cryptococcus neoformans  (ATCC)


Bioz Verified Symbol ATCC is a verified supplier
Bioz Manufacturer Symbol ATCC manufactures this product  
  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 94

    Structured Review

    ATCC cryptococcus neoformans
    Apoptosis induction in C. <t>neoformans</t> cells by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . Green fluorescence images show that treatment with the peptides (MIC 50 ) activates caspases involved in programmed cell death. Control: DMSO-NaCl. Bars: 100 µm.
    Cryptococcus Neoformans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 36 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cryptococcus neoformans/product/ATCC
    Average 94 stars, based on 36 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cryptococcus neoformans - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Antifungal Potential of Synthetic Peptides against Cryptococcus neoformans: Mechanism of Action Studies Reveal Synthetic Peptides Induce Membrane–Pore Formation, DNA Degradation, and Apoptosis"

    Article Title: Antifungal Potential of Synthetic Peptides against Cryptococcus neoformans: Mechanism of Action Studies Reveal Synthetic Peptides Induce Membrane–Pore Formation, DNA Degradation, and Apoptosis

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14081678

    Apoptosis induction in C. neoformans cells by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . Green fluorescence images show that treatment with the peptides (MIC 50 ) activates caspases involved in programmed cell death. Control: DMSO-NaCl. Bars: 100 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Apoptosis induction in C. neoformans cells by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . Green fluorescence images show that treatment with the peptides (MIC 50 ) activates caspases involved in programmed cell death. Control: DMSO-NaCl. Bars: 100 µm.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence

    The number of fluorescent C. neoformans cells PI ( A ), Dextran-FITC ( B ), DNA fragmentation ( C ), and apoptosis ( D ). The letters represent the mean ± standard deviation of three replicates. Different lowercase letters indicate statically significant difference compared to DMSO-NaCl by analysis of variance ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The number of fluorescent C. neoformans cells PI ( A ), Dextran-FITC ( B ), DNA fragmentation ( C ), and apoptosis ( D ). The letters represent the mean ± standard deviation of three replicates. Different lowercase letters indicate statically significant difference compared to DMSO-NaCl by analysis of variance ( p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    Fluorescence images showing membrane pore formation using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (6 kDa) induced by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . C. neoformans cells were incubated with peptides and DMSO-NaCl. Detection of green fluorescence indicates that cells internalized FITC-dextran. Bars: 100 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Fluorescence images showing membrane pore formation using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (6 kDa) induced by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . C. neoformans cells were incubated with peptides and DMSO-NaCl. Detection of green fluorescence indicates that cells internalized FITC-dextran. Bars: 100 µm.

    Techniques Used: Fluorescence, Incubation

    SEM images showing C. neoformans cells after treatment with Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 Control: DMSO-NaCl solution. White arrows show damage to cellular structure, and red arrows indicate cytoplasmic leakage.
    Figure Legend Snippet: SEM images showing C. neoformans cells after treatment with Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc Alb-PepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 Control: DMSO-NaCl solution. White arrows show damage to cellular structure, and red arrows indicate cytoplasmic leakage.

    Techniques Used:

    DNA fragmentation in C. neoformans cells induced by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc AlbPepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . The cells were treated with peptides, and the control negative was DMSONaCl. Bars: 100 µm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: DNA fragmentation in C. neoformans cells induced by Mo -CBP 3 -PepII, Rc AlbPepII, Rc Alb-PepIII, PepGAT, and PepKAA, respectively, at 25, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.04 μg mL −1 . The cells were treated with peptides, and the control negative was DMSONaCl. Bars: 100 µm.

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "Ionizing radiation and chemical oxidant exposure impacts on Cryptococcus neoformans transfer RNAs"

    Article Title: Ionizing radiation and chemical oxidant exposure impacts on Cryptococcus neoformans transfer RNAs

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0266239

    The IR and H 2 O 2 conditions tested affect viability and gene expression of oxidative response transcripts. A. The percent viability curve in C . neoformans exposed to increasing concentrations of H 2 O 2 . Exposure was for 1 hour and viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay. Three biological replicates were considered for each dose and the error bars are the standard error of the mean (SEM). Significance was determined using a Student’s t-test and a p-value
    Figure Legend Snippet: The IR and H 2 O 2 conditions tested affect viability and gene expression of oxidative response transcripts. A. The percent viability curve in C . neoformans exposed to increasing concentrations of H 2 O 2 . Exposure was for 1 hour and viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay. Three biological replicates were considered for each dose and the error bars are the standard error of the mean (SEM). Significance was determined using a Student’s t-test and a p-value

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Trypan Blue Exclusion Assay

    Modification abundances are largely unaffected by oxidative conditions. Heatmap of the fold change of the normalized relative abundance for the nucleosides detected in C . neoformans . The concentrations of H 2 O 2 are 2 mM, 5 mM, and 12 mM while IR doses consisted of 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 200 Gy, and 300 Gy. The average fold change of three replicates is plotted in the heatmap. A fold change cutoff of 2 and a Student’s t-test p-value
    Figure Legend Snippet: Modification abundances are largely unaffected by oxidative conditions. Heatmap of the fold change of the normalized relative abundance for the nucleosides detected in C . neoformans . The concentrations of H 2 O 2 are 2 mM, 5 mM, and 12 mM while IR doses consisted of 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 200 Gy, and 300 Gy. The average fold change of three replicates is plotted in the heatmap. A fold change cutoff of 2 and a Student’s t-test p-value

    Techniques Used: Modification

    Codon usage is similar between the whole genome and oxidative response transcripts in C . neoformans . The ΔRSCU of seven UUG-rich genes in S . cerevisiae (S_A1 –S_A7) and the seven homologous genes identified in C . neoformans JEC21 (C_A1 –C_A7) ( S7 Table ). ΔRSCU values were calculated by subtracting the gene RSCU from the whole genome RSCU for each codon. Therefore, values equal to 0 indicate the codon is in similar usage as the genome. A positive ΔRSCU would indicate the codon is used more in the gene than the genome. On the contrary, a negative ΔRSCU suggests the codon is used less in the gene than the whole genome.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Codon usage is similar between the whole genome and oxidative response transcripts in C . neoformans . The ΔRSCU of seven UUG-rich genes in S . cerevisiae (S_A1 –S_A7) and the seven homologous genes identified in C . neoformans JEC21 (C_A1 –C_A7) ( S7 Table ). ΔRSCU values were calculated by subtracting the gene RSCU from the whole genome RSCU for each codon. Therefore, values equal to 0 indicate the codon is in similar usage as the genome. A positive ΔRSCU would indicate the codon is used more in the gene than the genome. On the contrary, a negative ΔRSCU suggests the codon is used less in the gene than the whole genome.

    Techniques Used:

    Few tRNAs have altered abundances in response to H 2 O 2 and IR. Heatmap of the fold change for each tRNA in response to oxidative conditions. Across treatments, tRNA abundance was minimally affected in C . neoformans . Significance (*) was defined by an EDGE test with a P-value
    Figure Legend Snippet: Few tRNAs have altered abundances in response to H 2 O 2 and IR. Heatmap of the fold change for each tRNA in response to oxidative conditions. Across treatments, tRNA abundance was minimally affected in C . neoformans . Significance (*) was defined by an EDGE test with a P-value

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Replicative Aging Remodels the Cell Wall and Is Associated with Increased Intracellular Trafficking in Human Pathogenic Yeasts"

    Article Title: Replicative Aging Remodels the Cell Wall and Is Associated with Increased Intracellular Trafficking in Human Pathogenic Yeasts

    Journal: mBio

    doi: 10.1128/mbio.00190-22

    Colocalization of mannan in the polysaccharide capsule and enhanced content of β-glucan in the cell wall of old C. neoformans ( Cn ). (A and B) Images represent microscopy analysis of RC2 Cn young (A) and old (B) cells. DIC (differential interference contrast), followed by mannan (red) was stained with concanavalin A conjugated to Texas Red (CoA-TR), and GXM (green) in the capsule was stained with primary monoclonal Ab 18B7 and secondary Ab anti-IgG conjugated to DyLight 488 (18B7/DyLight 488). (C) The 1,3-β- d -glucan content of young cells (RC2 Y) and old Cn cells (RC2 O) was verified using biochemical assay with aniline blue. Experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analysis was done by unpaired t test (**, P = 0.0062).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Colocalization of mannan in the polysaccharide capsule and enhanced content of β-glucan in the cell wall of old C. neoformans ( Cn ). (A and B) Images represent microscopy analysis of RC2 Cn young (A) and old (B) cells. DIC (differential interference contrast), followed by mannan (red) was stained with concanavalin A conjugated to Texas Red (CoA-TR), and GXM (green) in the capsule was stained with primary monoclonal Ab 18B7 and secondary Ab anti-IgG conjugated to DyLight 488 (18B7/DyLight 488). (C) The 1,3-β- d -glucan content of young cells (RC2 Y) and old Cn cells (RC2 O) was verified using biochemical assay with aniline blue. Experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analysis was done by unpaired t test (**, P = 0.0062).

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Staining

    The cell wall architecture of C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) is remodeled during aging. Total chitin (blue) was stained with calcofluor white (CFW) (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (orange) with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-TRITC) (C and D), chitosan (green) with eosin Y (EY) (E), β-glucan (blue) with Fc-dectin 1/DyLight 405 goat anti-human IgG + IgM (F), and mannan (red) with concanavalin-Texas Red (CoA-TR) (G and H). Stained cells were image by fluorescence microscopy, using the following channels: DAPI (CFW), DsRed (WGA- TRITC and CoA-TR), and GFP (EY). DIC, differential interference contrast. Imaging of at least 100 cells of Cn (RC2) and Cg (BG2) was performed at 100× magnification in a Zeiss Axio Observer microscope and a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope (Thornwood, NY), respectively. Images were processed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm for Cn and 2 μm for Cg .
    Figure Legend Snippet: The cell wall architecture of C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) is remodeled during aging. Total chitin (blue) was stained with calcofluor white (CFW) (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (orange) with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-TRITC) (C and D), chitosan (green) with eosin Y (EY) (E), β-glucan (blue) with Fc-dectin 1/DyLight 405 goat anti-human IgG + IgM (F), and mannan (red) with concanavalin-Texas Red (CoA-TR) (G and H). Stained cells were image by fluorescence microscopy, using the following channels: DAPI (CFW), DsRed (WGA- TRITC and CoA-TR), and GFP (EY). DIC, differential interference contrast. Imaging of at least 100 cells of Cn (RC2) and Cg (BG2) was performed at 100× magnification in a Zeiss Axio Observer microscope and a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope (Thornwood, NY), respectively. Images were processed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm for Cn and 2 μm for Cg .

    Techniques Used: Staining, Labeling, Whole Genome Amplification, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, Software

    Intracellular GXM was enriched in old C. neoformans ( Cn ). (A and B) Quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling to detect intracellular GXM with monoclonal antibody to GXM (MAb 18B7) in young (A) and old (B) Cn (RC2). In panel C, error bars represent standard deviations. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired t test (****, P ≤ 0.0001). For each group (young and old), 50 cells were analyzed. A significantly increased amount of intracellular GXM was detected in old Cn compared to young cells. (D and E) Illustrative images of an old Cn cell showing the association of GXM inside vacuole (D) and with vesicular structures in the cell wall (E). Right panels in D (pink) and E (blue) represent magnifications of the boxed areas in left panel B.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular GXM was enriched in old C. neoformans ( Cn ). (A and B) Quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling to detect intracellular GXM with monoclonal antibody to GXM (MAb 18B7) in young (A) and old (B) Cn (RC2). In panel C, error bars represent standard deviations. Statistical significance was evaluated using an unpaired t test (****, P ≤ 0.0001). For each group (young and old), 50 cells were analyzed. A significantly increased amount of intracellular GXM was detected in old Cn compared to young cells. (D and E) Illustrative images of an old Cn cell showing the association of GXM inside vacuole (D) and with vesicular structures in the cell wall (E). Right panels in D (pink) and E (blue) represent magnifications of the boxed areas in left panel B.

    Techniques Used: Labeling

    Old yeast cells present thicker cell walls and an accumulation of vesicle-like structures in the cytosol. (A and B) Quantification of the thickness of the inner (squares), outer (triangles), and total (inner + outer) (circles) layers of young (blue) and old (red) C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (B). Data represent the analysis of 30 individual cells for each group by ImageJ/Fiji software. An unpaired t test with Welch’s correction was used to compare the pairs (young and old) of each group, and error bars represent the standard deviation (****, P ≤ 0.0001; ***, P ≤ 0.001; **, P ≤ 0.01; ####, P ≤ 0.0001; ##, P ≤ 0.01). The asterisk symbol (*) represents differences between the groups young and old, whereas the pound symbol (#) represents differences within the groups young or old. (A to J) Representative electron micrographs showing the ultrastructural changes of young and old cell walls of Cn (RC2) (C to F) and Cg (BG2) (G to J). White arrows point to vesicle-like particles in the cytoplasm of old yeast cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Old yeast cells present thicker cell walls and an accumulation of vesicle-like structures in the cytosol. (A and B) Quantification of the thickness of the inner (squares), outer (triangles), and total (inner + outer) (circles) layers of young (blue) and old (red) C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (B). Data represent the analysis of 30 individual cells for each group by ImageJ/Fiji software. An unpaired t test with Welch’s correction was used to compare the pairs (young and old) of each group, and error bars represent the standard deviation (****, P ≤ 0.0001; ***, P ≤ 0.001; **, P ≤ 0.01; ####, P ≤ 0.0001; ##, P ≤ 0.01). The asterisk symbol (*) represents differences between the groups young and old, whereas the pound symbol (#) represents differences within the groups young or old. (A to J) Representative electron micrographs showing the ultrastructural changes of young and old cell walls of Cn (RC2) (C to F) and Cg (BG2) (G to J). White arrows point to vesicle-like particles in the cytoplasm of old yeast cells.

    Techniques Used: Software, Standard Deviation

    Vacuole morphology and pH are affected in yeast old cells. (A and D) Images depicting vacuolar morphology (white arrows) stained with FM4-64 in young (Y) and old (O) cells of C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (D). DIC, differential interference contrast. (B and E) The ratio of vacuolar/cell area was significantly increased in old (red) Cn (B) and Cg (E) compared to younger cells (blue). An unpaired t test with Welch’s correction was used to generate the P -values (*, P = 0.0245; ****, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vacuole morphology and pH are affected in yeast old cells. (A and D) Images depicting vacuolar morphology (white arrows) stained with FM4-64 in young (Y) and old (O) cells of C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (D). DIC, differential interference contrast. (B and E) The ratio of vacuolar/cell area was significantly increased in old (red) Cn (B) and Cg (E) compared to younger cells (blue). An unpaired t test with Welch’s correction was used to generate the P -values (*, P = 0.0245; ****, P

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Alterations of vacuolar morphologies in young and old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Representative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of young and old cells of Cn in the upper panel (A to D) and Cg in the lower panel (E to H). Boxed areas illustrating vacuoles (ordinary or oversized, with or without intravacuolar vesicles) (left panels), were magnified in the right panels. Scale bars represent 500 nm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Alterations of vacuolar morphologies in young and old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Representative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of young and old cells of Cn in the upper panel (A to D) and Cg in the lower panel (E to H). Boxed areas illustrating vacuoles (ordinary or oversized, with or without intravacuolar vesicles) (left panels), were magnified in the right panels. Scale bars represent 500 nm.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    (A and B) Illustrative summary of phenotypic modifications observed during replicative aging in the pathogenic yeast C. neoformans (A) and C. glabrata (B). During aging, cell wall increases in thickness produce enlarged vacuoles and more multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Blue shapes indicate total chitin, dark green shapes indicate chitosan, orange shapes indicate chitooligomers, black shapes indicate melanin, red pentagons indicate mannan, and blue squares and green circles indicate β-glucan. The illustration was created using BioRender.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (A and B) Illustrative summary of phenotypic modifications observed during replicative aging in the pathogenic yeast C. neoformans (A) and C. glabrata (B). During aging, cell wall increases in thickness produce enlarged vacuoles and more multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Blue shapes indicate total chitin, dark green shapes indicate chitosan, orange shapes indicate chitooligomers, black shapes indicate melanin, red pentagons indicate mannan, and blue squares and green circles indicate β-glucan. The illustration was created using BioRender.

    Techniques Used:

    Increased expression levels of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis in old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). (A and B) Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in young (blue bars) and old (red bars) cells of RC2 Cn (A) and BG2 Cg (B). The data were normalized according to the gene expression of young cells, and the gene actin 1 ( ACT1 ) was used as an internal control. The dotted lines represent 2-fold up or down of the respective genes. All experiments were done in technical triplicates and repeated at least two times independently. Error bars correspond to the standard deviations of at least two independent experiments ( n = 2). A t test was performed to determine the P value (**, P ≤ 0.01; ***, P ≤ 0.001; ****, P ≤ 0.0001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Increased expression levels of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis in old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). (A and B) Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in young (blue bars) and old (red bars) cells of RC2 Cn (A) and BG2 Cg (B). The data were normalized according to the gene expression of young cells, and the gene actin 1 ( ACT1 ) was used as an internal control. The dotted lines represent 2-fold up or down of the respective genes. All experiments were done in technical triplicates and repeated at least two times independently. Error bars correspond to the standard deviations of at least two independent experiments ( n = 2). A t test was performed to determine the P value (**, P ≤ 0.01; ***, P ≤ 0.001; ****, P ≤ 0.0001).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) presented increased cell wall content levels. (A to H) By flow cytometry, analysis of levels in young (RC2 Y and BG2 Y) and old cells of Cn (RC2 O) and Cg (BG2 O) of total chitin (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (C and D), chitosan (E), β- 1,3-glucan (F), and mannoproteins (G and H). Unstained cells were sorted as controls to determined positive labeling. For each group, a total of 10,000 events were gated, and levels of chitin (blue; calcofluor white [CFW]), chitooligomers (orange; WGA-TRITC), chitosan (green; eosin Y [EY]), β-glucan (light blue; Fc-dectin1/DyLight 405), and mannan (red; concanavalin A, Texas Red conjugated) were represented by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The following lasers were used: violet, 405 nm (for CFW and DyLight 405); YelGreen, 561 nm (for WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR); blue, 488 nm (for EY). All experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analyses were performed by t test (****, P ≤ 0.0001; *** P ≤ 0.001; ** P ≤ 0.01; * P ≤ 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) presented increased cell wall content levels. (A to H) By flow cytometry, analysis of levels in young (RC2 Y and BG2 Y) and old cells of Cn (RC2 O) and Cg (BG2 O) of total chitin (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (C and D), chitosan (E), β- 1,3-glucan (F), and mannoproteins (G and H). Unstained cells were sorted as controls to determined positive labeling. For each group, a total of 10,000 events were gated, and levels of chitin (blue; calcofluor white [CFW]), chitooligomers (orange; WGA-TRITC), chitosan (green; eosin Y [EY]), β-glucan (light blue; Fc-dectin1/DyLight 405), and mannan (red; concanavalin A, Texas Red conjugated) were represented by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The following lasers were used: violet, 405 nm (for CFW and DyLight 405); YelGreen, 561 nm (for WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR); blue, 488 nm (for EY). All experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analyses were performed by t test (****, P ≤ 0.0001; *** P ≤ 0.001; ** P ≤ 0.01; * P ≤ 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Labeling, Whole Genome Amplification, Fluorescence

    4) Product Images from "Use of Clinical Isolates to Establish Criteria for a Mouse Model of Latent Cryptococcus neoformans Infection"

    Article Title: Use of Clinical Isolates to Establish Criteria for a Mouse Model of Latent Cryptococcus neoformans Infection

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.804059

    UgC l552 infection was contained within pulmonary granulomas. Representative histopathology images of granuloma formation at (A) 0.5x and (B) 20x magnification in lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 35 days post-infection with UgCl552. Black arrows point to granulomas. Black stars mark multinucleate giant cells. (C) 2x and (D) 20x magnification of lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 14 days post-infection with KN99α illustrating C. neoformans cells and inflammatory infiltrates with PMN’s visible in the insert. Scale bars = 50 μm, unless otherwise noted.
    Figure Legend Snippet: UgC l552 infection was contained within pulmonary granulomas. Representative histopathology images of granuloma formation at (A) 0.5x and (B) 20x magnification in lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 35 days post-infection with UgCl552. Black arrows point to granulomas. Black stars mark multinucleate giant cells. (C) 2x and (D) 20x magnification of lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 14 days post-infection with KN99α illustrating C. neoformans cells and inflammatory infiltrates with PMN’s visible in the insert. Scale bars = 50 μm, unless otherwise noted.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Histopathology

    UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections had low fungal burdens and minimal mortality. C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with C neoformans strains KN99α (triangle), UgCl223 (circle), or UgCl552 (square). (A–C) UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections were characterized by low fungal burdens. (A) Lungs, (B) spleen, and (C) brain were harvested, homogenized, and plated for colony forming units (CFUs) at 0-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection. No animals selected for timepoints succumbed to the infection. No organs were collected for CFU analysis for KN99α infection at 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection because all mice succumbed to infection prior to these timepoints. Trendlines were obtained using least squares regression with Gaussian distribution. n = 3-4 mice per timepoint per strain. (D) The majority of mice infected with UgCl223 and UgCl552 remained healthy. Mice were monitored for signs of morbidity for 90 days and sacrificed at natural endpoint (20% total weight loss; 1 g/day weight loss for 2 consecutive days; or neurological symptoms including loss of sternal recumbency, partial paralysis, seizure, convulsion, or coma). n = 9-10 mice per strain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections had low fungal burdens and minimal mortality. C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with C neoformans strains KN99α (triangle), UgCl223 (circle), or UgCl552 (square). (A–C) UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections were characterized by low fungal burdens. (A) Lungs, (B) spleen, and (C) brain were harvested, homogenized, and plated for colony forming units (CFUs) at 0-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection. No animals selected for timepoints succumbed to the infection. No organs were collected for CFU analysis for KN99α infection at 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection because all mice succumbed to infection prior to these timepoints. Trendlines were obtained using least squares regression with Gaussian distribution. n = 3-4 mice per timepoint per strain. (D) The majority of mice infected with UgCl223 and UgCl552 remained healthy. Mice were monitored for signs of morbidity for 90 days and sacrificed at natural endpoint (20% total weight loss; 1 g/day weight loss for 2 consecutive days; or neurological symptoms including loss of sternal recumbency, partial paralysis, seizure, convulsion, or coma). n = 9-10 mice per strain.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    5) Product Images from "Use of Clinical Isolates to Establish Criteria for a Mouse Model of Latent Cryptococcus neoformans Infection"

    Article Title: Use of Clinical Isolates to Establish Criteria for a Mouse Model of Latent Cryptococcus neoformans Infection

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.804059

    UgC l552 infection was contained within pulmonary granulomas. Representative histopathology images of granuloma formation at (A) 0.5x and (B) 20x magnification in lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 35 days post-infection with UgCl552. Black arrows point to granulomas. Black stars mark multinucleate giant cells. (C) 2x and (D) 20x magnification of lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 14 days post-infection with KN99α illustrating C. neoformans cells and inflammatory infiltrates with PMN’s visible in the insert. Scale bars = 50 μm, unless otherwise noted.
    Figure Legend Snippet: UgC l552 infection was contained within pulmonary granulomas. Representative histopathology images of granuloma formation at (A) 0.5x and (B) 20x magnification in lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 35 days post-infection with UgCl552. Black arrows point to granulomas. Black stars mark multinucleate giant cells. (C) 2x and (D) 20x magnification of lungs of a C57BL/6 mouse at 14 days post-infection with KN99α illustrating C. neoformans cells and inflammatory infiltrates with PMN’s visible in the insert. Scale bars = 50 μm, unless otherwise noted.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Histopathology

    UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections had low fungal burdens and minimal mortality. C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with C neoformans strains KN99α (triangle), UgCl223 (circle), or UgCl552 (square). (A–C) UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections were characterized by low fungal burdens. (A) Lungs, (B) spleen, and (C) brain were harvested, homogenized, and plated for colony forming units (CFUs) at 0-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection. No animals selected for timepoints succumbed to the infection. No organs were collected for CFU analysis for KN99α infection at 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection because all mice succumbed to infection prior to these timepoints. Trendlines were obtained using least squares regression with Gaussian distribution. n = 3-4 mice per timepoint per strain. (D) The majority of mice infected with UgCl223 and UgCl552 remained healthy. Mice were monitored for signs of morbidity for 90 days and sacrificed at natural endpoint (20% total weight loss; 1 g/day weight loss for 2 consecutive days; or neurological symptoms including loss of sternal recumbency, partial paralysis, seizure, convulsion, or coma). n = 9-10 mice per strain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections had low fungal burdens and minimal mortality. C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with C neoformans strains KN99α (triangle), UgCl223 (circle), or UgCl552 (square). (A–C) UgCl223 and UgCl552 infections were characterized by low fungal burdens. (A) Lungs, (B) spleen, and (C) brain were harvested, homogenized, and plated for colony forming units (CFUs) at 0-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection. No animals selected for timepoints succumbed to the infection. No organs were collected for CFU analysis for KN99α infection at 35-, 50-, and 70-days post-infection because all mice succumbed to infection prior to these timepoints. Trendlines were obtained using least squares regression with Gaussian distribution. n = 3-4 mice per timepoint per strain. (D) The majority of mice infected with UgCl223 and UgCl552 remained healthy. Mice were monitored for signs of morbidity for 90 days and sacrificed at natural endpoint (20% total weight loss; 1 g/day weight loss for 2 consecutive days; or neurological symptoms including loss of sternal recumbency, partial paralysis, seizure, convulsion, or coma). n = 9-10 mice per strain.

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    6) Product Images from "Replicative Aging Remodels Cell Wall and is Associated with Increased Intracellular Trafficking in Human Pathogenic Yeasts"

    Article Title: Replicative Aging Remodels Cell Wall and is Associated with Increased Intracellular Trafficking in Human Pathogenic Yeasts

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2022.01.25.477803

    Illustrative summarization of phenotypic modifications observed during replicative aging in pathogenic yeast C. neoformans (A) and C. glabrata (B). During aging, cell wall increases in thickness, produce enlarged vacuoles and more multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Blue shapes indicate total chitin, dark green shapes indicate chitosan, orange shapes indicate chitooligomers, black shapes indicate melanin, red pentagon shapes indicate mannan, blue squares and green circles indicate β-glucan. The illustration was created using BioRender.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Illustrative summarization of phenotypic modifications observed during replicative aging in pathogenic yeast C. neoformans (A) and C. glabrata (B). During aging, cell wall increases in thickness, produce enlarged vacuoles and more multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Blue shapes indicate total chitin, dark green shapes indicate chitosan, orange shapes indicate chitooligomers, black shapes indicate melanin, red pentagon shapes indicate mannan, blue squares and green circles indicate β-glucan. The illustration was created using BioRender.

    Techniques Used:

    Intracellular GXM was enriched in old C. neoformans ( Cn ). Quantitative analysis of immunogold labelling to detect intracellular GXM with monoclonal antibody to GXM (mAb 18B7) in young (A) and old (B) Cn (RC2). In panel C, error bars represent standard deviations. Statistical significance was evaluated using unpaired t -test (****, p ≤ 0.0001). For each group (young and old), 50 cells were analyzed. A significantly increased amount of intracellular GXM was detected in old Cn compared to young cells. Illustrative images of old Cn cell showing the association of GXM inside vacuole (D) and with vesicular structures in the cell wall (E). Right panels in D (pink) and E (blue) represent magnifications of the boxed areas in left panel B.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Intracellular GXM was enriched in old C. neoformans ( Cn ). Quantitative analysis of immunogold labelling to detect intracellular GXM with monoclonal antibody to GXM (mAb 18B7) in young (A) and old (B) Cn (RC2). In panel C, error bars represent standard deviations. Statistical significance was evaluated using unpaired t -test (****, p ≤ 0.0001). For each group (young and old), 50 cells were analyzed. A significantly increased amount of intracellular GXM was detected in old Cn compared to young cells. Illustrative images of old Cn cell showing the association of GXM inside vacuole (D) and with vesicular structures in the cell wall (E). Right panels in D (pink) and E (blue) represent magnifications of the boxed areas in left panel B.

    Techniques Used:

    Cell wall architecture of C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) is remodeled during aging. Total chitin (blue) was stained with calcofluor white (CFW) (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (orange) with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-TRITC) (C and D), chitosan (green) with Eosin Y (EY) (E), β-glucan (blue) with Fc-Dectin 1/Dylight 405 goat anti-human IgG + IgM (F), mannan (red) with concanavalin-Texas red (CoA-TR) (G-H). Stained cells were image by fluorescent microscopy, using the following channels: DAPI (CFW), DsRed (WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR) and GFP (EY). DIC, differential interference contrast. Imaging of at least 100 cells of Cn (RC2) and Cg (BG2) was performed at 100x in a Zeiss Axio Observer microscope, and a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope (Thornwood, NY), respectively. Images were processed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm for Cn , and 2 μm for Cg .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cell wall architecture of C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) is remodeled during aging. Total chitin (blue) was stained with calcofluor white (CFW) (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (orange) with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-TRITC) (C and D), chitosan (green) with Eosin Y (EY) (E), β-glucan (blue) with Fc-Dectin 1/Dylight 405 goat anti-human IgG + IgM (F), mannan (red) with concanavalin-Texas red (CoA-TR) (G-H). Stained cells were image by fluorescent microscopy, using the following channels: DAPI (CFW), DsRed (WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR) and GFP (EY). DIC, differential interference contrast. Imaging of at least 100 cells of Cn (RC2) and Cg (BG2) was performed at 100x in a Zeiss Axio Observer microscope, and a Zeiss Axiovert 200M microscope (Thornwood, NY), respectively. Images were processed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm for Cn , and 2 μm for Cg .

    Techniques Used: Staining, Labeling, Whole Genome Amplification, Microscopy, Imaging, Software

    Co-localization of mannan in the polysaccharide capsule and enhanced content of b-glucan in the cell wall of old C. neoformans ( Cn ). Images represent microscopy analysis of RC2 Cn young (A) and old (B) cells. DIC (Differential Interference Contrast), followed by mannan (red) stained with concanavalin A conjugated to Texas red (CoA-TR), and GXM (green) in the capsule stained with primary monoclonal Ab 18B7 and secondary Ab anti-IgG conjugated to Dylight 488 (18B7/Dylight 488). Quantity of 1,3-β-D-glucan content of young cells (RC2 Y) and old Cn cells (RC2 O) were verified using biochemical assay with aniline blue (C). Experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analysis were done by unpaired t- test (**, p= 0.0062).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-localization of mannan in the polysaccharide capsule and enhanced content of b-glucan in the cell wall of old C. neoformans ( Cn ). Images represent microscopy analysis of RC2 Cn young (A) and old (B) cells. DIC (Differential Interference Contrast), followed by mannan (red) stained with concanavalin A conjugated to Texas red (CoA-TR), and GXM (green) in the capsule stained with primary monoclonal Ab 18B7 and secondary Ab anti-IgG conjugated to Dylight 488 (18B7/Dylight 488). Quantity of 1,3-β-D-glucan content of young cells (RC2 Y) and old Cn cells (RC2 O) were verified using biochemical assay with aniline blue (C). Experiments were done in biological triplicates, and statistical analysis were done by unpaired t- test (**, p= 0.0062).

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Staining

    Alterations of vacuolar morphologies in young and old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Representative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of young and old cells of Cn in the upper panel (A-D), and Cg in the lower panel (E-H). Boxed areas illustrating vacuoles (ordinary or oversized, with or without intravacuolar vesicles) (left panels), were magnified in the right panels. Scale bars represent 500 nm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Alterations of vacuolar morphologies in young and old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Representative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of young and old cells of Cn in the upper panel (A-D), and Cg in the lower panel (E-H). Boxed areas illustrating vacuoles (ordinary or oversized, with or without intravacuolar vesicles) (left panels), were magnified in the right panels. Scale bars represent 500 nm.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) presented increased cell wall content levels. By flow cytometry, analysis of levels in young (RC2 Y and BG2 Y) and old cells of Cn (RC2 O) and Cg (BG2 O) presented of total chitin (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (C and D), chitosan (E), β-1,3-glucan (F) and mannoproteins (G and H). Unstained cells were sorted as controls to determined positive labeling. For each group, a total of 10,000 events were gated and levels of chitin (blue; calcofluor white, CFW), chitooligomers (orange; WGA-TRITC), chitosan (green; Eosin Y, EY), β-glucan (light blue; Fc-Dectin1/Dylight 405), and mannan (red; concanavalin A, Texas Red conjugated) were represented by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The following lasers were used: violet 405 nm (for CFW and Dylight 405), YelGreen 561 nm (for WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR), blue 488 nm (for EY). All experiments were done in biological triplicates and statistical analyses were performed by t- test (****, p ≤ 0.0001; *** p ≤ 0.001; ** p ≤ 0.01; * p ≤ 0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) presented increased cell wall content levels. By flow cytometry, analysis of levels in young (RC2 Y and BG2 Y) and old cells of Cn (RC2 O) and Cg (BG2 O) presented of total chitin (A and B), exposed chitooligomers (C and D), chitosan (E), β-1,3-glucan (F) and mannoproteins (G and H). Unstained cells were sorted as controls to determined positive labeling. For each group, a total of 10,000 events were gated and levels of chitin (blue; calcofluor white, CFW), chitooligomers (orange; WGA-TRITC), chitosan (green; Eosin Y, EY), β-glucan (light blue; Fc-Dectin1/Dylight 405), and mannan (red; concanavalin A, Texas Red conjugated) were represented by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The following lasers were used: violet 405 nm (for CFW and Dylight 405), YelGreen 561 nm (for WGA-TRITC and CoA-TR), blue 488 nm (for EY). All experiments were done in biological triplicates and statistical analyses were performed by t- test (****, p ≤ 0.0001; *** p ≤ 0.001; ** p ≤ 0.01; * p ≤ 0.05).

    Techniques Used: Flow Cytometry, Labeling, Whole Genome Amplification, Fluorescence

    Vacuole morphology and pH are affected in yeast old cells. Images depicting vacuolar morphology (white arrows) stained with FM4-64 in young (Y) and old (O) cells of C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (D). DIC, differential interference contrast. The ratio vacuolar/cell area was significantly increased in old (red) Cn (B) and Cg (E) when compared to younger cells (blue). Unpaired t -test with Welch’s correction was used to generate the p -values (*, p = 0.0245; ****p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vacuole morphology and pH are affected in yeast old cells. Images depicting vacuolar morphology (white arrows) stained with FM4-64 in young (Y) and old (O) cells of C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (D). DIC, differential interference contrast. The ratio vacuolar/cell area was significantly increased in old (red) Cn (B) and Cg (E) when compared to younger cells (blue). Unpaired t -test with Welch’s correction was used to generate the p -values (*, p = 0.0245; ****p

    Techniques Used: Staining

    Old yeast cells present thicker cell walls and an accumulation of vesicle-like structures in the cytosol. Quantification of the thickness of the inner (squares), outer (triangles), and total (inner + outer) (circles) layers of young (blue) and old (red) C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (B). Data represent the analysis of 30 individual cells for each group by ImageJ/Fiji software. Unpaired t -test with Welch’s correction was used to compare the pairs (young and old) of each group, and error bars represent the standard deviation (****, p ≤ 0.0001; ***, p ≤ 0.001; **, p ≤ 0.01; ####, p ≤ 0.0001; ##, p ≤ 0.01). The asterisk symbol (*) represents differences between the groups young and old, whereas the pound symbol (#) represents differences within the groups young or old. Representative electron micrographs showing the ultrastructural changes of young and old cell walls of Cn (RC2) (C-F) and Cg (BG2) (G-J). White arrows point to vesicle-like particles in the cytoplasm of old yeast cells.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Old yeast cells present thicker cell walls and an accumulation of vesicle-like structures in the cytosol. Quantification of the thickness of the inner (squares), outer (triangles), and total (inner + outer) (circles) layers of young (blue) and old (red) C. neoformans ( Cn ) (A) and C. glabrata ( Cg ) (B). Data represent the analysis of 30 individual cells for each group by ImageJ/Fiji software. Unpaired t -test with Welch’s correction was used to compare the pairs (young and old) of each group, and error bars represent the standard deviation (****, p ≤ 0.0001; ***, p ≤ 0.001; **, p ≤ 0.01; ####, p ≤ 0.0001; ##, p ≤ 0.01). The asterisk symbol (*) represents differences between the groups young and old, whereas the pound symbol (#) represents differences within the groups young or old. Representative electron micrographs showing the ultrastructural changes of young and old cell walls of Cn (RC2) (C-F) and Cg (BG2) (G-J). White arrows point to vesicle-like particles in the cytoplasm of old yeast cells.

    Techniques Used: Software, Standard Deviation

    Increased expression levels of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis in old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in young (blue bars) and old (red bars) cells of RC2 Cn (A) and BG2 Cg (B). The data were normalized according to the gene expression of young cells, and the gene actin 1 ( ACT1 ) was used as an internal control. The dotted lines represent two-fold up or down of the respective genes. All experiments were done in technical triplicates and repeated at least two times independently. Error bars correspond to the standard deviations of at least two independent experiments (n=2). t -test was performed to determine the p -value (**, p ≤ 0.01; ***, p ≤ 0.001; ****, p ≤ 0.0001).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Increased expression levels of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis in old C. neoformans ( Cn ) and C. glabrata ( Cg ). Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in young (blue bars) and old (red bars) cells of RC2 Cn (A) and BG2 Cg (B). The data were normalized according to the gene expression of young cells, and the gene actin 1 ( ACT1 ) was used as an internal control. The dotted lines represent two-fold up or down of the respective genes. All experiments were done in technical triplicates and repeated at least two times independently. Error bars correspond to the standard deviations of at least two independent experiments (n=2). t -test was performed to determine the p -value (**, p ≤ 0.01; ***, p ≤ 0.001; ****, p ≤ 0.0001).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    7) Product Images from "Risk Factors for Cryptococcal Meningitis Recurrence in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients in a Large Chinese Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Treatment Center"

    Article Title: Risk Factors for Cryptococcal Meningitis Recurrence in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients in a Large Chinese Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Treatment Center

    Journal: Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research

    doi: 10.12659/MSM.933688

    Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans .

    Techniques Used:

    8) Product Images from "Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)"

    Article Title: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules26247435

    Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    9) Product Images from "Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)"

    Article Title: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules26247435

    Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    10) Product Images from "Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)"

    Article Title: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro and In Silico Antifungal Evaluation of Azo-Azomethine Pyrazoles (PhN2(PhOH)CHN(C3N2(CH3)3)PhR, R = H or NO2)

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules26247435

    Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Percentages of inhibition of the compounds Azo1 to Azo2 as a function of the concentration against strains of fungi C. albicans ( a ) and C. neoformans ( b ).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Concentration Assay

    11) Product Images from "CCR2 Signaling Promotes Brain Infiltration of Inflammatory Monocytes and Contributes to Neuropathology during Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis"

    Article Title: CCR2 Signaling Promotes Brain Infiltration of Inflammatory Monocytes and Contributes to Neuropathology during Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis

    Journal: mBio

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.01076-21

    CCR2 contributes to pathological type 1 inflammation during C. neoformans brain infection. (A and B) Frequencies of CD4 + T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-17A, Foxp3, and IL-13 isolated from the brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice 21 dpi show a shift in the immune polarization away from the ultra-Th1 response toward a more-balanced, mixed Th-phenotype in CCR2 −/− mice during CM. The pie charts show the ratio of different subsets of CD4 + T cells, Th1 (IFN-γ + ), Th2 (IL-13 + ), Th17 (IL-17A + ), Tregs (Foxp3 + ), and other cells without detectable cytokine productions. (C) Total cell numbers of CD4 + T cells subsets isolated from the brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice at 21 dpi. (D and E) Expressions of iNOS and ARG1 by IM were analyzed in the brain of WT and CCR2 −/− mice by intracellular flow cytometry. Note that IM produce a high level of iNOS in infected WT but shift to express ARG1 in infected CCR2 −/− mice. (F and G) iNOS and ARG1 expression by microglia isolated from brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice with CM. Mean ± SEM from an experiment representative of two to four independent experiments ( n > 4). *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: CCR2 contributes to pathological type 1 inflammation during C. neoformans brain infection. (A and B) Frequencies of CD4 + T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-17A, Foxp3, and IL-13 isolated from the brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice 21 dpi show a shift in the immune polarization away from the ultra-Th1 response toward a more-balanced, mixed Th-phenotype in CCR2 −/− mice during CM. The pie charts show the ratio of different subsets of CD4 + T cells, Th1 (IFN-γ + ), Th2 (IL-13 + ), Th17 (IL-17A + ), Tregs (Foxp3 + ), and other cells without detectable cytokine productions. (C) Total cell numbers of CD4 + T cells subsets isolated from the brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice at 21 dpi. (D and E) Expressions of iNOS and ARG1 by IM were analyzed in the brain of WT and CCR2 −/− mice by intracellular flow cytometry. Note that IM produce a high level of iNOS in infected WT but shift to express ARG1 in infected CCR2 −/− mice. (F and G) iNOS and ARG1 expression by microglia isolated from brains of WT and CCR2 −/− mice with CM. Mean ± SEM from an experiment representative of two to four independent experiments ( n > 4). *, P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry, Expressing

    CCR2 drives immunopathology and mortality during CM. C57BL/6J mice were infected with 10 6 CFU of C. neoformans 52D via retro-orbital intravenous inoculation. (A) Production of chemokine CCL2 in the brain homogenate at various time points was evaluated by CBA assay. (B) CCR2 −/− mice showed prolonged survival and lower mortality than that of the WT-infected mice ( n = 10). (C) MCBS scores of infected WT and CCR2 −/− mice were compared to evaluate the overall health and neurological status. CCR2 −/− mice exhibited less-severe CM symptoms. (D) Brain fungal burdens were calculated on 14, 21, postdeath (+), and 35 dpi. CCR2 deficiency significantly impairs fungal control in the brain. We did not observe any significant difference in brain CFU, as well as CNS inflammation. (E) Brains from perfused WT and CCR2 −/− mice were paraffin-embedded, coronal sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H E), and imaged at (40×). Note that stained C. neoformans organisms occupy a relatively small area in the WT compared to that of CCR2-deficient mice and that C. neoformans are better contained and surrounded by the leukocyte infiltrate in WT mice but occupy a largely extracellular zone in CCR2 −/− mice. Data shown are the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) from an experiment representative of two independent experiments ( n > 4). **, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: CCR2 drives immunopathology and mortality during CM. C57BL/6J mice were infected with 10 6 CFU of C. neoformans 52D via retro-orbital intravenous inoculation. (A) Production of chemokine CCL2 in the brain homogenate at various time points was evaluated by CBA assay. (B) CCR2 −/− mice showed prolonged survival and lower mortality than that of the WT-infected mice ( n = 10). (C) MCBS scores of infected WT and CCR2 −/− mice were compared to evaluate the overall health and neurological status. CCR2 −/− mice exhibited less-severe CM symptoms. (D) Brain fungal burdens were calculated on 14, 21, postdeath (+), and 35 dpi. CCR2 deficiency significantly impairs fungal control in the brain. We did not observe any significant difference in brain CFU, as well as CNS inflammation. (E) Brains from perfused WT and CCR2 −/− mice were paraffin-embedded, coronal sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H E), and imaged at (40×). Note that stained C. neoformans organisms occupy a relatively small area in the WT compared to that of CCR2-deficient mice and that C. neoformans are better contained and surrounded by the leukocyte infiltrate in WT mice but occupy a largely extracellular zone in CCR2 −/− mice. Data shown are the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) from an experiment representative of two independent experiments ( n > 4). **, P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection, Crocin Bleaching Assay, Staining

    CCR2 pathway is essential for the accumulation of inflammatory monocytes (IM) in the C. neoformans - infected brain. Brain leukocytes from WT and CCR2 −/− mice were isolated and analyzed. (A and B) CCR2 is mainly expressed by IM but not microglia and T cells in the brain during CM. The gray area in the flow plot and dotted line in the bar graph represent the signal from isotype control. (C) Accumulation of Ly6C + CD11b + IM in the infected brain at days 0, 14, 21, and 35 was evaluated. IM were absent until 14 dpi and showed peak accumulation on 21 dpi in WT mice. Note there was a profound reduction in the total number of IM in the brain of CCR2 −/− mice compared to that in the WT mice. (D and E) The frequencies of CD11b + Ly6C + monocytes as well as CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in spleens of WT and CCR2 −/− mice at 21 dpi. (F) Sorted monocytes from WT (CD45.1) or CCR2 −/− (CD45.2) mice were mixed at a 1:1 ratio and confirmed by flow cytometry (left panel) and then injected into WT (CD45.1 × CD45.2) recipients at 20 dpi. Frequency and the total numbers of WT and CCR2 −/− donor monocytes in the brain of recipient mice were analyzed by flow cytometry at 24 h posttransfer (right two panels). Representative flow cytometric dot plots are shown after CD11b + Ly6C + IM gating. Numerical data or bar graphs showed mean ± SEM from an experiment representative of two to four independent experiments ( n > 3). *, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: CCR2 pathway is essential for the accumulation of inflammatory monocytes (IM) in the C. neoformans - infected brain. Brain leukocytes from WT and CCR2 −/− mice were isolated and analyzed. (A and B) CCR2 is mainly expressed by IM but not microglia and T cells in the brain during CM. The gray area in the flow plot and dotted line in the bar graph represent the signal from isotype control. (C) Accumulation of Ly6C + CD11b + IM in the infected brain at days 0, 14, 21, and 35 was evaluated. IM were absent until 14 dpi and showed peak accumulation on 21 dpi in WT mice. Note there was a profound reduction in the total number of IM in the brain of CCR2 −/− mice compared to that in the WT mice. (D and E) The frequencies of CD11b + Ly6C + monocytes as well as CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in spleens of WT and CCR2 −/− mice at 21 dpi. (F) Sorted monocytes from WT (CD45.1) or CCR2 −/− (CD45.2) mice were mixed at a 1:1 ratio and confirmed by flow cytometry (left panel) and then injected into WT (CD45.1 × CD45.2) recipients at 20 dpi. Frequency and the total numbers of WT and CCR2 −/− donor monocytes in the brain of recipient mice were analyzed by flow cytometry at 24 h posttransfer (right two panels). Representative flow cytometric dot plots are shown after CD11b + Ly6C + IM gating. Numerical data or bar graphs showed mean ± SEM from an experiment representative of two to four independent experiments ( n > 3). *, P

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay, Isolation, Flow Cytometry, Injection

    12) Product Images from "Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans"

    Article Title: Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.660645

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

    Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Incubation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, MTT Assay, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p

    Techniques Used: Infection

    13) Product Images from "Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans"

    Article Title: Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.660645

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

    Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Incubation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, MTT Assay, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p

    Techniques Used: Infection

    14) Product Images from "Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans"

    Article Title: Antifungal Combination of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L. P. Queiros Stem Bark With Amphotericin B in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.660645

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination on capsule (A) and cell (B) size. Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 and C. neoformans CN12 were treated with EAF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1,000.0 and 125 μg/ml, respectively), AmB MIC (0.125 μg/ml), and EAF combined with AmB (3.9/0.003 μg/ml), and the results were compared to untreated control. A total of 100 cells were measured, and the mean ± standard deviation was calculated and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

    Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological and ultrastructural changes analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 after 48 h of treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or combined. (A) Untreated control cells grown in RPMI-MOPS for 48 h at 37°C; (B) 1,000.0 μg/ml EAF; (C) 0.125 μg/ml AmB; (D) 3.9/0.003 μg/ml EAF/AmB. Capsule (c), cell wall (cw), nucleus (n), vacuole (v), loss of cell wall integrity (arrow), and cell membrane detachment (arrow head).

    Techniques Used: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 biofilms on glass (A1–A4) and polystyrene (B1–B4) surfaces over 48 h of incubation at 37°C. (1) Untreated control; (2) 1,000.0 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (EAF); (3) 2.0 μg/ml amphotericin B (AmB); (4) 31.25/0.5 μg/ml EAF/AmB.

    Techniques Used: Electron Microscopy, Incubation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa on 48-h biofilm of Cryptococcus neoformans . Metabolic activity of sessile cells was assessed by the dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method after 48-h incubation at 37°C with different concentrations of EAF. Values are mean ± standard deviation of two experiments in quintuplicate and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Asterisks indicate a significant reduction ( p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, MTT Assay, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Cryptococcus neoformans . (A) Time-kill kinetics of EAF, AmB, and their combination at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. (1) C. neoformans ATCC 66031; (2) C. neoformans CN12. The values are the mean ± standard deviation of two independent experiments in duplicate. Analysis of C. neoformans survival data was performed using two-way ANOVA, * p

    Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

    Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Poincianella pluviosa bark and amphotericin B (AmB) alone or in combination against Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (A) and Cryptococcus neoformans CN12 (B) . All groups were compared with infected and untreated larvae. Analysis of G. mellonella survival data was performed using the log-rank (Mantel–Cox) of representative experiment. The asterisks indicate a significant reduction in mortality rate of infected and treated group compared with the infected and untreated group (* p

    Techniques Used: Infection

    Similar Products

  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 90
    ATCC isolate candida albicans atcc
    Viability staining of <t>Candida</t> <t>albicans</t> <t>ATCC</t> 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , five min after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p
    Isolate Candida Albicans Atcc, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/isolate candida albicans atcc/product/ATCC
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    isolate candida albicans atcc - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    ATCC aspergillus fumigatus atcc 240305
    Percentage of biofilm formation by <t>Aspergillus</t> <t>fumigatus</t> <t>ATCC</t> <t>240305</t> and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p
    Aspergillus Fumigatus Atcc 240305, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/aspergillus fumigatus atcc 240305/product/ATCC
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    aspergillus fumigatus atcc 240305 - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    ATCC yeast strains
    Percentage of biofilm formation by <t>Aspergillus</t> <t>fumigatus</t> <t>ATCC</t> <t>240305</t> and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p
    Yeast Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/yeast strains/product/ATCC
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    yeast strains - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    97
    ATCC aspergillus brasiliensis
    Percentage of biofilm formation by <t>Aspergillus</t> <t>fumigatus</t> <t>ATCC</t> <t>240305</t> and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p
    Aspergillus Brasiliensis, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/aspergillus brasiliensis/product/ATCC
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    aspergillus brasiliensis - by Bioz Stars, 2022-12
    97/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Viability staining of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , five min after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viability staining of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , five min after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Staining, Standard Deviation, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Potassium ion efflux of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , five min after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Potassium ion efflux of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , five min after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Percentage of germ tube formation in two Candida albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and H37) with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of four independent assays. Control included untreated cells and cells treated with 1.28% of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. ** p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of germ tube formation in two Candida albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and H37) with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of four independent assays. Control included untreated cells and cells treated with 1.28% of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. ** p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Concentration Assay

    Metabolic activity of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , three h after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Metabolic activity of Candida albicans ATCC 10231 cells treated with different concentrations of compound 1 , three h after exposure. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of three independent assays. Controls included untreated cells incubated for 20 min at 80 °C, 10 mM sodium azide, amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FL) at 8 µg/mL. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. * p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Standard Deviation, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Percentage of biofilm formation by two Candida albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and H37) with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of biofilm formation by two Candida albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and H37) with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Concentration Assay

    Percentage of biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305 and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305 and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Concentration Assay

    Percentage of biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305 and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antifungal Activity of a Library of Aminothioxanthones

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics11111488

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305 and Trichophyton rubrum FF5 with different concentrations of compound 1 . Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent assays. Control included an appropriate concentration of dimethylsulfoxide. MIC: Minimal inhibitory concentration. *** p

    Article Snippet: Aminothioxanthones 1 – 10 and, of note, the chlorinated compound 16 (precursor of 10 ) were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against two reference strains and a clinical isolate: Candida albicans ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 240305, and Trichophyton rubrum FF5, by the CLSI broth microdilution method [ , ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Concentration Assay