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Agilent technologies supelcosil lc 18 s hplc column
<t>RP-HPLC</t> analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a <t>Supelcosil</t> <t>LC-18-S</t> HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.
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1) Product Images from "Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA"

Article Title: Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA

Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1102

RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Software

RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Isolation, Hybridization

Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.
Figure Legend Snippet: Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.

Techniques Used: Modification, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Mutagenesis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Software

2) Product Images from "Accumulation and Secretion of Coumarinolignans and other Coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots in Response to Iron Deficiency at High pH"

Article Title: Accumulation and Secretion of Coumarinolignans and other Coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots in Response to Iron Deficiency at High pH

Journal: Frontiers in Plant Science

doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01711

Identification of compounds 14 – 18 , produced by Fe-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana roots, as coumarinolignans derived from fraxetin. (A) MS 2 spectra of compounds 14 – 18 and the cleomiscosins A (Cm A), B (Cm B), C (Cm C) and D (Cm D) isolated from Cleome viscosa seeds. (B) MS 2 spectra of fraxetin and MS 3 spectra of m/z 209 ion from the corresponding [M+H] + ions of compounds 14 – 18 . Spectra were obtained from the HPLC/ESI-MS(ion trap) analyses of growth media extracts from Fe-deficient plants and a cleomiscosin isolate. (C) Typical HPLC-ESI-MS(TOF) chromatograms for growth media extracts from Fe-deficient plants and for the cleomiscosin isolate, extracted at m/z 403.10, 417.12 and 387.11 and with a precision of ± 0.02 m/z units. The encircled numbers in the spectra and above each chromatographic peak correspond to the phenolic compounds listed in Table 1 .
Figure Legend Snippet: Identification of compounds 14 – 18 , produced by Fe-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana roots, as coumarinolignans derived from fraxetin. (A) MS 2 spectra of compounds 14 – 18 and the cleomiscosins A (Cm A), B (Cm B), C (Cm C) and D (Cm D) isolated from Cleome viscosa seeds. (B) MS 2 spectra of fraxetin and MS 3 spectra of m/z 209 ion from the corresponding [M+H] + ions of compounds 14 – 18 . Spectra were obtained from the HPLC/ESI-MS(ion trap) analyses of growth media extracts from Fe-deficient plants and a cleomiscosin isolate. (C) Typical HPLC-ESI-MS(TOF) chromatograms for growth media extracts from Fe-deficient plants and for the cleomiscosin isolate, extracted at m/z 403.10, 417.12 and 387.11 and with a precision of ± 0.02 m/z units. The encircled numbers in the spectra and above each chromatographic peak correspond to the phenolic compounds listed in Table 1 .

Techniques Used: Produced, Derivative Assay, Mass Spectrometry, Isolation, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

3) Product Images from "HPLC–ICP-MS speciation analysis and risk assessment of arsenic in Cordyceps sinensis"

Article Title: HPLC–ICP-MS speciation analysis and risk assessment of arsenic in Cordyceps sinensis

Journal: Chinese Medicine

doi: 10.1186/s13020-018-0178-9

Representative ion chromatograms for arsenic speciation. a Arsenic speciation of mixed arsenic standard solution. 1–6 represented AsB, DMA, AsIII, MMA, AsC, and AsV, respectively. b Arsenic speciation in Cordyceps sinensis
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative ion chromatograms for arsenic speciation. a Arsenic speciation of mixed arsenic standard solution. 1–6 represented AsB, DMA, AsIII, MMA, AsC, and AsV, respectively. b Arsenic speciation in Cordyceps sinensis

Techniques Used:

AsIII and AsV contents analyzed in fungal endosclerotium, stroma, and the whole Cordyceps sinensis
Figure Legend Snippet: AsIII and AsV contents analyzed in fungal endosclerotium, stroma, and the whole Cordyceps sinensis

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "A Practical Quality Control Method for Saponins Without UV Absorption by UPLC-QDA"

Article Title: A Practical Quality Control Method for Saponins Without UV Absorption by UPLC-QDA

Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01377

Chromatograms of astragalosides in different conditions: (A) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of astragalosides in different ion channels before addition of ammonia; (B) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of astragalosides in different ion channels after addition of ammonia; (C) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of Astragali radix (AR) extracts separated on CORTECS T3 column; (D) HPLC-ELSD chromatograms of AR extracts on YMC C18 column; (E) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of standard compounds; (F) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of AR samples. (S1) astragaloside IV; (S2) astragaloside III; (S3) astragaloside II; (S4) isoastragaloside II; (S5) astragaloside I; (S6) isoastragaloside I; (S7) acetylastragaloside I; (N1) ginsenoside Rg1.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatograms of astragalosides in different conditions: (A) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of astragalosides in different ion channels before addition of ammonia; (B) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of astragalosides in different ion channels after addition of ammonia; (C) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of Astragali radix (AR) extracts separated on CORTECS T3 column; (D) HPLC-ELSD chromatograms of AR extracts on YMC C18 column; (E) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of standard compounds; (F) UPLC-QDA chromatograms of AR samples. (S1) astragaloside IV; (S2) astragaloside III; (S3) astragaloside II; (S4) isoastragaloside II; (S5) astragaloside I; (S6) isoastragaloside I; (S7) acetylastragaloside I; (N1) ginsenoside Rg1.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

5) Product Images from "In vitro anti-HIV activity of ethanol extract from gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f) leaves"

Article Title: In vitro anti-HIV activity of ethanol extract from gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f) leaves

Journal: Infectious Disease Reports

doi: 10.4081/idr.2020.8730

The percentage of p24 antigen expression inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70%-fractionated ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.
Figure Legend Snippet: The percentage of p24 antigen expression inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70%-fractionated ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Standard Deviation

The percentage of syncytia formation inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70% fractionated-ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.
Figure Legend Snippet: The percentage of syncytia formation inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70% fractionated-ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Standard Deviation

Chromatogram profile of gendarusin A in 12.8 μg/ml solution (a), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70%-fractionated ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (b), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (c).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatogram profile of gendarusin A in 12.8 μg/ml solution (a), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70%-fractionated ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (b), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (c).

Techniques Used:

Qualitative alkaloids profile on TLC plates of the 70% ethanol extract (b) and 70%-fractionated ethanol extract (c) of J. gendarussa leaves was compared with alkaloids extracts of Piper nigrum fruits (a) using Dragendorf spray reagent.
Figure Legend Snippet: Qualitative alkaloids profile on TLC plates of the 70% ethanol extract (b) and 70%-fractionated ethanol extract (c) of J. gendarussa leaves was compared with alkaloids extracts of Piper nigrum fruits (a) using Dragendorf spray reagent.

Techniques Used: Thin Layer Chromatography

6) Product Images from "Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA"

Article Title: Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA

Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1102

RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Software

RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Isolation, Hybridization

Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.
Figure Legend Snippet: Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.

Techniques Used: Modification, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Mutagenesis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Software

7) Product Images from "The chemotaxonomic classification of Rhodiola plants and its correlation with morphological characteristics and genetic taxonomy"

Article Title: The chemotaxonomic classification of Rhodiola plants and its correlation with morphological characteristics and genetic taxonomy

Journal: Chemistry Central Journal

doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-118

HPLC-DAD/UV chromatogram of the eight chemotaxonomic markers (a) and overlap chromatogram of each Rhodiola species (b). 1, Gallic acid; 2, Tyrosol; 3, Salidroside; 4, (+) Catechin; 5. Rosarin; 6, Rosavin; 7, Rosin; 8, Rhodionin.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-DAD/UV chromatogram of the eight chemotaxonomic markers (a) and overlap chromatogram of each Rhodiola species (b). 1, Gallic acid; 2, Tyrosol; 3, Salidroside; 4, (+) Catechin; 5. Rosarin; 6, Rosavin; 7, Rosin; 8, Rhodionin.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot (a) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram (b) derived from the HPLC-DAD/UV data set of the Rhodiola samples.
Figure Legend Snippet: Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot (a) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram (b) derived from the HPLC-DAD/UV data set of the Rhodiola samples.

Techniques Used: High Content Screening, Derivative Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

8) Product Images from "Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum"

Article Title: Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum

Journal: BioMed Research International

doi: 10.1155/2014/465435

CID spectra of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a)–(d) are m / z 1034.5, 1048.1, 1435.2, and 1477.6, respectively.
Figure Legend Snippet: CID spectra of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a)–(d) are m / z 1034.5, 1048.1, 1435.2, and 1477.6, respectively.

Techniques Used: Produced

Effects of culture time on antimicrobial activity and cells growth of BZ6-1. Note: ◆: supernatant IZD; ⋄ : cell suspension IZD; △: OD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of culture time on antimicrobial activity and cells growth of BZ6-1. Note: ◆: supernatant IZD; ⋄ : cell suspension IZD; △: OD.

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

((a) and (b)) HPLC chromatogram and positive ion spectra of antibacterial substances produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a) HPLC chromatogram; (b) positive ion spectra.
Figure Legend Snippet: ((a) and (b)) HPLC chromatogram and positive ion spectra of antibacterial substances produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a) HPLC chromatogram; (b) positive ion spectra.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Produced

(a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of BZ6-1 cell morphology with negative staining (×26,500). (b) Phylogenic tree including BZ6-1 based on 16S rRNA full-length sequences. (c) Inhibition zone of BZ6-1 against R. solanacearum .
Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of BZ6-1 cell morphology with negative staining (×26,500). (b) Phylogenic tree including BZ6-1 based on 16S rRNA full-length sequences. (c) Inhibition zone of BZ6-1 against R. solanacearum .

Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Negative Staining, Inhibition

9) Product Images from "Screening for cytotoxic chemical constituents from Justicia procumbens by HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS and NMR"

Article Title: Screening for cytotoxic chemical constituents from Justicia procumbens by HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS and NMR

Journal: Chemistry Central Journal

doi: 10.1186/s13065-018-0371-z

HPLC–DAD–ESI–QTOF/MS chromatogram of the ethyl acetate extract of J. procumbens : a UV chromatogram obtained at 205 nm, b TIC chromatogram detected in the positive ion mode
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC–DAD–ESI–QTOF/MS chromatogram of the ethyl acetate extract of J. procumbens : a UV chromatogram obtained at 205 nm, b TIC chromatogram detected in the positive ion mode

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

10) Product Images from "Staphylococcus epidermidis Strategies to Avoid Killing by Human Neutrophils"

Article Title: Staphylococcus epidermidis Strategies to Avoid Killing by Human Neutrophils

Journal: PLoS Pathogens

doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001133

PSM concentrations in S. epidermidis culture filtrates. PSM concentrations in 18-h S. epidermidis and S. aureus LAC culture filtrates were determined by HPLC/MS. Peaks corresponding to N-formylated and deformylated PSM versions were measured separately and the percentage of deformylated peptides is shown as checkered bars. No PSMs were detected in the natural and constructed agr mutants (O47, 1457 agr ). Relative PSM composition (α-type, δ-toxin, β-type) is shown at the right for S. aureus LAC and S. epidermidis 1457. Relative compositions were similar to that of 1457 in the other S. epidermidis strains (except in agr -negative O47 and 1457 agr ).
Figure Legend Snippet: PSM concentrations in S. epidermidis culture filtrates. PSM concentrations in 18-h S. epidermidis and S. aureus LAC culture filtrates were determined by HPLC/MS. Peaks corresponding to N-formylated and deformylated PSM versions were measured separately and the percentage of deformylated peptides is shown as checkered bars. No PSMs were detected in the natural and constructed agr mutants (O47, 1457 agr ). Relative PSM composition (α-type, δ-toxin, β-type) is shown at the right for S. aureus LAC and S. epidermidis 1457. Relative compositions were similar to that of 1457 in the other S. epidermidis strains (except in agr -negative O47 and 1457 agr ).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Construct

11) Product Images from "Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of (-)-(5R,6Z)-dendrolasin-5-acetate from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni"

Article Title: Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of (-)-(5R,6Z)-dendrolasin-5-acetate from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni

Journal: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry

doi: 10.3762/bjoc.9.329

Enantioselective HPLC profiles (5% isopropanol in n -hexane) of 1 : (a) synthetic (±) mixture; (b) synthetic (+)-enantiomer; (c) synthetic (−)-enantiomer; (d) natural sample from H. jacksoni .
Figure Legend Snippet: Enantioselective HPLC profiles (5% isopropanol in n -hexane) of 1 : (a) synthetic (±) mixture; (b) synthetic (+)-enantiomer; (c) synthetic (−)-enantiomer; (d) natural sample from H. jacksoni .

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Analytical enantioselective HPLC trace showing separation of individual enantiomers of (6 Z )-5-hydroxydendrolasin (Chiralpak AD column, 250 × 4.6 mm, 2% IPA in n -hexane at 0.5 mL/min, UV detection at 214 nm).
Figure Legend Snippet: Analytical enantioselective HPLC trace showing separation of individual enantiomers of (6 Z )-5-hydroxydendrolasin (Chiralpak AD column, 250 × 4.6 mm, 2% IPA in n -hexane at 0.5 mL/min, UV detection at 214 nm).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Indirect Immunoperoxidase Assay

12) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetic comparison between quercetin and quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide in rats by UHPLC-MS/MS"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic comparison between quercetin and quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide in rats by UHPLC-MS/MS

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep35460

Representative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms of quercetin-3- O-β -glucuronide (Q3G), quercetin (QUE), and scutellarin (IS) in blank plasma ( a ), plasma spiked with Q3G at LLQQ and IS ( b ), plasma sample ( c ).
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms of quercetin-3- O-β -glucuronide (Q3G), quercetin (QUE), and scutellarin (IS) in blank plasma ( a ), plasma spiked with Q3G at LLQQ and IS ( b ), plasma sample ( c ).

Techniques Used:

Mean plasma concentration-time curve of quercetin-3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) after oral administration of 100 mg/kg ( a ) quercetiin (QUE) ( b ) or QUE respectively in rats. (n = 5, mean ± SD). Mean plasma concentration-time profile of Q3G after oral administration of 100 mg/kg Q3G ( c ) or 100 mg/kg QUE ( d ) respectively in rats. (n = 5, mean ± SD).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean plasma concentration-time curve of quercetin-3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) after oral administration of 100 mg/kg ( a ) quercetiin (QUE) ( b ) or QUE respectively in rats. (n = 5, mean ± SD). Mean plasma concentration-time profile of Q3G after oral administration of 100 mg/kg Q3G ( c ) or 100 mg/kg QUE ( d ) respectively in rats. (n = 5, mean ± SD).

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Distribution of quercetin-3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) in various tissues at different times after intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg Q3G.
Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of quercetin-3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) in various tissues at different times after intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg Q3G.

Techniques Used: Injection

13) Product Images from "Effects of monosulfuron-ester on metabolic processes of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Anabaena azotica"

Article Title: Effects of monosulfuron-ester on metabolic processes of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Anabaena azotica

Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2016.10.028

Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on the growth rate profile: A. flos-aquae and A. azotica .
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on the growth rate profile: A. flos-aquae and A. azotica .

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on protein content of two cyanobacteria.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on protein content of two cyanobacteria.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on in vitro ALS activity.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on in vitro ALS activity.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, In Vitro, Activity Assay

Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on extractable ALS activity.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of monosulfuron-ester concentration on extractable ALS activity.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Activity Assay

14) Product Images from "Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles"

Article Title: Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63271-6

HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Histopathological structures of skin layers showing changes in the normal structures after intake of HFCS and MNs loaded with V.agnus-castus and T.indica (200 mg/kg). ( A ) Normal control group with no histopathological alteration and normal epidermis with stratified keratinized epithelium and the underlying areolar connective tissue dermis with hair follicles and glands and lastly the skeletal muscle layer. ( B ) HFCS group: Focal acanthosis was detected in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis (→). The underlying dermis showed oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibroblastic cells proliferation, which were extended deep with appearance of eosinophils infiltration. Necrobiosis was detected in the epithelial cells of some hair follicles. ( C , D ) V. agnus-castus group: There were hyperkeratosis of the epidermal layer associated with focal hyalinosis in the areolar tissue of the dermis. ( E , F ) T. indica group : The epidermal and dermal layers were histological intact but there was necrobiosis in some individual hair follicles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Histopathological structures of skin layers showing changes in the normal structures after intake of HFCS and MNs loaded with V.agnus-castus and T.indica (200 mg/kg). ( A ) Normal control group with no histopathological alteration and normal epidermis with stratified keratinized epithelium and the underlying areolar connective tissue dermis with hair follicles and glands and lastly the skeletal muscle layer. ( B ) HFCS group: Focal acanthosis was detected in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis (→). The underlying dermis showed oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibroblastic cells proliferation, which were extended deep with appearance of eosinophils infiltration. Necrobiosis was detected in the epithelial cells of some hair follicles. ( C , D ) V. agnus-castus group: There were hyperkeratosis of the epidermal layer associated with focal hyalinosis in the areolar tissue of the dermis. ( E , F ) T. indica group : The epidermal and dermal layers were histological intact but there was necrobiosis in some individual hair follicles.

Techniques Used:

Effect of V.agnus-castus and T.indica on adiponectin and e-NOS levels in HFCS treated Guinea pigs; a significantly different from normal control group at P ≤ 0.05. b Significantly different from HFCS induction group at P ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of V.agnus-castus and T.indica on adiponectin and e-NOS levels in HFCS treated Guinea pigs; a significantly different from normal control group at P ≤ 0.05. b Significantly different from HFCS induction group at P ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used:

Effect of V. agnus -castus and T. indica on body weight of HFCS-treated Guinea pig. Body weight was measured and recorded every 10 days.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of V. agnus -castus and T. indica on body weight of HFCS-treated Guinea pig. Body weight was measured and recorded every 10 days.

Techniques Used:

15) Product Images from "Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells"

Article Title: Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

Journal: Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry

doi: 10.1039/C3JA50021G

HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms a: 0.025 M HNO 3 , pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; b: Standard 400 ng mL −1 iAs V and 200 ng mL −1 each MAs V , DMAs V and TMAs V O; c: SLRS-4 river water SRM, pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; 1,2- TMAs V O (void volume) and iAs III coeluting, 3-DMA V , 4- MA V , 5- iAs V , U- unknown Traces shifted vertically for clarity.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms a: 0.025 M HNO 3 , pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; b: Standard 400 ng mL −1 iAs V and 200 ng mL −1 each MAs V , DMAs V and TMAs V O; c: SLRS-4 river water SRM, pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; 1,2- TMAs V O (void volume) and iAs III coeluting, 3-DMA V , 4- MA V , 5- iAs V , U- unknown Traces shifted vertically for clarity.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

16) Product Images from "Biosynthesis of Sibiromycin, a Potent Antitumor Antibiotic ▿Biosynthesis of Sibiromycin, a Potent Antitumor Antibiotic ▿ †"

Article Title: Biosynthesis of Sibiromycin, a Potent Antitumor Antibiotic ▿Biosynthesis of Sibiromycin, a Potent Antitumor Antibiotic ▿ †

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.02326-08

Proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of the 4-propenyl-2,3-dihydropyrrole-2-carboxylic acid moiety in sibiromycin, which is the suggested substrate for the NRPS enzymes catalyzing diazepine ring formation. The branching points for the anthramycin, tomaymycin,
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of the 4-propenyl-2,3-dihydropyrrole-2-carboxylic acid moiety in sibiromycin, which is the suggested substrate for the NRPS enzymes catalyzing diazepine ring formation. The branching points for the anthramycin, tomaymycin,

Techniques Used:

(A) Genetic organization of the sibiromycin gene cluster. The proposed functions of individual ORFs are summarized in Table . (B) HPLC-ESI and bioassay analyses of the secondary metabolites produced by wild-type, Δ sibA , Δ
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Genetic organization of the sibiromycin gene cluster. The proposed functions of individual ORFs are summarized in Table . (B) HPLC-ESI and bioassay analyses of the secondary metabolites produced by wild-type, Δ sibA , Δ

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Produced

(A) Pyrrolobenzodiazepine common ring system. (B) Metabolic precursors and chemical structures of sibiromycin, anthramycin, tomaymycin, and lincomycin A.
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) Pyrrolobenzodiazepine common ring system. (B) Metabolic precursors and chemical structures of sibiromycin, anthramycin, tomaymycin, and lincomycin A.

Techniques Used:

Cloning, sequencing, and assignment of the sibiromycin gene cluster from S. sibiricum ATCC 29053.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cloning, sequencing, and assignment of the sibiromycin gene cluster from S. sibiricum ATCC 29053.

Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Sequencing

Proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of the 3,5-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilic acid moiety in sibiromycin, which is the suggested substrate for the NRPS enzymes catalyzing diazepine ring formation. Pathway A is favored. The anthramycin biosynthesis is proposed
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of the 3,5-hydroxy-4-methylanthranilic acid moiety in sibiromycin, which is the suggested substrate for the NRPS enzymes catalyzing diazepine ring formation. Pathway A is favored. The anthramycin biosynthesis is proposed

Techniques Used:

17) Product Images from "In vitro anti-HIV activity of ethanol extract from gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f) leaves"

Article Title: In vitro anti-HIV activity of ethanol extract from gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f) leaves

Journal: Infectious Disease Reports

doi: 10.4081/idr.2020.8730

The percentage of p24 antigen expression inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70%-fractionated ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.
Figure Legend Snippet: The percentage of p24 antigen expression inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70%-fractionated ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Standard Deviation

The percentage of syncytia formation inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70% fractionated-ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.
Figure Legend Snippet: The percentage of syncytia formation inhibition on HIV-infected MOLT-4 cells of 70% fractionated-ethanol extract and 70% ethanol extract from J. gendarussa leaves with various concentrations. It was measured after 72 hr incubation under conditions. Error bars show the standard deviation from average of three data.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Infection, Incubation, Standard Deviation

Chromatogram profile of gendarusin A in 12.8 μg/ml solution (a), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70%-fractionated ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (b), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (c).
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatogram profile of gendarusin A in 12.8 μg/ml solution (a), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70%-fractionated ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (b), gendarusin A in 5000.0 μg/ml of the 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves (c).

Techniques Used:

Qualitative alkaloids profile on TLC plates of the 70% ethanol extract (b) and 70%-fractionated ethanol extract (c) of J. gendarussa leaves was compared with alkaloids extracts of Piper nigrum fruits (a) using Dragendorf spray reagent.
Figure Legend Snippet: Qualitative alkaloids profile on TLC plates of the 70% ethanol extract (b) and 70%-fractionated ethanol extract (c) of J. gendarussa leaves was compared with alkaloids extracts of Piper nigrum fruits (a) using Dragendorf spray reagent.

Techniques Used: Thin Layer Chromatography

18) Product Images from "Chemical Investigation of Saponins in Different Parts of Panax notoginseng by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry"

Article Title: Chemical Investigation of Saponins in Different Parts of Panax notoginseng by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Journal: Molecules

doi: 10.3390/molecules17055836

Mass spectra of ginsenoside Rg 1 and Re in negative mode. ( A ) EIC of m/z 945 and 799; ( B ) HPLC-ESI-MS spectra; ( C ) the CID spectra of adduct ion [M+Cl] − of ginsenoside Re at m/z 981; ( D ) the CID spectra of parent ion [M−H] − of ginsenoside Re at m/z 945 (The deprotonated ion is indicated by a vertical arrow).
Figure Legend Snippet: Mass spectra of ginsenoside Rg 1 and Re in negative mode. ( A ) EIC of m/z 945 and 799; ( B ) HPLC-ESI-MS spectra; ( C ) the CID spectra of adduct ion [M+Cl] − of ginsenoside Re at m/z 981; ( D ) the CID spectra of parent ion [M−H] − of ginsenoside Re at m/z 945 (The deprotonated ion is indicated by a vertical arrow).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

19) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetic comparison between quercetin and quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide in rats by UHPLC-MS/MS"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic comparison between quercetin and quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide in rats by UHPLC-MS/MS

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/srep35460

HPLC chromatogram of flavonoids from the Nelumbo nucifera extract recorded at 270 nm ( a ). The DAD-spectrum for determination the purity of quercetin 3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) recorded at 254, 270 and 360 nm ( b ).
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of flavonoids from the Nelumbo nucifera extract recorded at 270 nm ( a ). The DAD-spectrum for determination the purity of quercetin 3- O - β -glucuronide (Q3G) recorded at 254, 270 and 360 nm ( b ).

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

20) Product Images from "The plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a DELLA-dependent seed germination arrest in Arabidopsis"

Article Title: The plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a DELLA-dependent seed germination arrest in Arabidopsis

Journal: eLife

doi: 10.7554/eLife.37082

Isolation of the GRA released by P.aeruginosa. ( A ) Semi-prep HPLC-UV (scan 210–600 nm) chromatogram of the fractionation of the active PAO1 extract. Fraction F1 presented strong inhibitory seed germination activity. ( B ) Semi-prep HPLC-ELSD chromatogram of the isolation of the active principle from the AMBox extract localized in fraction 37 ( F37 ). The structure of the AMB was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry HRMS.
Figure Legend Snippet: Isolation of the GRA released by P.aeruginosa. ( A ) Semi-prep HPLC-UV (scan 210–600 nm) chromatogram of the fractionation of the active PAO1 extract. Fraction F1 presented strong inhibitory seed germination activity. ( B ) Semi-prep HPLC-ELSD chromatogram of the isolation of the active principle from the AMBox extract localized in fraction 37 ( F37 ). The structure of the AMB was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry HRMS.

Techniques Used: Isolation, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fractionation, Activity Assay, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mass Spectrometry

21) Product Images from "Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers"

Article Title: Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers

Journal: Nature

doi: 10.1038/nature13982

Sequences and analyses of XNA ligase XNAzymes (FANA) a , Schema showing all-FANA library setup for selection of FANAzymes capable of catalyzing a bimolecular XNA (FANA) ligation. b , FANA sequences of the region under selection (dashed box) of the most abundant clones revealed by deep sequencing. Representatives of sequence families were screened for activity in bimolecular (LigS2 F attached to XNAzyme) or trimolecular (XNAzyme separate from both substrates). Sequence FpImR4_2 (highlighted) was chosen for further characterization. c , Regiospecificity of XNA (FANA) product (LigP F ) of ligation catalyzed by XNAzyme FpImR4_2 (see Fig. 4 ), analyzed by Strong Anion Exchange Chromatography (SAX-HPLC). Mock FANA ligation product (Mock_LigP F ) ( i ), prepared by polymerase (D4K) gives an identical elution profile to the XNAzyme-catalysed FANA product (LigP F ) ( ii and iii ). d , Bivalent metal ion requirements and titration of, e , pH or f , MgCl 2 , of FANAzyme FpImR4_2 reaction. g , Substitution of XNA ligase substrates with RNA and DNA versions in FpImR4_2 reaction. Although 5′-FANA × FANA-3′ is preferred, ligase activity can be seen with 5′-FANA × DNA-3′, and × RNA-3′, as well as 5′-DNA × FANA-3′, × DNA-3′ and × RNA-3′.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequences and analyses of XNA ligase XNAzymes (FANA) a , Schema showing all-FANA library setup for selection of FANAzymes capable of catalyzing a bimolecular XNA (FANA) ligation. b , FANA sequences of the region under selection (dashed box) of the most abundant clones revealed by deep sequencing. Representatives of sequence families were screened for activity in bimolecular (LigS2 F attached to XNAzyme) or trimolecular (XNAzyme separate from both substrates). Sequence FpImR4_2 (highlighted) was chosen for further characterization. c , Regiospecificity of XNA (FANA) product (LigP F ) of ligation catalyzed by XNAzyme FpImR4_2 (see Fig. 4 ), analyzed by Strong Anion Exchange Chromatography (SAX-HPLC). Mock FANA ligation product (Mock_LigP F ) ( i ), prepared by polymerase (D4K) gives an identical elution profile to the XNAzyme-catalysed FANA product (LigP F ) ( ii and iii ). d , Bivalent metal ion requirements and titration of, e , pH or f , MgCl 2 , of FANAzyme FpImR4_2 reaction. g , Substitution of XNA ligase substrates with RNA and DNA versions in FpImR4_2 reaction. Although 5′-FANA × FANA-3′ is preferred, ligase activity can be seen with 5′-FANA × DNA-3′, and × RNA-3′, as well as 5′-DNA × FANA-3′, × DNA-3′ and × RNA-3′.

Techniques Used: Selection, Ligation, Clone Assay, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Titration

Sequences and analyses of RNA ligase XNAzymes a , Schema showing RNA (red)-XNA(purple) chimeric library setup for selection of FANAzymes capable of catalyzing a bimolecular RNA ligation. b , Sequences of the FANA region under selection (dashed box) of the most abundant clones revealed by deep sequencing. Representatives of sequence families were screened for activity in bimolecular (LigS2 R attached to XNAzyme) or trimolecular (XNAzyme separate from both substrates). Sequence F2R17_1 (highlighted) was chosen for further characterization. c , Regiospecificity of RNA product (LigP R ) of ligation catalyzed by XNAzyme F2R17_1min (see Fig. 3 ), analyzed by Strong Anion Exchange Chromatography (SAX-HPLC) 36 . Mock RNA ligation product ( i-iii ) containing a single 2′-5′ (Mock_LigP R [2′-5′]) or 3′-5′ linkage (Mock_LigP R [3′-5′]) at a position analogous to the ligation site were compared to the XNAzyme-catalysed RNA product LigP R ( iv-vi ). The XNAzyme product gives an identical elution profile to the natural (3′-5′) linkage standard. d , Bivalent metal ion requirements and titration of, e , pH or f , MgCl 2 , of FANAzyme F2R17_1min reaction. g , Substitution of RNA ligase substrates with DNA and XNA (FANA) versions in F2R17_1min reaction shows that 5′-RNA-RNA-3′ ligation is preferred, but some ligase activity can be seen with 5′-RNA-DNA-3′.
Figure Legend Snippet: Sequences and analyses of RNA ligase XNAzymes a , Schema showing RNA (red)-XNA(purple) chimeric library setup for selection of FANAzymes capable of catalyzing a bimolecular RNA ligation. b , Sequences of the FANA region under selection (dashed box) of the most abundant clones revealed by deep sequencing. Representatives of sequence families were screened for activity in bimolecular (LigS2 R attached to XNAzyme) or trimolecular (XNAzyme separate from both substrates). Sequence F2R17_1 (highlighted) was chosen for further characterization. c , Regiospecificity of RNA product (LigP R ) of ligation catalyzed by XNAzyme F2R17_1min (see Fig. 3 ), analyzed by Strong Anion Exchange Chromatography (SAX-HPLC) 36 . Mock RNA ligation product ( i-iii ) containing a single 2′-5′ (Mock_LigP R [2′-5′]) or 3′-5′ linkage (Mock_LigP R [3′-5′]) at a position analogous to the ligation site were compared to the XNAzyme-catalysed RNA product LigP R ( iv-vi ). The XNAzyme product gives an identical elution profile to the natural (3′-5′) linkage standard. d , Bivalent metal ion requirements and titration of, e , pH or f , MgCl 2 , of FANAzyme F2R17_1min reaction. g , Substitution of RNA ligase substrates with DNA and XNA (FANA) versions in F2R17_1min reaction shows that 5′-RNA-RNA-3′ ligation is preferred, but some ligase activity can be seen with 5′-RNA-DNA-3′.

Techniques Used: Selection, Ligation, Clone Assay, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Titration

22) Product Images from "Phylogenetic analysis of the metazoan carotenoid oxygenase superfamily: a new ancestral gene assemblage of BCO-like (BCOL) proteins"

Article Title: Phylogenetic analysis of the metazoan carotenoid oxygenase superfamily: a new ancestral gene assemblage of BCO-like (BCOL) proteins

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-13521-x

Reverse phase HPLC analysis of β-carotene cleavage by Lancelet BCOLg ( A ), lanBCOa ( B ), lanBCOc ( C ). HPLC profile of all- trans β-carotene and 9- cis β-carotene are presented in D panel.
Figure Legend Snippet: Reverse phase HPLC analysis of β-carotene cleavage by Lancelet BCOLg ( A ), lanBCOa ( B ), lanBCOc ( C ). HPLC profile of all- trans β-carotene and 9- cis β-carotene are presented in D panel.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

23) Product Images from "A multispectral imaging approach integrated into the study of Late Antique textiles from Egypt"

Article Title: A multispectral imaging approach integrated into the study of Late Antique textiles from Egypt

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204699

Micrographs of selected samples at 80x magnification and Extract Ion Chromatograms (EICs) obtained by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis of samples A1, A2 and A7, showing the dye compounds identified.
Figure Legend Snippet: Micrographs of selected samples at 80x magnification and Extract Ion Chromatograms (EICs) obtained by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis of samples A1, A2 and A7, showing the dye compounds identified.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

24) Product Images from "A multispectral imaging approach integrated into the study of Late Antique textiles from Egypt"

Article Title: A multispectral imaging approach integrated into the study of Late Antique textiles from Egypt

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204699

Micrographs of selected samples at 80x magnification and Extract Ion Chromatograms (EICs) obtained by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis of samples A1, A2 and A7, showing the dye compounds identified.
Figure Legend Snippet: Micrographs of selected samples at 80x magnification and Extract Ion Chromatograms (EICs) obtained by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF analysis of samples A1, A2 and A7, showing the dye compounds identified.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

25) Product Images from "Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum"

Article Title: Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum

Journal: BioMed Research International

doi: 10.1155/2014/465435

((a) and (b)) HPLC chromatogram and positive ion spectra of antibacterial substances produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a) HPLC chromatogram; (b) positive ion spectra.
Figure Legend Snippet: ((a) and (b)) HPLC chromatogram and positive ion spectra of antibacterial substances produced by BZ6-1. Note: (a) HPLC chromatogram; (b) positive ion spectra.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Produced

26) Product Images from "Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles"

Article Title: Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63271-6

HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

27) Product Images from "Melodamide A from Melodorum fruticosum — Quantification using HPLC and one‐step‐isolation by centrifugal partition chromatography. Melodamide A from Melodorum fruticosum — Quantification using HPLC and one‐step‐isolation by centrifugal partition chromatography"

Article Title: Melodamide A from Melodorum fruticosum — Quantification using HPLC and one‐step‐isolation by centrifugal partition chromatography. Melodamide A from Melodorum fruticosum — Quantification using HPLC and one‐step‐isolation by centrifugal partition chromatography

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

doi: 10.1002/jssc.201900392

HPLC‐DAD analysis of the DCM extract of M. fruticosum leaves at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Conditions: stationary phase: Agilent Zorbax SB‐C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm particle size); mobile phase: solvent A: water; solvent B: acetonitrile; gradient: 0 min, 15% B; 1 min, 15% B; 20 min, 45% B; 25 min, 70% B; 30 min, 70% B; 30.1 min, 15% B; 40 min, 15% B; flow rate: 1 mL/min; temperature: 35°C; injection volume: 10 µL; detection: DAD: 230 nm
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC‐DAD analysis of the DCM extract of M. fruticosum leaves at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Conditions: stationary phase: Agilent Zorbax SB‐C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm particle size); mobile phase: solvent A: water; solvent B: acetonitrile; gradient: 0 min, 15% B; 1 min, 15% B; 20 min, 45% B; 25 min, 70% B; 30 min, 70% B; 30.1 min, 15% B; 40 min, 15% B; flow rate: 1 mL/min; temperature: 35°C; injection volume: 10 µL; detection: DAD: 230 nm

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Concentration Assay, Flow Cytometry, Injection

28) Product Images from "The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule"

Article Title: The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

Journal: Plants

doi: 10.3390/plants5020028

HPLC-PDA analysis of extracts of basal petal parts of four P. nudicaule cultivars. ( a ) Chromatograms recorded at 351 nm. Gossypetin glycosides (identified by UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with dots ● . ( b ) UV/Vis absorption spectrum of one representative gossypetin glycoside. The spectrum matches the one reported by Suzuki et al. [ 16 ].
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-PDA analysis of extracts of basal petal parts of four P. nudicaule cultivars. ( a ) Chromatograms recorded at 351 nm. Gossypetin glycosides (identified by UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with dots ● . ( b ) UV/Vis absorption spectrum of one representative gossypetin glycoside. The spectrum matches the one reported by Suzuki et al. [ 16 ].

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

HPLC-PDA chromatograms of stamen extracts of four P. nudicaule cultivars recorded at 254 nm. Peaks with the same aglycone (identified by UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with the same color: ● Kaempferol glycoside, ● gossypetin glycoside.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-PDA chromatograms of stamen extracts of four P. nudicaule cultivars recorded at 254 nm. Peaks with the same aglycone (identified by UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with the same color: ● Kaempferol glycoside, ● gossypetin glycoside.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

HPLC-PDA analysis of extracts of apical petal parts of four P. nudicaule cultivars. ( a ) Chromatograms recorded at 254 nm. Peaks representing the same aglycone (previously identified by LC-MS and NMR [ 7 , 10 , 15 ] and here classified by the corresponding UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with the same color: ● Kaempferol glycoside, ● nudicaulin, ● pelargonidin glycoside. The peak marked with an asterisk (yellow flower, t R = 8 min) shows no flavonoid absorption spectrum and may be a degradation product. ( b ) UV/Vis absorption spectra of representative glycosides and authentic aglycones of kaempferol and pelargonidin. Deviations between UV/Vis absorption spectra of the references (kaempferol, pelargonidin chloride), and the glycosides are an effect of the substitution. Nudicaulin aglycone is not available due to instability. The obtained nudicaulin UV/Vis absorption spectrum matches the one reported by Tatsis et al. [ 15 ].
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-PDA analysis of extracts of apical petal parts of four P. nudicaule cultivars. ( a ) Chromatograms recorded at 254 nm. Peaks representing the same aglycone (previously identified by LC-MS and NMR [ 7 , 10 , 15 ] and here classified by the corresponding UV/Vis absorption spectra) are marked with the same color: ● Kaempferol glycoside, ● nudicaulin, ● pelargonidin glycoside. The peak marked with an asterisk (yellow flower, t R = 8 min) shows no flavonoid absorption spectrum and may be a degradation product. ( b ) UV/Vis absorption spectra of representative glycosides and authentic aglycones of kaempferol and pelargonidin. Deviations between UV/Vis absorption spectra of the references (kaempferol, pelargonidin chloride), and the glycosides are an effect of the substitution. Nudicaulin aglycone is not available due to instability. The obtained nudicaulin UV/Vis absorption spectrum matches the one reported by Tatsis et al. [ 15 ].

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

29) Product Images from "One-step and one-pot-two-step radiosynthesis of cyclo-RGD-18F-aryltrifluoroborate conjugates for functional imaging"

Article Title: One-step and one-pot-two-step radiosynthesis of cyclo-RGD-18F-aryltrifluoroborate conjugates for functional imaging

Journal: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

doi:

Representative coronal PET images of U87MG tumor bearing mice using RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - (A) and RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF 3 - (B). 3.7 MBq of radioactivity was administered via tail vein injection. Five-minute static PET images were acquired at 30 and 60 min.
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative coronal PET images of U87MG tumor bearing mice using RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - (A) and RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF 3 - (B). 3.7 MBq of radioactivity was administered via tail vein injection. Five-minute static PET images were acquired at 30 and 60 min.

Techniques Used: Positron Emission Tomography, Mouse Assay, Radioactivity, Injection

Synthetic scheme for the preparation of RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - and RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF 3 - : Above a tetraphenyl-pinacolate boronate ester conjugate to RGD is directly converted to the RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - while below, the alkyne borimidine 12 is converted first
Figure Legend Snippet: Synthetic scheme for the preparation of RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - and RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF 3 - : Above a tetraphenyl-pinacolate boronate ester conjugate to RGD is directly converted to the RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - while below, the alkyne borimidine 12 is converted first

Techniques Used:

The HPLC traces for the preparation of RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - used in Imaging: (top – crude reaction trace: UV and radiotrace, bottom - analytical re-injection of purified material: UV and radiotrace.
Figure Legend Snippet: The HPLC traces for the preparation of RGD-SuPi- 18 F-ArBF 3 - used in Imaging: (top – crude reaction trace: UV and radiotrace, bottom - analytical re-injection of purified material: UV and radiotrace.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Imaging, Injection, Purification

The HPLC traces of the one-pot two-step labeling reaction to prepare RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF3.The black trace was for the crude fluoridation reaction of 12 to prepare alkyne- 18 F-ArBF 3 - and the red trace was for the click reaction between the crude alkyne- 18
Figure Legend Snippet: The HPLC traces of the one-pot two-step labeling reaction to prepare RGD-trAz- 18 F-ArBF3.The black trace was for the crude fluoridation reaction of 12 to prepare alkyne- 18 F-ArBF 3 - and the red trace was for the click reaction between the crude alkyne- 18

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Labeling

The radio-HPLC traces of the one-step 18 F-fluoridation of RGD-boronates: The HPLC trace represented the 18 F-fluoridation of RGD-SuPi-boronate 9.
Figure Legend Snippet: The radio-HPLC traces of the one-step 18 F-fluoridation of RGD-boronates: The HPLC trace represented the 18 F-fluoridation of RGD-SuPi-boronate 9.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

30) Product Images from "New Analytical Approach for the Determination of Calcium Phosphate Dibasic and Tribasic in Processed Food by Comparison of Ion Chromatography with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography"

Article Title: New Analytical Approach for the Determination of Calcium Phosphate Dibasic and Tribasic in Processed Food by Comparison of Ion Chromatography with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Journal: Foods

doi: 10.3390/foods9030248

HPLC chromatograms: ( a ) condition 1 with Agilent XDB-C18 at an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile (ACN):water (0.7% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 5 mM heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA)) = 2:98; ( b ) condition 2 with YMC Triart-C8 at an isocratic mobile phase of ACN:water (0.7% TFA, 5 mM HFBA) = 2:98; ( c ) condition 3 with YMC Triart-C8 at an isocratic mobile phase of ACN:water (0.7% TFA, 5 mM HFBA) = 9:91; ( d ) after approximately 48 hours of repeated measurements with condition 3.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatograms: ( a ) condition 1 with Agilent XDB-C18 at an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile (ACN):water (0.7% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 5 mM heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA)) = 2:98; ( b ) condition 2 with YMC Triart-C8 at an isocratic mobile phase of ACN:water (0.7% TFA, 5 mM HFBA) = 2:98; ( c ) condition 3 with YMC Triart-C8 at an isocratic mobile phase of ACN:water (0.7% TFA, 5 mM HFBA) = 9:91; ( d ) after approximately 48 hours of repeated measurements with condition 3.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

31) Product Images from "Inhibitory Effects of AF-343, a Mixture of Cassia tora L., Ulmus pumila L., and Taraxacum officinale, on Compound 48/80-Mediated Allergic Responses in RBL-2H3 Cells"

Article Title: Inhibitory Effects of AF-343, a Mixture of Cassia tora L., Ulmus pumila L., and Taraxacum officinale, on Compound 48/80-Mediated Allergic Responses in RBL-2H3 Cells

Journal: Molecules

doi: 10.3390/molecules25102434

Antioxidative effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on RBL-2H3 cells. ( A ) DPPH scavenging activity and ( B ) half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of AF-343, and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale at various concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 μg/mL). The results are expressed as the means ± SD from three independent experiments. AA, ascorbic acid. ( C – F ) RBL-2H3 cells were preincubated with various concentrations (7.8, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/mL) of AF-343 or Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., or Taraxacum officinale extract for 1 h. The cells were treated with 500 μg/mL compound 48/80 for an additional 30 min. Changes in ROS levels were detected after the cells were treated with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) (25 μM), an oxidant sensing probe. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Antioxidative effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on RBL-2H3 cells. ( A ) DPPH scavenging activity and ( B ) half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of AF-343, and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale at various concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 μg/mL). The results are expressed as the means ± SD from three independent experiments. AA, ascorbic acid. ( C – F ) RBL-2H3 cells were preincubated with various concentrations (7.8, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125, and 250 μg/mL) of AF-343 or Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., or Taraxacum officinale extract for 1 h. The cells were treated with 500 μg/mL compound 48/80 for an additional 30 min. Changes in ROS levels were detected after the cells were treated with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) (25 μM), an oxidant sensing probe. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. * p

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Concentration Assay

Inhibitory effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells. ( A – D ) RBL-2H3 cells were pretreated with the test samples for 1 h following stimulation with compound 48/80 for 1 h. β-hexosaminidase release was detected in the cell culture supernatants. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Inhibitory effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells. ( A – D ) RBL-2H3 cells were pretreated with the test samples for 1 h following stimulation with compound 48/80 for 1 h. β-hexosaminidase release was detected in the cell culture supernatants. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. * p

Techniques Used: Cell Culture

Ameliorative effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on compound 48/80-induced cytokine release in RBL-2H3 cells. ( A and B ) Supernatants were taken after 24 h of incubation for determination of cytokine concentrations using a V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 2 (Rat) Kit. The results are expressed as the means ± SD from three independent experiments. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Ameliorative effects of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L., and Taraxacum officinale on compound 48/80-induced cytokine release in RBL-2H3 cells. ( A and B ) Supernatants were taken after 24 h of incubation for determination of cytokine concentrations using a V-PLEX Proinflammatory Panel 2 (Rat) Kit. The results are expressed as the means ± SD from three independent experiments. * p

Techniques Used: Incubation

Cytotoxicity of AF-343 and the individual extract components toward rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. ( A – D ) RBL-2H3 cells were treated with various concentrations (5, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL) of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L. and Taraxacum officinale for 48 h. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Cytotoxicity of AF-343 and the individual extract components toward rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. ( A – D ) RBL-2H3 cells were treated with various concentrations (5, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL) of AF-343 and extracts of Ulmus pumila L., Cassia tora L. and Taraxacum officinale for 48 h. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. * p

Techniques Used: Cell Counting, CCK-8 Assay

32) Product Images from "Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers"

Article Title: Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

doi: 10.2147/IJN.S50557

Chemical structure of tetrandrine.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structure of tetrandrine.

Techniques Used:

Differential scanning calorimetry spectra of ( A ) tetrandrine, ( B ) phospholipids, ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and phospholipids, and ( D ) the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. Abbreviations: DSC, differential scanning calorimetry; mW, milliwatt; exo, exothermal.
Figure Legend Snippet: Differential scanning calorimetry spectra of ( A ) tetrandrine, ( B ) phospholipids, ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and phospholipids, and ( D ) the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. Abbreviations: DSC, differential scanning calorimetry; mW, milliwatt; exo, exothermal.

Techniques Used:

Fourier transform infrared spectra of ( A ) tetrandrine, ( B ) phospholipids, ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and phospholipids, and ( D ) TPC. Abbreviation: TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fourier transform infrared spectra of ( A ) tetrandrine, ( B ) phospholipids, ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and phospholipids, and ( D ) TPC. Abbreviation: TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex.

Techniques Used:

Transmission electron microscopic photo of TPC loaded lipid nanocapsules (×100,000). Abbreviation: TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex.
Figure Legend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopic photo of TPC loaded lipid nanocapsules (×100,000). Abbreviation: TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex.

Techniques Used: Transmission Assay

In vitro release profile of tetrandrine from free tetrandrine, TPC, and TPC-LNCs (n=3). Abbreviations: h, hours; TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules.
Figure Legend Snippet: In vitro release profile of tetrandrine from free tetrandrine, TPC, and TPC-LNCs (n=3). Abbreviations: h, hours; TPC, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules.

Techniques Used: In Vitro

Differential scanning calorimetry curves for ( A ) tetrandrine ( B ) blank LNCs; ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and LNCs; and ( D ) TPC-LNCs. Abbreviations: LNCs, lipid nanocapsules; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules; mW, milliwatt; exo, exothermal; DSC, differential scanning calorimetry.
Figure Legend Snippet: Differential scanning calorimetry curves for ( A ) tetrandrine ( B ) blank LNCs; ( C ) the physical mixture of tetrandrine and LNCs; and ( D ) TPC-LNCs. Abbreviations: LNCs, lipid nanocapsules; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules; mW, milliwatt; exo, exothermal; DSC, differential scanning calorimetry.

Techniques Used:

Plasma concentration profile of tetrandrine after the oral administration of tablets and TPC-LNCs in rats (n=5). Abbreviations: h, hours; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules.
Figure Legend Snippet: Plasma concentration profile of tetrandrine after the oral administration of tablets and TPC-LNCs in rats (n=5). Abbreviations: h, hours; TPC-LNCs, tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

33) Product Images from "Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides"

Article Title: Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides

Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

doi: 10.1093/nar/gku1317

Size-exclusion HPLC chromatograms for individual RNA species. BCG total RNA was resolved on an Agilent Bio Size Exclusion Column SEC5, 1000 Å ( A ), or on an Agilent Bio Size Exclusion Column SEC3, 300 Å ( B ). Panels (A) and (B) are representative of six independent HPLC runs. ( C ) Cellular quantities of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA and tRNA species based on HPLC UV absorbance interpolated from a standard curve based on purified human 28S rRNa. An asterisk indicates a significant difference in the quantity of RNA from exponentially growing cells compared to hypoxic cells on day 21 (unpaired T-test, P ≤ 0.05). Data represent mean ± SD for three biological replicates.
Figure Legend Snippet: Size-exclusion HPLC chromatograms for individual RNA species. BCG total RNA was resolved on an Agilent Bio Size Exclusion Column SEC5, 1000 Å ( A ), or on an Agilent Bio Size Exclusion Column SEC3, 300 Å ( B ). Panels (A) and (B) are representative of six independent HPLC runs. ( C ) Cellular quantities of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA and tRNA species based on HPLC UV absorbance interpolated from a standard curve based on purified human 28S rRNa. An asterisk indicates a significant difference in the quantity of RNA from exponentially growing cells compared to hypoxic cells on day 21 (unpaired T-test, P ≤ 0.05). Data represent mean ± SD for three biological replicates.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Purification

34) Product Images from "Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma by Miltuximab®-IRDye800CW as a Potential Tool for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery"

Article Title: Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma by Miltuximab®-IRDye800CW as a Potential Tool for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

Journal: Cancers

doi: 10.3390/cancers12040984

Size exclusion chromatography of Miltuximab ® and Miltuximab ® -IR800. Miltuximab ® -IR800 conjugate was tested for purity and conjugation efficiency by size-exclusion chromatography using Agilent Bio SEC-3 column tuned to UV detection at 280 nm. The conjugation of IR800 dye to Miltuximab ® produced a single peak with a shift to the left indicating a shorter retention time, consistent with an increase of the molecule size. A black dotted line represents the protein standard that shows the following peaks from left to right: thyroglobulin (670 kDa), y-globulin (158 kDa), and ovalbumin (44 kDa).
Figure Legend Snippet: Size exclusion chromatography of Miltuximab ® and Miltuximab ® -IR800. Miltuximab ® -IR800 conjugate was tested for purity and conjugation efficiency by size-exclusion chromatography using Agilent Bio SEC-3 column tuned to UV detection at 280 nm. The conjugation of IR800 dye to Miltuximab ® produced a single peak with a shift to the left indicating a shorter retention time, consistent with an increase of the molecule size. A black dotted line represents the protein standard that shows the following peaks from left to right: thyroglobulin (670 kDa), y-globulin (158 kDa), and ovalbumin (44 kDa).

Techniques Used: Size-exclusion Chromatography, Conjugation Assay, Produced

35) Product Images from "Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells"

Article Title: Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

Journal: Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry

doi: 10.1039/C3JA50021G

HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms a: 0.025 M HNO 3 , pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; b: Standard 400 ng mL −1 iAs V and 200 ng mL −1 each MAs V , DMAs V and TMAs V O; c: SLRS-4 river water SRM, pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; 1,2- TMAs V O (void volume) and iAs III coeluting, 3-DMA V , 4- MA V , 5- iAs V , U- unknown Traces shifted vertically for clarity.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms a: 0.025 M HNO 3 , pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; b: Standard 400 ng mL −1 iAs V and 200 ng mL −1 each MAs V , DMAs V and TMAs V O; c: SLRS-4 river water SRM, pH adjusted with NaOH to approx. 6; 1,2- TMAs V O (void volume) and iAs III coeluting, 3-DMA V , 4- MA V , 5- iAs V , U- unknown Traces shifted vertically for clarity.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

36) Product Images from "WblAch, a Pivotal Activator of Natamycin Biosynthesis and Morphological Differentiation in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, Is Positively Regulated by AdpAch"

Article Title: WblAch, a Pivotal Activator of Natamycin Biosynthesis and Morphological Differentiation in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, Is Positively Regulated by AdpAch

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

doi: 10.1128/AEM.01849-14

Effect of wblA ch disruption on growth and production of natamycin. (A and B) Natamycin bioassay (A) and HPLC analysis of fermentation filtrates (B) from the WT strain, the wblA ch deletion mutant, and the wblA ch -complemented mutant. The peak of natamycin
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of wblA ch disruption on growth and production of natamycin. (A and B) Natamycin bioassay (A) and HPLC analysis of fermentation filtrates (B) from the WT strain, the wblA ch deletion mutant, and the wblA ch -complemented mutant. The peak of natamycin

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis

Effect of wblA ch overexpression on production of natamycin. Natamycin production of fermentation filtrates in the wild-type strain (WT), the wild-type strain with pIJ8630 (pIJ8630/WT), and the wblA ch overexpression strain (pYP3/WT) at different incubation
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of wblA ch overexpression on production of natamycin. Natamycin production of fermentation filtrates in the wild-type strain (WT), the wild-type strain with pIJ8630 (pIJ8630/WT), and the wblA ch overexpression strain (pYP3/WT) at different incubation

Techniques Used: Over Expression, Incubation

37) Product Images from "(−)Doxazosin is a necessary component for the hypotensive effect of (±)doxazosin during long-term administration in conscious rats"

Article Title: (−)Doxazosin is a necessary component for the hypotensive effect of (±)doxazosin during long-term administration in conscious rats

Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

doi: 10.1038/aps.2013.154

Typical HPLC chromatograms obtained from a blank plasma sample determined using an achiral column (A); a rat plasma sample collected after the oral administration of a racemic doxazosin and determined using an achiral column (B); a blank plasma sample determined using a chiral column (C); the rat plasma sample aliquoted from that for (B) and determined by a chiral column (D). Peaks: 1) prazosin, 2) doxazosin, 3) (−)doxazosin, and 4) (+)doxazosin. For more experimental details, refer to the Materials and methods section.
Figure Legend Snippet: Typical HPLC chromatograms obtained from a blank plasma sample determined using an achiral column (A); a rat plasma sample collected after the oral administration of a racemic doxazosin and determined using an achiral column (B); a blank plasma sample determined using a chiral column (C); the rat plasma sample aliquoted from that for (B) and determined by a chiral column (D). Peaks: 1) prazosin, 2) doxazosin, 3) (−)doxazosin, and 4) (+)doxazosin. For more experimental details, refer to the Materials and methods section.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

38) Product Images from "Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA"

Article Title: Yeast Rrp8p, a novel methyltransferase responsible for m1A 645 base modification of 25S rRNA

Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1102

RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of 25S rRNA nucleosides from rrp8–G209R and rrp8–G209A mutant cells. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the mutants ( C and D ) together with the respective wild-type strain ( A ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( B ) Estimation of m 1 A peak areas in different rrp8 mutants. The m 1 A peak areas detected in the RP-HPLC analysis of the corresponding strain were estimated using the Agilent ChemStation software. The value for the wild-type was set to 100%.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Software

RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.
Figure Legend Snippet: RP-HPLC analysis of mung bean digested RNA fragments. Specific sequences of the 25S rRNA from wild-type ( A and C ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B and D ), corresponding to Helix 25.1 and Helix 65, respectively, were isolated by hybridization to complementary deoxyoligonucleotides (Oligo645 and Oligo2142) followed by mung bean digestion. RP-HPLC analysis with these fragments was then carried out on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. The following amounts of digested RNA were loaded: (A) 1.9 μg, (B) 1.3 μg, (C) 2.9 μg and (D) 1.8 μg.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mutagenesis, Isolation, Hybridization

Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.
Figure Legend Snippet: Loss of Rrp8 influences the amount of 25S rRNA m1A modification. After sucrose gradient centrifugation, 60S subunits were collected with the Density Gradient Fractionation System (Teledyne Isco), and 25S rRNA was isolated. The 25S rRNA was digested with nuclease P1 and bacterial alkaline phosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich). Nucleosides from the wild-type ( A ) and the rrp8 -_ C mutant ( B ) were analysed by RP-HPLC on a Supelcosil LC-18-S HPLC column (25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) equipped with a pre-column (4.6 × 20 mm) at 30°C on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system. ( C ) Localization of m 1 A modifications of 25S rRNA is shown in the secondary structure of Helix 25.1 and Helix 65 ( http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu/ ). ( D ) 3D structure of the corresponding helices was made using PyMol software (PyMOL Molecular Graphics System, Version 1.2r3pre, Schröinger, LLC) using the recent 80S ribosome structure (3U5D.pdb and 3U5E.pdb). RNA is coloured in green, whereas the modified bases are shown in red spheres.

Techniques Used: Modification, Gradient Centrifugation, Fractionation, Isolation, Mutagenesis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Software

39) Product Images from "Fingerprint analysis of processed Rhizoma Chuanxiong by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection"

Article Title: Fingerprint analysis of processed Rhizoma Chuanxiong by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection

Journal: Chinese Medicine

doi: 10.1186/s13020-015-0031-3

HPLC-DAD fingerprints of seven batches of PRC and SMC at 280 nm.
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC-DAD fingerprints of seven batches of PRC and SMC at 280 nm.

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

40) Product Images from "Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles"

Article Title: Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Anti-Cellulite Herbal Product(s) Encapsulated in 3D-Fabricated Polymeric Microneedles

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63271-6

HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .
Figure Legend Snippet: HPLC chromatogram of the aqueous methanolic extract of ( A ) V.agnus-castus and ( B ) T.indica .

Techniques Used: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Histopathological structures of skin layers showing changes in the normal structures after intake of HFCS and MNs loaded with V.agnus-castus and T.indica (200 mg/kg). ( A ) Normal control group with no histopathological alteration and normal epidermis with stratified keratinized epithelium and the underlying areolar connective tissue dermis with hair follicles and glands and lastly the skeletal muscle layer. ( B ) HFCS group: Focal acanthosis was detected in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis (→). The underlying dermis showed oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibroblastic cells proliferation, which were extended deep with appearance of eosinophils infiltration. Necrobiosis was detected in the epithelial cells of some hair follicles. ( C , D ) V. agnus-castus group: There were hyperkeratosis of the epidermal layer associated with focal hyalinosis in the areolar tissue of the dermis. ( E , F ) T. indica group : The epidermal and dermal layers were histological intact but there was necrobiosis in some individual hair follicles.
Figure Legend Snippet: Histopathological structures of skin layers showing changes in the normal structures after intake of HFCS and MNs loaded with V.agnus-castus and T.indica (200 mg/kg). ( A ) Normal control group with no histopathological alteration and normal epidermis with stratified keratinized epithelium and the underlying areolar connective tissue dermis with hair follicles and glands and lastly the skeletal muscle layer. ( B ) HFCS group: Focal acanthosis was detected in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis (→). The underlying dermis showed oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibroblastic cells proliferation, which were extended deep with appearance of eosinophils infiltration. Necrobiosis was detected in the epithelial cells of some hair follicles. ( C , D ) V. agnus-castus group: There were hyperkeratosis of the epidermal layer associated with focal hyalinosis in the areolar tissue of the dermis. ( E , F ) T. indica group : The epidermal and dermal layers were histological intact but there was necrobiosis in some individual hair follicles.

Techniques Used:

Effect of V.agnus-castus and T.indica on adiponectin and e-NOS levels in HFCS treated Guinea pigs; a significantly different from normal control group at P ≤ 0.05. b Significantly different from HFCS induction group at P ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of V.agnus-castus and T.indica on adiponectin and e-NOS levels in HFCS treated Guinea pigs; a significantly different from normal control group at P ≤ 0.05. b Significantly different from HFCS induction group at P ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used:

Effect of V. agnus -castus and T. indica on body weight of HFCS-treated Guinea pig. Body weight was measured and recorded every 10 days.
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of V. agnus -castus and T. indica on body weight of HFCS-treated Guinea pig. Body weight was measured and recorded every 10 days.

Techniques Used:

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Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction:

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Flow Cytometry:

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Chromatography:

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Methylation:

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Cytometry:

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SYBR Green Assay:

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Concentration Assay:

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Isotope Dilution:

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Mass Spectrometry:

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Polymerase Chain Reaction:

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Software:

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