cdkn1a genes  (Roche)


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    Structured Review

    Roche cdkn1a genes
    p21, cyclin D1, and p53 expression on protein and mRNA level in human rhabdomyosarcoma and larynx cancer cell lines. Quantification of CCND1 ( a ) and <t>CDKN1A</t> ( c ) and TP53 ( e ) genes expression by means of qPCR in RK33 and TE671 cells exposed (24 h) to imperatorin (25–100 µM) compared with controls (* p
    Cdkn1a Genes, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 4778 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Imperatorin as a Promising Chemotherapeutic Agent against Human Larynx Cancer and Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells"

    Article Title: Imperatorin as a Promising Chemotherapeutic Agent against Human Larynx Cancer and Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25092046

    p21, cyclin D1, and p53 expression on protein and mRNA level in human rhabdomyosarcoma and larynx cancer cell lines. Quantification of CCND1 ( a ) and CDKN1A ( c ) and TP53 ( e ) genes expression by means of qPCR in RK33 and TE671 cells exposed (24 h) to imperatorin (25–100 µM) compared with controls (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: p21, cyclin D1, and p53 expression on protein and mRNA level in human rhabdomyosarcoma and larynx cancer cell lines. Quantification of CCND1 ( a ) and CDKN1A ( c ) and TP53 ( e ) genes expression by means of qPCR in RK33 and TE671 cells exposed (24 h) to imperatorin (25–100 µM) compared with controls (* p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    2) Product Images from "Inhibitors of SRC kinases impair antitumor activity of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies"

    Article Title: Inhibitors of SRC kinases impair antitumor activity of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies

    Journal: mAbs

    doi: 10.4161/mabs.32106

    Effect of SFKs inhibitors on CD20 levels is rescued by activation of SFKs and BCR downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) Raji cells pre-incubated with 100 nM dasatinib for 48 h were washed and subsequently incubated without dasatinib for indicated times. CD20 levels were determined as described earlier. ( B ) Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) were analyzed for surface CD20 levels as previously described. ( C ) p-AKT (Ser473), pan AKT and p-SRC (Tyr416) were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from Raji cells pre-incubated with dasatinib. ( D ) Relative luciferase activity was measured in protein lysates of Raji cells co-transfected with pGL4-wt CD20 promoter and either pMIG or pMIG-myrAKT and incubated with dasatinib for 48 h. ( E ) Relative luciferase activity was measured in protein lysates of Raji cells co-transfected with pGL4-wt CD20 promoter and either empty vector, wt PTEN or C124S PTEN and incubated with dasatinib for 48 h. ( F ) Raji cells stably transduced with either pMIG or pMIG-myrAKT were sorted based on GFP expression. AKT, p-AKT (Thr308, Ser473), CD20, β-actin were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from unsorted and sorted cells. ( G ) p-AKT, AKT, CD20 and β-actin were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from sorted Raji cells (Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT) pre-incubated with dasatinib for 24 h. ( H ) Surface CD20 levels in Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT cells pre-incubated with dasatinib for 48 h were determined as described earlier. Results are presented as PE MFI (± SD) of GFP-positive cells. ( I ) cDNA from Raji pMIG and Raji pMIG mAkt cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, ACTB and RPL29 products. ( J ) CDC assay was performed using Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT cells as previously described. Shown is one representative of at least 2 independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of SFKs inhibitors on CD20 levels is rescued by activation of SFKs and BCR downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) Raji cells pre-incubated with 100 nM dasatinib for 48 h were washed and subsequently incubated without dasatinib for indicated times. CD20 levels were determined as described earlier. ( B ) Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) were analyzed for surface CD20 levels as previously described. ( C ) p-AKT (Ser473), pan AKT and p-SRC (Tyr416) were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from Raji cells pre-incubated with dasatinib. ( D ) Relative luciferase activity was measured in protein lysates of Raji cells co-transfected with pGL4-wt CD20 promoter and either pMIG or pMIG-myrAKT and incubated with dasatinib for 48 h. ( E ) Relative luciferase activity was measured in protein lysates of Raji cells co-transfected with pGL4-wt CD20 promoter and either empty vector, wt PTEN or C124S PTEN and incubated with dasatinib for 48 h. ( F ) Raji cells stably transduced with either pMIG or pMIG-myrAKT were sorted based on GFP expression. AKT, p-AKT (Thr308, Ser473), CD20, β-actin were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from unsorted and sorted cells. ( G ) p-AKT, AKT, CD20 and β-actin were detected with corresponding antibodies in protein lysates from sorted Raji cells (Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT) pre-incubated with dasatinib for 24 h. ( H ) Surface CD20 levels in Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT cells pre-incubated with dasatinib for 48 h were determined as described earlier. Results are presented as PE MFI (± SD) of GFP-positive cells. ( I ) cDNA from Raji pMIG and Raji pMIG mAkt cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, ACTB and RPL29 products. ( J ) CDC assay was performed using Raji pMIG or Raji pMIG-myrAKT cells as previously described. Shown is one representative of at least 2 independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Incubation, Luciferase, Activity Assay, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Stable Transfection, Transduction, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Amplification, CDC Assay

    Dasatinib modulates CD20 levels at a transcriptional level. ( A ) Western blotting analysis of CD20 and β-actin in protein extracts from Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of dasatinib. ( B ) cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of dasatinib was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20 and B2M products with corresponding probes labeled with FAM and DABCYL. ( C ) cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib (100 nM) and/or cycloheximide (10 nM) was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, RPL29 and ACTB products. ( D ) In actinomycin D chase mRNA decay assay cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib (100 nM) and/or actinomycin (10 μg/ml) was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, RPL29 and ACTB products. Shown is one representative of at least 3 independent experiments.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dasatinib modulates CD20 levels at a transcriptional level. ( A ) Western blotting analysis of CD20 and β-actin in protein extracts from Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of dasatinib. ( B ) cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 48 h with increasing concentrations of dasatinib was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20 and B2M products with corresponding probes labeled with FAM and DABCYL. ( C ) cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib (100 nM) and/or cycloheximide (10 nM) was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, RPL29 and ACTB products. ( D ) In actinomycin D chase mRNA decay assay cDNA from Raji cells pre-incubated for 24 h with dasatinib (100 nM) and/or actinomycin (10 μg/ml) was used for qRT-PCR amplification of CD20, RPL29 and ACTB products. Shown is one representative of at least 3 independent experiments.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Incubation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Amplification, Labeling, Mrna Decay Assay

    3) Product Images from "Immunocompetent Mouse Model for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus"

    Article Title: Immunocompetent Mouse Model for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.11.05.369520

    MA-CCHFV replicates to high titers of multiple tissues in WT mice. Groups of 8-week-old WT C57BL6/J mice were infected with 10,000 TCID 50 of MA-CCHFV or CCHFV Hoti via the IP route. At indicated time points mice were necropsied and viral RNA burdens in tissues evaluated by qRT-PCR. Statistical comparison performed with two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test. P-values between MA-CCHFV and respective sex Hoti-infected mice indicated with * for females, # for males and between MA-CCHFV male and MA-CCHFV female mice with +. N = 2 – 4 (Hoti) and 7 – 8 (MA-CCHFV) per group per timepoint. Study was performed once for Hoti and twice for MA-CCHFV. Data shown as mean plus standard deviation. Dashed line indicates limit of detection. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: MA-CCHFV replicates to high titers of multiple tissues in WT mice. Groups of 8-week-old WT C57BL6/J mice were infected with 10,000 TCID 50 of MA-CCHFV or CCHFV Hoti via the IP route. At indicated time points mice were necropsied and viral RNA burdens in tissues evaluated by qRT-PCR. Statistical comparison performed with two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test. P-values between MA-CCHFV and respective sex Hoti-infected mice indicated with * for females, # for males and between MA-CCHFV male and MA-CCHFV female mice with +. N = 2 – 4 (Hoti) and 7 – 8 (MA-CCHFV) per group per timepoint. Study was performed once for Hoti and twice for MA-CCHFV. Data shown as mean plus standard deviation. Dashed line indicates limit of detection. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Standard Deviation

    4) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    5) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    6) Product Images from "Exon-Skipping Strategy by Ratio Modulation between Cytoprotective versus Pro-Apoptotic Clusterin Forms Increased Sensitivity of LNCaP to Cell Death"

    Article Title: Exon-Skipping Strategy by Ratio Modulation between Cytoprotective versus Pro-Apoptotic Clusterin Forms Increased Sensitivity of LNCaP to Cell Death

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054920

    U7-nCLU vector construct and CLU mRNA expression in LNCaP. (A) (Top) Antisens sequence position to induce exon 2 skipping. (Bottom) Structure of the pHIV-1-U7-nCLU. U7snRNA including antisens sequence is placed under the control of its own promoter and its regulating domains 3′. SmOPT: sequence indicates the Sm protein binding site. LTR : long terminal repeats. (B) U7 vector integration in transduced LNCaP cell genome. Curves represent qPCR amplification of U7-nCLU genomic DNA in different transduction conditions (middle curves). Human β-actin amplification corresponded to positive control (Top curves) and genomic DNA of non transduced cells was used as negative control. (C) (Top) mRNA from transduced LNCaP cells with U7-nCLU vector was analyzed by RT-PCR at 3 weeks posttransduction. The 344 bp and 218 bp bands correspond to sCLU and skipped form nCLU mRNA respectively without alteration of the sequence. Controls were from RNA of LNCaP alone or LNCaP transduced with U7-control. (Bottom) Relative mRNA expression levels determined by densitometry. βactin used to normalize changes in specific gene expressions. (D) DNA sequence of the 218 bp band showed skipping of exon 2.
    Figure Legend Snippet: U7-nCLU vector construct and CLU mRNA expression in LNCaP. (A) (Top) Antisens sequence position to induce exon 2 skipping. (Bottom) Structure of the pHIV-1-U7-nCLU. U7snRNA including antisens sequence is placed under the control of its own promoter and its regulating domains 3′. SmOPT: sequence indicates the Sm protein binding site. LTR : long terminal repeats. (B) U7 vector integration in transduced LNCaP cell genome. Curves represent qPCR amplification of U7-nCLU genomic DNA in different transduction conditions (middle curves). Human β-actin amplification corresponded to positive control (Top curves) and genomic DNA of non transduced cells was used as negative control. (C) (Top) mRNA from transduced LNCaP cells with U7-nCLU vector was analyzed by RT-PCR at 3 weeks posttransduction. The 344 bp and 218 bp bands correspond to sCLU and skipped form nCLU mRNA respectively without alteration of the sequence. Controls were from RNA of LNCaP alone or LNCaP transduced with U7-control. (Bottom) Relative mRNA expression levels determined by densitometry. βactin used to normalize changes in specific gene expressions. (D) DNA sequence of the 218 bp band showed skipping of exon 2.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Expressing, Sequencing, Protein Binding, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Transduction, Positive Control, Negative Control, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    7) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    Prenatal stress enhances the expression of surface markers: CD40 and C1q and protein level of Iba1 in the hippocampus (A) and the frontal cortex (B) in adult rats . The mRNA expression is presented as the average fold ± SD, n = 6 in each group, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prenatal stress enhances the expression of surface markers: CD40 and C1q and protein level of Iba1 in the hippocampus (A) and the frontal cortex (B) in adult rats . The mRNA expression is presented as the average fold ± SD, n = 6 in each group, * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Prenatal stress enhances the expression of: CD40 and MHC II markers in microglial cell cultures . The expression of mRNA is presented as average fold ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group), * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Prenatal stress enhances the expression of: CD40 and MHC II markers in microglial cell cultures . The expression of mRNA is presented as average fold ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group), * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    8) Product Images from "Long-Term Preservation of Cones and Improvement in Visual Function Following Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by Guanylate Cyclase-1 Deficiency"

    Article Title: Long-Term Preservation of Cones and Improvement in Visual Function Following Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by Guanylate Cyclase-1 Deficiency

    Journal: Human Gene Therapy

    doi: 10.1089/hum.2011.069

    Restoration of cone-mediated optomotor behavior in Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. Shown is the photopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements in two untreated Gucy2e –/– mice (animals 1 and 2), and six mice treated with high-titer vector (animals 3–8) 4 months post treatment. Results are presented for each animal and averaged per group in the right-hand graphs. (a) Robust improvement in visual acuity was consistently observed in treated eyes ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Restoration of cone-mediated optomotor behavior in Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. Shown is the photopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements in two untreated Gucy2e –/– mice (animals 1 and 2), and six mice treated with high-titer vector (animals 3–8) 4 months post treatment. Results are presented for each animal and averaged per group in the right-hand graphs. (a) Robust improvement in visual acuity was consistently observed in treated eyes ( p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    Comparison of photoreceptor function restoration after transfer of human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e transgenes. (a) Consistent rod ERG improvement was observed in eyes treated with both vectors (mean±SD). No statistically significant difference was observed between the efficacy of rescue using both vectors ( p =0.587, two-way ANOVA). (b) Cone-mediated ERG b-wave responses of Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with the mouse transcript did not differ from those treated with the human transcript ( p =0.9887, two-way ANOVA). Cone-mediated ERG responses achieved with the mouse transcript were approximately 62% of the response seen in C57BL/6J wild-type eyes, compared with 65% achieved with the human transgene.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of photoreceptor function restoration after transfer of human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e transgenes. (a) Consistent rod ERG improvement was observed in eyes treated with both vectors (mean±SD). No statistically significant difference was observed between the efficacy of rescue using both vectors ( p =0.587, two-way ANOVA). (b) Cone-mediated ERG b-wave responses of Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with the mouse transcript did not differ from those treated with the human transcript ( p =0.9887, two-way ANOVA). Cone-mediated ERG responses achieved with the mouse transcript were approximately 62% of the response seen in C57BL/6J wild-type eyes, compared with 65% achieved with the human transgene.

    Techniques Used:

    GUCY2D transcript levels in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with high-titer vector. Real-time RT-PCR analyses comparing levels of GUCY2D transcript in high-titer vector-treated Gucy2e –/– eyes with endogenous Gucy2e transcript in C57BL/6J wild-type eyes and untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. The levels of introduced GUCY2D transcript in treated eyes are 30-fold higher than those seen in C57BL/6J wild-type control eyes ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: GUCY2D transcript levels in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with high-titer vector. Real-time RT-PCR analyses comparing levels of GUCY2D transcript in high-titer vector-treated Gucy2e –/– eyes with endogenous Gucy2e transcript in C57BL/6J wild-type eyes and untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. The levels of introduced GUCY2D transcript in treated eyes are 30-fold higher than those seen in C57BL/6J wild-type control eyes ( p

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Correct size and localization of guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1) protein in treated Gucy2e –/– eyes. GC1 immunofluorescence (green) was detected in the outer segments of photoreceptor cells in (a) wild-type eyes and (b) Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) vector. (c) No staining was observed in untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear counterstaining is shown in blue. (d) Western blot showing 120-kDa GC1 protein in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) or high-titer (HT) vector and in C57BL/6J wild-type controls, but not in Gucy2e –/–
    Figure Legend Snippet: Correct size and localization of guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1) protein in treated Gucy2e –/– eyes. GC1 immunofluorescence (green) was detected in the outer segments of photoreceptor cells in (a) wild-type eyes and (b) Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) vector. (c) No staining was observed in untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear counterstaining is shown in blue. (d) Western blot showing 120-kDa GC1 protein in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) or high-titer (HT) vector and in C57BL/6J wild-type controls, but not in Gucy2e –/–

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Plasmid Preparation, Staining, Western Blot

    Cone α-transducin levels and localization are restored in Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. C57BL/6J wild-type, Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) vector and untreated (UT) retinas were stained with antibodies against cone α-transducin ( a , red) and cone arrestin ( b , green). (a) Restored cone α-transducin localization to the outer segments of cones in the treated eyes, comparable to wild-type eyes. The images in the first three columns were taken using the same microscope settings, whereas the images in the last column, designated as Gucy2e –/– UT*, are identical to those in the Gucy2e –/– UT column except that they were taken with a long exposure and lighting levels were manipulated in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 Elements to reveal the signal in the red channel. The results indicate substantially reduced levels of cone α-transducin in untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes, and restored levels in treated eyes. (b) The two left-hand columns are images of retinal sections of eyes harvested and processed under normal light conditions and the right-hand columns are images of those harvested and processed in the dark. In the light, cone arrestin is localized in the cone outer segments and synaptic regions of wild-type as well as treated and untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. In the dark, cone arrestin is localized throughout the cone cells in wild-type eyes, and in treated and untreated Gucy2e –/–
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cone α-transducin levels and localization are restored in Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. C57BL/6J wild-type, Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer (LT) vector and untreated (UT) retinas were stained with antibodies against cone α-transducin ( a , red) and cone arrestin ( b , green). (a) Restored cone α-transducin localization to the outer segments of cones in the treated eyes, comparable to wild-type eyes. The images in the first three columns were taken using the same microscope settings, whereas the images in the last column, designated as Gucy2e –/– UT*, are identical to those in the Gucy2e –/– UT column except that they were taken with a long exposure and lighting levels were manipulated in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 Elements to reveal the signal in the red channel. The results indicate substantially reduced levels of cone α-transducin in untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes, and restored levels in treated eyes. (b) The two left-hand columns are images of retinal sections of eyes harvested and processed under normal light conditions and the right-hand columns are images of those harvested and processed in the dark. In the light, cone arrestin is localized in the cone outer segments and synaptic regions of wild-type as well as treated and untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes. In the dark, cone arrestin is localized throughout the cone cells in wild-type eyes, and in treated and untreated Gucy2e –/–

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Staining, Microscopy

    Improvement in cone and rod function in treated Gucy2e –/– eyes. (a) Representative electroretinographic (ERG) traces from C57BL/6J wild-type mice, Gucy2e –/– mice 6 months after treatment with high-titer (HT) or low-titer (LT) vector, and untreated Gucy2e –/– (UT) mice. Rod-mediated b-wave responses of Gucy2e –/– animals treated with low-titer vector were no different from those of untreated eyes, whereas responses of animals treated with high-titer vector were restored to an average of 65% of wild-type amplitudes. Cone-mediated ERG of Gucy2e –/– animals treated with low-titer vector improved on average to 20% of wild-type amplitudes, whereas the responses of animals treated with high-titer vector were restored to 65% compared with wild-type eyes. (b) Over time, scotopic b-wave amplitudes in Gucy2e –/– mice treated with high-titer vector were significantly higher than those in untreated mice ( p =0.0005, two-way ANOVA). (c) Data from animals treated with low-titer vector were significantly different from those of untreated and wild-type eyes at all time points examined ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Improvement in cone and rod function in treated Gucy2e –/– eyes. (a) Representative electroretinographic (ERG) traces from C57BL/6J wild-type mice, Gucy2e –/– mice 6 months after treatment with high-titer (HT) or low-titer (LT) vector, and untreated Gucy2e –/– (UT) mice. Rod-mediated b-wave responses of Gucy2e –/– animals treated with low-titer vector were no different from those of untreated eyes, whereas responses of animals treated with high-titer vector were restored to an average of 65% of wild-type amplitudes. Cone-mediated ERG of Gucy2e –/– animals treated with low-titer vector improved on average to 20% of wild-type amplitudes, whereas the responses of animals treated with high-titer vector were restored to 65% compared with wild-type eyes. (b) Over time, scotopic b-wave amplitudes in Gucy2e –/– mice treated with high-titer vector were significantly higher than those in untreated mice ( p =0.0005, two-way ANOVA). (c) Data from animals treated with low-titer vector were significantly different from those of untreated and wild-type eyes at all time points examined ( p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Plasmid Preparation

    Cone preservation in the transduced areas of Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. Shown are adjoining retinal sections of Gucy2e –/– eyes 6 months post treatment with low-titer vector (a and b) and untreated contralateral eyes (c and d) stained with antibodies against GC1 (a and c , green ) and cone α-transducin (b and d , yellow ) . (e – l) Insets are images of corresponding regions outlined in (a) and (b) . In the areas where GC1 staining is evident in the treated eyes (e and g) there is also expression of cone α-transducin (f and h) . In the untransduced areas, where there is no GC1 (i and k) , there is no cone α-transducin staining (j and l) . (m and n) Images of the superior retina, and (o and p) of the inferior retina of the untreated eye (c and d) . There is no GC1 staining in the untreated eye (c) . Weak cone α-transducin staining is evident in the superior untreated retina (n) with few cone cells present in the inferior part of the retina (p) . Scale bars: (a) 500 μm; (e) 100 μm. (r) Number of cone cells determined by cone α-transducin staining in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer vector, compared with untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes and C57BL/6J wild-type controls. The cone number in treated eyes was 20% higher than in untreated eyes ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cone preservation in the transduced areas of Gucy2e –/– treated eyes. Shown are adjoining retinal sections of Gucy2e –/– eyes 6 months post treatment with low-titer vector (a and b) and untreated contralateral eyes (c and d) stained with antibodies against GC1 (a and c , green ) and cone α-transducin (b and d , yellow ) . (e – l) Insets are images of corresponding regions outlined in (a) and (b) . In the areas where GC1 staining is evident in the treated eyes (e and g) there is also expression of cone α-transducin (f and h) . In the untransduced areas, where there is no GC1 (i and k) , there is no cone α-transducin staining (j and l) . (m and n) Images of the superior retina, and (o and p) of the inferior retina of the untreated eye (c and d) . There is no GC1 staining in the untreated eye (c) . Weak cone α-transducin staining is evident in the superior untreated retina (n) with few cone cells present in the inferior part of the retina (p) . Scale bars: (a) 500 μm; (e) 100 μm. (r) Number of cone cells determined by cone α-transducin staining in Gucy2e –/– eyes treated with low-titer vector, compared with untreated Gucy2e –/– eyes and C57BL/6J wild-type controls. The cone number in treated eyes was 20% higher than in untreated eyes ( p

    Techniques Used: Preserving, Plasmid Preparation, Staining, Expressing

    9) Product Images from "Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells"

    Article Title: Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells

    Journal: PLoS Computational Biology

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005049

    Experimental validation of the cell type-specific CISH and SOCS3 mRNA parameters. The parsimonious model was employed to predict the dynamics of CISH mRNA and SOCS3 mRNA upon treatment with a transcriptional inhibitor. The mRNA dynamics in CFU-E stimulated with 5 U/ml EPO alfa alone (black) or with transcriptional inhibition after 60 min (blue) was predicted. Additionally, the mRNA dynamics in H838-HA-hEPOR stimulated with 10 U/ml EPO beta alone (black) or with transcriptional inhibition after 30 min (blue) was predicted. Shadings surrounded by dotted lines depict uncertainty of the prediction. CFU-E cells were stimulated with 5 U/ml EPO alfa and either additionally treated with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D, to inhibit transcription, at 60 min (blue arrows) or left untreated. The H838-HA-hEPOR cells were either stimulated with 10 U/ml EPO beta alone (black) or additionally with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D at 30 min (blue arrows). The mRNA was extracted at the indicated time and the SOCS3 and CISH mRNA levels were measured with qRT-PCR. Experimental data are depicted as closed circles. The experiment was performed in triplicates and one representative example is shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental validation of the cell type-specific CISH and SOCS3 mRNA parameters. The parsimonious model was employed to predict the dynamics of CISH mRNA and SOCS3 mRNA upon treatment with a transcriptional inhibitor. The mRNA dynamics in CFU-E stimulated with 5 U/ml EPO alfa alone (black) or with transcriptional inhibition after 60 min (blue) was predicted. Additionally, the mRNA dynamics in H838-HA-hEPOR stimulated with 10 U/ml EPO beta alone (black) or with transcriptional inhibition after 30 min (blue) was predicted. Shadings surrounded by dotted lines depict uncertainty of the prediction. CFU-E cells were stimulated with 5 U/ml EPO alfa and either additionally treated with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D, to inhibit transcription, at 60 min (blue arrows) or left untreated. The H838-HA-hEPOR cells were either stimulated with 10 U/ml EPO beta alone (black) or additionally with 1 μg/ml actinomycin D at 30 min (blue arrows). The mRNA was extracted at the indicated time and the SOCS3 and CISH mRNA levels were measured with qRT-PCR. Experimental data are depicted as closed circles. The experiment was performed in triplicates and one representative example is shown.

    Techniques Used: Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization, Inhibition, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Model selection. The model trajectories for a selection of key pathway components are shown for CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. This includes expression of the EPOR targets CISH mRNA and SOCS3 mRNA measured by qRT-PCR as well as pEPOR, pJAK2 and cytoplasmic STAT5 data measured by quantitative immunoblotting. The amount of pSTAT5 was determined by either mass spectrometry or quantitative immunoblotting. The closed circles represent experimentally measured data in H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. CFU-E data previously published [ 19 ] are shown as circles. The lines depict the three applied model strategies: dashed green (only cell type-specific parameters), dashed blue (no cell type-specific parameters) and solid red (parsimonious model, only relevant cell type-specific parameters). The parsimonious model describes the data similarly to the model with only cell type-specific parameters, whereas the trajectories of the model without cell type-specific parameters are not in line with the experimental data, e.g. for SOCS3 mRNA in CFU-E and for pSTAT5 in H838. All data sets, replicates and trajectories of the parsimonious model are shown in S8 and S9 Figs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Model selection. The model trajectories for a selection of key pathway components are shown for CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. This includes expression of the EPOR targets CISH mRNA and SOCS3 mRNA measured by qRT-PCR as well as pEPOR, pJAK2 and cytoplasmic STAT5 data measured by quantitative immunoblotting. The amount of pSTAT5 was determined by either mass spectrometry or quantitative immunoblotting. The closed circles represent experimentally measured data in H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. CFU-E data previously published [ 19 ] are shown as circles. The lines depict the three applied model strategies: dashed green (only cell type-specific parameters), dashed blue (no cell type-specific parameters) and solid red (parsimonious model, only relevant cell type-specific parameters). The parsimonious model describes the data similarly to the model with only cell type-specific parameters, whereas the trajectories of the model without cell type-specific parameters are not in line with the experimental data, e.g. for SOCS3 mRNA in CFU-E and for pSTAT5 in H838. All data sets, replicates and trajectories of the parsimonious model are shown in S8 and S9 Figs.

    Techniques Used: Selection, Expressing, Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mass Spectrometry

    10) Product Images from "Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells"

    Article Title: Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells

    Journal: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care

    doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000017

    Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells expressing mutated glucose transporter 1-flag gene (MUT-GLUT1-flag) uptake less glucose than their WT-GLUT1-flag counterparts. (A) Evaluation of GLUT1 and GLUT1-flag protein expression in total cellular lysates of two independent sets of parental (non-transduced) HEK293T cells, cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT1-flag and MUT-GLUT1-flag with Western blotting. β-actin levels served as loading control. (B) Absolute quantification of GLUT1-flag and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) transcripts in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (C) Relative quantification of GLUT1-flag transcript in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (D) [1,2- 3 H]-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake in two independent sets of HEK293T cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT-flag, or MUT-GLUT1-flag. The figure presents mean counts per minute (cpm) value±SD; *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells expressing mutated glucose transporter 1-flag gene (MUT-GLUT1-flag) uptake less glucose than their WT-GLUT1-flag counterparts. (A) Evaluation of GLUT1 and GLUT1-flag protein expression in total cellular lysates of two independent sets of parental (non-transduced) HEK293T cells, cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT1-flag and MUT-GLUT1-flag with Western blotting. β-actin levels served as loading control. (B) Absolute quantification of GLUT1-flag and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) transcripts in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (C) Relative quantification of GLUT1-flag transcript in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (D) [1,2- 3 H]-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake in two independent sets of HEK293T cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT-flag, or MUT-GLUT1-flag. The figure presents mean counts per minute (cpm) value±SD; *p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Western Blot

    Localization of putative cholesterol-binding motifs in the homology model of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein. (A) A homology model of human GLUT1 protein: N-termini and C-termini are indicated and the placement within the plasma membrane is only schematic. (B). Putative cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)-like motifs in GLUT1: aa 83–89 (VGLFVNR, left) and aa 322–330 (VVSLFVVER, right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Localization of putative cholesterol-binding motifs in the homology model of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein. (A) A homology model of human GLUT1 protein: N-termini and C-termini are indicated and the placement within the plasma membrane is only schematic. (B). Putative cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)-like motifs in GLUT1: aa 83–89 (VGLFVNR, left) and aa 322–330 (VVSLFVVER, right).

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    11) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    12) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    13) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    14) Product Images from "Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells"

    Article Title: Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells

    Journal: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care

    doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000017

    Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells expressing mutated glucose transporter 1-flag gene (MUT-GLUT1-flag) uptake less glucose than their WT-GLUT1-flag counterparts. (A) Evaluation of GLUT1 and GLUT1-flag protein expression in total cellular lysates of two independent sets of parental (non-transduced) HEK293T cells, cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT1-flag and MUT-GLUT1-flag with Western blotting. β-actin levels served as loading control. (B) Absolute quantification of GLUT1-flag and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) transcripts in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (C) Relative quantification of GLUT1-flag transcript in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (D) [1,2- 3 H]-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake in two independent sets of HEK293T cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT-flag, or MUT-GLUT1-flag. The figure presents mean counts per minute (cpm) value±SD; *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells expressing mutated glucose transporter 1-flag gene (MUT-GLUT1-flag) uptake less glucose than their WT-GLUT1-flag counterparts. (A) Evaluation of GLUT1 and GLUT1-flag protein expression in total cellular lysates of two independent sets of parental (non-transduced) HEK293T cells, cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT1-flag and MUT-GLUT1-flag with Western blotting. β-actin levels served as loading control. (B) Absolute quantification of GLUT1-flag and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) transcripts in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (C) Relative quantification of GLUT1-flag transcript in HEK-WT-GLUT1-flag and HEK-MUT-GLUT1-flag cells. (D) [1,2- 3 H]-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake in two independent sets of HEK293T cells transduced with empty vector, WT-GLUT-flag, or MUT-GLUT1-flag. The figure presents mean counts per minute (cpm) value±SD; *p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Western Blot

    Localization of putative cholesterol-binding motifs in the homology model of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein. (A) A homology model of human GLUT1 protein: N-termini and C-termini are indicated and the placement within the plasma membrane is only schematic. (B). Putative cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)-like motifs in GLUT1: aa 83–89 (VGLFVNR, left) and aa 322–330 (VVSLFVVER, right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Localization of putative cholesterol-binding motifs in the homology model of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein. (A) A homology model of human GLUT1 protein: N-termini and C-termini are indicated and the placement within the plasma membrane is only schematic. (B). Putative cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)-like motifs in GLUT1: aa 83–89 (VGLFVNR, left) and aa 322–330 (VVSLFVVER, right).

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    15) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on protein levels of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6 (left panel) and chemokines: CCL2, CXCL12 and their receptors: CCR2, CXCR4 (right panel) in microglial cells . Protein levels obtained from ELISA are shown as pg/ml or ng/ml ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 8 in each group); The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group); * p

    Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Western Blot

    16) Product Images from "Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells"

    Article Title: Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00082

    The impact of prenatal stress on mRNA expression and release of IGF-1 (A,B) and BDNF (C,D) in microglial cells in cultures . The results of qRT-PCR analyses are expressed as the average fold ± SD. The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as the % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group), * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The impact of prenatal stress on mRNA expression and release of IGF-1 (A,B) and BDNF (C,D) in microglial cells in cultures . The results of qRT-PCR analyses are expressed as the average fold ± SD. The results from western blot analyses are normalized with β-actin and presented as the % of control ± SD from 3 independent experiments ( n = 6 in each group), * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot

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    Article Snippet: .. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) To validate the deep sequencing results in the study, qRT-PCR was performed on a LightCycler 480 II PCR system (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) by using SYBR Green (TAKARA, Japan). .. Complementary total RNA was used to generate cDNA by using PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TAKARA, Japan) with special stem-loop primer for miRNA and oligo-dT or random primer for mRNA.

    Article Title: Effect of Sodium Butyrate on LHX1 mRNA Expression as a Transcription Factor of HDAC8 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines
    Article Snippet: .. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) The qRT-PCR analysis was carried out for LHX1 gene using RQ-PCR SYBR Green I system Light Cycler 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). ..

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    RNA Extraction:

    Article Title: SIRT1 Suppresses Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transcription
    Article Snippet: .. Total RNA extraction was performed using RNAiso Plus reagents (TaKaRa, Otsu, Shiga, Japan). cDNA synthesis was achieved with a Transcriptor First Strand cDNA synthesis kit (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) using random hexamer primers. .. Real-time PCR was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq reagents (TaKaRa) in the StepOne real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

    Quantitative RT-PCR:

    Article Title: Function analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs in TGF-β1-induced cardiac fibroblasts differentiation
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    Article Title: Immunocompetent Mouse Model for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
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    Article Title: RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs
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    SYBR Green Assay:

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    Sequencing:

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    Random Hexamer Labeling:

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    Labeling:

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    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

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