damgo  (Abcam)

 
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94
    Name:
    DAMGO
    Description:

    Catalog Number:
    ab120674
    Price:
    None
    Buy from Supplier


    Structured Review

    Abcam damgo
    Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of <t>DPDPE</t> (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and <t>DAMGO.</t> Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p

    https://www.bioz.com/result/damgo/product/Abcam
    Average 94 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    damgo - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Morphine activation of mu opioid receptors causes disinhibition of neurons in the ventral tegmental area mediated by β-arrestin2 and c-Src"

    Article Title: Morphine activation of mu opioid receptors causes disinhibition of neurons in the ventral tegmental area mediated by β-arrestin2 and c-Src

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10360-8

    Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and DAMGO. Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and DAMGO. Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    2) Product Images from "Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability"

    Article Title: Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability

    Journal: Nature Communications

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms14611

    DOR and MOR activation inhibits glutamate release at the BLA-ITC synapse. ( a ) Post hoc confocal images of DAPI (blue) and biocytin-labelled ITCs (red/white). Low power image shows intense DAPI labelling with high cell density within Im. Single image; scale bar, 100 μm. Magnification (× 20 objective) of boxed area, shows two filled ITCs with bipolar characteristics. Stack image ( z =13.5 μm); scale bar, 50 μm. Further magnification (× 63, boxed area) reveals dendritic spines (arrows); single Z section ( z =2.5 μm); scale bar, 3 μm. ( b ) Representative BLA-Im stim ulation and rec ording locations. ( c – e ) Selective DOR (deltorphin II, Delt 300 nM) and MOR (DAMGO, 1 μM)) agonists, reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR that was reversed by the corresponding antagonists ICI1173864 (ICI, 1 μM) and CTAP (1 μM), respectively. KOR agonist (U69, 3 μM) and antagonist norBNI (10 nM), had no effect. ( c ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of normalized peak amplitude (eEPSC 1 ) of a single representative experiment. ( d ) Bar chart showing percentage inhibition from baseline. Baseline defined as eEPSC amplitude of CTL (no drug) or previous antagonist. ( e ) Bar chart showing PPR, calculated as eEPSC 2 /eEPSC 1 . ( f – h ) ME (10 μM) reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR which fully reversed after wash. ( f ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of single representative experiment; ( g ) bar chart of mean inhibition during ME and wash. ( h ) Bar chart of mean PPR (bottom) and example traces (top) normalized to first eEPSC before (black) and during ME (grey). ( i ) ME inhibition was fully reversed by combined DOR and MOR antagonist treatment. Example eEPSCs and bar chart showing the proportion of ME inhibition of eEPSC amplitude (%) reversed by the selective antagonists. (Data are represented as mean±s.e.m.; * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: DOR and MOR activation inhibits glutamate release at the BLA-ITC synapse. ( a ) Post hoc confocal images of DAPI (blue) and biocytin-labelled ITCs (red/white). Low power image shows intense DAPI labelling with high cell density within Im. Single image; scale bar, 100 μm. Magnification (× 20 objective) of boxed area, shows two filled ITCs with bipolar characteristics. Stack image ( z =13.5 μm); scale bar, 50 μm. Further magnification (× 63, boxed area) reveals dendritic spines (arrows); single Z section ( z =2.5 μm); scale bar, 3 μm. ( b ) Representative BLA-Im stim ulation and rec ording locations. ( c – e ) Selective DOR (deltorphin II, Delt 300 nM) and MOR (DAMGO, 1 μM)) agonists, reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR that was reversed by the corresponding antagonists ICI1173864 (ICI, 1 μM) and CTAP (1 μM), respectively. KOR agonist (U69, 3 μM) and antagonist norBNI (10 nM), had no effect. ( c ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of normalized peak amplitude (eEPSC 1 ) of a single representative experiment. ( d ) Bar chart showing percentage inhibition from baseline. Baseline defined as eEPSC amplitude of CTL (no drug) or previous antagonist. ( e ) Bar chart showing PPR, calculated as eEPSC 2 /eEPSC 1 . ( f – h ) ME (10 μM) reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR which fully reversed after wash. ( f ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of single representative experiment; ( g ) bar chart of mean inhibition during ME and wash. ( h ) Bar chart of mean PPR (bottom) and example traces (top) normalized to first eEPSC before (black) and during ME (grey). ( i ) ME inhibition was fully reversed by combined DOR and MOR antagonist treatment. Example eEPSCs and bar chart showing the proportion of ME inhibition of eEPSC amplitude (%) reversed by the selective antagonists. (Data are represented as mean±s.e.m.; * P

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Inhibition, CTL Assay

    3) Product Images from "Sex Differences in μ-Opioid Receptor Regulation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Their Cognitive Consequences"

    Article Title: Sex Differences in μ-Opioid Receptor Regulation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Their Cognitive Consequences

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology

    doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.252

    Sex differences in behavioral consequences of activating μ -opioid receptor (MOR) in the locus coeruleus (LC). (a and b) Effects of ACSF and DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; 3 and 10 pg) bilaterally infused into the LC of male (a) and female (b) rats on performance in the operant strategy set-shifting task. The bars represent the mean number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for side discrimination, side reversal and shift to light stages of the task. Vertical lines represent SEM. The number of subjects is indicated in the graph legend. Asterisks above the bars indicate that both DAMGO doses were associated with increased trials to reach criterion compared to ACSF ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sex differences in behavioral consequences of activating μ -opioid receptor (MOR) in the locus coeruleus (LC). (a and b) Effects of ACSF and DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; 3 and 10 pg) bilaterally infused into the LC of male (a) and female (b) rats on performance in the operant strategy set-shifting task. The bars represent the mean number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for side discrimination, side reversal and shift to light stages of the task. Vertical lines represent SEM. The number of subjects is indicated in the graph legend. Asterisks above the bars indicate that both DAMGO doses were associated with increased trials to reach criterion compared to ACSF ( p

    Techniques Used:

    Regional specificity of DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) effects on strategy shifting. (a) Photomicrograph of a Neutral Red counterstained section through the LC showing histological verification of the injection site from a representative animal that was injected with DAMGO. The arrowhead points to the LC and the arrow points to the dye, which is localized to the LC. Cb, cerebellum; V, ventricle. (b) Plots of accurate (circles) and missed (squares) injection sites for DAMGO (3 pg) for males (black) and females (red). DAMGO effects from these cases were used for the graphs in c and d. (c) Comparison of the effects of DAMGO (3 pg) microinfused into the LC of male rats (in, n =8), outside of the LC (out, n =5) and ACSF ( n =9) on performance in different components of the OSST. The bars indicate the number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for each stage. Vertical lines represent SEM. Asterisks indicate a significant difference compared with both the ACSF and DAMGO out groups ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Regional specificity of DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) effects on strategy shifting. (a) Photomicrograph of a Neutral Red counterstained section through the LC showing histological verification of the injection site from a representative animal that was injected with DAMGO. The arrowhead points to the LC and the arrow points to the dye, which is localized to the LC. Cb, cerebellum; V, ventricle. (b) Plots of accurate (circles) and missed (squares) injection sites for DAMGO (3 pg) for males (black) and females (red). DAMGO effects from these cases were used for the graphs in c and d. (c) Comparison of the effects of DAMGO (3 pg) microinfused into the LC of male rats (in, n =8), outside of the LC (out, n =5) and ACSF ( n =9) on performance in different components of the OSST. The bars indicate the number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for each stage. Vertical lines represent SEM. Asterisks indicate a significant difference compared with both the ACSF and DAMGO out groups ( p

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Dose-related inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal discharge rate by DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) in male and female rats. (a and b) Line graphs show the time course of DAMGO effects on LC discharge rate. The abscissae indicate time (s) before and after DAMGO, which was administered at time=0. The ordinates indicate LC discharge rate expressed as a percentage of the baseline rate before DAMGO. For 0.1 pg: males ( n =6 cells/3 rats), females ( n =3 cells/3 rats); for 1 pg: males ( n =7 cells/6 rats), females ( n =6 cells/4 rats); for 10 pg: males ( n =7 cells/5 rats), females ( n =7 cells/5 rats); for 30 pg females ( n =10 cells/6 rats). (c and d) Representative ratemeter records from a single locus coeruleus neuron of a (c) male and (d) female rat before and after DAMGO 10 pg microinfusion into the LC (indicated by the bars above the traces).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Dose-related inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal discharge rate by DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) in male and female rats. (a and b) Line graphs show the time course of DAMGO effects on LC discharge rate. The abscissae indicate time (s) before and after DAMGO, which was administered at time=0. The ordinates indicate LC discharge rate expressed as a percentage of the baseline rate before DAMGO. For 0.1 pg: males ( n =6 cells/3 rats), females ( n =3 cells/3 rats); for 1 pg: males ( n =7 cells/6 rats), females ( n =6 cells/4 rats); for 10 pg: males ( n =7 cells/5 rats), females ( n =7 cells/5 rats); for 30 pg females ( n =10 cells/6 rats). (c and d) Representative ratemeter records from a single locus coeruleus neuron of a (c) male and (d) female rat before and after DAMGO 10 pg microinfusion into the LC (indicated by the bars above the traces).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Related Articles

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability
    Article Snippet: .. Concentrations of: naloxone (nalox; 10 μM), deltorphin II (delt; 300 nM), ICI174864 (ICI; 1 μM), CTAP (1 μM), naltrindole (nal, 10 nM) (all purchased from Tocris), DAMGO (1 μM), norBNI (10 nM), U69593 (U69; 3 μM) thiorphan (10 μM) (all Abcam Biochemicals), bestatin (10 μM, Cayman Chemicals) and captopril (1 μM, Sigma) remained the same for all experiments, while met-enkephalin (ME, Bachem; 100 nM, 300 nM, 500 nM, 10 μM, 30 μM) concentration was varied where indicated. .. BMS-986187 (1 μM) was from Bristol-Myer Squibb Co.

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • damgo  (Abcam)
    94
    Abcam damgo
    Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of <t>DPDPE</t> (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and <t>DAMGO.</t> Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p
    Damgo, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/damgo/product/Abcam
    Average 94 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    damgo - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    dago1  (Abcam)
    85
    Abcam dago1
    Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of <t>DPDPE</t> (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and <t>DAMGO.</t> Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p
    Dago1, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dago1/product/Abcam
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dago1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and DAMGO. Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Morphine activation of mu opioid receptors causes disinhibition of neurons in the ventral tegmental area mediated by β-arrestin2 and c-Src

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10360-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphine inhibits IPSCs through activation of MOPs and DOPs. ( A ) Exemplar recording of the inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine (100 μM) in a VTA neuron, with the associated graph of cumulative probability of the inter-event intervals. ( B ) Graph of the concentration-dependent inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine in WT neurons (EC 50 = 2 µM (95% CIs = 0.54 and 7.2 µM), slope = 0.8, n = 5–10) and MOP+/− neurons (EC 50 = 128 µM, (95% CIs = 20 and 826 µM), slope = 0.7, n = 4–8). ( C ) Bar graph of the average inhibition by morphine (100 μM) of sIPSC frequency in WT (72 ± 5%, n = 7), MOP+/− (50 ± 9%, n = 4) and MOP−/− (11 ± 5%, n = 7) neurons. ( D ) Exemplar sIPSCs recorded from a WT neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE (1 µM), with the associated graph of cumulative probabilities. ( E ) Exemplar recording from a MOP−/− neuron in the absence and presence of DPDPE, with the graph of cumulative probability. ( F ) Bar graph illustrating the average inhibition by DPDPE of sIPSC frequency in WT (37 ± 7%, n = 6), MOP−/− (34 ± 2%. n = 5) and DOP−/− neurons (7 ± 5%, n = 6). ( G ) sIPSCs recorded from a DOP−/− VTA neuron, illustrating the remaining inhibition by morphine, with the associated graph of cumulative probability. ( H ) Bar graph of inhibition of sIPSC frequency by morphine and DAMGO. Inhibition by morphine was reduced in DOP−/− neurons (42 ± 5%, n = 8) compared to WT neurons (64 ± 5, n = 10; unpaired t test p = 0.004; see Table 1 ). While Inhibition by DAMGO (42 ± 11%, n = 8) was not significantly different (unpaired t test p = 0.31, WT n = 7, DOP−/− n = 7) to WT (55 ± 4%, n = 7). Vertical lines represent ± SEM. One way ANOVA p

    Article Snippet: Drug application Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) were recorded in the absence and presence of a variety of drugs including bicuculline, morphine, DAMGO, DPDPE (Abcam, Cambridge, UK), PP2, PP3 and SL327 (all from Tocris, Bristol, UK).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    DOR and MOR activation inhibits glutamate release at the BLA-ITC synapse. ( a ) Post hoc confocal images of DAPI (blue) and biocytin-labelled ITCs (red/white). Low power image shows intense DAPI labelling with high cell density within Im. Single image; scale bar, 100 μm. Magnification (× 20 objective) of boxed area, shows two filled ITCs with bipolar characteristics. Stack image ( z =13.5 μm); scale bar, 50 μm. Further magnification (× 63, boxed area) reveals dendritic spines (arrows); single Z section ( z =2.5 μm); scale bar, 3 μm. ( b ) Representative BLA-Im stim ulation and rec ording locations. ( c – e ) Selective DOR (deltorphin II, Delt 300 nM) and MOR (DAMGO, 1 μM)) agonists, reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR that was reversed by the corresponding antagonists ICI1173864 (ICI, 1 μM) and CTAP (1 μM), respectively. KOR agonist (U69, 3 μM) and antagonist norBNI (10 nM), had no effect. ( c ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of normalized peak amplitude (eEPSC 1 ) of a single representative experiment. ( d ) Bar chart showing percentage inhibition from baseline. Baseline defined as eEPSC amplitude of CTL (no drug) or previous antagonist. ( e ) Bar chart showing PPR, calculated as eEPSC 2 /eEPSC 1 . ( f – h ) ME (10 μM) reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR which fully reversed after wash. ( f ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of single representative experiment; ( g ) bar chart of mean inhibition during ME and wash. ( h ) Bar chart of mean PPR (bottom) and example traces (top) normalized to first eEPSC before (black) and during ME (grey). ( i ) ME inhibition was fully reversed by combined DOR and MOR antagonist treatment. Example eEPSCs and bar chart showing the proportion of ME inhibition of eEPSC amplitude (%) reversed by the selective antagonists. (Data are represented as mean±s.e.m.; * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms14611

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DOR and MOR activation inhibits glutamate release at the BLA-ITC synapse. ( a ) Post hoc confocal images of DAPI (blue) and biocytin-labelled ITCs (red/white). Low power image shows intense DAPI labelling with high cell density within Im. Single image; scale bar, 100 μm. Magnification (× 20 objective) of boxed area, shows two filled ITCs with bipolar characteristics. Stack image ( z =13.5 μm); scale bar, 50 μm. Further magnification (× 63, boxed area) reveals dendritic spines (arrows); single Z section ( z =2.5 μm); scale bar, 3 μm. ( b ) Representative BLA-Im stim ulation and rec ording locations. ( c – e ) Selective DOR (deltorphin II, Delt 300 nM) and MOR (DAMGO, 1 μM)) agonists, reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR that was reversed by the corresponding antagonists ICI1173864 (ICI, 1 μM) and CTAP (1 μM), respectively. KOR agonist (U69, 3 μM) and antagonist norBNI (10 nM), had no effect. ( c ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of normalized peak amplitude (eEPSC 1 ) of a single representative experiment. ( d ) Bar chart showing percentage inhibition from baseline. Baseline defined as eEPSC amplitude of CTL (no drug) or previous antagonist. ( e ) Bar chart showing PPR, calculated as eEPSC 2 /eEPSC 1 . ( f – h ) ME (10 μM) reduced eEPSC amplitude and increased PPR which fully reversed after wash. ( f ) Example eEPSCs and time plot of single representative experiment; ( g ) bar chart of mean inhibition during ME and wash. ( h ) Bar chart of mean PPR (bottom) and example traces (top) normalized to first eEPSC before (black) and during ME (grey). ( i ) ME inhibition was fully reversed by combined DOR and MOR antagonist treatment. Example eEPSCs and bar chart showing the proportion of ME inhibition of eEPSC amplitude (%) reversed by the selective antagonists. (Data are represented as mean±s.e.m.; * P

    Article Snippet: Concentrations of: naloxone (nalox; 10 μM), deltorphin II (delt; 300 nM), ICI174864 (ICI; 1 μM), CTAP (1 μM), naltrindole (nal, 10 nM) (all purchased from Tocris), DAMGO (1 μM), norBNI (10 nM), U69593 (U69; 3 μM) thiorphan (10 μM) (all Abcam Biochemicals), bestatin (10 μM, Cayman Chemicals) and captopril (1 μM, Sigma) remained the same for all experiments, while met-enkephalin (ME, Bachem; 100 nM, 300 nM, 500 nM, 10 μM, 30 μM) concentration was varied where indicated.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Inhibition, CTL Assay

    Sex differences in behavioral consequences of activating μ -opioid receptor (MOR) in the locus coeruleus (LC). (a and b) Effects of ACSF and DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; 3 and 10 pg) bilaterally infused into the LC of male (a) and female (b) rats on performance in the operant strategy set-shifting task. The bars represent the mean number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for side discrimination, side reversal and shift to light stages of the task. Vertical lines represent SEM. The number of subjects is indicated in the graph legend. Asterisks above the bars indicate that both DAMGO doses were associated with increased trials to reach criterion compared to ACSF ( p

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology

    Article Title: Sex Differences in μ-Opioid Receptor Regulation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Their Cognitive Consequences

    doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sex differences in behavioral consequences of activating μ -opioid receptor (MOR) in the locus coeruleus (LC). (a and b) Effects of ACSF and DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; 3 and 10 pg) bilaterally infused into the LC of male (a) and female (b) rats on performance in the operant strategy set-shifting task. The bars represent the mean number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for side discrimination, side reversal and shift to light stages of the task. Vertical lines represent SEM. The number of subjects is indicated in the graph legend. Asterisks above the bars indicate that both DAMGO doses were associated with increased trials to reach criterion compared to ACSF ( p

    Article Snippet: Double-barrel glass micropipettes were used for simultaneous recording and microinfusion of DAMGO ([D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; Abcam, Cambridge, MA), a synthetic opioid peptide with high MOR specificity.

    Techniques:

    Regional specificity of DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) effects on strategy shifting. (a) Photomicrograph of a Neutral Red counterstained section through the LC showing histological verification of the injection site from a representative animal that was injected with DAMGO. The arrowhead points to the LC and the arrow points to the dye, which is localized to the LC. Cb, cerebellum; V, ventricle. (b) Plots of accurate (circles) and missed (squares) injection sites for DAMGO (3 pg) for males (black) and females (red). DAMGO effects from these cases were used for the graphs in c and d. (c) Comparison of the effects of DAMGO (3 pg) microinfused into the LC of male rats (in, n =8), outside of the LC (out, n =5) and ACSF ( n =9) on performance in different components of the OSST. The bars indicate the number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for each stage. Vertical lines represent SEM. Asterisks indicate a significant difference compared with both the ACSF and DAMGO out groups ( p

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology

    Article Title: Sex Differences in μ-Opioid Receptor Regulation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Their Cognitive Consequences

    doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Regional specificity of DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) effects on strategy shifting. (a) Photomicrograph of a Neutral Red counterstained section through the LC showing histological verification of the injection site from a representative animal that was injected with DAMGO. The arrowhead points to the LC and the arrow points to the dye, which is localized to the LC. Cb, cerebellum; V, ventricle. (b) Plots of accurate (circles) and missed (squares) injection sites for DAMGO (3 pg) for males (black) and females (red). DAMGO effects from these cases were used for the graphs in c and d. (c) Comparison of the effects of DAMGO (3 pg) microinfused into the LC of male rats (in, n =8), outside of the LC (out, n =5) and ACSF ( n =9) on performance in different components of the OSST. The bars indicate the number of trials necessary to reach the criterion for each stage. Vertical lines represent SEM. Asterisks indicate a significant difference compared with both the ACSF and DAMGO out groups ( p

    Article Snippet: Double-barrel glass micropipettes were used for simultaneous recording and microinfusion of DAMGO ([D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; Abcam, Cambridge, MA), a synthetic opioid peptide with high MOR specificity.

    Techniques: Injection

    Dose-related inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal discharge rate by DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) in male and female rats. (a and b) Line graphs show the time course of DAMGO effects on LC discharge rate. The abscissae indicate time (s) before and after DAMGO, which was administered at time=0. The ordinates indicate LC discharge rate expressed as a percentage of the baseline rate before DAMGO. For 0.1 pg: males ( n =6 cells/3 rats), females ( n =3 cells/3 rats); for 1 pg: males ( n =7 cells/6 rats), females ( n =6 cells/4 rats); for 10 pg: males ( n =7 cells/5 rats), females ( n =7 cells/5 rats); for 30 pg females ( n =10 cells/6 rats). (c and d) Representative ratemeter records from a single locus coeruleus neuron of a (c) male and (d) female rat before and after DAMGO 10 pg microinfusion into the LC (indicated by the bars above the traces).

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology

    Article Title: Sex Differences in μ-Opioid Receptor Regulation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Their Cognitive Consequences

    doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.252

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dose-related inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal discharge rate by DAMGO ( D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) in male and female rats. (a and b) Line graphs show the time course of DAMGO effects on LC discharge rate. The abscissae indicate time (s) before and after DAMGO, which was administered at time=0. The ordinates indicate LC discharge rate expressed as a percentage of the baseline rate before DAMGO. For 0.1 pg: males ( n =6 cells/3 rats), females ( n =3 cells/3 rats); for 1 pg: males ( n =7 cells/6 rats), females ( n =6 cells/4 rats); for 10 pg: males ( n =7 cells/5 rats), females ( n =7 cells/5 rats); for 30 pg females ( n =10 cells/6 rats). (c and d) Representative ratemeter records from a single locus coeruleus neuron of a (c) male and (d) female rat before and after DAMGO 10 pg microinfusion into the LC (indicated by the bars above the traces).

    Article Snippet: Double-barrel glass micropipettes were used for simultaneous recording and microinfusion of DAMGO ([D -Ala2, N -MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; Abcam, Cambridge, MA), a synthetic opioid peptide with high MOR specificity.

    Techniques: Inhibition