diaminobenzidine  (Millipore)

 
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  • 97
    Name:
    3 3 Diaminobenzidine
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    d8001
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    Peroxidase substrate; reagent for spectrophotometric determination of selenium.
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    Structured Review

    Millipore diaminobenzidine
    3 3 Diaminobenzidine

    https://www.bioz.com/result/diaminobenzidine/product/Millipore
    Average 97 stars, based on 1462 article reviews
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    diaminobenzidine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-02
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "La autoantigen is required for the internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA"

    Article Title: La autoantigen is required for the internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi:

    Immunoblot of mouse tissue extracts using anti-La polyclonal antibodies. Various mouse tissue extracts (as indicated) containing equivalent amounts of total protein were resolved on SDS–10% PAGE and probed with polyclonal anti-La antibody. After probing with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody, immunoreactive bands were visualized by peroxidase reaction using diaminobenzidine as substrate. A replica blot containing the same amounts of protein per lane was probed with anti-β actin monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse secondary antibody followed by ECL.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoblot of mouse tissue extracts using anti-La polyclonal antibodies. Various mouse tissue extracts (as indicated) containing equivalent amounts of total protein were resolved on SDS–10% PAGE and probed with polyclonal anti-La antibody. After probing with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody, immunoreactive bands were visualized by peroxidase reaction using diaminobenzidine as substrate. A replica blot containing the same amounts of protein per lane was probed with anti-β actin monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse secondary antibody followed by ECL.

    Techniques Used: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    2) Product Images from "Flanking V and J Sequences of Complementary Determining Region 3 of T Cell Receptor (TCR) ?1 (CDR3?1) Determine the Structure and Function of TCR?4?1 *"

    Article Title: Flanking V and J Sequences of Complementary Determining Region 3 of T Cell Receptor (TCR) ?1 (CDR3?1) Determine the Structure and Function of TCR?4?1 *

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.239624

    Specific binding of TCR γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its mutants to tumor cells or tissues and antigen MICA. A , the expression of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its mutants was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Two subunits with different M r of the four fusion proteins are shown by reduced PAGE ( upper left ). TCRγ4-Fc chain ( upper bands ) ran slightly higher than TCRδ1-Fc ( lower bands ). Intact γ4-Fc/δ1-Fc dimmers are shown by non-reduced PAGE ( lower left ). Lane 1 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc; lane 2 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMVm)-Fc; lane 3 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMDm)-Fc; lane 4 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMJm)-Fc; lane M , protein marker. We further characterized the fusion proteins by Western blotting using anti-Vδ, anti-Vγ, and anti-human IgG Fc as primary antibody ( right panels ). B , binding of TCRγ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its V, D, and J mutants to tumor cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. After incubation with fusion proteins, tested cells were stained with FITC-conjugated goat anti-human IgG and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are representative of three independent experiments. C , binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its V, D, and J mutants to tumor cells was analyzed by confocal microscopy. After incubation with fusion proteins, cells were stained with FITC-conjugated goat anti-human IgG and followed by laser scanning confocal microscopic analysis. Confocal images are representative of three independent experiments. D , binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc protein and its V, D, and J mutants to primary tumor specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Human IgG Fc was used as a negative control. Binding was visualized using diaminobenzidine as the substrate ( brown ) (×100). G , gastric cancer; R , renal carcinoma; L , lung carcinoma; C , colon carcinoma; O , ovarian cancer. E , shown is ELISA analysis of the binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its mutants to antigen MICA. Data shown are the mean of three independent experiments. F , shown is SPR analysis of the binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its mutants to MICA antigen. The K D values are shown in the figure.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Specific binding of TCR γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its mutants to tumor cells or tissues and antigen MICA. A , the expression of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its mutants was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Two subunits with different M r of the four fusion proteins are shown by reduced PAGE ( upper left ). TCRγ4-Fc chain ( upper bands ) ran slightly higher than TCRδ1-Fc ( lower bands ). Intact γ4-Fc/δ1-Fc dimmers are shown by non-reduced PAGE ( lower left ). Lane 1 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc; lane 2 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMVm)-Fc; lane 3 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMDm)-Fc; lane 4 , γ4-Fc/δ1(GTMJm)-Fc; lane M , protein marker. We further characterized the fusion proteins by Western blotting using anti-Vδ, anti-Vγ, and anti-human IgG Fc as primary antibody ( right panels ). B , binding of TCRγ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc fusion protein and its V, D, and J mutants to tumor cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. After incubation with fusion proteins, tested cells were stained with FITC-conjugated goat anti-human IgG and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are representative of three independent experiments. C , binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its V, D, and J mutants to tumor cells was analyzed by confocal microscopy. After incubation with fusion proteins, cells were stained with FITC-conjugated goat anti-human IgG and followed by laser scanning confocal microscopic analysis. Confocal images are representative of three independent experiments. D , binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc protein and its V, D, and J mutants to primary tumor specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Human IgG Fc was used as a negative control. Binding was visualized using diaminobenzidine as the substrate ( brown ) (×100). G , gastric cancer; R , renal carcinoma; L , lung carcinoma; C , colon carcinoma; O , ovarian cancer. E , shown is ELISA analysis of the binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its mutants to antigen MICA. Data shown are the mean of three independent experiments. F , shown is SPR analysis of the binding of γ4-Fc/δ1(GTM)-Fc and its mutants to MICA antigen. The K D values are shown in the figure.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Expressing, SDS Page, Western Blot, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Marker, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Immunohistochemistry, Negative Control, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, SPR Assay

    Binding activity of CDR3δ1 and its mutant peptides to tumor cells/tissues or ligand MICA. A , shown are schema of the amino acid sequences of GTM and its V/D/J mutants. GTM , GTMVm , GTMDm , and GTMJm represent the wild type and mutant peptides in V, D, and J region of a CDR3δ1, respectively. B , shown are flow cytometry profiles of the binding of GTM or its mutant peptides to various tumor cell lines BGC823, G401, GLC-82, HT29, and SKOV3. After incubation with biotinylated peptides, tested cells were stained with FITC-streptavidin and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are representative of three independent experiments. C , shown are confocal images of the binding of GTM peptide or its mutant peptides to various tumor cells. After incubation with the peptides, tested cells were stained with FITC-streptavidin and then analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Confocal images are one representative of at least three independent experiments. D , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to primary tumor specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CH3 peptide was served as negative control. Binding was visualized using diaminobenzidine as the substrate ( brown ) (×100). G , gastric cancer; R , renal carcinoma; L , lung carcinoma; C , colon carcinoma; O , ovarian cancer. E , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to MICA was analyzed by ELISA. Data shown are the mean of three independent experiments. F , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to MICA was analyzed by SPR. The K D values are shown in the figure.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Binding activity of CDR3δ1 and its mutant peptides to tumor cells/tissues or ligand MICA. A , shown are schema of the amino acid sequences of GTM and its V/D/J mutants. GTM , GTMVm , GTMDm , and GTMJm represent the wild type and mutant peptides in V, D, and J region of a CDR3δ1, respectively. B , shown are flow cytometry profiles of the binding of GTM or its mutant peptides to various tumor cell lines BGC823, G401, GLC-82, HT29, and SKOV3. After incubation with biotinylated peptides, tested cells were stained with FITC-streptavidin and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are representative of three independent experiments. C , shown are confocal images of the binding of GTM peptide or its mutant peptides to various tumor cells. After incubation with the peptides, tested cells were stained with FITC-streptavidin and then analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Confocal images are one representative of at least three independent experiments. D , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to primary tumor specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CH3 peptide was served as negative control. Binding was visualized using diaminobenzidine as the substrate ( brown ) (×100). G , gastric cancer; R , renal carcinoma; L , lung carcinoma; C , colon carcinoma; O , ovarian cancer. E , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to MICA was analyzed by ELISA. Data shown are the mean of three independent experiments. F , binding of GTM peptide and its mutants to MICA was analyzed by SPR. The K D values are shown in the figure.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Gas Chromatography, Incubation, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Immunohistochemistry, Negative Control, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, SPR Assay

    3) Product Images from "Prostanoid EP2 Receptors Are Up-Regulated in Human Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Key Anti-Proliferative Target for Treprostinil in Smooth Muscle Cells"

    Article Title: Prostanoid EP2 Receptors Are Up-Regulated in Human Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Key Anti-Proliferative Target for Treprostinil in Smooth Muscle Cells

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19082372

    EP 2 receptor expression increases in distal human pulmonary arteries from PAH patients. Representative immunohistochemical staining in serial sections of a pulmonary artery from a control ( A ) and a PAH patient ( B ) showing the prostanoid EP 2 receptor (EP 2 ), the smooth muscle marker, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the endothelial cell marker, CD-31. Staining was visualised by diaminobenzidine (brown) in sections counterstained with haematoxylin (blue) and quantified using ImageJ. Grey images represent the digitisation of staining in arterial sections, where adventitial staining has been excluded to focus on the expression in muscle and the endothelium. Bars are 100 µm and is the same for each section. The data are expressed as the pixel area of the respective staining for CD-31, α-SMA, and EP 2 receptor ( C ) or as the ratio of EP 2 /α-SMA+CD31 area staining ( D ). Excluded from the analysis of data presented in parts ( C ) and ( D ) was staining in plexiform lesions. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: EP 2 receptor expression increases in distal human pulmonary arteries from PAH patients. Representative immunohistochemical staining in serial sections of a pulmonary artery from a control ( A ) and a PAH patient ( B ) showing the prostanoid EP 2 receptor (EP 2 ), the smooth muscle marker, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the endothelial cell marker, CD-31. Staining was visualised by diaminobenzidine (brown) in sections counterstained with haematoxylin (blue) and quantified using ImageJ. Grey images represent the digitisation of staining in arterial sections, where adventitial staining has been excluded to focus on the expression in muscle and the endothelium. Bars are 100 µm and is the same for each section. The data are expressed as the pixel area of the respective staining for CD-31, α-SMA, and EP 2 receptor ( C ) or as the ratio of EP 2 /α-SMA+CD31 area staining ( D ). Excluded from the analysis of data presented in parts ( C ) and ( D ) was staining in plexiform lesions. * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Marker

    4) Product Images from "Hesperetin alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo and in vitro"

    Article Title: Hesperetin alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo and in vitro

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4968

    HES blocked EMT in the UUO mice model. (A) Immunohistochemistry staining of kidney sections isolated from the UUO mice groups with antibodies targeting α-SMA and E-cadherin. Positive signals were detected with diaminobenzidine (brown; magnification, ×200). Semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry staining for (B) α-SMA and (C) E-cadherin. mRNA expression levels of (D) α-SMA and (E) E-cadherin in each group. Data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation. + P
    Figure Legend Snippet: HES blocked EMT in the UUO mice model. (A) Immunohistochemistry staining of kidney sections isolated from the UUO mice groups with antibodies targeting α-SMA and E-cadherin. Positive signals were detected with diaminobenzidine (brown; magnification, ×200). Semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry staining for (B) α-SMA and (C) E-cadherin. mRNA expression levels of (D) α-SMA and (E) E-cadherin in each group. Data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation. + P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Isolation, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    HES reduced the accumulation of extra cellular matrix components in UUO mice. (A) Immunohistochemistry staining of kidney sections isolated from the UUO mice groups with antibodies targeting FN and collagen I. Positive signals were detected with diaminobenzidine (brown; magnification, ×200). Semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry staining for (B) FN and (C) collagen I. mRNA expression levels of (D) FN and (E) collagen I. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. + P
    Figure Legend Snippet: HES reduced the accumulation of extra cellular matrix components in UUO mice. (A) Immunohistochemistry staining of kidney sections isolated from the UUO mice groups with antibodies targeting FN and collagen I. Positive signals were detected with diaminobenzidine (brown; magnification, ×200). Semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry staining for (B) FN and (C) collagen I. mRNA expression levels of (D) FN and (E) collagen I. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. + P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Isolation, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    5) Product Images from "Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma"

    Article Title: Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    Journal: Experimental Biology and Medicine

    doi: 10.1177/1535370214562338

    Analysis of TLR4 and TNFα expression in club cells and alveolar macrophages. (a) Representative micrographs of TLR4 and TNFα immunostaining performed on lung sections. Positive club cells are stained brown with diaminobenzidine (arrow)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of TLR4 and TNFα expression in club cells and alveolar macrophages. (a) Representative micrographs of TLR4 and TNFα immunostaining performed on lung sections. Positive club cells are stained brown with diaminobenzidine (arrow)

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunostaining, Staining

    6) Product Images from "EhVps32 Is a Vacuole-Associated Protein Involved in Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis of Entamoeaba histolytica"

    Article Title: EhVps32 Is a Vacuole-Associated Protein Involved in Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis of Entamoeaba histolytica

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005079

    Detection and localization of EhVps32 and erythrophagocytosis rate of EhVps32 -silenced G3 trophozoites. (A) Western blot assays of trophozoites lysates from G3 strain and pNeoEhvps32-HA (EhVps32 - ) silenced G3 cells, using the αrEhVps32 antibodies. As a loading control, the same membrane was re-blotted with αactin antibodies. (B) Densitometry analysis of bands showed in (A) normalized against actin protein. (C) Diaminobenzidine-stained trophozoites that ingested erythrocytes for 20 min. (D) Rate of erythrophagocytosis of G3 trophozoites. (***) p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection and localization of EhVps32 and erythrophagocytosis rate of EhVps32 -silenced G3 trophozoites. (A) Western blot assays of trophozoites lysates from G3 strain and pNeoEhvps32-HA (EhVps32 - ) silenced G3 cells, using the αrEhVps32 antibodies. As a loading control, the same membrane was re-blotted with αactin antibodies. (B) Densitometry analysis of bands showed in (A) normalized against actin protein. (C) Diaminobenzidine-stained trophozoites that ingested erythrocytes for 20 min. (D) Rate of erythrophagocytosis of G3 trophozoites. (***) p

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Staining

    Expression and localization of EhVps32 and rate of erythrophagocytosis in pNeoEhvps32-HA transfected trophozoites. (A) Western blot assays of trophozoites lysates from wild type clone A (lane A) and pNeo (lane pNeo) and pNeoEhvps32-HA (lane EhVps32) transfected cells, using the αrEhVps32 antibodies. As a loading control, the same membrane was re-blotted with αactin antibodies. (B) Densitometry analysis of bands showed in (A), normalized against actin band. (C) Diaminobenzidine-stained trophozoites that ingested erythrocytes for 30 min. (D) Rate of erythrophagocytosis of transfected trophozoites. (***) p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression and localization of EhVps32 and rate of erythrophagocytosis in pNeoEhvps32-HA transfected trophozoites. (A) Western blot assays of trophozoites lysates from wild type clone A (lane A) and pNeo (lane pNeo) and pNeoEhvps32-HA (lane EhVps32) transfected cells, using the αrEhVps32 antibodies. As a loading control, the same membrane was re-blotted with αactin antibodies. (B) Densitometry analysis of bands showed in (A), normalized against actin band. (C) Diaminobenzidine-stained trophozoites that ingested erythrocytes for 30 min. (D) Rate of erythrophagocytosis of transfected trophozoites. (***) p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transfection, Western Blot, Staining

    7) Product Images from "The Xylanase Inhibitor TAXI-I Increases Plant Resistance to Botrytis cinerea by Inhibiting the BcXyn11a Xylanase Necrotizing Activity"

    Article Title: The Xylanase Inhibitor TAXI-I Increases Plant Resistance to Botrytis cinerea by Inhibiting the BcXyn11a Xylanase Necrotizing Activity

    Journal: Plants

    doi: 10.3390/plants9050601

    Analysis of necrosis and H 2 O 2 production induced by BcXyn11a xylanase in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues and capacity of TAXI-I to limit the BcXyn11a effect in transgenic TAXI-I and wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0) leaves. ( A ) Necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a (Xyl) in infiltrated A. thaliana leaves of (1) pBI:GUS; (2) TAXI-I line 1; (3) TAXI-I line 2; (4) TAXI-I line 3 transgenic lines. ( B ) H 2 O 2 induction by BcXyn11a xylanase in A. thaliana TAXI-I and pBI:GUS transgenic lines. Leaves were infiltrated with the BcXyn11a xylanase (Xyl) and treated with diaminobenzidine to reveal H 2 O 2 accumulation. Samples: (1) pBI:GUS; (2) TAXI-I line 1; (3) TAXI-I line 2; (4) TAXI-I line 3. ( C ) Necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a assayed by droplet application method on wild-type Arabidopsis leaves using 70 ng of BcXyn11a (Xyl) alone or in combination with one µg of purified TAXI-I. Samples: (1) native BcXyn11a (nXyl); (2) boiled BcXyn11a (bXyl); (3) native BcXyn11a (nXyl) co-incubated with TAXI-I; (4) boiled BcXyn11a (bXyl) co-incubated with TAXI-I. In all experiments, acetate buffer 25 mM pH 5.2 (BcXyn11a buffer) was used as the negative control (C-). Xyl and C- indicates the infiltration and inoculation points. Pictures were taken three days after inoculation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of necrosis and H 2 O 2 production induced by BcXyn11a xylanase in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues and capacity of TAXI-I to limit the BcXyn11a effect in transgenic TAXI-I and wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0) leaves. ( A ) Necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a (Xyl) in infiltrated A. thaliana leaves of (1) pBI:GUS; (2) TAXI-I line 1; (3) TAXI-I line 2; (4) TAXI-I line 3 transgenic lines. ( B ) H 2 O 2 induction by BcXyn11a xylanase in A. thaliana TAXI-I and pBI:GUS transgenic lines. Leaves were infiltrated with the BcXyn11a xylanase (Xyl) and treated with diaminobenzidine to reveal H 2 O 2 accumulation. Samples: (1) pBI:GUS; (2) TAXI-I line 1; (3) TAXI-I line 2; (4) TAXI-I line 3. ( C ) Necrotizing activity of BcXyn11a assayed by droplet application method on wild-type Arabidopsis leaves using 70 ng of BcXyn11a (Xyl) alone or in combination with one µg of purified TAXI-I. Samples: (1) native BcXyn11a (nXyl); (2) boiled BcXyn11a (bXyl); (3) native BcXyn11a (nXyl) co-incubated with TAXI-I; (4) boiled BcXyn11a (bXyl) co-incubated with TAXI-I. In all experiments, acetate buffer 25 mM pH 5.2 (BcXyn11a buffer) was used as the negative control (C-). Xyl and C- indicates the infiltration and inoculation points. Pictures were taken three days after inoculation.

    Techniques Used: Transgenic Assay, Activity Assay, Purification, Incubation, Negative Control

    8) Product Images from "Cbp3 and Cbp6 are dispensable for synthesis regulation of cytochrome b in yeast mitochondria"

    Article Title: Cbp3 and Cbp6 are dispensable for synthesis regulation of cytochrome b in yeast mitochondria

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000547

    Cyt b forms supercomplex-like species in the absence of Cbp3 and Cbp6 in D273-10b lab strains. 200 μg of mitochondrial protein from the indicated mutants were solubilized with digitonin, divided, and then loaded in two different BN-PAGE systems. A , one BN-PAGE was analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies against Cyt b , Cor1, Rip1, and ATP synthase (as loading control). Asterisks indicate unspecific bands not related to Cyt b. B , the second BN-PAGE was treated with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and horse Cyt c to observe the C c O in-gel activity. Coomassie stain is shown as a loading control. C , 100 μg of mitochondrial protein were solubilized with dodecyl-maltoside and analyzed by BN-PAGE and Western blotting using antibodies against Cyt b , Cor1, and ATP synthase (the monomeric complex, V 1 , was used as loading control).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cyt b forms supercomplex-like species in the absence of Cbp3 and Cbp6 in D273-10b lab strains. 200 μg of mitochondrial protein from the indicated mutants were solubilized with digitonin, divided, and then loaded in two different BN-PAGE systems. A , one BN-PAGE was analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies against Cyt b , Cor1, Rip1, and ATP synthase (as loading control). Asterisks indicate unspecific bands not related to Cyt b. B , the second BN-PAGE was treated with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and horse Cyt c to observe the C c O in-gel activity. Coomassie stain is shown as a loading control. C , 100 μg of mitochondrial protein were solubilized with dodecyl-maltoside and analyzed by BN-PAGE and Western blotting using antibodies against Cyt b , Cor1, and ATP synthase (the monomeric complex, V 1 , was used as loading control).

    Techniques Used: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Western Blot, Activity Assay, Staining

    9) Product Images from "Fos Expression in Neurons of the Rat Vestibulo-Autonomic Pathway Activated by Sinusoidal Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation"

    Article Title: Fos Expression in Neurons of the Rat Vestibulo-Autonomic Pathway Activated by Sinusoidal Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

    Journal: Frontiers in Neurology

    doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00004

    Neurons in MVN activated by sGVS, visualized in vibratome sections processed for c-Fos immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining . The panels illustrate six rostro-caudal levels of the MVN from the same sGVS-stimulated rat. The images were obtained using the same microscopy and imaging conditions, and were subject to the same adjustments of brightness and contrast (see Materials and Methods ). In all panels, the midline is to the left. A dense cluster of immunopositive cells is present in the rostral pole of MVNpc (A,B) . The few activated neurons in MVNmc (A–D) are small diameter cells; none of the larger diameter neurons of this region were c-Fos-positive. c-Fos-stained cells were scattered throughout the caudal spinal vestibular nucleus (B–F) . Approximate Bregma levels are indicated in the upper right of each panel. Abbreviations: MVN, medial vestibular nucleus; MVNmc, medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular division; MVNpc, medial vestibular nucleus, parvocellular division; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarius; SpVN, spinal vestibular nucleus. Scale bar in (F) represents 100 μm, and is for all panels.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Neurons in MVN activated by sGVS, visualized in vibratome sections processed for c-Fos immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining . The panels illustrate six rostro-caudal levels of the MVN from the same sGVS-stimulated rat. The images were obtained using the same microscopy and imaging conditions, and were subject to the same adjustments of brightness and contrast (see Materials and Methods ). In all panels, the midline is to the left. A dense cluster of immunopositive cells is present in the rostral pole of MVNpc (A,B) . The few activated neurons in MVNmc (A–D) are small diameter cells; none of the larger diameter neurons of this region were c-Fos-positive. c-Fos-stained cells were scattered throughout the caudal spinal vestibular nucleus (B–F) . Approximate Bregma levels are indicated in the upper right of each panel. Abbreviations: MVN, medial vestibular nucleus; MVNmc, medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular division; MVNpc, medial vestibular nucleus, parvocellular division; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarius; SpVN, spinal vestibular nucleus. Scale bar in (F) represents 100 μm, and is for all panels.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Microscopy, Imaging

    Representative vibratome sections through the vestibular nuclei from two sGVS-stimulated (A,B) and two mock (non)stimulated (C,D) rats processed for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining of c-Fos protein . c-Fos-immunoreactive neuronal nuclei are apparent in the spinal and medial vestibular nuclei (SpVN, MVN), as well as nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), of the stimulated animals. Sections from the mock-stimulated animals contained c-Fos-labeled cells in NTS, but rarely in the vestibular nuclei. Scale bar in (D) is for all panels.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative vibratome sections through the vestibular nuclei from two sGVS-stimulated (A,B) and two mock (non)stimulated (C,D) rats processed for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining of c-Fos protein . c-Fos-immunoreactive neuronal nuclei are apparent in the spinal and medial vestibular nuclei (SpVN, MVN), as well as nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), of the stimulated animals. Sections from the mock-stimulated animals contained c-Fos-labeled cells in NTS, but rarely in the vestibular nuclei. Scale bar in (D) is for all panels.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Labeling

    A vibratome section through the caudal vestibular nuclei from an sGVS-stimulated rat, stained with anti-c-Fos antibody pre-incubated with a peptide blocker and then further processed for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining . Signal was negligible in such control sections, and in those in which primary and/or secondary reagents were omitted from the processing protocol.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A vibratome section through the caudal vestibular nuclei from an sGVS-stimulated rat, stained with anti-c-Fos antibody pre-incubated with a peptide blocker and then further processed for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining . Signal was negligible in such control sections, and in those in which primary and/or secondary reagents were omitted from the processing protocol.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Incubation

    10) Product Images from "miR-125b promotes cell death by targeting spindle assembly checkpoint gene MAD1 and modulating mitotic progression"

    Article Title: miR-125b promotes cell death by targeting spindle assembly checkpoint gene MAD1 and modulating mitotic progression

    Journal: Cell Death and Differentiation

    doi: 10.1038/cdd.2012.135

    MAD1 expression negatively correlates with that of miR-125b in HNOC. ( a ) Reciprocal relation of miR-125b and MAD1 in HNOC tumours. Total RNA was isolated from primary HNOC tissues ( n =25) and adjacent normal tissues ( n =20). cDNA was prepared by stem-loop primers specific for miR-125b and miR-17-5p and subjected to RT-PCR. Values were normalized to those of miR-17-5p. For MAD1, the above RNA was reverse transcribed and cDNA was subjected to RT-PCR using MAD1 -specific primers. GAPDH was used as endogenous control. ΔΔCt values were calculated and data plotted in terms of log 2 of relative expressions. P -values are indicated. ‘ n ' represents the number of tumour samples and circles represent outliers. ( b ) Representative images showing inverse relation between Mad1 and miR-125b in primary HNOC tissues. Paraffin-embedded tissues samples (in which miR-125b expression was found to be low and Mad1 expression was high and vice versa ; n =16) were processed for IHC with antibody against Mad1, stained with 3,3′diaminobenzidine and counterstained with hematoxylin. Nuclei, which stained mild or deep brown represent moderate or high expression of Mad1, respectively. Blue/bluish-purple staining of nuclei represents low Mad1 expression. Images represent × 20 magnification, while inset images represent × 40 magnification. Scale bars represent 50 μ m. T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 are representative tumour samples taken from six individual patients
    Figure Legend Snippet: MAD1 expression negatively correlates with that of miR-125b in HNOC. ( a ) Reciprocal relation of miR-125b and MAD1 in HNOC tumours. Total RNA was isolated from primary HNOC tissues ( n =25) and adjacent normal tissues ( n =20). cDNA was prepared by stem-loop primers specific for miR-125b and miR-17-5p and subjected to RT-PCR. Values were normalized to those of miR-17-5p. For MAD1, the above RNA was reverse transcribed and cDNA was subjected to RT-PCR using MAD1 -specific primers. GAPDH was used as endogenous control. ΔΔCt values were calculated and data plotted in terms of log 2 of relative expressions. P -values are indicated. ‘ n ' represents the number of tumour samples and circles represent outliers. ( b ) Representative images showing inverse relation between Mad1 and miR-125b in primary HNOC tissues. Paraffin-embedded tissues samples (in which miR-125b expression was found to be low and Mad1 expression was high and vice versa ; n =16) were processed for IHC with antibody against Mad1, stained with 3,3′diaminobenzidine and counterstained with hematoxylin. Nuclei, which stained mild or deep brown represent moderate or high expression of Mad1, respectively. Blue/bluish-purple staining of nuclei represents low Mad1 expression. Images represent × 20 magnification, while inset images represent × 40 magnification. Scale bars represent 50 μ m. T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 are representative tumour samples taken from six individual patients

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    11) Product Images from "Centrifugal Migration of Mesenchymal Cells in Embryonic Lung"

    Article Title: Centrifugal Migration of Mesenchymal Cells in Embryonic Lung

    Journal: Developmental Dynamics

    doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21462

    Immunohistochemical characterization of placental alkaline phosphatase–positive (PLAP+) cells. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out as detailed in the Experimental Procedures section. L, airway lumen. a: Cytokeratin immunostaining of embryonic day (E) 11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with diaminobenzidine as substrate. Large cleft arrowheads demarcate PLAP+ cells extending along one stretch of cytokeratin-positive epithelium. The small triangular arrowhead in the left lower corner indicates a fold in the tissue section. b: Smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunostaining of E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with NovoRed as substrate. Representative SMA+ cells are indicated by short red arrows; several PLAP+ cells are indicated by black arrowheads. Long black arrows indicate a few cells with visible colocalization of both red SMA immunostaining and purple PLAP staining. One cluster, indicated by dotted lines, is shown at higher power in the inset in the lower right hand corner. c: Desmin immunostaining of E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with NovoRed as substrate. Representative desmin+ cells are indicated by short red arrows, and several PLAP+ cells are indicated by black arrowheads. d: Another desmin-immunostained E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days is shown at lower power, with developing smooth muscle visible below the carina (*) and with PLAP+ staining laterally, between the epithelium and the cartilage. e: A representative negative control section adjacent to d was stained in parallel with d using normal rabbit IgG instead of rabbit antidesmin IgG. Note the absence of red immunostaining. f: A section of an E11.5 lung bud cultured for 11 days is shown, with the pleural surface at the top (indicated by three asterisks). Long arrows indicate PLAP+ cells and arrowheads indicate SMA+ immunostaining. Note the partial overlap of SMA and PLAP staining in some cells and the close association between SMA+ and PLAP+ cells. Less than half of the subpleural PLAP+ cells were SMA+ (data not shown). Scale bars = 25 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunohistochemical characterization of placental alkaline phosphatase–positive (PLAP+) cells. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out as detailed in the Experimental Procedures section. L, airway lumen. a: Cytokeratin immunostaining of embryonic day (E) 11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with diaminobenzidine as substrate. Large cleft arrowheads demarcate PLAP+ cells extending along one stretch of cytokeratin-positive epithelium. The small triangular arrowhead in the left lower corner indicates a fold in the tissue section. b: Smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunostaining of E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with NovoRed as substrate. Representative SMA+ cells are indicated by short red arrows; several PLAP+ cells are indicated by black arrowheads. Long black arrows indicate a few cells with visible colocalization of both red SMA immunostaining and purple PLAP staining. One cluster, indicated by dotted lines, is shown at higher power in the inset in the lower right hand corner. c: Desmin immunostaining of E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days, with NovoRed as substrate. Representative desmin+ cells are indicated by short red arrows, and several PLAP+ cells are indicated by black arrowheads. d: Another desmin-immunostained E11.5 lung bud cultured for 9 days is shown at lower power, with developing smooth muscle visible below the carina (*) and with PLAP+ staining laterally, between the epithelium and the cartilage. e: A representative negative control section adjacent to d was stained in parallel with d using normal rabbit IgG instead of rabbit antidesmin IgG. Note the absence of red immunostaining. f: A section of an E11.5 lung bud cultured for 11 days is shown, with the pleural surface at the top (indicated by three asterisks). Long arrows indicate PLAP+ cells and arrowheads indicate SMA+ immunostaining. Note the partial overlap of SMA and PLAP staining in some cells and the close association between SMA+ and PLAP+ cells. Less than half of the subpleural PLAP+ cells were SMA+ (data not shown). Scale bars = 25 μm.

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Immunostaining, Cell Culture, Negative Control

    12) Product Images from "Late-onset Parkinsonism in NF?B/c-Rel-deficient mice"

    Article Title: Late-onset Parkinsonism in NF?B/c-Rel-deficient mice

    Journal: Brain

    doi: 10.1093/brain/aws193

    DMT1 immunoreactivity and iron staining in mesencephalon of 18-month-old c-rel −/− and wild-type mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase staining ( A and B ) and diaminobenzidine enhanced Perl iron staining ( C–F ) in sections of 18-month-old wild-type ( A, C and E ) and c-rel −/− mice ( B, D and F ). Higher magnifications of Perl iron staining are in panels E and F . While the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons decreased, the iron staining significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata of c-rel −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Representative immunoblotting of the ferrous iron transporter DMT1 in the striatal and mesencephalic extracts of 18-month-old wild-type and c-rel −/− mice ( G ). Densitometric analysis of DMT1 relative to GAPDH ( H ). DMT1 60 and 90 kDa bands significantly increased in the mesencephalon of c-rel −/− mice (-/-) compared with wild-type animals. Significant difference in the DMT1 90 kDa band was detected in the striatum. Values represent the mean ± SEM ( n = 3 animals per group, * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: DMT1 immunoreactivity and iron staining in mesencephalon of 18-month-old c-rel −/− and wild-type mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase staining ( A and B ) and diaminobenzidine enhanced Perl iron staining ( C–F ) in sections of 18-month-old wild-type ( A, C and E ) and c-rel −/− mice ( B, D and F ). Higher magnifications of Perl iron staining are in panels E and F . While the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons decreased, the iron staining significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata of c-rel −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Representative immunoblotting of the ferrous iron transporter DMT1 in the striatal and mesencephalic extracts of 18-month-old wild-type and c-rel −/− mice ( G ). Densitometric analysis of DMT1 relative to GAPDH ( H ). DMT1 60 and 90 kDa bands significantly increased in the mesencephalon of c-rel −/− mice (-/-) compared with wild-type animals. Significant difference in the DMT1 90 kDa band was detected in the striatum. Values represent the mean ± SEM ( n = 3 animals per group, * P

    Techniques Used: Staining, Mouse Assay

    13) Product Images from "Rat heart: A site of oxytocin production and action"

    Article Title: Rat heart: A site of oxytocin production and action

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    doi:

    Immunocytochemical staining of sections of rat atrium ( A ) and ventricle ( B ) with rabbit anti-OT antibody at final dilution of 1/250 and atrium ( C ) and ventricle ( D ) with rabbit anti-OTR antibody diluted 1/250. The results are related to control sections cut on the border of the atrium (lower part of images) and the ventricle (upper part of images) reacted with anti-ANP rabbit antibody diluted 1/500 ( E ) and normal rabbit serum ( F ). The specific immunostaining is visible as a yellow-brownish color after incubation with F(ab′) 2 fragments of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG and diaminobenzidine. The sections were counterstained with hematoxylin.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunocytochemical staining of sections of rat atrium ( A ) and ventricle ( B ) with rabbit anti-OT antibody at final dilution of 1/250 and atrium ( C ) and ventricle ( D ) with rabbit anti-OTR antibody diluted 1/250. The results are related to control sections cut on the border of the atrium (lower part of images) and the ventricle (upper part of images) reacted with anti-ANP rabbit antibody diluted 1/500 ( E ) and normal rabbit serum ( F ). The specific immunostaining is visible as a yellow-brownish color after incubation with F(ab′) 2 fragments of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG and diaminobenzidine. The sections were counterstained with hematoxylin.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Aqueous Normal-phase Chromatography, Immunostaining, Incubation

    14) Product Images from "Gene Transfer into Rat Brain Using Adenoviral Vectors"

    Article Title: Gene Transfer into Rat Brain Using Adenoviral Vectors

    Journal: Current protocols in neuroscience / editorial board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et al.]

    doi: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0424s50

    Staining reaction for immunohistochemistry, using glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and 3′3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Staining reaction for immunohistochemistry, using glucose oxidase (GOD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and 3′3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Immunohistochemistry

    15) Product Images from "An Extralemniscal Component of the Mustached Bat Inferior Colliculus Selective for Direction and Rate of Linear Frequency Modulations"

    Article Title: An Extralemniscal Component of the Mustached Bat Inferior Colliculus Selective for Direction and Rate of Linear Frequency Modulations

    Journal: The Journal of comparative neurology

    doi:

    A: Drawings depicting the connections of the ventral division of the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICXv) determined from focal wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injection (filled area a) in one bat. B: Photomicrograph of diaminobenzidine (DAB)-reacted WGA-HRP-stained section (CytOx counterstained) showing the size of the injection site. In A, labeling is shown on five transverse brain sections. The rostrocaudal distance between the sections is 360 µm for the two most caudal sections, and about 600 µm between the remaining rostral sections. Large filled circles represent cell bodies labeled by retrograde transport; lines and small dots represent labeled fibers or terminals, respectively. Open circles are labeled cells in the immediate vicinity of the injection site. a: Injection site in the ICXv indicated by filled area (reconstructed from DAB-stained section shown in A). b: Retrogradely labeled cell bodies in the nucleus of the central acoustic tract (NCAT; tetramethylbenzidine [TMB] reaction). c: Labeled fibers coursing medial to the lateral lemniscus. d: Fibers in the deep superior colliculus (SCd). e: Fine punctate labeling in the suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the medial geniculate body. f: Transport of tracer to Sg was via fibers running along the ventral half of brachium of the inferior colliculus (BIC). D, dorsal; m, medial; c, caudal; v, ventral; l, lateral; r, rostral. Scale bar in B = 500 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A: Drawings depicting the connections of the ventral division of the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICXv) determined from focal wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injection (filled area a) in one bat. B: Photomicrograph of diaminobenzidine (DAB)-reacted WGA-HRP-stained section (CytOx counterstained) showing the size of the injection site. In A, labeling is shown on five transverse brain sections. The rostrocaudal distance between the sections is 360 µm for the two most caudal sections, and about 600 µm between the remaining rostral sections. Large filled circles represent cell bodies labeled by retrograde transport; lines and small dots represent labeled fibers or terminals, respectively. Open circles are labeled cells in the immediate vicinity of the injection site. a: Injection site in the ICXv indicated by filled area (reconstructed from DAB-stained section shown in A). b: Retrogradely labeled cell bodies in the nucleus of the central acoustic tract (NCAT; tetramethylbenzidine [TMB] reaction). c: Labeled fibers coursing medial to the lateral lemniscus. d: Fibers in the deep superior colliculus (SCd). e: Fine punctate labeling in the suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the medial geniculate body. f: Transport of tracer to Sg was via fibers running along the ventral half of brachium of the inferior colliculus (BIC). D, dorsal; m, medial; c, caudal; v, ventral; l, lateral; r, rostral. Scale bar in B = 500 µm.

    Techniques Used: Whole Genome Amplification, Injection, Staining, Labeling

    Serial transverse sections of the rostral half of auditory midbrain showing the location of ventral division of the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICXv) and its relationship to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC anterolateral division, ALD) and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL; intermediate nucleus, INLL; dorsal nucleus, DNLL; single focal wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase [WGA-HRP] injection, diaminobenzidine [DAB] reaction, cresyl violet counterstain). Sections (50-µm-thick) are arranged from rostral ( A ) to caudal ( D ) at intervals of 100 µm. Trajectories of some electrode penetrations are visible as labeled tracks above the injection site in B and C . For abbreviations in this and subsequent figures, see list. Scale bar = 500 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Serial transverse sections of the rostral half of auditory midbrain showing the location of ventral division of the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICXv) and its relationship to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC anterolateral division, ALD) and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL; intermediate nucleus, INLL; dorsal nucleus, DNLL; single focal wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase [WGA-HRP] injection, diaminobenzidine [DAB] reaction, cresyl violet counterstain). Sections (50-µm-thick) are arranged from rostral ( A ) to caudal ( D ) at intervals of 100 µm. Trajectories of some electrode penetrations are visible as labeled tracks above the injection site in B and C . For abbreviations in this and subsequent figures, see list. Scale bar = 500 µm.

    Techniques Used: Immunocytochemistry, Whole Genome Amplification, Injection, Labeling

    16) Product Images from "Carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells promotes recovery from stroke"

    Article Title: Carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells promotes recovery from stroke

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S30273

    Immunostaining was performed with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker; red), and Ki67 (proliferation marker) in ( A ) the experimental control group (without subventricular zone neural progenitor cell transplantation) and ( B ) the subventricular zone neural progenitor cells alone, ( C ) hydrophilic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cell, and ( D ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cell transplantation groups 5 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. Glial fibrillary immunopositive cells are stained red and Ki67 immunopositive cells are stained green. The diaminobenzidine staining results for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (evidenced by brown-stained cells) in ( E ) hydrophilic and ( F ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells are also shown. Notes: Carbon nanotubes appear black in the histological sections and are marked by □. Original magnification for immunohistological staining was ×800. Bar =50 μm. Abbreviation: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunostaining was performed with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker; red), and Ki67 (proliferation marker) in ( A ) the experimental control group (without subventricular zone neural progenitor cell transplantation) and ( B ) the subventricular zone neural progenitor cells alone, ( C ) hydrophilic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cell, and ( D ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cell transplantation groups 5 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. Glial fibrillary immunopositive cells are stained red and Ki67 immunopositive cells are stained green. The diaminobenzidine staining results for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (evidenced by brown-stained cells) in ( E ) hydrophilic and ( F ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells are also shown. Notes: Carbon nanotubes appear black in the histological sections and are marked by □. Original magnification for immunohistological staining was ×800. Bar =50 μm. Abbreviation: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.

    Techniques Used: Immunostaining, Marker, Transplantation Assay, Staining

    ( A ) Hydrophilic and ( B ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes were impregnated with bromodeoxyuridine-stained (red; original magnification ×400) subventricular zone neural progenitor cells and transplanted onto the injury site after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. The images show (a) the cross section of the injured brain stained with hematoxylin and eosin (where b□, c□, and d□ represent the cortex, corpus callosum, and striatum region of the brain, respectively), the migration of carbon nanotubes in the (b) cortex region, (c) corpus callosum, and (d) striatum region of the brain, and (e) diaminobenzidine staining results for nestin immunoreactivity (evidenced by brownstained cells) 1 week after transplantation. Notes: Carbon nanotubes appear black in the histological sections and are marked by □. Arrows indicate bromodeoxyuridine-labeled subventricular zone neural progenitor cells. Original magnification for immunohistological staining was ×800. Scale bars =50 μm. Abbreviation: CN, carbon nanotubes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Hydrophilic and ( B ) hydrophobic carbon nanotubes were impregnated with bromodeoxyuridine-stained (red; original magnification ×400) subventricular zone neural progenitor cells and transplanted onto the injury site after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. The images show (a) the cross section of the injured brain stained with hematoxylin and eosin (where b□, c□, and d□ represent the cortex, corpus callosum, and striatum region of the brain, respectively), the migration of carbon nanotubes in the (b) cortex region, (c) corpus callosum, and (d) striatum region of the brain, and (e) diaminobenzidine staining results for nestin immunoreactivity (evidenced by brownstained cells) 1 week after transplantation. Notes: Carbon nanotubes appear black in the histological sections and are marked by □. Arrows indicate bromodeoxyuridine-labeled subventricular zone neural progenitor cells. Original magnification for immunohistological staining was ×800. Scale bars =50 μm. Abbreviation: CN, carbon nanotubes.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Migration, Transplantation Assay, Labeling

    17) Product Images from "Mimicking Aspects of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lou Gehrig's Disease in Rats via TDP-43 Overexpression"

    Article Title: Mimicking Aspects of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lou Gehrig's Disease in Rats via TDP-43 Overexpression

    Journal: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy

    doi: 10.1038/mt.2009.3

    Labeling for apoptotic nuclei. End labeling with biotinylated nucleotides was visualized with a diaminobenzidine chromagen with a methylene green counterstain. End labeling occurred after ( a ) TDP-43 injections, but not after ( b ) control injections ( c ) higher magnification of end labeling as in a . Interval of 2 weeks and equal vector doses of 3 × 10 10 vector genomes. a,b , bar = 34 µm; c , bar = 21 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Labeling for apoptotic nuclei. End labeling with biotinylated nucleotides was visualized with a diaminobenzidine chromagen with a methylene green counterstain. End labeling occurred after ( a ) TDP-43 injections, but not after ( b ) control injections ( c ) higher magnification of end labeling as in a . Interval of 2 weeks and equal vector doses of 3 × 10 10 vector genomes. a,b , bar = 34 µm; c , bar = 21 µm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, End Labeling, Plasmid Preparation

    18) Product Images from "Reactive oxygen species form part of a regulatory pathway initiating trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons"

    Article Title: Reactive oxygen species form part of a regulatory pathway initiating trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers029

    Localization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in transverse sectioned Vicia faba cotyledons during wall ingrowth induction. Representative light micrographs of transverse sectioned cotyledons following culture for 15 h on MS medium alone (A), or MS medium containing either 100 μM diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; B) or 10 μM hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ; C). All media contained 1 mg ml −1 diaminobenzidine (DAB) to localize H 2 O 2 detected as H 2 O 2 -induced DAB polymerization visualized as brown precipitates indicated by arrows, noting that (B) exhibits an extremely faint signal. ec, adaxial epidermal cell; sp, storage parenchyma cell. Bar=20 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Localization of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in transverse sectioned Vicia faba cotyledons during wall ingrowth induction. Representative light micrographs of transverse sectioned cotyledons following culture for 15 h on MS medium alone (A), or MS medium containing either 100 μM diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; B) or 10 μM hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ; C). All media contained 1 mg ml −1 diaminobenzidine (DAB) to localize H 2 O 2 detected as H 2 O 2 -induced DAB polymerization visualized as brown precipitates indicated by arrows, noting that (B) exhibits an extremely faint signal. ec, adaxial epidermal cell; sp, storage parenchyma cell. Bar=20 μm.

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    19) Product Images from "Acquisition of immune function during the development of the Langerhans cell network in neonatal mice"

    Article Title: Acquisition of immune function during the development of the Langerhans cell network in neonatal mice

    Journal: Immunology

    doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2567.2001.01221.x

    Density of MHC II + and DEC-205 + cells within epidermis of neonatal, juvenile and adult mice. Epidermal sheets prepared from mice at 3, 7 and 14 days, and 6 weeks were acetone fixed and stained with anti-MHC II (filled bars) and anti-DEC-205 (open bars) antibodies. Staining was visualized with diaminobenzidine (DAB). Cells were enumerated and density calculated using NIH Image software. Results shown are mean LC density (± SEM) from five fields obtained from six separate animals.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Density of MHC II + and DEC-205 + cells within epidermis of neonatal, juvenile and adult mice. Epidermal sheets prepared from mice at 3, 7 and 14 days, and 6 weeks were acetone fixed and stained with anti-MHC II (filled bars) and anti-DEC-205 (open bars) antibodies. Staining was visualized with diaminobenzidine (DAB). Cells were enumerated and density calculated using NIH Image software. Results shown are mean LC density (± SEM) from five fields obtained from six separate animals.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Staining, Software

    20) Product Images from "Tracheal Aspirate Levels of the Matricellular Protein SPARC Predict Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia"

    Article Title: Tracheal Aspirate Levels of the Matricellular Protein SPARC Predict Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144122

    Increased SPARC expression in human lungs of infants with BPD. Lung sections were immunostained with rabbit anti-human SPARC, labeled with biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG and developed using the Vectastain Elite ABC kit and diaminobenzidine. A-C. Lungs of three full term infants dying of non-pulmonary causes are shown. There is little or no SPARC staining (brown) in the alveolar walls. D. The lung of an infant born at 26 weeks gestational age who died on postnatal day 13. Panel E is the IgG control for panel A. F-I. Lung sections from four infants dying of BPD. Three infants (F-H) show increased SPARC expression in the thickened alveolar interstitium. Panel J is the IgG control for panel F. (Original magnification, 200X).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Increased SPARC expression in human lungs of infants with BPD. Lung sections were immunostained with rabbit anti-human SPARC, labeled with biotinylated anti-rabbit IgG and developed using the Vectastain Elite ABC kit and diaminobenzidine. A-C. Lungs of three full term infants dying of non-pulmonary causes are shown. There is little or no SPARC staining (brown) in the alveolar walls. D. The lung of an infant born at 26 weeks gestational age who died on postnatal day 13. Panel E is the IgG control for panel A. F-I. Lung sections from four infants dying of BPD. Three infants (F-H) show increased SPARC expression in the thickened alveolar interstitium. Panel J is the IgG control for panel F. (Original magnification, 200X).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling, Staining

    21) Product Images from "Exosomes taken up by neurons hijack the endosomal pathway to spread to interconnected neurons"

    Article Title: Exosomes taken up by neurons hijack the endosomal pathway to spread to interconnected neurons

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-018-0514-4

    Hijacking of endogenous endosomes revealed by electron microscopy. Hippocampal neurons in microfluidic devices in Ch1 according to model 2 were treated with exosomes isolated from mouse brains and labeled with FM1–43FX, a fluorescent dye that reacts with diaminobenzidine (DAB) to form insoluble dark precipitates that are visualized by electron microscopy. a Electron microscopy image of a neuronal soma in Ch1, showing that the majority of endosomes contain DAB-positive exosomes of exogenous origin (black arrowheads). A few endosomes are DAB-negative (white arrowheads). b High magnification of endosomes located in the neuronal soma, showing a mixture of exogenous DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). c Somatic endosome showing engulfment and fusion with a smaller endosome containing DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowhead “ a ”). An exogenous DAB-positive exosome can be seen close to the fused endosome (black arrowhead “ b ”). Endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles are also visualized (black arrows). d-f Endosomes found in axons. (d) Low magnification of axons transporting a small DAB-positive endosome (black arrowhead “ a ”) and a large endosome in front of it (black arrowhead “ b ”). e High magnification of a large axonal endosome containing a mixture of DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative vesicles (black arrows). f Axonal termini showing endosome fusion with the plasma membrane (indicated with “!”) during exosome release and potential residue of the back-fusion with the limiting membrane of the endosome ( * ). Exogenous DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative exosomes (black arrows). g-i Endosomes found in dendrites. g Low magnification of a dendrite demonstrating the presence of endosomes carrying both DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). h and i High magnification of dendritic endosomes carrying DAB-positive exosomes less than 100 nm diameter (black arrowheads) together with DAB-negative vesicles of a similar size (black arrows). m, mitochondria; n, nucleus
    Figure Legend Snippet: Hijacking of endogenous endosomes revealed by electron microscopy. Hippocampal neurons in microfluidic devices in Ch1 according to model 2 were treated with exosomes isolated from mouse brains and labeled with FM1–43FX, a fluorescent dye that reacts with diaminobenzidine (DAB) to form insoluble dark precipitates that are visualized by electron microscopy. a Electron microscopy image of a neuronal soma in Ch1, showing that the majority of endosomes contain DAB-positive exosomes of exogenous origin (black arrowheads). A few endosomes are DAB-negative (white arrowheads). b High magnification of endosomes located in the neuronal soma, showing a mixture of exogenous DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). c Somatic endosome showing engulfment and fusion with a smaller endosome containing DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowhead “ a ”). An exogenous DAB-positive exosome can be seen close to the fused endosome (black arrowhead “ b ”). Endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles are also visualized (black arrows). d-f Endosomes found in axons. (d) Low magnification of axons transporting a small DAB-positive endosome (black arrowhead “ a ”) and a large endosome in front of it (black arrowhead “ b ”). e High magnification of a large axonal endosome containing a mixture of DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative vesicles (black arrows). f Axonal termini showing endosome fusion with the plasma membrane (indicated with “!”) during exosome release and potential residue of the back-fusion with the limiting membrane of the endosome ( * ). Exogenous DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative exosomes (black arrows). g-i Endosomes found in dendrites. g Low magnification of a dendrite demonstrating the presence of endosomes carrying both DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). h and i High magnification of dendritic endosomes carrying DAB-positive exosomes less than 100 nm diameter (black arrowheads) together with DAB-negative vesicles of a similar size (black arrows). m, mitochondria; n, nucleus

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Isolation, Labeling

    22) Product Images from "DIRECT PROJECTIONS FROM THE CAUDAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEI TO THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA IN THE RAT"

    Article Title: DIRECT PROJECTIONS FROM THE CAUDAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEI TO THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA IN THE RAT

    Journal: Neuroscience

    doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.12.011

    Retrograde injections in the VLM and retrogradely-labeled cells in the VNCc. A. An example of the largest FluoroGold injection in this study, visualized using diaminobenzidine. The injection site was directed at the ventral surface of the brainstem at the caudal pole of RVLM, approximately 12.8 mm caudal to Bregma. Tracer spread was approximately 100 μm rostro-caudally, and 500 μm medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally. Local labeled cell bodies were apparent within the tracer diffusion penumbra. B – D: Examples of retrogradely-labeled globular (B), multipolar (C) and fusiform (D) cells in the spinal vestibular nucleus following a FluoroGold injection in the caudal RVLM. E, F: Examples of FluoroGold-immunofluorescent cells in the periventricular (E) and tegmental (F) portions of the caudal medial vestibular nucleus. Panels B–F are maximum intensity projections of a series of 40x Apotome images collected serially through the z-axis of each neuron. Scale bar in F is for panels B–F. Abbreviations: Amb: nucleus ambiguus; mlf: medial longitudinal fasciculus; MVe: medial vestibular nucleus; RVLM: rostral ventrolateral medulla; Sol: solitary nucleus; SpVe: spinal (inferior) vestibular nucleus.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Retrograde injections in the VLM and retrogradely-labeled cells in the VNCc. A. An example of the largest FluoroGold injection in this study, visualized using diaminobenzidine. The injection site was directed at the ventral surface of the brainstem at the caudal pole of RVLM, approximately 12.8 mm caudal to Bregma. Tracer spread was approximately 100 μm rostro-caudally, and 500 μm medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally. Local labeled cell bodies were apparent within the tracer diffusion penumbra. B – D: Examples of retrogradely-labeled globular (B), multipolar (C) and fusiform (D) cells in the spinal vestibular nucleus following a FluoroGold injection in the caudal RVLM. E, F: Examples of FluoroGold-immunofluorescent cells in the periventricular (E) and tegmental (F) portions of the caudal medial vestibular nucleus. Panels B–F are maximum intensity projections of a series of 40x Apotome images collected serially through the z-axis of each neuron. Scale bar in F is for panels B–F. Abbreviations: Amb: nucleus ambiguus; mlf: medial longitudinal fasciculus; MVe: medial vestibular nucleus; RVLM: rostral ventrolateral medulla; Sol: solitary nucleus; SpVe: spinal (inferior) vestibular nucleus.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Injection, Diffusion-based Assay

    Representative anterograde tracer injection sites. A. The location and extent of the largest of the anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris ). Darker gray shades indicate greater tracer deposition. The injection was almost entirely restricted to the caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) although some of the penumbra showed diffusion into the adjacent spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) caudally and prepositus nucleus (Pr) rostrally. Approximate Bregma coordinates from the published atlas are indicated in the midline of each schematic section. B. PhaL injection placed in the caudal MVe, visualized using diaminobenzidine. Other than a small amount of tracer spread into the adjacent spinal vestibular nucleus, the injection remained within the confines of the medial nucleus. Abbreviations: 8n: vestibulo-cochlear nerve; 12: hypoglossal nucleus; Amb: nucleus ambiguus; DC: dorsal cochlear nucleus; ECu: external cuneate nucleus; icp: inferior cerebellar peduncle; Li: linear nucleus; LVe: lateral vestibular nucleus; mlf: medial longitudinal fasciculus; MVeMC: medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular division; MVePC: medial vestibular nucleus, parvocellular division; Pr: prepositus nucleus; py: pyramids; RVL: rostral ventrolateral medulla; scp: superior cerebellar peduncle; sol: solitary tract; Sol: solitary nucleus; sp5: spinal trigeminal tract; Sp5I: spinal trigeminal nucleus, pars interpolaris; SpVe: spinal (inferior) vestibular nucleus; SuVe: superior vestibular nucleus; VCP: ventral cochlear nucleus, posterior division.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative anterograde tracer injection sites. A. The location and extent of the largest of the anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris ). Darker gray shades indicate greater tracer deposition. The injection was almost entirely restricted to the caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) although some of the penumbra showed diffusion into the adjacent spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) caudally and prepositus nucleus (Pr) rostrally. Approximate Bregma coordinates from the published atlas are indicated in the midline of each schematic section. B. PhaL injection placed in the caudal MVe, visualized using diaminobenzidine. Other than a small amount of tracer spread into the adjacent spinal vestibular nucleus, the injection remained within the confines of the medial nucleus. Abbreviations: 8n: vestibulo-cochlear nerve; 12: hypoglossal nucleus; Amb: nucleus ambiguus; DC: dorsal cochlear nucleus; ECu: external cuneate nucleus; icp: inferior cerebellar peduncle; Li: linear nucleus; LVe: lateral vestibular nucleus; mlf: medial longitudinal fasciculus; MVeMC: medial vestibular nucleus, magnocellular division; MVePC: medial vestibular nucleus, parvocellular division; Pr: prepositus nucleus; py: pyramids; RVL: rostral ventrolateral medulla; scp: superior cerebellar peduncle; sol: solitary tract; Sol: solitary nucleus; sp5: spinal trigeminal tract; Sp5I: spinal trigeminal nucleus, pars interpolaris; SpVe: spinal (inferior) vestibular nucleus; SuVe: superior vestibular nucleus; VCP: ventral cochlear nucleus, posterior division.

    Techniques Used: Injection, Diffusion-based Assay

    23) Product Images from "Exosomes taken up by neurons hijack the endosomal pathway to spread to interconnected neurons"

    Article Title: Exosomes taken up by neurons hijack the endosomal pathway to spread to interconnected neurons

    Journal: Acta Neuropathologica Communications

    doi: 10.1186/s40478-018-0514-4

    Hijacking of endogenous endosomes revealed by electron microscopy. Hippocampal neurons in microfluidic devices in Ch1 according to model 2 were treated with exosomes isolated from mouse brains and labeled with FM1–43FX, a fluorescent dye that reacts with diaminobenzidine (DAB) to form insoluble dark precipitates that are visualized by electron microscopy. a Electron microscopy image of a neuronal soma in Ch1, showing that the majority of endosomes contain DAB-positive exosomes of exogenous origin (black arrowheads). A few endosomes are DAB-negative (white arrowheads). b High magnification of endosomes located in the neuronal soma, showing a mixture of exogenous DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). c Somatic endosome showing engulfment and fusion with a smaller endosome containing DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowhead “ a ”). An exogenous DAB-positive exosome can be seen close to the fused endosome (black arrowhead “ b ”). Endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles are also visualized (black arrows). d-f Endosomes found in axons. (d) Low magnification of axons transporting a small DAB-positive endosome (black arrowhead “ a ”) and a large endosome in front of it (black arrowhead “ b ”). e High magnification of a large axonal endosome containing a mixture of DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative vesicles (black arrows). f Axonal termini showing endosome fusion with the plasma membrane (indicated with “!”) during exosome release and potential residue of the back-fusion with the limiting membrane of the endosome ( * ). Exogenous DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative exosomes (black arrows). g-i Endosomes found in dendrites. g Low magnification of a dendrite demonstrating the presence of endosomes carrying both DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). h and i High magnification of dendritic endosomes carrying DAB-positive exosomes less than 100 nm diameter (black arrowheads) together with DAB-negative vesicles of a similar size (black arrows). m, mitochondria; n, nucleus
    Figure Legend Snippet: Hijacking of endogenous endosomes revealed by electron microscopy. Hippocampal neurons in microfluidic devices in Ch1 according to model 2 were treated with exosomes isolated from mouse brains and labeled with FM1–43FX, a fluorescent dye that reacts with diaminobenzidine (DAB) to form insoluble dark precipitates that are visualized by electron microscopy. a Electron microscopy image of a neuronal soma in Ch1, showing that the majority of endosomes contain DAB-positive exosomes of exogenous origin (black arrowheads). A few endosomes are DAB-negative (white arrowheads). b High magnification of endosomes located in the neuronal soma, showing a mixture of exogenous DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). c Somatic endosome showing engulfment and fusion with a smaller endosome containing DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowhead “ a ”). An exogenous DAB-positive exosome can be seen close to the fused endosome (black arrowhead “ b ”). Endogenous DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles are also visualized (black arrows). d-f Endosomes found in axons. (d) Low magnification of axons transporting a small DAB-positive endosome (black arrowhead “ a ”) and a large endosome in front of it (black arrowhead “ b ”). e High magnification of a large axonal endosome containing a mixture of DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative vesicles (black arrows). f Axonal termini showing endosome fusion with the plasma membrane (indicated with “!”) during exosome release and potential residue of the back-fusion with the limiting membrane of the endosome ( * ). Exogenous DAB-positive (black arrowheads) and endogenous DAB-negative exosomes (black arrows). g-i Endosomes found in dendrites. g Low magnification of a dendrite demonstrating the presence of endosomes carrying both DAB-positive exosomes (black arrowheads) and DAB-negative intraluminal nanovesicles (black arrows). h and i High magnification of dendritic endosomes carrying DAB-positive exosomes less than 100 nm diameter (black arrowheads) together with DAB-negative vesicles of a similar size (black arrows). m, mitochondria; n, nucleus

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Isolation, Labeling

    24) Product Images from "Angiotensin II type 2 receptor overexpression activates the vascular kinin system and causes vasodilation"

    Article Title: Angiotensin II type 2 receptor overexpression activates the vascular kinin system and causes vasodilation

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation

    doi:

    Immunohistochemical localization of AT2 and AT1 in the medial layer of the aorta. The immunostaining, using antibodies for von Willebrand factor (vWF) ( a ) and VSM-specific α-actin ( b ), indicates the localization of the endothelium and medial layer in the aorta, respectively. Positive immunostaining for AT2 was highly localized in the medial layer of the aorta from AT2-TG mice ( c ), whereas in the wild-type mice, no significant AT2 signals were observed in the aorta ( d ). Immunochemical signals for AT1 were detected in the medial layers of the aortas from wild-type and AT2-TG mice to a similar extent ( e and f ). Positive staining was viewed with avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase reaction using diaminobenzidine. Asterisks indicate the lumen of the aorta.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunohistochemical localization of AT2 and AT1 in the medial layer of the aorta. The immunostaining, using antibodies for von Willebrand factor (vWF) ( a ) and VSM-specific α-actin ( b ), indicates the localization of the endothelium and medial layer in the aorta, respectively. Positive immunostaining for AT2 was highly localized in the medial layer of the aorta from AT2-TG mice ( c ), whereas in the wild-type mice, no significant AT2 signals were observed in the aorta ( d ). Immunochemical signals for AT1 were detected in the medial layers of the aortas from wild-type and AT2-TG mice to a similar extent ( e and f ). Positive staining was viewed with avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase reaction using diaminobenzidine. Asterisks indicate the lumen of the aorta.

    Techniques Used: Immunohistochemistry, Immunostaining, Mouse Assay, Staining, Avidin-Biotin Assay

    25) Product Images from "Gradual suppression of transcytosis governs functional blood-retinal barrier formation"

    Article Title: Gradual suppression of transcytosis governs functional blood-retinal barrier formation

    Journal: Neuron

    doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.02.043

    As early as P1, budding CNS endothelial cells possess functional tight junctions but display bulk transcytosis. ( A and B ) EM of endothelial cells in the proximal retina of an HRP-injected adult mouse. ( A ) Specialized tight junctions are functional and prevent electron dense 3-3' diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction product in the lumen from invading through the intercellular cleft (arrows). ( B ) Transcytosis was suppressed in endothelial cells as seen by negligible numbers of tracer-filled vesicles. Also shown is a magnification of the boxed areas. ( C and D ) EM of endothelial cells in the proximal retina from an HRP-injected P1 pup. ( C ) Tracer invades through the intracellular cleft between the endothelial cells but stops at junctions without invading to the abluminal side (arrows). ( D ) DAB reaction product filled the vesicles attached to the luminal membrane (arrows), in the cytoplasm (arrowheads) and near the abluminal membrane (asterisk). Also shown is a magnification of the boxed areas. ( E ) The percentage of functional tight junctions from the EM images (n = 5 mice per age; 15-20 vessels analyzed per mouse; number of tight junctions analyzed are displayed in parenthesis). ( F ) Number of tracer-filled vesicles in endothelial cells in P1 and adult mice. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. (n = 5 mice per age, each circle represents the average vesicular density from 15 – 20 vessels per mouse). Statistical significance was assessed by unpaired t-test. L – lumen, E – endothelial cell, Ab – abluminal. **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: As early as P1, budding CNS endothelial cells possess functional tight junctions but display bulk transcytosis. ( A and B ) EM of endothelial cells in the proximal retina of an HRP-injected adult mouse. ( A ) Specialized tight junctions are functional and prevent electron dense 3-3' diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction product in the lumen from invading through the intercellular cleft (arrows). ( B ) Transcytosis was suppressed in endothelial cells as seen by negligible numbers of tracer-filled vesicles. Also shown is a magnification of the boxed areas. ( C and D ) EM of endothelial cells in the proximal retina from an HRP-injected P1 pup. ( C ) Tracer invades through the intracellular cleft between the endothelial cells but stops at junctions without invading to the abluminal side (arrows). ( D ) DAB reaction product filled the vesicles attached to the luminal membrane (arrows), in the cytoplasm (arrowheads) and near the abluminal membrane (asterisk). Also shown is a magnification of the boxed areas. ( E ) The percentage of functional tight junctions from the EM images (n = 5 mice per age; 15-20 vessels analyzed per mouse; number of tight junctions analyzed are displayed in parenthesis). ( F ) Number of tracer-filled vesicles in endothelial cells in P1 and adult mice. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. (n = 5 mice per age, each circle represents the average vesicular density from 15 – 20 vessels per mouse). Statistical significance was assessed by unpaired t-test. L – lumen, E – endothelial cell, Ab – abluminal. **, P

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay

    26) Product Images from "Decreased Expression of the Decoy Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II in Human Endometriosis"

    Article Title: Decreased Expression of the Decoy Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II in Human Endometriosis

    Journal: The American Journal of Pathology

    doi:

    Representative illustration of IL-1RII immunostaining in the human endometrium. Sections of endometrial tissue were incubated with mouse monoclonal anti-IL-1RII antibody ( A , proliferative day 13; B , secretory day 24; original magnification, ×68) or with an equivalent concentration of normal mouse IgGs ( C and D , respectively; original magnification, ×68). Sections were then incubated successively with biotinylated goat anti-mouse polyclonal antibody and avidin-biotinylated horseradish peroxidase complex. The immunoreaction was revealed with diaminobenzidine (brown staining) and hematoxylin was used for counterstaining (blue staining). Note the brown fine positive staining in stromal and epithelial cells (cellular staining) ( E–H ; original magnification, ×268), and the brown deposit ( arrow ) that is primarily located at the apical side of glandular ( E , secretory phase day 24) and surface ( F , secretory phase day 16) epithelium, or more spread within the glands lumen ( G , secretory phase day 16). Positive immunostaining is also detected in isolated stromal cells (c) ( G , secretory phase day 16) and microvessels (v) ( H , secretory phase day 24) found in the stroma in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. s = stroma, g = gland.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative illustration of IL-1RII immunostaining in the human endometrium. Sections of endometrial tissue were incubated with mouse monoclonal anti-IL-1RII antibody ( A , proliferative day 13; B , secretory day 24; original magnification, ×68) or with an equivalent concentration of normal mouse IgGs ( C and D , respectively; original magnification, ×68). Sections were then incubated successively with biotinylated goat anti-mouse polyclonal antibody and avidin-biotinylated horseradish peroxidase complex. The immunoreaction was revealed with diaminobenzidine (brown staining) and hematoxylin was used for counterstaining (blue staining). Note the brown fine positive staining in stromal and epithelial cells (cellular staining) ( E–H ; original magnification, ×268), and the brown deposit ( arrow ) that is primarily located at the apical side of glandular ( E , secretory phase day 24) and surface ( F , secretory phase day 16) epithelium, or more spread within the glands lumen ( G , secretory phase day 16). Positive immunostaining is also detected in isolated stromal cells (c) ( G , secretory phase day 16) and microvessels (v) ( H , secretory phase day 24) found in the stroma in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. s = stroma, g = gland.

    Techniques Used: Immunostaining, Incubation, Concentration Assay, Avidin-Biotin Assay, Staining, Isolation

    27) Product Images from "Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress"

    Article Title: Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress

    Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

    doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00102

    HIV-1 transgenic and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic adolescent stress or left non-stressed during adolescence . Brains were sectioned at 40 μm and stained for IBA-1 and visualized with diaminobenzidine. Representative images of the hippocampus for HIV-1 Tg, WT, stressed, and non-stressed rats are shown (A) . Images were adjusted for brightness and contrast. Scale bar = 50 μm. IBA-1-stained microglia were then converted to 8-bit, adjusted for brightness, and cleaned with a Gaussian filter. Images were converted to binary and skeletonized in ImageJ. Representative images of non-stressed WT, stressed WT, non-stressed Tg, and stressed Tg rats are shown (B) .
    Figure Legend Snippet: HIV-1 transgenic and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic adolescent stress or left non-stressed during adolescence . Brains were sectioned at 40 μm and stained for IBA-1 and visualized with diaminobenzidine. Representative images of the hippocampus for HIV-1 Tg, WT, stressed, and non-stressed rats are shown (A) . Images were adjusted for brightness and contrast. Scale bar = 50 μm. IBA-1-stained microglia were then converted to 8-bit, adjusted for brightness, and cleaned with a Gaussian filter. Images were converted to binary and skeletonized in ImageJ. Representative images of non-stressed WT, stressed WT, non-stressed Tg, and stressed Tg rats are shown (B) .

    Techniques Used: Transgenic Assay, Staining

    28) Product Images from "Induction of keratinocyte IL-8 expression and secretion by IgG autoantibodies as a novel mechanism of epidermal neutrophil recruitment in a pemphigus variant"

    Article Title: Induction of keratinocyte IL-8 expression and secretion by IgG autoantibodies as a novel mechanism of epidermal neutrophil recruitment in a pemphigus variant

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2000.01104.x

    IL-8 is expressed on pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) skin upper epidermis. Formalin-preserved and paraffinized skin sections from a normal individual (a,b), PH patient 1 (c,d), and a psoriasis patient (e,f) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (a,c,e) or stained immunohistochemically with goat anti-human IL-8 (b,d,f), followed by peroxidase-conjugated second antibody and diaminobenzidine reaction. The PH lesional skin exhibits intense IL-8 expression, primarily at the upper epidermis (d), where neutrophilic infiltration was observed (c). Positive control psoriasis skin exhibits diffuse IL-8 expression in epidermis and dermis (f). Negative control normal skin exhibits essentially no IL-8 expression (b). Bar, 100 μm (a–f).
    Figure Legend Snippet: IL-8 is expressed on pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) skin upper epidermis. Formalin-preserved and paraffinized skin sections from a normal individual (a,b), PH patient 1 (c,d), and a psoriasis patient (e,f) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (a,c,e) or stained immunohistochemically with goat anti-human IL-8 (b,d,f), followed by peroxidase-conjugated second antibody and diaminobenzidine reaction. The PH lesional skin exhibits intense IL-8 expression, primarily at the upper epidermis (d), where neutrophilic infiltration was observed (c). Positive control psoriasis skin exhibits diffuse IL-8 expression in epidermis and dermis (f). Negative control normal skin exhibits essentially no IL-8 expression (b). Bar, 100 μm (a–f).

    Techniques Used: Staining, Expressing, Positive Control, Negative Control

    29) Product Images from "Ezrin Immunoreactivity Is Associated with Increasing Malignancy of Astrocytic Tumors but Is Absent in Oligodendrogliomas"

    Article Title: Ezrin Immunoreactivity Is Associated with Increasing Malignancy of Astrocytic Tumors but Is Absent in Oligodendrogliomas

    Journal: The American Journal of Pathology

    doi:

    Ezrin-IR in activated astrocytes and in astrocytic tumors. Details of ezrin-IR at high magnification. Immunocytochemistry using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on 5-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues with diaminobenzidine as a chromogen (brown), counterstaining with hematoxylin. Original magnification, ×100; oil immersion. A: Detail of ezrin-IR in a benign WHO grade II astrocytoma with delicate sheet-like ezrin-positive processes of neoplastic astrocytes ( arrow ) which, similarly to normal tissues, are often barely visible at low magnification. Note the faint diaminobenzidine staining which was scored 1.0, may be hard to discern from the paraffin structure. B: Ezrin-IR in reactive astrocytes of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-encephalopathy in a section of the basal ganglia region. In comparison with A the IR is considerably stronger but shows a similar distribution in long delicate processes and sometimes the nuclear membrane. C: Strong positive ezrin-IR in gemistocytic tumor cells of a glioblastoma WHO grade IV with mostly diffuse cytoplasmatic staining. D: Ezrin-IR in a different glioblastoma containing a fibrillary type of tumor cells with few plump processes which show a strong IR for ezrin which is also diffusely distributed within the cytoplasm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ezrin-IR in activated astrocytes and in astrocytic tumors. Details of ezrin-IR at high magnification. Immunocytochemistry using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on 5-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues with diaminobenzidine as a chromogen (brown), counterstaining with hematoxylin. Original magnification, ×100; oil immersion. A: Detail of ezrin-IR in a benign WHO grade II astrocytoma with delicate sheet-like ezrin-positive processes of neoplastic astrocytes ( arrow ) which, similarly to normal tissues, are often barely visible at low magnification. Note the faint diaminobenzidine staining which was scored 1.0, may be hard to discern from the paraffin structure. B: Ezrin-IR in reactive astrocytes of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-encephalopathy in a section of the basal ganglia region. In comparison with A the IR is considerably stronger but shows a similar distribution in long delicate processes and sometimes the nuclear membrane. C: Strong positive ezrin-IR in gemistocytic tumor cells of a glioblastoma WHO grade IV with mostly diffuse cytoplasmatic staining. D: Ezrin-IR in a different glioblastoma containing a fibrillary type of tumor cells with few plump processes which show a strong IR for ezrin which is also diffusely distributed within the cytoplasm.

    Techniques Used: Immunocytochemistry, Staining

    Ezrin-IR in normal brain and various types of gliomas. Immunocytochemistry using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on 5-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded normal human brain tissues and tissues from human brain tumors. Diaminobenzidine was used as a chromogen (brown), counterstaining with hematoxylin. A: Ezrin-IR in normal human brain tissue from the periventricular area adjacent to the basal ganglia. Note the strong IR of the ependymal cells, especially their apical region ( asterisk ) and the much weaker, delicate staining of subependymal astrocytes ( arrow ). Original magnification, ×100; oil immersion. B: Negative ezrin-IR in a benign oligodendroglioma WHO grade II with entirely absent immunostaining and typical morphology including round monomorphous cells with some calcifications. Original magnification, ×40. C: Strong ezrin-IR in a benign ependymoma WHO grade II with almost regular staining of all tumor cells. Vascular endothelium is excluded ( arrow ). Original magnification, ×40. D: Weak, almost normal ezrin-IR in a benign astrocytoma WHO grade II with delicate staining of peripheral processes ( arrows ). Original magnification, ×40. E: Markedly increased ezrin-IR in an anaplastic, malignant astrocytoma WHO grade III with positive staining of cytoplasm and processes. Original magnification, ×40. F: Strong ezrin-IR in a glioblastoma WHO grade IV with even more pronounced staining in comparison with the IR seen in E . All cells, with the exception of proliferated vascular endothelium ( arrow ), stain positive for ezrin. Finer processes cannot be distinguished from the rather plump cell bodies. Original magnification, ×40.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ezrin-IR in normal brain and various types of gliomas. Immunocytochemistry using the indirect immunoperoxidase method on 5-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded normal human brain tissues and tissues from human brain tumors. Diaminobenzidine was used as a chromogen (brown), counterstaining with hematoxylin. A: Ezrin-IR in normal human brain tissue from the periventricular area adjacent to the basal ganglia. Note the strong IR of the ependymal cells, especially their apical region ( asterisk ) and the much weaker, delicate staining of subependymal astrocytes ( arrow ). Original magnification, ×100; oil immersion. B: Negative ezrin-IR in a benign oligodendroglioma WHO grade II with entirely absent immunostaining and typical morphology including round monomorphous cells with some calcifications. Original magnification, ×40. C: Strong ezrin-IR in a benign ependymoma WHO grade II with almost regular staining of all tumor cells. Vascular endothelium is excluded ( arrow ). Original magnification, ×40. D: Weak, almost normal ezrin-IR in a benign astrocytoma WHO grade II with delicate staining of peripheral processes ( arrows ). Original magnification, ×40. E: Markedly increased ezrin-IR in an anaplastic, malignant astrocytoma WHO grade III with positive staining of cytoplasm and processes. Original magnification, ×40. F: Strong ezrin-IR in a glioblastoma WHO grade IV with even more pronounced staining in comparison with the IR seen in E . All cells, with the exception of proliferated vascular endothelium ( arrow ), stain positive for ezrin. Finer processes cannot be distinguished from the rather plump cell bodies. Original magnification, ×40.

    Techniques Used: Immunocytochemistry, Staining, Immunostaining

    30) Product Images from "Guttation capsules containing hydrogen peroxide: an evolutionarily conserved NADPH oxidase gains a role in wars between related fungi"

    Article Title: Guttation capsules containing hydrogen peroxide: an evolutionarily conserved NADPH oxidase gains a role in wars between related fungi

    Journal: Environmental Microbiology

    doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14575

    Production of ROS by Tgui and Foc4 during the dual confrontation assays on GSM. Superoxide is stained in dark blue, and H 2 O 2 is stained in reddish brown. At sixth day, yellow and green lines indicate the extension of Tgui and Foc4 colonies respectively. O 2 •− is stained dark blue by nitro blue tetrazolium, H 2 O 2 is visualized as the reddish brown colour that developed due to the presence of diaminobenzidine and horseradish peroxidase. The O 2 •− accumulation appeared to be independent on the interaction between the two fungi and specific to the feeding (substrate) hyphae. The production of H 2 O 2 was associated with aerial hyphae when Tgui contacted and overgrown Foc4. Petri plate diameter is 9 cm. [Color figure can be viewed at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com ]
    Figure Legend Snippet: Production of ROS by Tgui and Foc4 during the dual confrontation assays on GSM. Superoxide is stained in dark blue, and H 2 O 2 is stained in reddish brown. At sixth day, yellow and green lines indicate the extension of Tgui and Foc4 colonies respectively. O 2 •− is stained dark blue by nitro blue tetrazolium, H 2 O 2 is visualized as the reddish brown colour that developed due to the presence of diaminobenzidine and horseradish peroxidase. The O 2 •− accumulation appeared to be independent on the interaction between the two fungi and specific to the feeding (substrate) hyphae. The production of H 2 O 2 was associated with aerial hyphae when Tgui contacted and overgrown Foc4. Petri plate diameter is 9 cm. [Color figure can be viewed at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com ]

    Techniques Used: Staining

    31) Product Images from "Production of cytotoxic factor by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever"

    Article Title: Production of cytotoxic factor by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever

    Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology

    doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00598.x

    A typical dot blot test for detection of human cytotoxic factor (hCF) in the culture supernatants (CS) of PBMC of the cases of various grades of dengue illness and normal healthy controls. Cultures were prepared (1 × 10 6 cells/ml) in 4-cm Nunc Petri dishes and incubated at 37°C in the presence of 5% CO 2 and harvested after 24 h. CS were blotted on nitrocellulose membrane and were blocked. Blots were treated with anti-hCF antibody followed by anti-mouse IgG + horseradish peroxidase and then developed with substrate diaminobenzidine as described in Patients and Methods. The controls included CS from normal healthy individuals' PBMC (lane 9, A–H; lane 11, F–H); and purified hCF (1 μg/ml and its doubling dilutions) as positive control (lane 10, A–D).
    Figure Legend Snippet: A typical dot blot test for detection of human cytotoxic factor (hCF) in the culture supernatants (CS) of PBMC of the cases of various grades of dengue illness and normal healthy controls. Cultures were prepared (1 × 10 6 cells/ml) in 4-cm Nunc Petri dishes and incubated at 37°C in the presence of 5% CO 2 and harvested after 24 h. CS were blotted on nitrocellulose membrane and were blocked. Blots were treated with anti-hCF antibody followed by anti-mouse IgG + horseradish peroxidase and then developed with substrate diaminobenzidine as described in Patients and Methods. The controls included CS from normal healthy individuals' PBMC (lane 9, A–H; lane 11, F–H); and purified hCF (1 μg/ml and its doubling dilutions) as positive control (lane 10, A–D).

    Techniques Used: Dot Blot, Incubation, Purification, Positive Control

    32) Product Images from "Microtubule-dependent Plus- and Minus End-directed Motilities Are Competing Processes for Nuclear Targeting of Adenovirus "

    Article Title: Microtubule-dependent Plus- and Minus End-directed Motilities Are Competing Processes for Nuclear Targeting of Adenovirus

    Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

    doi:

    Ad2 arrives in the cytosol in the absence of intact microtubules. (A) HeLa cells were either kept in drug-free medium (lanes 1–5) or pretreated with 20 μM nocodazole at 37°C for 15 min (lanes 6–11). [ 35 S]methionine Ad2 was bound in the cold, followed by warming in the presence or absence of nocodazole for indicated times. Surface-bound virus was digested with trypsin for 1 h in the cold followed by analysis of cleaved and trypsin-resistant hexon by SDS-PAGE and phosphorimaging as described earlier ( Greber et al., 1993 ). (B) HeLa cells were either treated with 20 μM nocodazole (panel b) or left in drug-free medium (panels a, c, and d) as described in A. 50 μg/ml wt Ad2 (panels a and b) or 50 μg/ml ts1 virus (panel c) or no virus (panel d) was bound at 4°C for 90 min. Cells were warmed to 37°C in growth medium containing 20 mg/ml HRP with or without nocodazole for 15 min and then incubated in HRP-free medium for 15 min, fixed, and then prepared for thin section EM. HRP activity was visualized using diaminobenzidine. Bar, 0.5 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ad2 arrives in the cytosol in the absence of intact microtubules. (A) HeLa cells were either kept in drug-free medium (lanes 1–5) or pretreated with 20 μM nocodazole at 37°C for 15 min (lanes 6–11). [ 35 S]methionine Ad2 was bound in the cold, followed by warming in the presence or absence of nocodazole for indicated times. Surface-bound virus was digested with trypsin for 1 h in the cold followed by analysis of cleaved and trypsin-resistant hexon by SDS-PAGE and phosphorimaging as described earlier ( Greber et al., 1993 ). (B) HeLa cells were either treated with 20 μM nocodazole (panel b) or left in drug-free medium (panels a, c, and d) as described in A. 50 μg/ml wt Ad2 (panels a and b) or 50 μg/ml ts1 virus (panel c) or no virus (panel d) was bound at 4°C for 90 min. Cells were warmed to 37°C in growth medium containing 20 mg/ml HRP with or without nocodazole for 15 min and then incubated in HRP-free medium for 15 min, fixed, and then prepared for thin section EM. HRP activity was visualized using diaminobenzidine. Bar, 0.5 μm.

    Techniques Used: SDS Page, Incubation, Activity Assay

    33) Product Images from "Revascularization of the graft in obliterative bronchiolitis after heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Revascularization of the graft in obliterative bronchiolitis after heterotopic tracheal transplantation"

    Article Title: Revascularization of the graft in obliterative bronchiolitis after heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Revascularization of the graft in obliterative bronchiolitis after heterotopic tracheal transplantation

    Journal: Physiological Reports

    doi: 10.14814/phy2.12690

    Functional vascularization of iso‐and allografts after heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Biotinylated dextran (80 mg/kg) was administered IV before tracheal harvest. (A) Blood vessels were visualized in the tracheal tissue (D0–D21, iso‐ and allograft) and in the fibroproliferative tissue obstructing the tracheal lumen (D21, allograft) after streptavidin‐peroxidase incubation of the paraffin‐embedded sections and were then stained brown with 3,3′‐Diaminobenzidine (dark arrows). Cell nuclei are colored blue after Methyl Green staining. Gx400. (B) Count of dextran + vessels per mm 2 in the tracheal tissue (Tr; Black and white blocks). The count of Dextran + vessels per mm 2 in the fibroproliferative tissue (Fp; Pattern block) is presented for the D21 allograft. Three levels of sections were counted for each trachea. Data represent mean values (blocks) ± SEM (bars) ( n = 6). *** P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Functional vascularization of iso‐and allografts after heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Biotinylated dextran (80 mg/kg) was administered IV before tracheal harvest. (A) Blood vessels were visualized in the tracheal tissue (D0–D21, iso‐ and allograft) and in the fibroproliferative tissue obstructing the tracheal lumen (D21, allograft) after streptavidin‐peroxidase incubation of the paraffin‐embedded sections and were then stained brown with 3,3′‐Diaminobenzidine (dark arrows). Cell nuclei are colored blue after Methyl Green staining. Gx400. (B) Count of dextran + vessels per mm 2 in the tracheal tissue (Tr; Black and white blocks). The count of Dextran + vessels per mm 2 in the fibroproliferative tissue (Fp; Pattern block) is presented for the D21 allograft. Three levels of sections were counted for each trachea. Data represent mean values (blocks) ± SEM (bars) ( n = 6). *** P

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay, Transplantation Assay, Incubation, Staining, Blocking Assay

    34) Product Images from "Ubiquitous LEA29Y Expression Blocks T Cell Co-Stimulation but Permits Sexual Reproduction in Genetically Modified Pigs"

    Article Title: Ubiquitous LEA29Y Expression Blocks T Cell Co-Stimulation but Permits Sexual Reproduction in Genetically Modified Pigs

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155676

    Lymph node histology in transgenic pigs. Developmental stage of lymph nodes of a 6-month-old CAG-LEA transgenic pig (B, E) in comparison with WT porcine lymph nodes; the age of the animals was 19 days (A, D) and 6 months (C, F). Immunohistochemistry using the PPT3 anti-CD3 antibody demonstrates nearly T cell-free follicles (Fo) near the trabecules (T) in all samples. Follicles in samples of 6-month-old WT animals were generally larger than in transgenic or young animals (compare C versus A and B). Follicles of 6-month-old WT porcine lymph nodes showed a distinct reaction center (F) with heavily proliferating centroblasts in the dark zone (DZ) and less proliferating cells in the pale zone (PZ)–comparing strong and weak Ki67 immunopositivity (proliferation marker) in DZ and PZ, respectively. In contrast, marked proliferation of lymphocytes could be detected in either the follicles of transgenic (E) nor 19-day-old WT animals (D). The amount of proliferating T cells did not seem to differ between the samples. Visualization of the immunoreaction diaminobenzidine—horseradish peroxidase (positive staining = brown), counterstaining hematoxylin, scale bar = 200 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Lymph node histology in transgenic pigs. Developmental stage of lymph nodes of a 6-month-old CAG-LEA transgenic pig (B, E) in comparison with WT porcine lymph nodes; the age of the animals was 19 days (A, D) and 6 months (C, F). Immunohistochemistry using the PPT3 anti-CD3 antibody demonstrates nearly T cell-free follicles (Fo) near the trabecules (T) in all samples. Follicles in samples of 6-month-old WT animals were generally larger than in transgenic or young animals (compare C versus A and B). Follicles of 6-month-old WT porcine lymph nodes showed a distinct reaction center (F) with heavily proliferating centroblasts in the dark zone (DZ) and less proliferating cells in the pale zone (PZ)–comparing strong and weak Ki67 immunopositivity (proliferation marker) in DZ and PZ, respectively. In contrast, marked proliferation of lymphocytes could be detected in either the follicles of transgenic (E) nor 19-day-old WT animals (D). The amount of proliferating T cells did not seem to differ between the samples. Visualization of the immunoreaction diaminobenzidine—horseradish peroxidase (positive staining = brown), counterstaining hematoxylin, scale bar = 200 μm.

    Techniques Used: Transgenic Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Marker, Staining

    35) Product Images from "Recombinant Staphylococcus Strains as Live Vectors for the Induction of Neutralizing Anti-Diphtheria Toxin Antisera"

    Article Title: Recombinant Staphylococcus Strains as Live Vectors for the Induction of Neutralizing Anti-Diphtheria Toxin Antisera

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    doi:

    Western blot analysis of bacterial lysates with ABP-reactive antibodies. The bacterial lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE (8% acrylamide) before being blotted onto nitrocellulose. Proteins were detected with goat anti-rabbit IgG coupled to peroxidase and with diaminobenzidine as the chromogenic substrate. Apparent molecular masses are given in kilodaltons. (A) Lanes: 1, S. xylosus ; 2, S. xylosus containing pSE′mp18APBXM; 3, S. xylosus containing pSE′DTR. (B) Lanes: 1, S. carnosus containing pSPPDTR; 2, S. carnosus containing pSPPmABPXM; 3, S. carnosus . MW, molecular mass standards.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis of bacterial lysates with ABP-reactive antibodies. The bacterial lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE (8% acrylamide) before being blotted onto nitrocellulose. Proteins were detected with goat anti-rabbit IgG coupled to peroxidase and with diaminobenzidine as the chromogenic substrate. Apparent molecular masses are given in kilodaltons. (A) Lanes: 1, S. xylosus ; 2, S. xylosus containing pSE′mp18APBXM; 3, S. xylosus containing pSE′DTR. (B) Lanes: 1, S. carnosus containing pSPPDTR; 2, S. carnosus containing pSPPmABPXM; 3, S. carnosus . MW, molecular mass standards.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, SDS Page

    36) Product Images from "Molecular features of the cytotoxicity of an NHE inhibitor: Evidence of mitochondrial alterations, ROS overproduction and DNA damage"

    Article Title: Molecular features of the cytotoxicity of an NHE inhibitor: Evidence of mitochondrial alterations, ROS overproduction and DNA damage

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2878-9

    HMA affects cell morphology and mitochondria distribution. a TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of diaminobenzidine (DAB) photo-oxidation in HCT-116 untreated cells and in cells treated with 20 μM HMA for 24 h. Red asterisk marks vesicles enclosing electron-dense regions within the cytoplasm; red arrowheads refer to vesicles containing intracellular debris. b Bright field microscopy images of HCT-116 cells untreated and treated with 20 μM HMA for 24 h; nuclei are marked with *. c Immunofluorescence analysis of mitochondrial HSP70 in untreated and HMA-treated (20 μM for 24 h) HCT-116 cells. Scale bar: 50 μm. A representative experiment out of three is shown
    Figure Legend Snippet: HMA affects cell morphology and mitochondria distribution. a TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of diaminobenzidine (DAB) photo-oxidation in HCT-116 untreated cells and in cells treated with 20 μM HMA for 24 h. Red asterisk marks vesicles enclosing electron-dense regions within the cytoplasm; red arrowheads refer to vesicles containing intracellular debris. b Bright field microscopy images of HCT-116 cells untreated and treated with 20 μM HMA for 24 h; nuclei are marked with *. c Immunofluorescence analysis of mitochondrial HSP70 in untreated and HMA-treated (20 μM for 24 h) HCT-116 cells. Scale bar: 50 μm. A representative experiment out of three is shown

    Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Microscopy, Immunofluorescence

    37) Product Images from "Curcumin prevents neuronal loss and structural changes in the superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglion induced by chronic sleep deprivation, in the rat model"

    Article Title: Curcumin prevents neuronal loss and structural changes in the superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglion induced by chronic sleep deprivation, in the rat model

    Journal: Biological Research

    doi: 10.1186/s40659-020-00300-8

    TUNEL assay of the superior cervical ganglion. A – D Diaminobenzidine detection by light microscope. a–d TUNEL assay with fluorescence microscope by excitation wavelength in the range of 450–500 nm; Arrow indicated apoptotic cells. A a A normal appearance and low apoptotic cell can be seen in the cage-control. B b In the curcumin-treated animals, the apoptotic cell was not observed. C c An apparent increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed within chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) animals compared with the control groups. D d The number of apoptotic cells in the CSD animals receiving curcumin appeared to be similar to the control group. E The negative control, the TdT enzyme was removed from the TdT reaction buffer that did not display TUNEL-positive cells. F Positive control, the rat thymus with hydrocortisone-induced apoptosis thymocytes used as the positive control. A large number of apoptotic cells can be seen in this tissue. G The mean ± SEM of apoptotic cell percentage in the different groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: TUNEL assay of the superior cervical ganglion. A – D Diaminobenzidine detection by light microscope. a–d TUNEL assay with fluorescence microscope by excitation wavelength in the range of 450–500 nm; Arrow indicated apoptotic cells. A a A normal appearance and low apoptotic cell can be seen in the cage-control. B b In the curcumin-treated animals, the apoptotic cell was not observed. C c An apparent increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed within chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) animals compared with the control groups. D d The number of apoptotic cells in the CSD animals receiving curcumin appeared to be similar to the control group. E The negative control, the TdT enzyme was removed from the TdT reaction buffer that did not display TUNEL-positive cells. F Positive control, the rat thymus with hydrocortisone-induced apoptosis thymocytes used as the positive control. A large number of apoptotic cells can be seen in this tissue. G The mean ± SEM of apoptotic cell percentage in the different groups

    Techniques Used: TUNEL Assay, Light Microscopy, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Negative Control, Positive Control

    38) Product Images from "PROJECTION NEURONS OF THE VESTIBULO-SYMPATHETIC REFLEX PATHWAY"

    Article Title: PROJECTION NEURONS OF THE VESTIBULO-SYMPATHETIC REFLEX PATHWAY

    Journal: The Journal of comparative neurology

    doi: 10.1002/cne.23517

    Vibratome sections from an sGVS-stimulated (A) and a non-stimulated (B) rat, processed identically and contemporaneously for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining of c-Fos protein. A: The sGVS stimulation resulted in substantial accumulation of c-Fos
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vibratome sections from an sGVS-stimulated (A) and a non-stimulated (B) rat, processed identically and contemporaneously for immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine staining of c-Fos protein. A: The sGVS stimulation resulted in substantial accumulation of c-Fos

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Examples of injection site maps. The location of the injection site and extent of the local diffusion of tracer was identified in each animal using immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained sections through the medulla. This site was then plotted on drawings
    Figure Legend Snippet: Examples of injection site maps. The location of the injection site and extent of the local diffusion of tracer was identified in each animal using immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained sections through the medulla. This site was then plotted on drawings

    Techniques Used: Injection, Diffusion-based Assay, Staining

    Photomicrographs of immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained Vibratome sections from two rats, one with a FluoroGold tracer injection into RVLM (A) and the other with a similar tracer injection into CVLM (B). Estimated Bregma levels are based on matching
    Figure Legend Snippet: Photomicrographs of immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained Vibratome sections from two rats, one with a FluoroGold tracer injection into RVLM (A) and the other with a similar tracer injection into CVLM (B). Estimated Bregma levels are based on matching

    Techniques Used: Staining, Injection

    Immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained Vibratome sections through the caudal vestibular nuclei illustrating the three morphological types of vestibular neurons that were retrogradely-filled following a FluoroGold tracer injection into CVLM. Multipolar
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine-stained Vibratome sections through the caudal vestibular nuclei illustrating the three morphological types of vestibular neurons that were retrogradely-filled following a FluoroGold tracer injection into CVLM. Multipolar

    Techniques Used: Staining, Injection

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    Article Snippet: .. Staining using 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) was initiated by adding freshly diluted 1 mg/ml DAB (Sigma-Aldrich; Merck KGaA) from a stock (10 mg/ml) dissolved in 0.1 M HCl and 10 mM H2 O2 in phosphate-buffered saline. ..

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Comparative studies of the expression of creatine kinase isoforms under immune stress in Pelodiscus sinensis
    Article Snippet: .. Following a second rinsing with 0.01 M PBS, the reaction products were visualized by the addition of chromogenic substrate 0.1% diaminobenzidine solution (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) in 0.1% hydrogen peroxide in PBS and incubated for 5 min. .. Subsequently the slides were lightly counterstained with Harris hematoxylin.

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: La autoantigen is required for the internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA
    Article Snippet: .. Peroxidase activity detection was carried out using Diaminobenzidine (Sigma-Aldrich) and 3% H2 O2 in PBS. .. A replica blot was probed with mouse anti-actin antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotech) and anti-mouse secondary antibodies followed by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) detection (Amersham-Pharmacia).

    Avidin-Biotin Assay:

    Article Title: Infiltration of forkhead box P3-expressing cells in small intestinal mucosa in coeliac disease but not in type 1 diabetes
    Article Snippet: .. Bound antibody was detected with a commercial avidin–biotin immunoperoxidase system (Vectastain Elite ABC kit) according to the manufacturer's instructions, using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine chromogen (DAB; Sigma) as substrate. .. Double immunostaining for CD25 and FoxP3 was performed as described above, with the following modifications: after staining of CD25 antibody with DAB the slides were incubated with FoxP3 antibody over night at +4°C.

    Western Blot:

    Article Title: Involvement of Sialoadhesin in Entry of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus into Porcine Alveolar Macrophages
    Article Snippet: .. Western blotting was carried out as recommended (Amersham) except that the detection step was performed using 3,3′diaminobenzidine (Sigma). .. Nucleotide and amino acid comparisons were performed using Blast (version 2; National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.) ( ).

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    <t>NF200</t> <t>DAB</t> staining results ( a , b ) and 5HT immunohistochemical results ( c , d ) in the injured spinal cord tissue at 12 weeks after injury ( a – d ). ( a ) Representative images of NF200-positive axons in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 1–4) within the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords (outlined by black dashed lines). ( b ) The density of NF200-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). ( c ) Representative images of 5HT-positive axons (green) and GFAP-positive astrocytes (red) in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 5–8) adjacent to the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords. ( d ) The density of 5HT-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). * p
    Dab Solution, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore 3 3 diaminobenzidine dab enhanced liquid substrate system tetrahydrochloride
    Primary roots of sorghum seedlings stained with <t>3,3’-diaminobenzidine</t> <t>(DAB).</t> Cross sections taken from a Si− (a-c) and a Si+ root (d-f) represent regions IV, III, and II of silica aggregation along the root, as defined in Figure 1 . Insets are enlargements of the red rectangles in each of the panels. Brown discoloration attributed to the precipitation of DAB can be seen in the endodermal ITCW and the cell walls of xylem elements in all three regions. The staining is more intense in region II of both treatments. This is the region of Si aggregation onset. Arrowheads indicate some silica aggregates. (g) A longitudinal view of DAB stained ITCW from a Si− root. Slightly stronger tainted spots (arrows) can be seen on the background of the stained cell wall. Pits are seen as dark dots. (h) A similar longitudinal view of a Si+ ITCW. The outlines of Si aggregates are evident in darker stain (arrows) on the uniformly stained ITCW. Scale bar in f, common to a-f represents 50 μm. Scale bar in h, common to g and h represents 5 μm.
    3 3 Diaminobenzidine Dab Enhanced Liquid Substrate System Tetrahydrochloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    NF200 DAB staining results ( a , b ) and 5HT immunohistochemical results ( c , d ) in the injured spinal cord tissue at 12 weeks after injury ( a – d ). ( a ) Representative images of NF200-positive axons in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 1–4) within the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords (outlined by black dashed lines). ( b ) The density of NF200-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). ( c ) Representative images of 5HT-positive axons (green) and GFAP-positive astrocytes (red) in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 5–8) adjacent to the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords. ( d ) The density of 5HT-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). * p

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Exercise Ameliorates Spinal Cord Injury by Changing DNA Methylation

    doi: 10.3390/cells10010143

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NF200 DAB staining results ( a , b ) and 5HT immunohistochemical results ( c , d ) in the injured spinal cord tissue at 12 weeks after injury ( a – d ). ( a ) Representative images of NF200-positive axons in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 1–4) within the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords (outlined by black dashed lines). ( b ) The density of NF200-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). ( c ) Representative images of 5HT-positive axons (green) and GFAP-positive astrocytes (red) in the control and exercise groups. The right images are high-magnification images of the black boxes in the left images (Nos. 5–8) adjacent to the lesion cavities of contused spinal cords. ( d ) The density of 5HT-positive axons of the control and exercise groups ( n = 4 per group). * p

    Article Snippet: Finally, NF200 staining was revealed with DAB solution (0.05% 3–3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (MilliporeSigma), 0.06% NiCl2 (MilliporeSigma), and 0.003% H2 O2), and the reaction was stopped with distilled water.

    Techniques: Staining, Immunohistochemistry

    Non-homogeneous distribution of TH in the human neostriatum. (A,B) Bright-field (A) and dark-field (B) images taken from a frontal section of the striatum stained with diaminobenzidine (DAB) for TH. (C,D) Bright-field (C) and dark-field (D) images taken from a frontal section of the striatum stained with DAB for [Met]-enkephalin (MEnk), a marker for striosomes (patches). Note that they are contiguous to those shown in (A,B) . Abbreviations: CN, caudate nucleus; Put, putamen; NA, nucleus accumbens. Scale bars: 5 mm.

    Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

    Article Title: Putaminal Mosaic Visualized by Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunohistochemistry in the Human Neostriatum

    doi: 10.3389/fnana.2016.00034

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Non-homogeneous distribution of TH in the human neostriatum. (A,B) Bright-field (A) and dark-field (B) images taken from a frontal section of the striatum stained with diaminobenzidine (DAB) for TH. (C,D) Bright-field (C) and dark-field (D) images taken from a frontal section of the striatum stained with DAB for [Met]-enkephalin (MEnk), a marker for striosomes (patches). Note that they are contiguous to those shown in (A,B) . Abbreviations: CN, caudate nucleus; Put, putamen; NA, nucleus accumbens. Scale bars: 5 mm.

    Article Snippet: IHC with 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) in Human Brain Tissue The sections were incubated for 18 h in 3% BSA-PBS containing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against TH (1:200,000; Sato et al., ) or [Met]-enkephalin (MEnk; 1:500,000; Millipore, St. Louis, MO, USA; Goto et al., ).

    Techniques: Staining, Marker

    Immunohistochemical detection of eTeNT.EGFP in the double-infected L2–L5 interneurons. a – d Volumetric three-dimensional renderings show eTeNT.EGFP + terminals closely apposed to somata and primary dendrites of neurons in the intermediate gray matter (#,* indicate same neuron rotated, x – y – z axes shown in gray/magenta/blue). e Isotype control showed little to no signal (nonimmune rabbit sera at 5 mg/ml, 1:5000 dilution). f – h Volume rendered images show eTeNT.EGFP+ terminals surrounding motor neurons marked by vesicular acetylcholine transferase (VAChT, magenta) in the caudal lumbar segments. Cross-sections throughout the z -stack confirm colocalization of VAChT with eTeNT.EGFP in the x – z and y – z planes ( i – l , white signal in crosshairs; cross-sections throughout motor neuron shown in ( f ); a – f scale = 10 µm). Amplification of eTeNT.EGFP signal with 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) revealed double-infected neurons within the intermediate gray matter of the L2 spinal segment ( m – q dark arrowheads = eTeNT.EGFP-positive neurons; white arrowheads = eTeNT.EGFP-negative neurons). r , s Isotype controls revealed no DAB-enhanced eTeNT.EGFP signal. m – o , r , s scale = 100 µm; p , q scale = 50 µm

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Reversible silencing of lumbar spinal interneurons unmasks a task-specific network for securing hindlimb alternation

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-02033-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical detection of eTeNT.EGFP in the double-infected L2–L5 interneurons. a – d Volumetric three-dimensional renderings show eTeNT.EGFP + terminals closely apposed to somata and primary dendrites of neurons in the intermediate gray matter (#,* indicate same neuron rotated, x – y – z axes shown in gray/magenta/blue). e Isotype control showed little to no signal (nonimmune rabbit sera at 5 mg/ml, 1:5000 dilution). f – h Volume rendered images show eTeNT.EGFP+ terminals surrounding motor neurons marked by vesicular acetylcholine transferase (VAChT, magenta) in the caudal lumbar segments. Cross-sections throughout the z -stack confirm colocalization of VAChT with eTeNT.EGFP in the x – z and y – z planes ( i – l , white signal in crosshairs; cross-sections throughout motor neuron shown in ( f ); a – f scale = 10 µm). Amplification of eTeNT.EGFP signal with 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) revealed double-infected neurons within the intermediate gray matter of the L2 spinal segment ( m – q dark arrowheads = eTeNT.EGFP-positive neurons; white arrowheads = eTeNT.EGFP-negative neurons). r , s Isotype controls revealed no DAB-enhanced eTeNT.EGFP signal. m – o , r , s scale = 100 µm; p , q scale = 50 µm

    Article Snippet: Sections were rinsed with 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.4) for two, 5 min washes and then treated with 3% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min. We then used the 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) IHC Select kit (DAB500, Millipore), but modified the company protocol (increased the duration of blocking, secondary antibody, streptavidin horseradish peroxidase, and DAB incubations to 10 min each).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Infection, Amplification

    Primary roots of sorghum seedlings stained with 3,3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Cross sections taken from a Si− (a-c) and a Si+ root (d-f) represent regions IV, III, and II of silica aggregation along the root, as defined in Figure 1 . Insets are enlargements of the red rectangles in each of the panels. Brown discoloration attributed to the precipitation of DAB can be seen in the endodermal ITCW and the cell walls of xylem elements in all three regions. The staining is more intense in region II of both treatments. This is the region of Si aggregation onset. Arrowheads indicate some silica aggregates. (g) A longitudinal view of DAB stained ITCW from a Si− root. Slightly stronger tainted spots (arrows) can be seen on the background of the stained cell wall. Pits are seen as dark dots. (h) A similar longitudinal view of a Si+ ITCW. The outlines of Si aggregates are evident in darker stain (arrows) on the uniformly stained ITCW. Scale bar in f, common to a-f represents 50 μm. Scale bar in h, common to g and h represents 5 μm.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Hydrogen peroxide modulates lignin and silica deposits in sorghum roots

    doi: 10.1101/2021.02.01.429181

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Primary roots of sorghum seedlings stained with 3,3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Cross sections taken from a Si− (a-c) and a Si+ root (d-f) represent regions IV, III, and II of silica aggregation along the root, as defined in Figure 1 . Insets are enlargements of the red rectangles in each of the panels. Brown discoloration attributed to the precipitation of DAB can be seen in the endodermal ITCW and the cell walls of xylem elements in all three regions. The staining is more intense in region II of both treatments. This is the region of Si aggregation onset. Arrowheads indicate some silica aggregates. (g) A longitudinal view of DAB stained ITCW from a Si− root. Slightly stronger tainted spots (arrows) can be seen on the background of the stained cell wall. Pits are seen as dark dots. (h) A similar longitudinal view of a Si+ ITCW. The outlines of Si aggregates are evident in darker stain (arrows) on the uniformly stained ITCW. Scale bar in f, common to a-f represents 50 μm. Scale bar in h, common to g and h represents 5 μm.

    Article Snippet: 3,3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining and roots sectioningDAB staining was preformed according to ( ) with minor changes.

    Techniques: Staining