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R&D Systems human osteocalcin quantikine elisa kit
Comparison of <t>osteocalcin</t> production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by <t>ELISA,</t> on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Human Osteocalcin Quantikine Elisa Kit, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 10058 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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1) Product Images from "Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism"

Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38314-8

Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Standard Deviation, Produced

2) Product Images from "Immunoglobulin A-deficient mice exhibit altered T helper 1-type immune responses but retain mucosal immunity to influenza virus"

Article Title: Immunoglobulin A-deficient mice exhibit altered T helper 1-type immune responses but retain mucosal immunity to influenza virus

Journal: Immunology

doi: 10.1046/j.0019-2805.2001.01368.x

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 protein and mRNA levels in immunoglobulin A (IgA) −/− mice. Supernatants were harvested from splenocyte culture stimulated with influenza A/Taiwan/86 for 3 days and measured for IFN-γ and IL-4 by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a). Total RNA was isolated from above splenocytes. The IFN-γ and IL-4 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) products were separated by gel electrophoresis using 1·5% agarose and the bands were quantified using the Kodak ID Image Analysis System, as described in the Materials and methods. The net intensity for each band was determined and the molar concentration extrapolated from the cytokine standards and presented (b). ***Significantly higher in immunized [influenza A/Taiwan+ cholera toxin B subunit/cholera toxin holoenzyme (A/TW+CTB/CT)] mice than in control (CTB/CT) mice ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 protein and mRNA levels in immunoglobulin A (IgA) −/− mice. Supernatants were harvested from splenocyte culture stimulated with influenza A/Taiwan/86 for 3 days and measured for IFN-γ and IL-4 by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a). Total RNA was isolated from above splenocytes. The IFN-γ and IL-4 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) products were separated by gel electrophoresis using 1·5% agarose and the bands were quantified using the Kodak ID Image Analysis System, as described in the Materials and methods. The net intensity for each band was determined and the molar concentration extrapolated from the cytokine standards and presented (b). ***Significantly higher in immunized [influenza A/Taiwan+ cholera toxin B subunit/cholera toxin holoenzyme (A/TW+CTB/CT)] mice than in control (CTB/CT) mice ( P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Concentration Assay, CtB Assay

3) Product Images from "Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients"

Article Title: Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms17050715

Proposed mechanism of hepcidin-induced hypoferremia and transient anemia in patients with Kawasaki disease. ( a ) Hemoglobin and iron levels were lower while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels were higher in patients with KD prior to IVIG administration; ( b ) After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased; ( c ) There was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment. The red solid line represents inhibition; the green solid line represents promotion; and the green dotted line represents reduction.
Figure Legend Snippet: Proposed mechanism of hepcidin-induced hypoferremia and transient anemia in patients with Kawasaki disease. ( a ) Hemoglobin and iron levels were lower while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels were higher in patients with KD prior to IVIG administration; ( b ) After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased; ( c ) There was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment. The red solid line represents inhibition; the green solid line represents promotion; and the green dotted line represents reduction.

Techniques Used: Inhibition

Comparison of plasma ( a ) hepcidin, ( b ) IL-6, and ( d ) urine hepcidin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) ( N = 20) before and after undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment; ( c ) Univariate analysis demonstrated that the log plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with the log IL-6 levels in patients with KD and the controls ( R 2 = 0.413, p = 0.003); ( e ) Univariate analysis demonstrated that the log plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with the log urine hepcidin levels in the KD before IVIG treatment and control groups ( R 2 = 0.514, p = 0.0001). Data are presented as mean ± standard error. * indicates p
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of plasma ( a ) hepcidin, ( b ) IL-6, and ( d ) urine hepcidin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) ( N = 20) before and after undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment; ( c ) Univariate analysis demonstrated that the log plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with the log IL-6 levels in patients with KD and the controls ( R 2 = 0.413, p = 0.003); ( e ) Univariate analysis demonstrated that the log plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with the log urine hepcidin levels in the KD before IVIG treatment and control groups ( R 2 = 0.514, p = 0.0001). Data are presented as mean ± standard error. * indicates p

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism"

Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38314-8

Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Standard Deviation, Produced

5) Product Images from "Angiogenic cytokines profile in smoldering multiple myeloma: No difference compared to MGUS but altered compared to symptomatic myeloma"

Article Title: Angiogenic cytokines profile in smoldering multiple myeloma: No difference compared to MGUS but altered compared to symptomatic myeloma

Journal: Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research

doi: 10.12659/MSM.889752

Circulating VEGF ( A ) and angiogenin ( B ) in patients and controls.
Figure Legend Snippet: Circulating VEGF ( A ) and angiogenin ( B ) in patients and controls.

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "Suppression of Adiponectin by Aberrantly Glycosylated IgA1 in Glomerular Mesangial Cells In Vitro and In Vivo"

Article Title: Suppression of Adiponectin by Aberrantly Glycosylated IgA1 in Glomerular Mesangial Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033965

The adiponectin staining score in the glomeruli of renal biopsy specimens and the relationship between the adiponectin staining score and serum IgA in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). (A) The adiponectin staining score in IgAN was significantly decreased in IgAN patients compared with that in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Each column shown the means ± SE. MGA, n = 9; MCD, n = 8; LN, n = 17; and IgAN, n = 19. ** P
Figure Legend Snippet: The adiponectin staining score in the glomeruli of renal biopsy specimens and the relationship between the adiponectin staining score and serum IgA in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). (A) The adiponectin staining score in IgAN was significantly decreased in IgAN patients compared with that in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Each column shown the means ± SE. MGA, n = 9; MCD, n = 8; LN, n = 17; and IgAN, n = 19. ** P

Techniques Used: Staining

Cytokine array analysis after stimulation of cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) with native IgA or deSial/deGal IgA1. The HMCs were stimulated with native (A) or deSial/deGal IgA1 (50 µg/ml) (B) for 48 h. The culture supernatants were then applied for a protein array analysis. After incubation of samples with array membranes for 2 h at room temperature, the spots on the membranes were scanned and digitized. The signal intensities of the spots obtained from two separate experiments were analyzed. (The proteins that were up- or downregulated by approximately 2 fold are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 .) The spots shown by arrows correspond to adiponectin. The intensity of the spots in the membrane stimulated with native IgA was higher than that of cells stimulated with deSial/deGal IgA1 in HMC (A, B).
Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine array analysis after stimulation of cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) with native IgA or deSial/deGal IgA1. The HMCs were stimulated with native (A) or deSial/deGal IgA1 (50 µg/ml) (B) for 48 h. The culture supernatants were then applied for a protein array analysis. After incubation of samples with array membranes for 2 h at room temperature, the spots on the membranes were scanned and digitized. The signal intensities of the spots obtained from two separate experiments were analyzed. (The proteins that were up- or downregulated by approximately 2 fold are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 .) The spots shown by arrows correspond to adiponectin. The intensity of the spots in the membrane stimulated with native IgA was higher than that of cells stimulated with deSial/deGal IgA1 in HMC (A, B).

Techniques Used: Cell Culture, Protein Array, Incubation

The expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs). (A) The cDNA from human adipocytes was utilized as a positive control for adiponectin and the cDNA from human hepatocytes was used as a control for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. RT-PCR for adiponectin in HMCs after stimulation with either native or deSial/deGal IgA1 afforded cDNA bands of the same size (256 bp) as that amplified from human adipocyte cDNA. RT-PCR for AdipoR1 in HMCs afforded cDNA bands of the same size (70 bp) as that amplified from human hepatocytes. The HMCs did not express AdipoR2 mRNA. The expression of the GAPDH gene was used as an internal standard (350 bp). (B) The densitometric analysis of the expression of each cDNA.
Figure Legend Snippet: The expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs). (A) The cDNA from human adipocytes was utilized as a positive control for adiponectin and the cDNA from human hepatocytes was used as a control for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. RT-PCR for adiponectin in HMCs after stimulation with either native or deSial/deGal IgA1 afforded cDNA bands of the same size (256 bp) as that amplified from human adipocyte cDNA. RT-PCR for AdipoR1 in HMCs afforded cDNA bands of the same size (70 bp) as that amplified from human hepatocytes. The HMCs did not express AdipoR2 mRNA. The expression of the GAPDH gene was used as an internal standard (350 bp). (B) The densitometric analysis of the expression of each cDNA.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Cell Culture, Positive Control, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification

The ELISA of total (A, C, D) and HMW (B, E) adiponectin after stimulation of HMCs with native or deSial/deGal IgA1. In HMCs, native IgA upregulated the total (A) and high molecular weight (HMW) (B) adiponectin release to the supernatant in a dose- (A, B) and time-dependent manner (C). Native IgA also increased the total and HMW adiponectin concentration in cell lysates in a dose-dependent manner (D, E). HMCs were cultured with different concentrations of native or deSial/deGal IgA1 (0, 6, 12.5, 25 or 50 µg/ml) for 48 h. For the time course study, HMCs were cultured with 25 µg/ml of native or deSial/deGal IgA1 for 0, 1, 6, 24 or 48 h. The concentrations of adiponectin were expressed as the means ± SE. Open diamonds, native IgA; closed circles, deSial/deGal IgA1. * P = 0.05 vs. medium control; # P = 0.01, native IgA vs. deSial/deGal IgA1.
Figure Legend Snippet: The ELISA of total (A, C, D) and HMW (B, E) adiponectin after stimulation of HMCs with native or deSial/deGal IgA1. In HMCs, native IgA upregulated the total (A) and high molecular weight (HMW) (B) adiponectin release to the supernatant in a dose- (A, B) and time-dependent manner (C). Native IgA also increased the total and HMW adiponectin concentration in cell lysates in a dose-dependent manner (D, E). HMCs were cultured with different concentrations of native or deSial/deGal IgA1 (0, 6, 12.5, 25 or 50 µg/ml) for 48 h. For the time course study, HMCs were cultured with 25 µg/ml of native or deSial/deGal IgA1 for 0, 1, 6, 24 or 48 h. The concentrations of adiponectin were expressed as the means ± SE. Open diamonds, native IgA; closed circles, deSial/deGal IgA1. * P = 0.05 vs. medium control; # P = 0.01, native IgA vs. deSial/deGal IgA1.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Molecular Weight, Concentration Assay, Cell Culture

The expression of adiponectin, αSMA and vWF in human renal biopsies. Immunofluorescent staining of renal biopsy specimens from patients with minor glomerular abnormalities (MGA; A, D, G, J, M and P), lupus nephritis (LN; B, E, H, K, N and Q) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN; C, F, I, L, O and R) are shown. (Upper panels) Each section was stained for αSMA (a marker of activated mesangial cells, red) (A–C) and adiponectin (green) (D–F). Some αSMA-positive cells were colocalized with adiponectin-positive cells (yellow) (G–I). Double positive areas were predominant in the glomeruli of LN patients (H, arrows) as compared to IgAN patients (I, arrows). (Lower panels) Each section was stained for vWF (a marker of endothelial cells, red) (J–L) and adiponectin (green) (M–O). Some vWF-positive cells were colocalized with adiponectin-positive cells (yellow) (P–R, arrowheads). Double positive areas predominated in the glomeruli of MGA patients (P). Strong and segmental staining of adiponectin was recognized in the glomeruli of LN patients (E and N). The adiponectin staining in the glomeruli of IgAN patients was weaker than that of LN and MGA patients. Scale bars represent 100 µm.
Figure Legend Snippet: The expression of adiponectin, αSMA and vWF in human renal biopsies. Immunofluorescent staining of renal biopsy specimens from patients with minor glomerular abnormalities (MGA; A, D, G, J, M and P), lupus nephritis (LN; B, E, H, K, N and Q) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN; C, F, I, L, O and R) are shown. (Upper panels) Each section was stained for αSMA (a marker of activated mesangial cells, red) (A–C) and adiponectin (green) (D–F). Some αSMA-positive cells were colocalized with adiponectin-positive cells (yellow) (G–I). Double positive areas were predominant in the glomeruli of LN patients (H, arrows) as compared to IgAN patients (I, arrows). (Lower panels) Each section was stained for vWF (a marker of endothelial cells, red) (J–L) and adiponectin (green) (M–O). Some vWF-positive cells were colocalized with adiponectin-positive cells (yellow) (P–R, arrowheads). Double positive areas predominated in the glomeruli of MGA patients (P). Strong and segmental staining of adiponectin was recognized in the glomeruli of LN patients (E and N). The adiponectin staining in the glomeruli of IgAN patients was weaker than that of LN and MGA patients. Scale bars represent 100 µm.

Techniques Used: Expressing, Staining, Marker

7) Product Images from "Protective and Detrimental Effects of Sodium Sulfide and Hydrogen Sulfide in Murine Ventilator-induced Lung Injury"

Article Title: Protective and Detrimental Effects of Sodium Sulfide and Hydrogen Sulfide in Murine Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

Journal: Anesthesiology

doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31823306cf

Concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( A ) and leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid ( B ) obtained from mice after high tidal volume (HV T ) ventilation. IL-6 and leukocyte concentrations were measured subsequent to HV T ventilation in the presence and absence of inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (n = 6 for each concentration) or after intravascular administration of sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) or vehicle (n = 8 in each group), and in control mice not subjected to HV T ventilation (n = 4). n/d = not detectable.
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( A ) and leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid ( B ) obtained from mice after high tidal volume (HV T ) ventilation. IL-6 and leukocyte concentrations were measured subsequent to HV T ventilation in the presence and absence of inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (n = 6 for each concentration) or after intravascular administration of sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) or vehicle (n = 8 in each group), and in control mice not subjected to HV T ventilation (n = 4). n/d = not detectable.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "Non-redundant Requirement for CXCR3 Signaling during Tumoricidal T Cell Trafficking across Tumor Vascular Checkpoints"

Article Title: Non-redundant Requirement for CXCR3 Signaling during Tumoricidal T Cell Trafficking across Tumor Vascular Checkpoints

Journal: Nature communications

doi: 10.1038/ncomms8458

Murine CD8 + effector T cells express an array of functional chemokine receptors complementary for chemokine ligands present in the tumor microenvironment ( a ) Cognate chemokine ligands for CXCR3, CCR5, and CCR2 (i.e., CXCL9/CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL2, respectively) were quantified by ELISA in B16-OVA tumor extracts (tumor volume ~ 400–500 mm 3 ) or in normal skin fom tumor-free mice. Data (mean ± s.e.m.) are from ≥3 independent experiments (n ≥2 mice per group). ( b ) Transwell assays were performed where fluorescently-labeled WT OT-I T cells were admixed with equivalent numbers of chemokine receptor-deficient effector cells and tested for migration to the indicated recombinant chemokines. WT and chemokine receptor-deficient cells were also pretreated with the global G-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and migration was quantified by flow cytometry. Background migration (absence of chemokine) was subtracted from all values. Data (mean ± s.e.m.) are represented as migration relative to WT and are from ≥3 independent experiments. ( a, b ) * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Murine CD8 + effector T cells express an array of functional chemokine receptors complementary for chemokine ligands present in the tumor microenvironment ( a ) Cognate chemokine ligands for CXCR3, CCR5, and CCR2 (i.e., CXCL9/CXCL10, CCL5, and CCL2, respectively) were quantified by ELISA in B16-OVA tumor extracts (tumor volume ~ 400–500 mm 3 ) or in normal skin fom tumor-free mice. Data (mean ± s.e.m.) are from ≥3 independent experiments (n ≥2 mice per group). ( b ) Transwell assays were performed where fluorescently-labeled WT OT-I T cells were admixed with equivalent numbers of chemokine receptor-deficient effector cells and tested for migration to the indicated recombinant chemokines. WT and chemokine receptor-deficient cells were also pretreated with the global G-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and migration was quantified by flow cytometry. Background migration (absence of chemokine) was subtracted from all values. Data (mean ± s.e.m.) are represented as migration relative to WT and are from ≥3 independent experiments. ( a, b ) * P

Techniques Used: Functional Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Mouse Assay, Labeling, Migration, Recombinant, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

9) Product Images from "Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Urinary Soluble CXCL16 as Biomarkers of Activity in Pediatric Lupus Nephritis"

Article Title: Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Urinary Soluble CXCL16 as Biomarkers of Activity in Pediatric Lupus Nephritis

Journal: Indian Journal of Nephrology

doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_265_17

Correlation between CXCL16 and urinary protein in studied patients
Figure Legend Snippet: Correlation between CXCL16 and urinary protein in studied patients

Techniques Used:

10) Product Images from "Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects"

Article Title: Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109434

Canonical correlation analysis for significant food categories and selected clinical parameters (all subjects). Visualization of the association between the food categories that significantly distinguish one pattern from another and selected clinical parameters. Pairs of canonical axes were determined to maximize the covariance between the food categories and the clinical parameters. The canonical coefficients were used to assess the contributions of each food category and each clinical parameter to the correlation by evaluating their signs and magnitude. The healthy foods (yogurt, soups, fruits, vegetables) are in the area of CD163+ macrophages indicating the higher the consumption of these healthy foods, the higher the value for the alternatively (M2)-activated macrophages. The less healthy foods (potatoes, sweetened soft drinks, sweets) are in the area of LDL cholesterol, inflammatory parameters CD14, total fat mass and adipocyte diameter indicating that the higher the consumption of these foods, the higher the value of these clinical parameters; Food and clinical parameter arrows pointing in the same direction indicate positive correlation between them. The closer the food is to the clinical parameter, the greater the link (but in some cases this link is not strong, and the value for the correlation is less than 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Canonical correlation analysis for significant food categories and selected clinical parameters (all subjects). Visualization of the association between the food categories that significantly distinguish one pattern from another and selected clinical parameters. Pairs of canonical axes were determined to maximize the covariance between the food categories and the clinical parameters. The canonical coefficients were used to assess the contributions of each food category and each clinical parameter to the correlation by evaluating their signs and magnitude. The healthy foods (yogurt, soups, fruits, vegetables) are in the area of CD163+ macrophages indicating the higher the consumption of these healthy foods, the higher the value for the alternatively (M2)-activated macrophages. The less healthy foods (potatoes, sweetened soft drinks, sweets) are in the area of LDL cholesterol, inflammatory parameters CD14, total fat mass and adipocyte diameter indicating that the higher the consumption of these foods, the higher the value of these clinical parameters; Food and clinical parameter arrows pointing in the same direction indicate positive correlation between them. The closer the food is to the clinical parameter, the greater the link (but in some cases this link is not strong, and the value for the correlation is less than 0.05).

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1"

Article Title: LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1

Journal: Translational Oncology

doi:

Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay

12) Product Images from "Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry"

Article Title: Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

Journal: Clinical proteomics

doi: 10.1186/1559-0275-9-2

Box plot representing ELISA candidate verification of mesothelin isoform 2 . * denotes significance (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Box plot representing ELISA candidate verification of mesothelin isoform 2 . * denotes significance (p

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

13) Product Images from "LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1"

Article Title: LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1

Journal: Translational Oncology

doi:

Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay

14) Product Images from "Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury"

Article Title: Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury

Journal: Kidney international

doi: 10.1038/ki.2015.162

Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

15) Product Images from "Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury"

Article Title: Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury

Journal: Kidney international

doi: 10.1038/ki.2015.162

Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

16) Product Images from "Superimposed Gastric Aspiration Increases the Severity of Inflammation and Permeability Injury in a Rat Model of Lung Contusion"

Article Title: Superimposed Gastric Aspiration Increases the Severity of Inflammation and Permeability Injury in a Rat Model of Lung Contusion

Journal: The Journal of surgical research

doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.08.020

Assessment of lung function and injury. Rats breathed 98% oxygen (FiO 2 = 0.98) for 5 minutes just prior to sacrifice at 5 or 24 hours post-injury with lung contusion (LC), aspiration of combined acid and small gastric particles (CASP), or both (LC + CASP). Arterial blood was drawn and analyzed for the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ), and albumin concentration was measured in cell-free BAL supernatant by ELISA. (A) Arterial oxygenation expressed as PaO 2 /FiO 2 (mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 6–12). (B) Albumin ( μ g/mL, mean ± SEM, n = 6–11). Kruskal-Wallis (rank sum) statistical analysis was performed on data at each time point, and inter-group comparisons were made with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons such that P
Figure Legend Snippet: Assessment of lung function and injury. Rats breathed 98% oxygen (FiO 2 = 0.98) for 5 minutes just prior to sacrifice at 5 or 24 hours post-injury with lung contusion (LC), aspiration of combined acid and small gastric particles (CASP), or both (LC + CASP). Arterial blood was drawn and analyzed for the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ), and albumin concentration was measured in cell-free BAL supernatant by ELISA. (A) Arterial oxygenation expressed as PaO 2 /FiO 2 (mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 6–12). (B) Albumin ( μ g/mL, mean ± SEM, n = 6–11). Kruskal-Wallis (rank sum) statistical analysis was performed on data at each time point, and inter-group comparisons were made with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons such that P

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

17) Product Images from "Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A"

Article Title: Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25367-y

TNF and IL-1β production by highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) or R848 (1 µg/ml) for different donors in the presence of anti-CD14 antibodies (2.5 µM). Anti-CD14 antibodies did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of antibodies. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: TNF and IL-1β production by highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) or R848 (1 µg/ml) for different donors in the presence of anti-CD14 antibodies (2.5 µM). Anti-CD14 antibodies did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of antibodies. *p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p

Techniques Used: Purification

Effect of Syk inhibitor R406 ( A ) 1 µM, or ( B ) 5 µM on TNF and IL-1β production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml), MPLA (1 µg/ml) or zymosan depleted (100 µg/ml) for different donors. R406 did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitor. *p ≤ 0.5; **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Syk inhibitor R406 ( A ) 1 µM, or ( B ) 5 µM on TNF and IL-1β production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml), MPLA (1 µg/ml) or zymosan depleted (100 µg/ml) for different donors. R406 did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitor. *p ≤ 0.5; **p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

Both LPS and MPLA activate human adherent mononuclear cells via TLR4. ( A ) Inhibition by 1 µg/ml of Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS of TNF and IL-1β release induced by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed with 10 µg/ml of R. sphaeroides LPS. ( C ) Similar inhibitory experiments performed with 10 nM or ( D ) 100 nM Eritoran (each dot represents one individual donor). Neither Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS nor Eritoran affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p ≤ 0.5; **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Both LPS and MPLA activate human adherent mononuclear cells via TLR4. ( A ) Inhibition by 1 µg/ml of Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS of TNF and IL-1β release induced by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed with 10 µg/ml of R. sphaeroides LPS. ( C ) Similar inhibitory experiments performed with 10 nM or ( D ) 100 nM Eritoran (each dot represents one individual donor). Neither Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS nor Eritoran affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p ≤ 0.5; **p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

TNF and IL-1β production by human blood adherent mononuclear cells stimulated with 100 ng/ml conventional Escherichia coli smooth LPS O111:B4 (cLPS), highly purified smooth Salmonella abortus equi LPS (hpLPS), highly purified rough S. minnesota Re595 LPS (LPS Re) or 1 µg/ml MPLA. ( A ) Individual responsiveness of n = 34 individuals. ( B ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to cLPS and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( C ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to MPLA and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( D ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to rough Re LPS and cLPS or MPLA and in terms of TNF. Each dot represents one individual donor. ****p
Figure Legend Snippet: TNF and IL-1β production by human blood adherent mononuclear cells stimulated with 100 ng/ml conventional Escherichia coli smooth LPS O111:B4 (cLPS), highly purified smooth Salmonella abortus equi LPS (hpLPS), highly purified rough S. minnesota Re595 LPS (LPS Re) or 1 µg/ml MPLA. ( A ) Individual responsiveness of n = 34 individuals. ( B ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to cLPS and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( C ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to MPLA and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( D ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to rough Re LPS and cLPS or MPLA and in terms of TNF. Each dot represents one individual donor. ****p

Techniques Used: Purification

18) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Oral CXA‐10, a Nitro Fatty Acid, After Single and Multiple Ascending Doses in Healthy and Obese Subjects"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Oral CXA‐10, a Nitro Fatty Acid, After Single and Multiple Ascending Doses in Healthy and Obese Subjects

Journal: Clinical and Translational Science

doi: 10.1111/cts.12672

LS mean change from baseline at day 14 and mean plasma concentrations for ( a ) IL ‐6 and MCP ‐1, and LS mean change from baseline for ( b ) leptin (day 14), triglycerides (day 15), and cholesterol (day 15) after repeated administration CXA ‐10 in obese subjects (study CXA ‐10‐202). The analysis is based on a repeated measures analysis of variance model. CI, confidence interval; CXA‐10, 10‐nitro‐9(E)‐octadec‐9‐enoic acid; IL, interleukin; LS, least squares; MCP‐1, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1.
Figure Legend Snippet: LS mean change from baseline at day 14 and mean plasma concentrations for ( a ) IL ‐6 and MCP ‐1, and LS mean change from baseline for ( b ) leptin (day 14), triglycerides (day 15), and cholesterol (day 15) after repeated administration CXA ‐10 in obese subjects (study CXA ‐10‐202). The analysis is based on a repeated measures analysis of variance model. CI, confidence interval; CXA‐10, 10‐nitro‐9(E)‐octadec‐9‐enoic acid; IL, interleukin; LS, least squares; MCP‐1, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1.

Techniques Used:

19) Product Images from "Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry"

Article Title: Characterization of the seminal plasma proteome in men with prostatitis by mass spectrometry

Journal: Clinical proteomics

doi: 10.1186/1559-0275-9-2

Box plot representing ELISA candidate verification of cystatin C . * denotes significance (p
Figure Legend Snippet: Box plot representing ELISA candidate verification of cystatin C . * denotes significance (p

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

20) Product Images from "Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A"

Article Title: Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25367-y

TNF and IL-1β production by highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) or R848 (1 µg/ml) for different donors in the presence of anti-CD14 antibodies (2.5 µM). Anti-CD14 antibodies did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of antibodies. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: TNF and IL-1β production by highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) or R848 (1 µg/ml) for different donors in the presence of anti-CD14 antibodies (2.5 µM). Anti-CD14 antibodies did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of antibodies. *p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p

Techniques Used: Purification

Effect of Syk inhibitor R406 ( A ) 1 µM, or ( B ) 5 µM on TNF and IL-1β production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml), MPLA (1 µg/ml) or zymosan depleted (100 µg/ml) for different donors. R406 did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitor. *p ≤ 0.5; **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Syk inhibitor R406 ( A ) 1 µM, or ( B ) 5 µM on TNF and IL-1β production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml), MPLA (1 µg/ml) or zymosan depleted (100 µg/ml) for different donors. R406 did not affect the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Each dot represents one individual donor. Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitor. *p ≤ 0.5; **p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

Both LPS and MPLA activate human adherent mononuclear cells via TLR4. ( A ) Inhibition by 1 µg/ml of Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS of TNF and IL-1β release induced by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed with 10 µg/ml of R. sphaeroides LPS. ( C ) Similar inhibitory experiments performed with 10 nM or ( D ) 100 nM Eritoran (each dot represents one individual donor). Neither Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS nor Eritoran affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p ≤ 0.5; **p
Figure Legend Snippet: Both LPS and MPLA activate human adherent mononuclear cells via TLR4. ( A ) Inhibition by 1 µg/ml of Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS of TNF and IL-1β release induced by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed with 10 µg/ml of R. sphaeroides LPS. ( C ) Similar inhibitory experiments performed with 10 nM or ( D ) 100 nM Eritoran (each dot represents one individual donor). Neither Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS nor Eritoran affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p ≤ 0.5; **p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

TNF and IL-1β production by human blood adherent mononuclear cells stimulated with 100 ng/ml conventional Escherichia coli smooth LPS O111:B4 (cLPS), highly purified smooth Salmonella abortus equi LPS (hpLPS), highly purified rough S. minnesota Re595 LPS (LPS Re) or 1 µg/ml MPLA. ( A ) Individual responsiveness of n = 34 individuals. ( B ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to cLPS and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( C ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to MPLA and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( D ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to rough Re LPS and cLPS or MPLA and in terms of TNF. Each dot represents one individual donor. ****p
Figure Legend Snippet: TNF and IL-1β production by human blood adherent mononuclear cells stimulated with 100 ng/ml conventional Escherichia coli smooth LPS O111:B4 (cLPS), highly purified smooth Salmonella abortus equi LPS (hpLPS), highly purified rough S. minnesota Re595 LPS (LPS Re) or 1 µg/ml MPLA. ( A ) Individual responsiveness of n = 34 individuals. ( B ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to cLPS and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( C ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to MPLA and hpLPS in terms of TNF and IL-1β production. ( D ) Correlations between individual responsiveness to rough Re LPS and cLPS or MPLA and in terms of TNF. Each dot represents one individual donor. ****p

Techniques Used: Purification

21) Product Images from "LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1"

Article Title: LCN2 and TIMP1 as Potential Serum Markers for the Early Detection of Familial Pancreatic Cancer 1

Journal: Translational Oncology

doi:

Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scatter plots. (A) ELISA data from mouse serum. The results of mouse CXCL16, mouse TIMP1, and mouse LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on mouse serum from control and transgenic mice with PanIN1, PanIN2/3, invasive pancreatic carcinoma (CA), or endocrine tumors. The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values. (B) ELISA data from human serum. The results of human CXCL16, human TIMP1, and human LCN2/NGAL ELISAs were tested on human serum from control and patients with CP, sporadic PC (PDAC), FPC, or pancreatic endocrine tumors (endocrine). The dark gray lines indicate median values and the interquartile range. The light gray lines indicate mean values.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay

22) Product Images from "Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury"

Article Title: Macrophage-derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mediates diabetic renal injury

Journal: Kidney international

doi: 10.1038/ki.2015.162

Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Selective TNF-α depletion in macrophages prevented the increase in kidney TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in diabetic mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA after 12 weeks following diabetes. TNF-α ( A ), TNFR1 ( C ), TNFR2 ( E ) and MCP-1 ( G ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Kidney TNF-α ( B ), TNFR1 ( D ) and TNFR2 ( F ) proteins were determined using Elisa kits according to manufacturer's protocol. Open bar, normal group; black-filled bar, diabetic groups. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of TNF-α inhibition on kidney TNF receptors expression in lns2 Akita mice RT-PCR was performed on whole mouse kidney total RNA at 18 wk of age. TNFR1 ( A ) and TNFR2 ( B ) mRNA expression were normalized with GAPDH mRNA. Results are means ± SEM. * p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

23) Product Images from "Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A"

Article Title: Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25367-y

( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

24) Product Images from "Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism"

Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38314-8

Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Standard Deviation, Produced

25) Product Images from "Modulation of binge-like ethanol consumption by IL-10 signaling in the basolateral amygdala"

Article Title: Modulation of binge-like ethanol consumption by IL-10 signaling in the basolateral amygdala

Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

doi: 10.1007/s11481-016-9709-2

Ethanol induced a decrease in IL-10 Iimmunoreactivity within the BLA after 3 cycles compared with the water control (a); however, no statistically significant differences were seen within the CeA between water and ethanol drinking groups (e). Further, no statistically significant differences were evident between water and sucrose drinking groups in either the BLA (b) or CeA (f). Representative photomicrographs of the BLA of mice exposed to water (c), 3 sucrose DID cycles (d), 1 ethanol DID cycle (g), and 3 ethanol DID cycles (H) are shown. The scale bar = 20μm (g). All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: Ethanol induced a decrease in IL-10 Iimmunoreactivity within the BLA after 3 cycles compared with the water control (a); however, no statistically significant differences were seen within the CeA between water and ethanol drinking groups (e). Further, no statistically significant differences were evident between water and sucrose drinking groups in either the BLA (b) or CeA (f). Representative photomicrographs of the BLA of mice exposed to water (c), 3 sucrose DID cycles (d), 1 ethanol DID cycle (g), and 3 ethanol DID cycles (H) are shown. The scale bar = 20μm (g). All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

ELISAs revealed that three cycles of ethanol DID induced a decrease in IL-10 protein in the amygdala (a) but DID cycles of sucrose did not significantly alter IL-10 protein compared with water controls (b). In the serum, no differences in IL-10 protein content were seen between animals given water compared to various cycles of ethanol (c) or sucrose (d). All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: ELISAs revealed that three cycles of ethanol DID induced a decrease in IL-10 protein in the amygdala (a) but DID cycles of sucrose did not significantly alter IL-10 protein compared with water controls (b). In the serum, no differences in IL-10 protein content were seen between animals given water compared to various cycles of ethanol (c) or sucrose (d). All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p

Techniques Used:

Effects of site-directed infusion of IL-10 on consumption and BECs. IL-10 infusion into the BLA significantly reduced ethanol consumption (a) during the DID session resulting in BECs (b) below 80mg/dL that were significantly lower compared with saline treatment. However, IL-10 administration into the BLA did not alter sucrose consumption (c). No significant effect of CeA infusion of IL-10 was observed in either consummatory data (d) or in BECs (e). Approximate injection sites are shown (f). Black circles represent cannulae placement within the BLA while grey circles represent those in the CeA. All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of site-directed infusion of IL-10 on consumption and BECs. IL-10 infusion into the BLA significantly reduced ethanol consumption (a) during the DID session resulting in BECs (b) below 80mg/dL that were significantly lower compared with saline treatment. However, IL-10 administration into the BLA did not alter sucrose consumption (c). No significant effect of CeA infusion of IL-10 was observed in either consummatory data (d) or in BECs (e). Approximate injection sites are shown (f). Black circles represent cannulae placement within the BLA while grey circles represent those in the CeA. All data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p

Techniques Used: Injection

Within the OFT, IL-10 administration into the BLA did not significantly affect locomotor activity (a) or any measures of anxiety-like behavior [Center Distance (b); Center Time (c)]. Moreover, BLA IL-10 treatment did not alter time spent in the open arm (d) in the elevated plus maze. Approximate injection sites are represented by black circles (e). All data are presented as mean ± SEM
Figure Legend Snippet: Within the OFT, IL-10 administration into the BLA did not significantly affect locomotor activity (a) or any measures of anxiety-like behavior [Center Distance (b); Center Time (c)]. Moreover, BLA IL-10 treatment did not alter time spent in the open arm (d) in the elevated plus maze. Approximate injection sites are represented by black circles (e). All data are presented as mean ± SEM

Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Injection

26) Product Images from "Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism"

Article Title: Transcriptome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Multiple Myeloma Patients Reveals Downregulation of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Progression, Immune Response, and Bone Metabolism

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38314-8

Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Comparison of osteocalcin production between MM-MSC (n = 4) and ND-MSC (n = 4), quantified by ELISA, on days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. The experiments were performed in technical duplicates and the results are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). To evaluate the effect of the group over time on the osteocalcin measurements produced by MM-MSC and ND-MSC, the GEE method with gamma distribution was used. NS = Not Significant; MM-MSC = Multiple Myeloma-Mesenchymal Stem Cells; ND-MSC = Normal Donor-Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Standard Deviation, Produced

27) Product Images from "Elevated resistin opposed to adiponectin or angiogenin plasma levels as a strong, independent predictive factor for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in patients with stable multivessel coronary artery disease over 1-year follow-up"

Article Title: Elevated resistin opposed to adiponectin or angiogenin plasma levels as a strong, independent predictive factor for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in patients with stable multivessel coronary artery disease over 1-year follow-up

Journal: Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research

doi: 10.12659/MSM.881325

Kaplan-Meier curves for MACCE at 12 month follow up according to baseline resistin levels (higher than 17.265 ng/ml – solid line; lower than 17.3 ng/ml – broken line) (log-rank p=0.04).
Figure Legend Snippet: Kaplan-Meier curves for MACCE at 12 month follow up according to baseline resistin levels (higher than 17.265 ng/ml – solid line; lower than 17.3 ng/ml – broken line) (log-rank p=0.04).

Techniques Used:

ROC curve presenting sensitivity and corresponding specificity for various cut-off values of resistin level. Values of resistin concentration higher than 17.3 ng/ml are associated with 13× higher risk of MACCE, area under ROC curve 0.75.
Figure Legend Snippet: ROC curve presenting sensitivity and corresponding specificity for various cut-off values of resistin level. Values of resistin concentration higher than 17.3 ng/ml are associated with 13× higher risk of MACCE, area under ROC curve 0.75.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

28) Product Images from "Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Urinary Soluble CXCL16 as Biomarkers of Activity in Pediatric Lupus Nephritis"

Article Title: Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Urinary Soluble CXCL16 as Biomarkers of Activity in Pediatric Lupus Nephritis

Journal: Indian Journal of Nephrology

doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_265_17

Correlation between CXCL16 and urinary protein in studied patients
Figure Legend Snippet: Correlation between CXCL16 and urinary protein in studied patients

Techniques Used:

Receiver operating characteristic curves of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and CXCL16 for prediction of activity of lupus nephritis
Figure Legend Snippet: Receiver operating characteristic curves of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and CXCL16 for prediction of activity of lupus nephritis

Techniques Used: Activity Assay

29) Product Images from "Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A"

Article Title: Specific features of human monocytes activation by monophosphoryl lipid A

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25367-y

( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) IL-10 and ( B ) IL-1Ra production by human adherent mononuclear cells activated with either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( C ) Ratios between IL-1β and IL-1Ra for individual donors. Each dot represents one individual donor. ***p

Techniques Used: Purification

( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Inhibition of TNF and IL-1β production by pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD 20 µM) of human adherent mononuclear cells activated by either conventional smooth E. coli O111:B4 LPS (cLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified S. abortus equi LPS (hpLPS) (100 ng/ml), highly purified rough S. minnesota LPS (ReLPS) (100 ng/ml) or MPLA (1 µg/ml) for different donors. ( B ) Similar experiments performed in the presence of IL-1Ra (100 µg/ml). Each dot represents one individual donor. Neither Z-VAD nor IL-1Ra affected the cytokine production in the absence of agonists (data not shown). Results are expressed as percent of the individual responses in the absence of inhibitors. *p

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Purification

30) Product Images from "Immunoglobulin A-deficient mice exhibit altered T helper 1-type immune responses but retain mucosal immunity to influenza virus"

Article Title: Immunoglobulin A-deficient mice exhibit altered T helper 1-type immune responses but retain mucosal immunity to influenza virus

Journal: Immunology

doi: 10.1046/j.0019-2805.2001.01368.x

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 protein and mRNA levels in immunoglobulin A (IgA) −/− mice. Supernatants were harvested from splenocyte culture stimulated with influenza A/Taiwan/86 for 3 days and measured for IFN-γ and IL-4 by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a). Total RNA was isolated from above splenocytes. The IFN-γ and IL-4 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) products were separated by gel electrophoresis using 1·5% agarose and the bands were quantified using the Kodak ID Image Analysis System, as described in the Materials and methods. The net intensity for each band was determined and the molar concentration extrapolated from the cytokine standards and presented (b). ***Significantly higher in immunized [influenza A/Taiwan+ cholera toxin B subunit/cholera toxin holoenzyme (A/TW+CTB/CT)] mice than in control (CTB/CT) mice ( P
Figure Legend Snippet: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 protein and mRNA levels in immunoglobulin A (IgA) −/− mice. Supernatants were harvested from splenocyte culture stimulated with influenza A/Taiwan/86 for 3 days and measured for IFN-γ and IL-4 by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a). Total RNA was isolated from above splenocytes. The IFN-γ and IL-4 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) products were separated by gel electrophoresis using 1·5% agarose and the bands were quantified using the Kodak ID Image Analysis System, as described in the Materials and methods. The net intensity for each band was determined and the molar concentration extrapolated from the cytokine standards and presented (b). ***Significantly higher in immunized [influenza A/Taiwan+ cholera toxin B subunit/cholera toxin holoenzyme (A/TW+CTB/CT)] mice than in control (CTB/CT) mice ( P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, Concentration Assay, CtB Assay

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Cycling Probe Technology:

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Blocking Assay:

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