) and IL-10 (B) production by peritoneal macrophages from TLR2 +/+ mice and TLR2 −/− mice in response to heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml) or hyphae (10 7 CFU/ml), LTA (0.1 μg/ml),

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Induction of TNF-α (A), IFN-γ (B), and IL-10 (C) production by PBMC from five healthy volunteers after preincubation with anti-TLR4 antibody or isotype control antibody and stimulation with heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Induction of TNF-α (A), IFN-γ (B), and IL-10 (C) production by PBMC from five healthy volunteers after preincubation with anti-TLR4 antibody or isotype control antibody and stimulation with heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml)

    Techniques Used:

    IFN-γ and IL-10 production by PBMC from five healthy volunteers after preincubation with RPMI as a control or glucan phosphate (50 μg/ml) and stimulation for 48 h with heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml). Data are represented
    Figure Legend Snippet: IFN-γ and IL-10 production by PBMC from five healthy volunteers after preincubation with RPMI as a control or glucan phosphate (50 μg/ml) and stimulation for 48 h with heat-killed C. albicans blastoconidia (10 7 CFU/ml). Data are represented

    Techniques Used:

    19) Product Images from "Junin Virus Triggers Macrophage Activation and Modulates Polarization According to Viral Strain Pathogenicity"

    Article Title: Junin Virus Triggers Macrophage Activation and Modulates Polarization According to Viral Strain Pathogenicity

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02499

    JUNV activates human macrophages and selectively modulates cytokine production. HMDM cells were infected with C#1 or P strains of JUNV (MOI = 1) and at 3 dpi the activation and co-stimulation CD80, CD86, or antigen presentation HLA-DR expression were evaluated in CD14 + cells by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot-plots showing CD14 + and each marker are shown. (B) The percentage of double positive CD14 + CD86 + , CD14 + CD80 + , and CD14 + HLA-DR ++ are graphed. We had set the threshold for each marker based on the FMO. The expression level of TNF-α and IL-1β (C) , IL-12 (D) , IL-10 (E) , IL-6 (F) , and IL-1β (G) were measured in the supernatant of infected macrophages after 72 h, employing commercial ELISA kits. Non-parametric One-way ANOVA followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to detect significant differences between groups, * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: JUNV activates human macrophages and selectively modulates cytokine production. HMDM cells were infected with C#1 or P strains of JUNV (MOI = 1) and at 3 dpi the activation and co-stimulation CD80, CD86, or antigen presentation HLA-DR expression were evaluated in CD14 + cells by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot-plots showing CD14 + and each marker are shown. (B) The percentage of double positive CD14 + CD86 + , CD14 + CD80 + , and CD14 + HLA-DR ++ are graphed. We had set the threshold for each marker based on the FMO. The expression level of TNF-α and IL-1β (C) , IL-12 (D) , IL-10 (E) , IL-6 (F) , and IL-1β (G) were measured in the supernatant of infected macrophages after 72 h, employing commercial ELISA kits. Non-parametric One-way ANOVA followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to detect significant differences between groups, * P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Activation Assay, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Marker, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    20) Product Images from "Haplotype-independent co-stimulation of IL-10 secretion by SDF-1/CXCL12 proceeds via AP-1 binding to the human IL-10 promoter 1"

    Article Title: Haplotype-independent co-stimulation of IL-10 secretion by SDF-1/CXCL12 proceeds via AP-1 binding to the human IL-10 promoter 1

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    doi:

    SDF-1 co-stimulates the MEK-1/ERK pathway in human T cells, and both IL-10 mRNA accumulation and IL-10 secretion by human T cells requires MEK-1 activity
    Figure Legend Snippet: SDF-1 co-stimulates the MEK-1/ERK pathway in human T cells, and both IL-10 mRNA accumulation and IL-10 secretion by human T cells requires MEK-1 activity

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    SDF-1 co-stimulates activity of GCC, ACC, and ATA IL-10 promoter haplotype constructs expressed in human T cells
    Figure Legend Snippet: SDF-1 co-stimulates activity of GCC, ACC, and ATA IL-10 promoter haplotype constructs expressed in human T cells

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Construct

    SDF-1 co-stimulates IL-10 secretion by human T cells of both GCC+ and GCC− genomic haplotypes
    Figure Legend Snippet: SDF-1 co-stimulates IL-10 secretion by human T cells of both GCC+ and GCC− genomic haplotypes

    Techniques Used:

    SDF-1 co-stimulates activity of the human IL-10 promoter in T cells by enhancing binding of the AP-1 transcription factor to two non-polymorphic binding sites located at −775 bp and −202 bp
    Figure Legend Snippet: SDF-1 co-stimulates activity of the human IL-10 promoter in T cells by enhancing binding of the AP-1 transcription factor to two non-polymorphic binding sites located at −775 bp and −202 bp

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Binding Assay

    SDF-1 co-stimulates IL-10 secretion by a subset of human CD4+ and CD8+ memory-phenotype T cells
    Figure Legend Snippet: SDF-1 co-stimulates IL-10 secretion by a subset of human CD4+ and CD8+ memory-phenotype T cells

    Techniques Used:

    21) Product Images from "Circulating Inflammatory Mediators during Start of Fever in Differential Diagnosis of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Infections in Leukopenic Rats"

    Article Title: Circulating Inflammatory Mediators during Start of Fever in Differential Diagnosis of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Infections in Leukopenic Rats

    Journal: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

    doi: 10.1128/CDLI.12.9.1085-1093.2005

    Effects of LPS and MDP on serum IL-6, IL-10, and MIP-2 levels in immunocompetent and leukopenic rats. Serum levels of IL-6 (A and B), IL-10 (C and D), and MIP-2 (E and F) in separate groups of immunocompetent and leukopenic rats were determined at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after i.p. injection of either PFS (▾), 100 μg/kg LPS (•), or 100 μg/kg MDP (○). Each experiment involved 10 to 12 rats per time point. At all time points tested after injection of PFS (control), immunocompetent and leukopenic rats showed no significant elevation in serum levels of these cytokines ( P > 0.05). Symbols represent means; bars indicate SEM. *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of LPS and MDP on serum IL-6, IL-10, and MIP-2 levels in immunocompetent and leukopenic rats. Serum levels of IL-6 (A and B), IL-10 (C and D), and MIP-2 (E and F) in separate groups of immunocompetent and leukopenic rats were determined at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after i.p. injection of either PFS (▾), 100 μg/kg LPS (•), or 100 μg/kg MDP (○). Each experiment involved 10 to 12 rats per time point. At all time points tested after injection of PFS (control), immunocompetent and leukopenic rats showed no significant elevation in serum levels of these cytokines ( P > 0.05). Symbols represent means; bars indicate SEM. *, P

    Techniques Used: Injection

    22) Product Images from "A newly synthesized platinum-based compound (PBC-II) increases chemosensitivity of HeLa ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of autophagy"

    Article Title: A newly synthesized platinum-based compound (PBC-II) increases chemosensitivity of HeLa ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of autophagy

    Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ

    doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2019.10.003

    PBC-II inhibits therapy-induced autophagy in HeLa ovarian carcinoma cells. A. HeLa cells were treated with siRNA IL-10 and 1 µM doxorubicin for 1 day. Cells were then harvested and centrifuged at 1500 rpm. Acridine orange was diluted in PBS (1:10000) and was then added to the cells for staining. The extent of autophagy was counted based on the number of cell population in quadrants Q2 and Q4 from our raw data. This experiment was performed three times (*p
    Figure Legend Snippet: PBC-II inhibits therapy-induced autophagy in HeLa ovarian carcinoma cells. A. HeLa cells were treated with siRNA IL-10 and 1 µM doxorubicin for 1 day. Cells were then harvested and centrifuged at 1500 rpm. Acridine orange was diluted in PBS (1:10000) and was then added to the cells for staining. The extent of autophagy was counted based on the number of cell population in quadrants Q2 and Q4 from our raw data. This experiment was performed three times (*p

    Techniques Used: Staining

    23) Product Images from "Glycyrrhetinic acid alleviates hepatic inflammation injury in viral hepatitis disease via a HMGB1-TLR4 signaling pathway"

    Article Title: Glycyrrhetinic acid alleviates hepatic inflammation injury in viral hepatitis disease via a HMGB1-TLR4 signaling pathway

    Journal: International Immunopharmacology

    doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106578

    GA regulates pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine release in MHV-infected mice. At 5 days post infection (dpi), mice were sacrificed, serum samples were collected, and cytokines concentration was assayed with an ELISA kit. (A) Body weight change curve of the different infected mouse groups. (B-G) IL-1β, IP-10, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-10 cytokine measurement in the serum of infected mice. The data are represented as the mean ± SEM; * indicates P
    Figure Legend Snippet: GA regulates pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine release in MHV-infected mice. At 5 days post infection (dpi), mice were sacrificed, serum samples were collected, and cytokines concentration was assayed with an ELISA kit. (A) Body weight change curve of the different infected mouse groups. (B-G) IL-1β, IP-10, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-10 cytokine measurement in the serum of infected mice. The data are represented as the mean ± SEM; * indicates P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    24) Product Images from "Extracellular Vimentin Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Activation"

    Article Title: Extracellular Vimentin Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Activation

    Journal: Molecular immunology

    doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2018.09.017

    Vimentin does not activate moDCs. The moDCs were treated with vehicle (PBS), vimentin, or LPS, or were untreated, for 48 hours. A and B . Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs analyzed by flow cytometry. A. Sequential gating strategy: single cells were selected based on forward scatter area and height, then intact cells were selected based on forward and side scatter, then living cells were selected based on detection of viability dye (FVD450), and then moDCs were selected based on detection of CD14 and CD11c B. Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs, analyzed by flow cytometry. The representative histograms show surface staining of HLA ABC, HLA DR, CD80, CD86, and CD83 in the gated moDCs. Data are shown from one representative donor out of three analyzed C, D, and E. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β, and IL-1β were detected by ELISA. n = 6 healthy blood donors. C is actual concentrations. D is actual concentrations of IL6, IL10, and IL12 but with the LPS group removed to facilitate comparisons between the other treatment groups. E is relative expression. Each black dot is one donor’s cells in one treatment group. Gray bars are medians.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vimentin does not activate moDCs. The moDCs were treated with vehicle (PBS), vimentin, or LPS, or were untreated, for 48 hours. A and B . Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs analyzed by flow cytometry. A. Sequential gating strategy: single cells were selected based on forward scatter area and height, then intact cells were selected based on forward and side scatter, then living cells were selected based on detection of viability dye (FVD450), and then moDCs were selected based on detection of CD14 and CD11c B. Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs, analyzed by flow cytometry. The representative histograms show surface staining of HLA ABC, HLA DR, CD80, CD86, and CD83 in the gated moDCs. Data are shown from one representative donor out of three analyzed C, D, and E. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β, and IL-1β were detected by ELISA. n = 6 healthy blood donors. C is actual concentrations. D is actual concentrations of IL6, IL10, and IL12 but with the LPS group removed to facilitate comparisons between the other treatment groups. E is relative expression. Each black dot is one donor’s cells in one treatment group. Gray bars are medians.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Effect of vimentin on LPS-induced moDC activation The moDCs were treated with LPS +/− vimentin, or were untreated, for 48 hours. Unless otherwise stated, the vimentin concentration was 10 ug/mL. A. Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs analyzed by flow cytometry. The representative histograms show surface staining of HLA ABC, HLA DR, CD80, CD86, and CD83 in the gated live moDCs. Data are shown from one representative donor out of three analyzed. B and C. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 in the cell culture supernatant were assessed by CBA. Concentrations of TGF-β1 and IL-1β were assessed by ELISA. n = 6 to 7 healthy blood donors. B is actual concentrations. C is relative expression. Each black dot is one donor’s cells in one treatment group. Gray bars are medians. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of vimentin on LPS-induced moDC activation The moDCs were treated with LPS +/− vimentin, or were untreated, for 48 hours. Unless otherwise stated, the vimentin concentration was 10 ug/mL. A. Expression of cell surface markers on moDCs analyzed by flow cytometry. The representative histograms show surface staining of HLA ABC, HLA DR, CD80, CD86, and CD83 in the gated live moDCs. Data are shown from one representative donor out of three analyzed. B and C. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 in the cell culture supernatant were assessed by CBA. Concentrations of TGF-β1 and IL-1β were assessed by ELISA. n = 6 to 7 healthy blood donors. B is actual concentrations. C is relative expression. Each black dot is one donor’s cells in one treatment group. Gray bars are medians. * P

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Concentration Assay, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Cell Culture, Crocin Bleaching Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    25) Product Images from "The MEK Inhibitor Trametinib Suppresses Major Histocompatibility Antigen-mismatched Rejection Following Pancreatic Islet Transplantation"

    Article Title: The MEK Inhibitor Trametinib Suppresses Major Histocompatibility Antigen-mismatched Rejection Following Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    Journal: Transplantation Direct

    doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001045

    Q-PCR analysis of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the liver of islet graft recipients treated with vehicle, or with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg trametinib (Tra 0.1 and Tra 0.3, respectively). Expression of each gene was normalized to that of 18s rRNA, and then quantified relative to that in naive mice. Data shown are from 3 independent experiments and are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 3/group; * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Q-PCR analysis of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the liver of islet graft recipients treated with vehicle, or with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg trametinib (Tra 0.1 and Tra 0.3, respectively). Expression of each gene was normalized to that of 18s rRNA, and then quantified relative to that in naive mice. Data shown are from 3 independent experiments and are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 3/group; * P

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Mouse Assay

    26) Product Images from "Effects of repeated arthrocentesis on systemic cytokine expression and leukocyte population in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide"

    Article Title: Effects of repeated arthrocentesis on systemic cytokine expression and leukocyte population in young horses challenged with intra-articular lipopolysaccharide

    Journal: Journal of Animal Science

    doi: 10.1093/jas/sky423

    Relative systemic gene expression of IL-10 in yearling Quarter Horses over the 24-h period following intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection of 0.25, 0.5, or 0 ng (0.8 mL of intra-articular sterile lactated Ringer’s solution; Control).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative systemic gene expression of IL-10 in yearling Quarter Horses over the 24-h period following intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection of 0.25, 0.5, or 0 ng (0.8 mL of intra-articular sterile lactated Ringer’s solution; Control).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Injection

    27) Product Images from "Alveolar macrophage functions during the transition phase to active immunity in calves"

    Article Title: Alveolar macrophage functions during the transition phase to active immunity in calves

    Journal: Journal of Animal Science

    doi: 10.1093/jas/sky261

    mRNA IL-10 expression by bronchoalveolar cells from healthy calves. Each box represents median with high values from 10 calves during the 3 to 6 mo of life.
    Figure Legend Snippet: mRNA IL-10 expression by bronchoalveolar cells from healthy calves. Each box represents median with high values from 10 calves during the 3 to 6 mo of life.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    28) Product Images from "Mycobacterium tuberculosis Heat-Shock Protein 16.3 Induces Macrophage M2 Polarization Through CCRL2/CX3CR1"

    Article Title: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Heat-Shock Protein 16.3 Induces Macrophage M2 Polarization Through CCRL2/CX3CR1

    Journal: Inflammation

    doi: 10.1007/s10753-019-01132-9

    CCRL2/CX3CR1 overexpression promotes the macrophage M2 phenotype. a The schematic structure of pcDNA3.1-CCRL2 (termed p-CCRL2) and pcDNA3.1-CX3CR1 (termed p-CX3CR1). b Identification of pcDNA3.1-CCRL2 and pcDNA3.1-CX3CR1 by BamHI and HindIII double enzyme digestion. c DNA sequence of the recombinant plasmid. BMDMs were transiently transfected with p-CCRL2, p-CX3CR1, or p-cont in vitro and then incubated with 100 ng/ml MTB Hsp16.3 for 0–48 h. d The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, Arg-1, and TGF-β were determined by real-time PCR. e The production of NOS2 or CD206 in F4/80-positive macrophages was measured by FCM. f The secretion levels of IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-α were measured by ELISA at 48 h. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: CCRL2/CX3CR1 overexpression promotes the macrophage M2 phenotype. a The schematic structure of pcDNA3.1-CCRL2 (termed p-CCRL2) and pcDNA3.1-CX3CR1 (termed p-CX3CR1). b Identification of pcDNA3.1-CCRL2 and pcDNA3.1-CX3CR1 by BamHI and HindIII double enzyme digestion. c DNA sequence of the recombinant plasmid. BMDMs were transiently transfected with p-CCRL2, p-CX3CR1, or p-cont in vitro and then incubated with 100 ng/ml MTB Hsp16.3 for 0–48 h. d The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, Arg-1, and TGF-β were determined by real-time PCR. e The production of NOS2 or CD206 in F4/80-positive macrophages was measured by FCM. f The secretion levels of IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-α were measured by ELISA at 48 h. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p

    Techniques Used: Over Expression, Sequencing, Recombinant, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, In Vitro, Incubation, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    The silencing of CCRL2/CX3CR1 abrogates the MTB Hsp16.3-induced polarization of macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Bone marrow cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and incubated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF for 7 days. Then, BMDMs were transfected with siRNA targeting CCRL2 and CX3CR1. a mRNA expression levels of CCRL2 and CX3CR1 were measured by real-time PCR after transfection. b Western blot analysis of CCRL2 and CX3CR1 in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–48 h. c Real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression levels of Arg-1, IL-10, TGF-β, and YM-1 in untreated BMDMs and Hsp16.3-treated BMDMs transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–72 h. d FCM analysis of the expression levels of NOS2 and CD206 in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–48 h. e ELISA analysis of the secretion levels of IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-α in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 or CX3CR1 for 48 h. f Western blot analysis of p-ERK, ERK, p-AKT, AKT, p-p-38 MAPK, p-38 MAPK in the +Hsp16.3 BMDM group, and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 or CX3CR1 at different time points. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The silencing of CCRL2/CX3CR1 abrogates the MTB Hsp16.3-induced polarization of macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Bone marrow cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and incubated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF for 7 days. Then, BMDMs were transfected with siRNA targeting CCRL2 and CX3CR1. a mRNA expression levels of CCRL2 and CX3CR1 were measured by real-time PCR after transfection. b Western blot analysis of CCRL2 and CX3CR1 in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–48 h. c Real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression levels of Arg-1, IL-10, TGF-β, and YM-1 in untreated BMDMs and Hsp16.3-treated BMDMs transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–72 h. d FCM analysis of the expression levels of NOS2 and CD206 in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 and CX3CR1 for 0–48 h. e ELISA analysis of the secretion levels of IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-α in the untreated BMDM group and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 or CX3CR1 for 48 h. f Western blot analysis of p-ERK, ERK, p-AKT, AKT, p-p-38 MAPK, p-38 MAPK in the +Hsp16.3 BMDM group, and +Hsp16.3 BMDM group transfected with siRNA targeting mouse CCRL2 or CX3CR1 at different time points. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p

    Techniques Used: Isolation, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Transfection, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    MTB Hsp16.3 induces mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) M2 polarization. Bone marrow cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and incubated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF for 7 days. Then, BMDMs were treated with 100 ng/ml MTB Hsp16.3, 100 ng/ml IFN-γ, or 100 ng/ml IL-4 for 0–72 h. a The morphology of BMDMs incubated with IFN-γ, IL-4, or MTB Hsp16.3 for 12 h. The images were captured under an inverted microscope (× 200); the picture in the upper right corner is × 400. Total RNA was extracted from the cells using TRIzol according to the manufacturer’s instructions. b The mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, Arg-1, IL-10, and TGF-β in macrophages by RT-PCR. c The percentage of F4/80 and NOS2 or CD206 double-positive macrophages was measured by FCM. d The production of TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β was measured by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: MTB Hsp16.3 induces mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) M2 polarization. Bone marrow cells were isolated from the tibias and femurs of BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and incubated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF for 7 days. Then, BMDMs were treated with 100 ng/ml MTB Hsp16.3, 100 ng/ml IFN-γ, or 100 ng/ml IL-4 for 0–72 h. a The morphology of BMDMs incubated with IFN-γ, IL-4, or MTB Hsp16.3 for 12 h. The images were captured under an inverted microscope (× 200); the picture in the upper right corner is × 400. Total RNA was extracted from the cells using TRIzol according to the manufacturer’s instructions. b The mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, Arg-1, IL-10, and TGF-β in macrophages by RT-PCR. c The percentage of F4/80 and NOS2 or CD206 double-positive macrophages was measured by FCM. d The production of TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β was measured by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM ( n = 3). * p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Inverted Microscopy, Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    29) Product Images from "Immunization with a Recombinant Protein of Trichinella britovi 14-3-3 Triggers an Immune Response but No Protection in Mice"

    Article Title: Immunization with a Recombinant Protein of Trichinella britovi 14-3-3 Triggers an Immune Response but No Protection in Mice

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines8030515

    Cytokine profiles of mouse splenocytes after immunization and challenge. Supernatants harvested after 72 h of incubation were analyzed for detection of secreted cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10, using a Mouse Th1/Th2 uncoated ELISA kit. Experimental groups are indicated as previously described. Significantly different groups are marked with brackets and p value is indicated. Bars represent means ±SD from three splenocyte cultures, each prepared from two pooled spleens from mice from the immunized group ( n = 3), or means ±SD from three repeats of splenocyte cultures, prepared from three pooled spleens from mice from the control group ( n = 3).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine profiles of mouse splenocytes after immunization and challenge. Supernatants harvested after 72 h of incubation were analyzed for detection of secreted cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10, using a Mouse Th1/Th2 uncoated ELISA kit. Experimental groups are indicated as previously described. Significantly different groups are marked with brackets and p value is indicated. Bars represent means ±SD from three splenocyte cultures, each prepared from two pooled spleens from mice from the immunized group ( n = 3), or means ±SD from three repeats of splenocyte cultures, prepared from three pooled spleens from mice from the control group ( n = 3).

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mouse Assay

    30) Product Images from "The Role of Virulence Proteins in Protection Conferred by Bordetella pertussis Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines"

    Article Title: The Role of Virulence Proteins in Protection Conferred by Bordetella pertussis Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines

    Journal: Vaccines

    doi: 10.3390/vaccines8030429

    T-cell response. The concentrations of IFNγ, TNFγ (Th1-response), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 (Th2-response), and IL-17A (Th17-response) cytokines were determined in supernatants after restimulation of splenocytes with ( A ) OMV, ( B ) BrkA or ( C ) Vag8 of naive mice and mice vaccinated with omvPV-wtB1917, omvPV-ΔBrkA, omvPV-ΔVag8, or wcPV-Kh96/1. Concentrations (pg/mL) are depicted on a 10 log scale axis. Significant differences compared to naive mice are indicated as # p ≤ 0.05, ## p ≤ 0.01 and ### p ≤ 0.001, and actual p -values are shown in Table S4 . Significant differences between experimental groups are depicted with a line between both groups and * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01 and *** p ≤ 0.001.
    Figure Legend Snippet: T-cell response. The concentrations of IFNγ, TNFγ (Th1-response), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 (Th2-response), and IL-17A (Th17-response) cytokines were determined in supernatants after restimulation of splenocytes with ( A ) OMV, ( B ) BrkA or ( C ) Vag8 of naive mice and mice vaccinated with omvPV-wtB1917, omvPV-ΔBrkA, omvPV-ΔVag8, or wcPV-Kh96/1. Concentrations (pg/mL) are depicted on a 10 log scale axis. Significant differences compared to naive mice are indicated as # p ≤ 0.05, ## p ≤ 0.01 and ### p ≤ 0.001, and actual p -values are shown in Table S4 . Significant differences between experimental groups are depicted with a line between both groups and * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01 and *** p ≤ 0.001.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    31) Product Images from "Trophoblast-Derived CXCL16 Decreased Granzyme B Production of Decidual γδ T Cells and Promoted Bcl-xL Expression of Trophoblasts"

    Article Title: Trophoblast-Derived CXCL16 Decreased Granzyme B Production of Decidual γδ T Cells and Promoted Bcl-xL Expression of Trophoblasts

    Journal: Reproductive Sciences

    doi: 10.1177/1933719118777638

    JEG3 trophoblast cells induced the cytokine production in decidual γδ T cells. Coculture with JEG3 and/or treatment with rhCXCL16 or CXCL16 neutralizing antibody for 48 hours, respectively, the expression of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-17A) was determined by FCM. A t test and 1-way analysis of variance were performed for significance testing. Data were mean ± SEM from 12 independent experiments. ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: JEG3 trophoblast cells induced the cytokine production in decidual γδ T cells. Coculture with JEG3 and/or treatment with rhCXCL16 or CXCL16 neutralizing antibody for 48 hours, respectively, the expression of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-17A) was determined by FCM. A t test and 1-way analysis of variance were performed for significance testing. Data were mean ± SEM from 12 independent experiments. ** P

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    32) Product Images from "Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Sciatic Nerve Recovery Is Associated with the Upregulation of Regulatory T Cells"

    Article Title: Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Sciatic Nerve Recovery Is Associated with the Upregulation of Regulatory T Cells

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21176310

    Quantification of hWJ-MSC-derived cytokine expression. The expression of mRNAs for Treg-associated cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-35 (which are composed of EBI3 and p35), in hWJ-MSC and fibroblasts, was quantified using qPCR. The levels of expression of cytokines were was normalized to that of GAPDH. The difference between the mean ± SD values of the hWJ-MSC and fibroblast groups was significant (** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Quantification of hWJ-MSC-derived cytokine expression. The expression of mRNAs for Treg-associated cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-35 (which are composed of EBI3 and p35), in hWJ-MSC and fibroblasts, was quantified using qPCR. The levels of expression of cytokines were was normalized to that of GAPDH. The difference between the mean ± SD values of the hWJ-MSC and fibroblast groups was significant (** p

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    33) Product Images from "Mechanistic study of attenuation of monosodium glutamate mixed high lipid diet induced systemic damage in rats by Coccinia grandis"

    Article Title: Mechanistic study of attenuation of monosodium glutamate mixed high lipid diet induced systemic damage in rats by Coccinia grandis

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-72076-6

    Effects of EECGL on hepatic and cardiac marker enzymes, lipid contents, serum inflammatory factors and tissue architecture. ( A ) hepatic marker enzymes, ( B ) LDH, ( C ) CK-MB, ( D ) cardiac troponin I and T, ( E ) hepatic lipid content, ( F ) cardiac lipid content, ( G ) hepatic FFA, ( H ) cardiac FFA, ( I ) IL-1β, ( J ) TNF-α and TGF-β, ( K ) IL-6 and IL-10. The liver and heart pathologies in the different groups of HLD, MSG, HM and HM + EECGL fed rats were observed. Bright field microscopy images of liver, heart tissue by ( L , M ) Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining (20 ×) and ( N , O ) Oil Red O staining (20 ×). Significance level based on Mann–Whitney U multiple comparison test: a-NC vs. HLD, b-NC vs. MSG, c-NC vs. HM, d-HLD vs. MSG, e-HLD vs. HM, f-MSG vs. HM, g-HM vs. HM + EECGLL, h-HM vs. HM + EECGLM, i-HM vs. HM + EECGLH, j-HM + EECGLL vs. HM + EECGLM, k-HM + EECGLL vs. HM + EECGLH, l-HM + EECGLM vs. HM + EECGLH [* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of EECGL on hepatic and cardiac marker enzymes, lipid contents, serum inflammatory factors and tissue architecture. ( A ) hepatic marker enzymes, ( B ) LDH, ( C ) CK-MB, ( D ) cardiac troponin I and T, ( E ) hepatic lipid content, ( F ) cardiac lipid content, ( G ) hepatic FFA, ( H ) cardiac FFA, ( I ) IL-1β, ( J ) TNF-α and TGF-β, ( K ) IL-6 and IL-10. The liver and heart pathologies in the different groups of HLD, MSG, HM and HM + EECGL fed rats were observed. Bright field microscopy images of liver, heart tissue by ( L , M ) Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining (20 ×) and ( N , O ) Oil Red O staining (20 ×). Significance level based on Mann–Whitney U multiple comparison test: a-NC vs. HLD, b-NC vs. MSG, c-NC vs. HM, d-HLD vs. MSG, e-HLD vs. HM, f-MSG vs. HM, g-HM vs. HM + EECGLL, h-HM vs. HM + EECGLM, i-HM vs. HM + EECGLH, j-HM + EECGLL vs. HM + EECGLM, k-HM + EECGLL vs. HM + EECGLH, l-HM + EECGLM vs. HM + EECGLH [* P

    Techniques Used: Marker, Microscopy, Staining, MANN-WHITNEY

    34) Product Images from "Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice exposed to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania infantum combined with glycyrrhizin"

    Article Title: Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice exposed to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania infantum combined with glycyrrhizin

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-020-04243-7

    The effect of a combination of fucose-mannose ligand (FML) with glycyrrhizin (GL) on the production of IL-10 by activated macrophages. Treatment with FML together with GL at 10 and 20 μg/ml concentrations significantly reduced IL-10 production by activated macrophages compared to FML treatment alone. Results are expressed as the mean ± SD of triplicate cultures. Results represent the mean (mean ± SD) of three independent experiments with macrophages from seven mice per experiment (** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of a combination of fucose-mannose ligand (FML) with glycyrrhizin (GL) on the production of IL-10 by activated macrophages. Treatment with FML together with GL at 10 and 20 μg/ml concentrations significantly reduced IL-10 production by activated macrophages compared to FML treatment alone. Results are expressed as the mean ± SD of triplicate cultures. Results represent the mean (mean ± SD) of three independent experiments with macrophages from seven mice per experiment (** P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    35) Product Images from "Effects of Habitual Caffeine Intake, Physical Activity Levels, and Sedentary Behavior on the Inflammatory Status in a Healthy Population"

    Article Title: Effects of Habitual Caffeine Intake, Physical Activity Levels, and Sedentary Behavior on the Inflammatory Status in a Healthy Population

    Journal: Nutrients

    doi: 10.3390/nu12082325

    IL-10 ( a ) and TNF-α ( b ) plasma concentrations categorized by sitting time tertiles. Median, 25th, 75th percentile, and lowest and highest values are shown for IL-10 and TNF-α values. # indicates significant differences to first tertile. indicates significant differences to second tertile. IL: interleukin; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-10 ( a ) and TNF-α ( b ) plasma concentrations categorized by sitting time tertiles. Median, 25th, 75th percentile, and lowest and highest values are shown for IL-10 and TNF-α values. # indicates significant differences to first tertile. indicates significant differences to second tertile. IL: interleukin; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.

    Techniques Used:

    36) Product Images from "CD163+ cytokine-producing cDC2 stimulate intratumoral type 1 T cell responses in HPV16-induced oropharyngeal cancer"

    Article Title: CD163+ cytokine-producing cDC2 stimulate intratumoral type 1 T cell responses in HPV16-induced oropharyngeal cancer

    Journal: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer

    doi: 10.1136/jitc-2020-001053

    CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells have allogeneic T cell stimulatory capacity and represent true DC. FACS-sorted CD14 + CD163 ‒ , CD14 + CD163 + , CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells were tested for their T cell stimulatory and DC cytokine-producing potential. (A) Graphs depicting the percentage proliferation of CD4 + CD45RO + (left) and CD8 + CD45RO + (right) T cells within allogeneic PBMCs in response to CD14 + CD163 ‒ (open red), CD14 + CD163 + (closed red), CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ (open blue) and CD14 ‒ CD163 + (closed blue) myeloid cells isolated from healthy donors (n=9, mean±SEM). (B) Graph depicting the IFNγ production in pg/mL of the total allogeneic PBMCs in response to the CD163 ‒ and CD163 + myeloid cells, as determined by ELISA (n=9, mean±SEM). (C) Graphs depicting the percentage of IFNγ + cells of proliferated CD4 + CD45RO + (left) and CD8 + CD45RO + (right) T cells in response to CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ (open blue) and CD14 ‒ CD163 + (closed blue) myeloid cells isolated from healthy donors (n=7, mean±SEM). (D) Graphs depicting the IL-13, IL-9 and IL-22 production in pg/mL of the total allogeneic PBMCs in response to the CD163 ‒ and CD163 + myeloid cells (n=8, mean±SEM), as determined by multiplex T cell cytokine assay. The dotted line indicates the lower limit of detection of each of the cytokines. (E, F) Heatmaps presenting (E) IL-12p70 and IL-18 (n=15) and (F) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-23, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-3α, TGF-α, TNF-α and VEGF-A levels (n=12) in supernatants from toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligand stimulated CD14 + CD163 ‒ , CD14 + CD163 + , CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells. Cytokines were determined by ELISA (E) and multiplex cytokine assays (F) and given as log10 values in pg/mL. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells have allogeneic T cell stimulatory capacity and represent true DC. FACS-sorted CD14 + CD163 ‒ , CD14 + CD163 + , CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells were tested for their T cell stimulatory and DC cytokine-producing potential. (A) Graphs depicting the percentage proliferation of CD4 + CD45RO + (left) and CD8 + CD45RO + (right) T cells within allogeneic PBMCs in response to CD14 + CD163 ‒ (open red), CD14 + CD163 + (closed red), CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ (open blue) and CD14 ‒ CD163 + (closed blue) myeloid cells isolated from healthy donors (n=9, mean±SEM). (B) Graph depicting the IFNγ production in pg/mL of the total allogeneic PBMCs in response to the CD163 ‒ and CD163 + myeloid cells, as determined by ELISA (n=9, mean±SEM). (C) Graphs depicting the percentage of IFNγ + cells of proliferated CD4 + CD45RO + (left) and CD8 + CD45RO + (right) T cells in response to CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ (open blue) and CD14 ‒ CD163 + (closed blue) myeloid cells isolated from healthy donors (n=7, mean±SEM). (D) Graphs depicting the IL-13, IL-9 and IL-22 production in pg/mL of the total allogeneic PBMCs in response to the CD163 ‒ and CD163 + myeloid cells (n=8, mean±SEM), as determined by multiplex T cell cytokine assay. The dotted line indicates the lower limit of detection of each of the cytokines. (E, F) Heatmaps presenting (E) IL-12p70 and IL-18 (n=15) and (F) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-23, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-3α, TGF-α, TNF-α and VEGF-A levels (n=12) in supernatants from toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligand stimulated CD14 + CD163 ‒ , CD14 + CD163 + , CD14 ‒ CD163 ‒ and CD14 ‒ CD163 + myeloid cells. Cytokines were determined by ELISA (E) and multiplex cytokine assays (F) and given as log10 values in pg/mL. *p

    Techniques Used: FACS, Isolation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiplex Assay, Cytokine Assay

    37) Product Images from "Neonatal priming and infancy boosting with a novel respiratory syncytial virus vaccine induces protective immune responses without concomitant respiratory disease upon RSV challenge"

    Article Title: Neonatal priming and infancy boosting with a novel respiratory syncytial virus vaccine induces protective immune responses without concomitant respiratory disease upon RSV challenge

    Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1671134

    Treg cells were induced in G+ CsA vaccinated neonatal mice and IL-10 was highly expressed in CD4 + T cells after in vitro stimulation. (A) Schematic outline of testing Treg percentage. Neonates were immunized at day 0 ( n = 3), spleen (SP) and lymph node (LN) were sampled at days 3, 7, 10 and 14 for Treg cell detection by flow cytometry. (B) Dynamic changes of Treg cells in spleen and (C) in lymph node. (D) Neonatal mice ( n = 3–6) were immunized and challenged as in Figure 1 A. After sacrifice, splenocytes were sampled and stimulated in vitro with G protein for 3 days. IL-10 expression were tested in CD4 + cells by flow cytometry. Results of statistical analysis are shown in histograms of mean ± SEM (E) ** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Treg cells were induced in G+ CsA vaccinated neonatal mice and IL-10 was highly expressed in CD4 + T cells after in vitro stimulation. (A) Schematic outline of testing Treg percentage. Neonates were immunized at day 0 ( n = 3), spleen (SP) and lymph node (LN) were sampled at days 3, 7, 10 and 14 for Treg cell detection by flow cytometry. (B) Dynamic changes of Treg cells in spleen and (C) in lymph node. (D) Neonatal mice ( n = 3–6) were immunized and challenged as in Figure 1 A. After sacrifice, splenocytes were sampled and stimulated in vitro with G protein for 3 days. IL-10 expression were tested in CD4 + cells by flow cytometry. Results of statistical analysis are shown in histograms of mean ± SEM (E) ** P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vitro, Flow Cytometry, Expressing

    38) Product Images from "Cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain Zhejiang08 provides effective immune protection attributed to dendritic cell stimulation"

    Article Title: Cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain Zhejiang08 provides effective immune protection attributed to dendritic cell stimulation

    Journal: Vaccine

    doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.10.052

    Expression of surface markers and cytokine production in DCs treated with different PEDV strains. (A) Morphology of immature (left) and mature Mo-DCs (right) analyzed via microscopy. The scale bar represents 50 μm. (B) PEDV samples of DCs were determined via FACS. (C) Differently treated DCs were stained for indicated surface molecules and analyzed via FACS. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of indicated surface molecules are shown as mean ± SD values. (D) In mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) experiments, Zhejiang08 or CV777 treated DCs were co-cultured with CFSE-labeled T lymphocytes (at ratios 1:1 and 1:5). DCs were stimulated with LPS or remained unstimulated, and were then co-cultured with T lymphocytes either as positive or control. After five days, proliferation was detected via FACS. (E) Cytokine expression levels of DCs after PEDV exposure at 24 hpi. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ were detected via real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All data shown are means ± SD of three samples. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of surface markers and cytokine production in DCs treated with different PEDV strains. (A) Morphology of immature (left) and mature Mo-DCs (right) analyzed via microscopy. The scale bar represents 50 μm. (B) PEDV samples of DCs were determined via FACS. (C) Differently treated DCs were stained for indicated surface molecules and analyzed via FACS. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of indicated surface molecules are shown as mean ± SD values. (D) In mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) experiments, Zhejiang08 or CV777 treated DCs were co-cultured with CFSE-labeled T lymphocytes (at ratios 1:1 and 1:5). DCs were stimulated with LPS or remained unstimulated, and were then co-cultured with T lymphocytes either as positive or control. After five days, proliferation was detected via FACS. (E) Cytokine expression levels of DCs after PEDV exposure at 24 hpi. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ were detected via real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All data shown are means ± SD of three samples. * P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Microscopy, FACS, Staining, Fluorescence, Cell Culture, Labeling, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR

    39) Product Images from "Role of syndecan-1 in the interaction between dendritic cells and T cells"

    Article Title: Role of syndecan-1 in the interaction between dendritic cells and T cells

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230835

    Proliferation and cytokine production are reduced in Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes upon stimulation with ConA. Proliferation of WT and Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes was determined in the presence of 0.1–0.25 μg/ml ConA as analyzed by CFSE dilution using flow cytometry (A). Interferon-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 production by WT and Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes was determined in the presence of 0.25 μg/ml ConA (B), as determined by ELISA. Proliferation and cytokine levels are expressed as means and standard error of means of 10 independent experiments. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Proliferation and cytokine production are reduced in Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes upon stimulation with ConA. Proliferation of WT and Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes was determined in the presence of 0.1–0.25 μg/ml ConA as analyzed by CFSE dilution using flow cytometry (A). Interferon-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 production by WT and Sdc-1 deficient splenocytes was determined in the presence of 0.25 μg/ml ConA (B), as determined by ELISA. Proliferation and cytokine levels are expressed as means and standard error of means of 10 independent experiments. * p

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    40) Product Images from "Multi‐marker algorithms based on CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2 receptor, and β2‐microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose CNS lymphoma, et al. Multi‐marker algorithms based on CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2 receptor, and β2‐microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose CNS lymphoma"

    Article Title: Multi‐marker algorithms based on CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2 receptor, and β2‐microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose CNS lymphoma, et al. Multi‐marker algorithms based on CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2 receptor, and β2‐microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose CNS lymphoma

    Journal: Cancer Medicine

    doi: 10.1002/cam4.3048

    A, A comparison of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2R, and β2‐MG in the prospective study. Patient data are shown in Table S2 . The CSF levels of all biomarkers significantly increased in CNS lymphoma compared with the other diseases (* P
    Figure Legend Snippet: A, A comparison of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of CXCL13, IL‐10, sIL‐2R, and β2‐MG in the prospective study. Patient data are shown in Table S2 . The CSF levels of all biomarkers significantly increased in CNS lymphoma compared with the other diseases (* P

    Techniques Used:

    Related Articles

    SYBR Green Assay:

    Article Title: A Nanoparticle-Poly(I:C) Combination Adjuvant Enhances the Breadth of the Immune Response to Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine in Pigs
    Article Snippet: .. The cDNA was converted from 1 or 2 μg of total RNA and the target genes TNF-α, IL-1ß, GATA3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13, and housekeeping gene β-actin ( ) expression were attained by qRT-PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) using the SYBR Green Supermix kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) [ ]. .. Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) Titer and Infectious Virus Titration The assays were performed as reported previously [ , ].

    Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay:

    Article Title: Autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells combined with sevoflurane ameliorates acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats
    Article Snippet: .. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-10, and KGF in the supernatant were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and protein levels were detected by BCA protein assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). ..

    Quantitative RT-PCR:

    Article Title: CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia. CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia
    Article Snippet: .. The quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR) amplifications of PD‐L1 , PD‐L2 , IL‐10 , TGF‐β , and GAPDH (control gene) were performed using the ABI StepOne Real‐time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). ..

    Article Title: A Nanoparticle-Poly(I:C) Combination Adjuvant Enhances the Breadth of the Immune Response to Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine in Pigs
    Article Snippet: .. The cDNA was converted from 1 or 2 μg of total RNA and the target genes TNF-α, IL-1ß, GATA3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13, and housekeeping gene β-actin ( ) expression were attained by qRT-PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) using the SYBR Green Supermix kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) [ ]. .. Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) Titer and Infectious Virus Titration The assays were performed as reported previously [ , ].

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay:

    Article Title: Enhanced antigen presentation and immunostimulation of dendritic cells using acid-degradable cationic nanoparticles
    Article Snippet: .. After 24 h of cultivation, the amount of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 produced was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). .. 2.7 Data analysis Data were obtained in triplicate unless otherwise mentioned and are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and further statistically analyzed by the student t -test on the significance level of p < 0.05.

    Article Title: Autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stromal cells combined with sevoflurane ameliorates acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats
    Article Snippet: .. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-10, and KGF in the supernatant were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and protein levels were detected by BCA protein assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). ..

    Article Title: Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells, et al. Effect of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells
    Article Snippet: .. ELISA kits for IL‐10, IL‐6, and TGF‐β were obtained from Invitrogen (Camarillo, CA), BioLegend (San Diego, CA), and R & D Systems (MN), respectively. .. Monoclonal antibodies against mouse CD105‐APC (Cat number: 17‐1051‐82), CD73‐PE (Cat number: 12‐0731‐82), CD90‐PE Cyanine (Cat number: 15‐0909‐42), CD45‐FITC (Cat number: 11‐0451‐81), MHCII‐FITC (Cat number: 11‐5321‐82), PE‐CD83 (Cat number: 12‐0831‐82) and CD86 (Cat number: 12‐0861‐82) were obtained from eBioscience (San Diego, CA).

    Article Title: Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant, Mucosal Vaccination for Influenza Protection Enhanced by Catalytic Immune‐Adjuvant
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    Article Title: Changes in Function and Dynamics in Hepatic and Splenic Macrophages in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
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    Concentration Assay:

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    Expressing:

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    Article Snippet: .. The cDNA was converted from 1 or 2 μg of total RNA and the target genes TNF-α, IL-1ß, GATA3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13, and housekeeping gene β-actin ( ) expression were attained by qRT-PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) using the SYBR Green Supermix kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) [ ]. .. Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) Titer and Infectious Virus Titration The assays were performed as reported previously [ , ].

    Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia. CD163+ macrophages infiltration correlates with the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 expression in tongue leukoplakia
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    Produced:

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    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

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    Thermo Fisher histone 3 lysine 27 tri methylation
    Mechanisms affecting Protein Import Proteomic analyses revealed changes in the abundance of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins in the mitochondrion following diabetes. (A) Examination of protein import mechanisms for both Atp5a and Sod2 through measurement of cytoplasmic and SSM protein content in control (n = 7) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. To begin to understand epigenetic consequences (B) global histone methyltransferase activity for H3K27me3 was assessed in control (n = 5) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. Further, (C) constituents of the PCR2 complex were measured through qPCR in both human (ND and T2DM, n = 5) and mouse (control and db/db, n = 5) cardiac tissue. At the Hspa9 promoter loci, (D) ChIP pulldown and qPCR was performed for Ezh2. Values are expressed as means ± SEM. * P ≤ 0.05 for control vs. diabetes mellitus. ChIP-qPCR samples were normalized to their respective input control. GAPDH was used to normalize PCR2 components. H3K27me3 = <t>histone</t> 3 <t>lysine</t> 27 tri-methylation, PCR2 = Polycomb Repressive Complex 2, HSPA9 = Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 9, AEBP2 = AE Binding Protein 2, EED = Embryonic Ectoderm Development, EZH2 = Enhancer of zeste homolog 2, RBBP4 = RB Binding Protein 4, SUZ12 = Suppressor of Zeste 12 Homolog T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Histone 3 Lysine 27 Tri Methylation, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher mouse il 10 elisa kits
    Myoglobin induces CD163 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages through HO-1 and <t>IL-10</t> induction. Macrophages were isolated from the mouse peritoneal cavity and treated with myoglobin (Mb) (0-2.5 mg/mL) for 48h. Dose- ( A ) and time-( B ) enhanced mRNA expression of IL-10 and HO-1, as determined by real time RT-PCR, in myoglobin-treated macrophages. ( C ) Representative confocal microscopy images showing enhanced HO-1 expression in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) for 24h. Scale bar 50 µM ( D ) IL-10 release was determined by <t>ELISA</t> in cell supernatants. ( E - F ) Expression of CD163 in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) or equimolar concentration of heme (60µM) for 48h in presence or absence of the HO-1 inducer CoPP or an IL-10 blocking antibody (1µg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. ( G ) Expression of M1 (CCL2, Arg2, TNF-α, IL-12) and M2 markers (Arg1) in macrophages stimulated with myoglobin (1mg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. Results are expressed as mean±SE of at least three independent experiments. * p
    Mouse Il 10 Elisa Kits, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher gene exp ifng mm01168134 m1
    Gene expression of peripheral blood at 2 weeks and peripheral blood, spleen and brain at 12 weeks. a Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 2 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). b Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 12 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). c Spleen sample gene expression profiles were measured for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , Tnfa and <t>Ifng</t> . d Brain samples without a tumour were analysed for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa . Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in blood at 2 weeks, Il1b , Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in the blood at 12 weeks, Il6 expression in the spleen and Ccl2 expression in the brain failed Shapiro-Wilk normality test and were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. All other samples were analysed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. Error bar represents the SEM. **** p
    Gene Exp Ifng Mm01168134 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 194 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Mechanisms affecting Protein Import Proteomic analyses revealed changes in the abundance of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins in the mitochondrion following diabetes. (A) Examination of protein import mechanisms for both Atp5a and Sod2 through measurement of cytoplasmic and SSM protein content in control (n = 7) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. To begin to understand epigenetic consequences (B) global histone methyltransferase activity for H3K27me3 was assessed in control (n = 5) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. Further, (C) constituents of the PCR2 complex were measured through qPCR in both human (ND and T2DM, n = 5) and mouse (control and db/db, n = 5) cardiac tissue. At the Hspa9 promoter loci, (D) ChIP pulldown and qPCR was performed for Ezh2. Values are expressed as means ± SEM. * P ≤ 0.05 for control vs. diabetes mellitus. ChIP-qPCR samples were normalized to their respective input control. GAPDH was used to normalize PCR2 components. H3K27me3 = histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation, PCR2 = Polycomb Repressive Complex 2, HSPA9 = Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 9, AEBP2 = AE Binding Protein 2, EED = Embryonic Ectoderm Development, EZH2 = Enhancer of zeste homolog 2, RBBP4 = RB Binding Protein 4, SUZ12 = Suppressor of Zeste 12 Homolog T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Journal: Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology

    Article Title: Mitochondrial Proteome Disruption in the Diabetic Heart Through Targeted Epigenetic Regulation at the Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein 70 (mtHsp70) Nuclear Locus

    doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2018.04.016

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanisms affecting Protein Import Proteomic analyses revealed changes in the abundance of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins in the mitochondrion following diabetes. (A) Examination of protein import mechanisms for both Atp5a and Sod2 through measurement of cytoplasmic and SSM protein content in control (n = 7) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. To begin to understand epigenetic consequences (B) global histone methyltransferase activity for H3K27me3 was assessed in control (n = 5) and db/db (n = 5) mouse whole heart. Further, (C) constituents of the PCR2 complex were measured through qPCR in both human (ND and T2DM, n = 5) and mouse (control and db/db, n = 5) cardiac tissue. At the Hspa9 promoter loci, (D) ChIP pulldown and qPCR was performed for Ezh2. Values are expressed as means ± SEM. * P ≤ 0.05 for control vs. diabetes mellitus. ChIP-qPCR samples were normalized to their respective input control. GAPDH was used to normalize PCR2 components. H3K27me3 = histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation, PCR2 = Polycomb Repressive Complex 2, HSPA9 = Heat Shock Protein Family A (Hsp70) Member 9, AEBP2 = AE Binding Protein 2, EED = Embryonic Ectoderm Development, EZH2 = Enhancer of zeste homolog 2, RBBP4 = RB Binding Protein 4, SUZ12 = Suppressor of Zeste 12 Homolog T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Article Snippet: Chromatin marks studied in the experiment were histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3, Thermo Fisher, Rockford IL, Catalog #: G.532.8) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3, Thermo Fisher, Rockford IL, Catalog #: G.299.10).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Methylation, Binding Assay

    Myoglobin induces CD163 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages through HO-1 and IL-10 induction. Macrophages were isolated from the mouse peritoneal cavity and treated with myoglobin (Mb) (0-2.5 mg/mL) for 48h. Dose- ( A ) and time-( B ) enhanced mRNA expression of IL-10 and HO-1, as determined by real time RT-PCR, in myoglobin-treated macrophages. ( C ) Representative confocal microscopy images showing enhanced HO-1 expression in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) for 24h. Scale bar 50 µM ( D ) IL-10 release was determined by ELISA in cell supernatants. ( E - F ) Expression of CD163 in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) or equimolar concentration of heme (60µM) for 48h in presence or absence of the HO-1 inducer CoPP or an IL-10 blocking antibody (1µg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. ( G ) Expression of M1 (CCL2, Arg2, TNF-α, IL-12) and M2 markers (Arg1) in macrophages stimulated with myoglobin (1mg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. Results are expressed as mean±SE of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: CD163-Macrophages Are Involved in Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Kidney Injury and May Be Detected by MRI with Targeted Gold-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    doi: 10.7150/thno.14915

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Myoglobin induces CD163 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages through HO-1 and IL-10 induction. Macrophages were isolated from the mouse peritoneal cavity and treated with myoglobin (Mb) (0-2.5 mg/mL) for 48h. Dose- ( A ) and time-( B ) enhanced mRNA expression of IL-10 and HO-1, as determined by real time RT-PCR, in myoglobin-treated macrophages. ( C ) Representative confocal microscopy images showing enhanced HO-1 expression in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) for 24h. Scale bar 50 µM ( D ) IL-10 release was determined by ELISA in cell supernatants. ( E - F ) Expression of CD163 in macrophages treated with myoglobin (1mg/mL) or equimolar concentration of heme (60µM) for 48h in presence or absence of the HO-1 inducer CoPP or an IL-10 blocking antibody (1µg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. ( G ) Expression of M1 (CCL2, Arg2, TNF-α, IL-12) and M2 markers (Arg1) in macrophages stimulated with myoglobin (1mg/mL), as determined by RT-PCR. Results are expressed as mean±SE of at least three independent experiments. * p

    Article Snippet: ELISA Concentrations of murine IL-10 (EM2IL10, Thermo Scientific, USA) in the supernatants of the cell cultures were determined by ELISA, following the manufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Confocal Microscopy, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Concentration Assay, Blocking Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Gene expression of peripheral blood at 2 weeks and peripheral blood, spleen and brain at 12 weeks. a Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 2 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). b Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 12 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). c Spleen sample gene expression profiles were measured for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , Tnfa and Ifng . d Brain samples without a tumour were analysed for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa . Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in blood at 2 weeks, Il1b , Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in the blood at 12 weeks, Il6 expression in the spleen and Ccl2 expression in the brain failed Shapiro-Wilk normality test and were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. All other samples were analysed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. Error bar represents the SEM. **** p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Non-myeloablative busulfan chimeric mouse models are less pro-inflammatory than head-shielded irradiation for studying immune cell interactions in brain tumours

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-019-1410-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gene expression of peripheral blood at 2 weeks and peripheral blood, spleen and brain at 12 weeks. a Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 2 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). b Gene expression of peripheral blood samples taken at 12 weeks post-transplant and tested for Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , and Tnfa ( n = 6/group). c Spleen sample gene expression profiles were measured for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 , Tnfa and Ifng . d Brain samples without a tumour were analysed for the cytokines Il1b , Ccl2 , Il6 and Tnfa . Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in blood at 2 weeks, Il1b , Ccl2 , Tnfa and Il6 expression in the blood at 12 weeks, Il6 expression in the spleen and Ccl2 expression in the brain failed Shapiro-Wilk normality test and were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. All other samples were analysed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. Error bar represents the SEM. **** p

    Article Snippet: Taqman™ gene expression assays kit As per manufacturer guidelines, Taqman™ gene expression assays (Applied Biosystems, Warrington, UK) containing sequence-specific mouse primers for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (Assay ID: Mm00443258_m1 Tnfa ), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) (Assay ID: Mm00434228_m1 Il1b ), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) (Assay ID: Mm00441242_m1 Ccl2 ), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (Assay ID: Mm00446190_m1 Il6 ) and interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) (Assay ID: Mm01168134_m1 Ifng ) Interleukin-10 (IL-10) (Assay ID: Mm00439616_m1 Il10 ), interferon alpha 4 (IFN-α4) (Assay ID: Mm00833969_s1 Ifna4 ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) (Assay ID: Mm00445235_m1 Cxcl10 ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) (Assay ID: Mm00445259_m1 Il4 ) were used to achieve target specific amplification.

    Techniques: Expressing