carboxymethylcellulose  (Millipore)


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    Structured Review

    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose
    Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.
    Carboxymethylcellulose, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 99 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing"

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing

    Journal: mSphere

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00089-17

    Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay

    2) Product Images from "Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose"

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01789-12

    A premature cellulose production that has taken place as a consequence of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the cell is responsible for motility inhibition. (A) Endoglucanase activity of BcsZ was confirmed by assessing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-degrading
    Figure Legend Snippet: A premature cellulose production that has taken place as a consequence of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the cell is responsible for motility inhibition. (A) Endoglucanase activity of BcsZ was confirmed by assessing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-degrading

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay

    3) Product Images from "Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles"

    Article Title: Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14651

    IOP increase due to injection of 50 μL of HBSS into the intravitreal space (IVT) and 10 μL and 50 μL of 2% carboxymethylcellulose placebo formulation (CMC) into the supraciliary space (SCS).
    Figure Legend Snippet: IOP increase due to injection of 50 μL of HBSS into the intravitreal space (IVT) and 10 μL and 50 μL of 2% carboxymethylcellulose placebo formulation (CMC) into the supraciliary space (SCS).

    Techniques Used: Injection

    4) Product Images from "Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection"

    Article Title: Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection

    Journal: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1007/s00253-015-6819-3

    Characterization of RecDENV2. a IFA of RecDENV2, DENV2, or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2). b Plaque morphology of RecDENV2 and DENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 in BHK-21 and C6/36 cells. Monolayers of BHK-21 and C6/36 cells were infected with RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each point, the media were collected and virus titers were determined on BHK-21 cells by a plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the RecDENV2, parental virus DENV2, or PBS in suckling Km mice
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of RecDENV2. a IFA of RecDENV2, DENV2, or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2). b Plaque morphology of RecDENV2 and DENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 in BHK-21 and C6/36 cells. Monolayers of BHK-21 and C6/36 cells were infected with RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each point, the media were collected and virus titers were determined on BHK-21 cells by a plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the RecDENV2, parental virus DENV2, or PBS in suckling Km mice

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Infection, Serial Dilution, Incubation, Staining, Mouse Assay

    Characterization of JEVpr/DENV2. a IFA of JEVpr/DENV2- or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2). Cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At 48 h post-infection, normal cells and viruses were detected with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2), respectively. b Plaque morphology of JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 in C6/36 cells. Monolayers of C6/36 cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 or RecDENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each time point, the media were collected and virus titers in cell culture were determined on BHK-21 cells by plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2, RecDENV2, and PBS in suckling Km mice
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of JEVpr/DENV2. a IFA of JEVpr/DENV2- or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2). Cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At 48 h post-infection, normal cells and viruses were detected with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2), respectively. b Plaque morphology of JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 in C6/36 cells. Monolayers of C6/36 cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 or RecDENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each time point, the media were collected and virus titers in cell culture were determined on BHK-21 cells by plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2, RecDENV2, and PBS in suckling Km mice

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Infection, Serial Dilution, Incubation, Staining, Cell Culture, Mouse Assay

    5) Product Images from "β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system"

    Article Title: β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16150-6

    Effects of the β-eudesmol administration route on GVNA. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by oral administration (p.o.). ( B , C ) Effects of oral administration (p.o.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). ( D ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by intraduodenal administration (d.u.). ( E , F ) Effects intraduodenal administration (d.u.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of the β-eudesmol administration route on GVNA. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by oral administration (p.o.). ( B , C ) Effects of oral administration (p.o.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). ( D ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by intraduodenal administration (d.u.). ( E , F ) Effects intraduodenal administration (d.u.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    β-eudesmol increased food intake and plasma ghrelin. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 20). Food intake in the control group given 0.5% CMC containing water is shown by the open bar in the graph (n = 20). ( B ) Mean food intake during the experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake of rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. The control is shown by the white bar in the graph. ( D ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-eudesmol increased food intake and plasma ghrelin. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 20). Food intake in the control group given 0.5% CMC containing water is shown by the open bar in the graph (n = 20). ( B ) Mean food intake during the experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake of rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. The control is shown by the white bar in the graph. ( D ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    The effects of β-eudesmol on food intake and octanoyl ghrelin in TRPA1 knockout rats. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 17). Food intake in the control, 0.5% CMC water, is shown by a white bar in the graph (n = 19). ( B ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing water. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( B ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CTL, control; β -EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of β-eudesmol on food intake and octanoyl ghrelin in TRPA1 knockout rats. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 17). Food intake in the control, 0.5% CMC water, is shown by a white bar in the graph (n = 19). ( B ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing water. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( B ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CTL, control; β -EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, MANN-WHITNEY, CTL Assay

    β-Eudesmol modulated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA). ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. ( B , C ) Effect of β-eudesmol administration on GVNA (n = 9). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-Eudesmol modulated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA). ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. ( B , C ) Effect of β-eudesmol administration on GVNA (n = 9). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    The effect of subcutaneous administration of β-eudesmol on GVNA, food and water intake. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by subcutaneous administration (s.c.). ( B ) Effects of subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of β-eudesmol on GVNA in rats (n = 5). ( C ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (n = 10). Food intake in the control group is shown by an open bar in the graph (n = 10). ( D ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( F ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of subcutaneous administration of β-eudesmol on GVNA, food and water intake. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by subcutaneous administration (s.c.). ( B ) Effects of subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of β-eudesmol on GVNA in rats (n = 5). ( C ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (n = 10). Food intake in the control group is shown by an open bar in the graph (n = 10). ( D ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( F ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    A two-bottle selection test for β-eudesmol in rats. ( A ) Structure of β-eudesmol. ( B ) Result of a two-bottle selection test. In the control experiment, water plus 0.5% CMC (control water) was supplied to both bottles (left). β-Eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water and control water were used in the next test (right). Values are means ± SEM (n = 15). Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; β-EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A two-bottle selection test for β-eudesmol in rats. ( A ) Structure of β-eudesmol. ( B ) Result of a two-bottle selection test. In the control experiment, water plus 0.5% CMC (control water) was supplied to both bottles (left). β-Eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water and control water were used in the next test (right). Values are means ± SEM (n = 15). Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; β-EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.

    Techniques Used: Selection, MANN-WHITNEY

    6) Product Images from "Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing"

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing

    Journal: mSphere

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00089-17

    Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay

    7) Product Images from "Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis"

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00785

    Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    8) Product Images from "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of neurochemistry

    doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04875.x

    Oral administration of fenofibrate inhibits IL-12 family subunit mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed fenofibrate daily by gavage. Vehicle-treated mice were fed water containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose by gavage daily. Spinal cords were harvested on day 18 post-immunization, and total RNA was isolated. IL-12p40 (a), IL-12p35 (b), IL-23p19 (c), IL-27EBI3 (d), and IL-27p28 (e) mRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results are expressed as fold-changes relative to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice in vehicle group and all values are normalized against GAPDH. Values are mean ± SEM from five independent experiments, and duplicate reactions were performed on each sample in each experiment. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Oral administration of fenofibrate inhibits IL-12 family subunit mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed fenofibrate daily by gavage. Vehicle-treated mice were fed water containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose by gavage daily. Spinal cords were harvested on day 18 post-immunization, and total RNA was isolated. IL-12p40 (a), IL-12p35 (b), IL-23p19 (c), IL-27EBI3 (d), and IL-27p28 (e) mRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results are expressed as fold-changes relative to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice in vehicle group and all values are normalized against GAPDH. Values are mean ± SEM from five independent experiments, and duplicate reactions were performed on each sample in each experiment. * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Isolation, Quantitative RT-PCR

    9) Product Images from "Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines"

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines

    Journal: JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute

    doi: 10.1093/jnci/djp106

    In vivo HPV-16 pseudovirus challenge of mice 4 months after vaccination with L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvant combinations. Mice (five per group, the same mice as in Figure 2 ) were vaccinated three times at 2-week intervals with PBS, 10 μg of L1 VLPs, or 25 μg of L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvants or adjuvant alone. Individual groups are as listed below from left to right: PBS alone, 11-200 × 3 alone, alum alone (1.3 mg), 11-200 × 3 + alum (1.3 mg), 1018 ISS alone (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + 1018 ISS (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + alum + 1018 (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (200 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse) + Tween-40 (1 mg/mouse). Approximately 4 months after the vaccination, a patch on the belly of each anesthetized BALB/c mouse was shaved with an electric razor without traumatizing the epithelium. Mice were then challenged with 3 × 10 9 HPV-16 pseudovirions (100 ng) in 10 μL of 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose carrying a luciferase reporter construct. Three days later, the mice were anesthetized and injected with luciferin. Images were acquired for 10 minutes with a Xenogen IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system. Equal-sized areas encompassing the site of inoculation were analyzed using Living Image 2.20 software, and the luminescence units were plotted using levels in mice vaccinated with HPV-16 L1 VLP before challenge as baseline. Individual data points and means ( horizontal lines ) are shown. HPV = human papillomavirus; ISS = immunostimulatory sequence; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; VLP = virus-like particle.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo HPV-16 pseudovirus challenge of mice 4 months after vaccination with L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvant combinations. Mice (five per group, the same mice as in Figure 2 ) were vaccinated three times at 2-week intervals with PBS, 10 μg of L1 VLPs, or 25 μg of L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvants or adjuvant alone. Individual groups are as listed below from left to right: PBS alone, 11-200 × 3 alone, alum alone (1.3 mg), 11-200 × 3 + alum (1.3 mg), 1018 ISS alone (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + 1018 ISS (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + alum + 1018 (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (200 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse) + Tween-40 (1 mg/mouse). Approximately 4 months after the vaccination, a patch on the belly of each anesthetized BALB/c mouse was shaved with an electric razor without traumatizing the epithelium. Mice were then challenged with 3 × 10 9 HPV-16 pseudovirions (100 ng) in 10 μL of 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose carrying a luciferase reporter construct. Three days later, the mice were anesthetized and injected with luciferin. Images were acquired for 10 minutes with a Xenogen IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system. Equal-sized areas encompassing the site of inoculation were analyzed using Living Image 2.20 software, and the luminescence units were plotted using levels in mice vaccinated with HPV-16 L1 VLP before challenge as baseline. Individual data points and means ( horizontal lines ) are shown. HPV = human papillomavirus; ISS = immunostimulatory sequence; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; VLP = virus-like particle.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Luciferase, Construct, Injection, Imaging, Software, Sequencing

    10) Product Images from "Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt"

    Article Title: Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2014/639548

    Effect of Morus alba leaves extracts (MAE) on thrombus formation in rats. The procedures for the AV-shunt model are described in the Section 2 . Thrombus weight in an arteriovenous shunt was measured at 2 h after administration of 3-day treatment with 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose solution (control), ethanol extract of Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, and positive control (rivaroxaban, RVX) 5 mg/kg/day. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Morus alba leaves extracts (MAE) on thrombus formation in rats. The procedures for the AV-shunt model are described in the Section 2 . Thrombus weight in an arteriovenous shunt was measured at 2 h after administration of 3-day treatment with 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose solution (control), ethanol extract of Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, and positive control (rivaroxaban, RVX) 5 mg/kg/day. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. * P

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    11) Product Images from "Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury"

    Article Title: Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00002.2009

    Orally administered curcumin fails to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung injury or improve survival. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with saline (Ctrl), carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle; Veh), or curcumin (300 mg/kg) by oral gavage (o.g.). After 72 h ( day 0 ),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Orally administered curcumin fails to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung injury or improve survival. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with saline (Ctrl), carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle; Veh), or curcumin (300 mg/kg) by oral gavage (o.g.). After 72 h ( day 0 ),

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    12) Product Images from "Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe"

    Article Title: Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe

    Journal: Molecular Systems Biology

    doi: 10.1038/msb.2010.116

    Carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) expression and activities in glucose, hemicellulose, and cellulose cultures. ( A ) Secreted and cellular cellulolytic enzyme activities. Protein lysates from cultures grown on glucose (purple), hemicellulose (turquoise), or cellulose (orange) prepared from the cellular fraction (C), supernatant (S), or whole-culture lystates (L). Proteins were incubated with hemicellulose (hemicellulase assay) or carboxymethylcellulose substrate (cellulase assay), reducing sugars were assayed using dinitrosalicyclic acid, and were normalized to protein concentration. ( B ) CAZy expression changes (MS1 peak area ratio, MPA ratio) on hemicellulose and cellulose versus glucose showing differentially expressed proteins ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) expression and activities in glucose, hemicellulose, and cellulose cultures. ( A ) Secreted and cellular cellulolytic enzyme activities. Protein lysates from cultures grown on glucose (purple), hemicellulose (turquoise), or cellulose (orange) prepared from the cellular fraction (C), supernatant (S), or whole-culture lystates (L). Proteins were incubated with hemicellulose (hemicellulase assay) or carboxymethylcellulose substrate (cellulase assay), reducing sugars were assayed using dinitrosalicyclic acid, and were normalized to protein concentration. ( B ) CAZy expression changes (MS1 peak area ratio, MPA ratio) on hemicellulose and cellulose versus glucose showing differentially expressed proteins ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Incubation, Protein Concentration

    13) Product Images from "Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis"

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00785

    Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    14) Product Images from "Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis"

    Article Title: Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01936-13

    Silymarin reduced mortality and liver morbidity in chronic S. mansoni infection. Mice were left untreated (I) or treated with carboxymethylcellulose (I+Veh 80D) or silymarin (10 mg kg −1 ) for 10 days (I+SIL 10D), 50 days (I+SIL 50D), or 80 days
    Figure Legend Snippet: Silymarin reduced mortality and liver morbidity in chronic S. mansoni infection. Mice were left untreated (I) or treated with carboxymethylcellulose (I+Veh 80D) or silymarin (10 mg kg −1 ) for 10 days (I+SIL 10D), 50 days (I+SIL 50D), or 80 days

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Related Articles

    Clone Assay:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: An NdeI-NotI bcsZ fragment was obtained by digestion and cloned into pUA1108 , yielding plasmid pUA1108:: bcsZ , so that bcsZ expression was under the control of the tac promoter. .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Amplification:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: The sen3440 ( bcsZ ) coding region was amplified from S. Enteritidis 3934 chromosomal DNA using bcsZ NdeI Fw and bcsZ NotI Rv oligonucleotides containing NdeI and NotI restriction sites. .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Cytometry:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: Floating cells were then collected and combined with adherent cells lifted with trypsin-EDTA (Cellgro; Manassas, VA, USA), and all were resuspended in propidium iodide (PI) buffer (2μg/ml PI [Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA], 1% bovine serum albumin [Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA] in 1x PBS) for flow cytometry, performed as above. .. 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Incubation:

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing
    Article Snippet: .. For analysis of hyphal extension, 3% (wt/vol) malt extract-agar plates and Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma, USA) were inoculated with spore solution and incubated at room temperature in daylight. ..

    Article Title: Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection
    Article Snippet: .. The virus was removed and 1 ml of DMEM medium containing 2 % FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM l -glutamine, and 1.2 % (w /v ) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma) was added, and plates were incubated further at 37 °C for 7 days. .. The cells were fixed with 4 % (v /v ) formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % (w /v ) crystal violet.

    Article Title: Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe
    Article Snippet: .. Proteins were incubated with either 0.1% hemicellulose xylan or carboxymethylcellulose for 15 min at 50°C before addition of DNS (Sigma D0550) and boiling for 15 min. ..

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing
    Article Snippet: .. Malt extract-agar plates (3% [wt/vol]) and Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma, USA) were inoculated with spore solution and incubated at room temperature in daylight or constant darkness. .. For analysis of hyphal extension, 3% (wt/vol) malt extract-agar plates and Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma, USA) were inoculated with spore solution and incubated at room temperature in daylight.

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG. .. After 16 h of incubation at 37°C, the agar medium was flooded with an aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml Congo red (Sigma) for 15 min.

    Luciferase:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt
    Article Snippet: MAE Effect on Thrombus Formation in Arteriovenous Shunt Thrombosis Model In Vivo The in vivo antithrombotic activity of MAE was evaluated in a rat arterio-venous shunt thrombosis model [ ]. .. Rats were given orally administered 400 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg MAE which were dissolved in 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma, USA) solution at the same time of day for 3 consecutive days by gavage.

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG. .. After 16 h of incubation at 37°C, the agar medium was flooded with an aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml Congo red (Sigma) for 15 min.

    Infection:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 2.6. MHV-68 infection of MEFs ... 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Article Title: Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Animals, drug, and infection. ... Silymarin was suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) ( , ) to avoid quick precipitation and administered every 48 h at 10 mg kg−1 of body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) as previously described ( ).

    Expressing:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Article Title: β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system
    Article Snippet: Thioperamide and carboxymethylcellulose were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (MO, USA) and Calbiochem (MA, USA). .. Rat TRPA1 channel expression vector was purchased from OriGene Technologies (MD, USA).

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: An NdeI-NotI bcsZ fragment was obtained by digestion and cloned into pUA1108 , yielding plasmid pUA1108:: bcsZ , so that bcsZ expression was under the control of the tac promoter. .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    BIA-KA:

    Article Title: Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe
    Article Snippet: Proteins were incubated with either 0.1% hemicellulose xylan or carboxymethylcellulose for 15 min at 50°C before addition of DNS (Sigma D0550) and boiling for 15 min. .. Enzyme activities were normalized to protein concentrations by BCA assay (Pierce product 23227).

    Modification:

    Article Title: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis
    Article Snippet: The PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate, carboxymethylcellulose, LPS, the lectin Griffonia simplicifolia , oxaloacetate pyruvate insulin medium supplement, and l -leucine methyl ester hydrochloride were obtained from Sigma (St Louis, MO, USA). .. Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium media, glutamine, trypsin, and antibiotics used for tissue culture were obtained from BioWhittaker (Walkersville, MD, USA).

    Transformation Assay:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: Plasmid pUA1108:: bcsZ was transformed in the S. Enteritidis 3934 strain, and IPTG-mediated overexpression of bcsZ was confirmed in crude extracts by SDS-PAGE (data not shown). .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Over Expression:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: Overexpression of bcsZ and endoglucanase assay. ... To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography:

    Article Title: Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis
    Article Snippet: Briefly, silymarin (batch number 107K0762; silybin content, 47%; Sigma-Aldrich, USA) is composed mainly of flavonolignans from the fruit of Silybum marianum , including silicristin (22.6%), silydianin (9.06%), silybin A (21.3%), silybin B (34.9%), isosilybin A (8.26%), and isosilybin B (3.91%), as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) ( ). .. Silymarin was suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) ( , ) to avoid quick precipitation and administered every 48 h at 10 mg kg−1 of body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) as previously described ( ).

    Flow Cytometry:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: Floating cells were then collected and combined with adherent cells lifted with trypsin-EDTA (Cellgro; Manassas, VA, USA), and all were resuspended in propidium iodide (PI) buffer (2μg/ml PI [Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA], 1% bovine serum albumin [Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA] in 1x PBS) for flow cytometry, performed as above. .. 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Cell Culture:

    Article Title: Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection
    Article Snippet: Plaque-forming assay BHK-21 cells were plated at a density of 1 × 105 cells per well in 24-well plates containing 500 μl of medium and cultured overnight at 37 °C. .. The virus was removed and 1 ml of DMEM medium containing 2 % FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM l -glutamine, and 1.2 % (w /v ) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma) was added, and plates were incubated further at 37 °C for 7 days.

    Generated:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: XIAP WT and littermate KO MEFs were generated by standard procedures and reconstituted with either full length murine XIAP or a D148A/W310A double mutant generated by site-directed mutagenesis, by infection with lentivirus as described [ ]. .. 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Imaging:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: The PCR product was cloned into the pGEM-T Easy (Promega) vector and confirmed by sequencing. .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Injection:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Article Title: Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury
    Article Snippet: .. Mice were pretreated (3 days) with curcumin (300 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma-Aldrich) via oral gavage, curcumin (300 mg/kg) in 1% DMSO via intraperitoneal injection, or appropriate vehicle alone. .. Mice were then given bleomycin sulfate (BLM; Sigma-Aldrich) in saline (50 μl) intratracheally.

    Article Title: Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles
    Article Snippet: .. For supraciliary injection, the solution was diluted to a range of drug concentrations and included 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) to increase viscosity and thereby improve localization of the drug at the site of injection. ..

    In Vivo:

    Article Title: Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt
    Article Snippet: Paragraph title: 2.13. MAE Effect on Thrombus Formation in Arteriovenous Shunt Thrombosis Model In Vivo ... Rats were given orally administered 400 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg MAE which were dissolved in 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma, USA) solution at the same time of day for 3 consecutive days by gavage.

    Mutagenesis:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: XIAP WT and littermate KO MEFs were generated by standard procedures and reconstituted with either full length murine XIAP or a D148A/W310A double mutant generated by site-directed mutagenesis, by infection with lentivirus as described [ ]. .. 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Microscopy:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: 72 hours after infection, cells were visualized with a Nikon Eclipse TS100 microscope with A CoolSnap-Pro cf camera (Media Cybernetics; Bethesda, MD, USA). .. 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week.

    Mouse Assay:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis
    Article Snippet: In brief, mice were treated with trimethoprim (0.16 mg/mL) and sulfamethoxazole (0.8 mg/mL) solution (Resprim; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries) in the drinking water for 10 days, followed by 3 days without antibiotics. .. 1 × 109 colony-forming units of P. gingivalis 53977 were introduced via oral gavage, three times at 2-day intervals in 200 µL of 2% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (Sigma).

    Article Title: Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury
    Article Snippet: .. Mice were pretreated (3 days) with curcumin (300 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma-Aldrich) via oral gavage, curcumin (300 mg/kg) in 1% DMSO via intraperitoneal injection, or appropriate vehicle alone. .. Mice were then given bleomycin sulfate (BLM; Sigma-Aldrich) in saline (50 μl) intratracheally.

    Article Title: Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis
    Article Snippet: Adult BALB/c female mice (7 to 8 weeks of age) were infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni strain BH by the cutaneous route, reaching the chronic phase at 120 days postinfection (dpi). .. Silymarin was suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) ( , ) to avoid quick precipitation and administered every 48 h at 10 mg kg−1 of body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) as previously described ( ).

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis
    Article Snippet: In brief, mice were treated with trimethoprim (0.16 mg/mL) and sulfamethoxazole (0.8 mg/mL) solution (Resprim; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries) in the drinking water for 10 days, followed by 3 days without antibiotics. .. 1 × 109 colony-forming units of P. gingivalis 53977 were introduced via oral gavage, three times at 2-day intervals in 200 µL of 2% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (Sigma).

    Sequencing:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: The PCR product was cloned into the pGEM-T Easy (Promega) vector and confirmed by sequencing. .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    SDS Page:

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: Plasmid pUA1108:: bcsZ was transformed in the S. Enteritidis 3934 strain, and IPTG-mediated overexpression of bcsZ was confirmed in crude extracts by SDS-PAGE (data not shown). .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Plasmid Preparation:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: .. Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Three days later, all mice were again anesthetized by isoflurane inhalation (∼1%), injected intraperitoneally with luciferin (100 μL at 7 mg/mL), and their image was acquired for 10 minutes [timing previously optimized ( , )] with an IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system (Xenogen, Cranbury, NJ) to visualize the expression of luciferase by measuring light emission.

    Article Title: β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system
    Article Snippet: Thioperamide and carboxymethylcellulose were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (MO, USA) and Calbiochem (MA, USA). .. Rat TRPA1 channel expression vector was purchased from OriGene Technologies (MD, USA).

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose
    Article Snippet: Plasmid pUA1108:: bcsZ was transformed in the S. Enteritidis 3934 strain, and IPTG-mediated overexpression of bcsZ was confirmed in crude extracts by SDS-PAGE (data not shown). .. To assay the endoglucanase activity of bcsZ , bacterial colonies were grown on LB agar plates containing 0.1% of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma) and 70 μM IPTG.

    Software:

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Article Snippet: Briefly, all mice were anesthetized, and a patch of skin on their ventral torso was shaved with an electric razor while taking care not to traumatize the epithelium, before challenge by application of approximately 3 × 109 HPV-16 pseudovirion particles (100 ng protein) that encapsidated pYLUC, a plasmid carrying a luciferase gene that would be expressed upon pseudoinfection ( http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/lco/ ) in 10 μL 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma Aldrich) to the patch of shaved skin on each mouse [all parameters were defined previously ( , )]. .. Equal areas encompassing the site of virus inoculation were analyzed using Living Image 2.20 software (Xenogen).

    Concentration Assay:

    Article Title: Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles
    Article Snippet: For topical delivery, the final concentration was 0.05 mg/mL sulprostone or 1.5 mg/mL brimonidine tartrate. .. For supraciliary injection, the solution was diluted to a range of drug concentrations and included 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) to increase viscosity and thereby improve localization of the drug at the site of injection.

    Staining:

    Article Title: PHENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICE DEFICIENT IN XIAP AND SAP, TWO FACTORS TARGETED IN X-LINKED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROME (XLP)
    Article Snippet: 3T12 cells were washed in the viral supernatant for 1 hour at 37°C, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA) mixture (CMC, culture media, 2x MEM [Lonza; Basel, Switzerland], FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, glutamine, Hepes, NEAA [HyClone; Waltham, MA, USA], fungizone [Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA, USA; Carlsbad, CA, USA]) was added for 1 week. .. Plaques were visualized by fixing and staining with 70% methanol plus 0.35% methylene blue (Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh PA, USA).

    Article Title: Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection
    Article Snippet: The virus was removed and 1 ml of DMEM medium containing 2 % FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM l -glutamine, and 1.2 % (w /v ) carboxymethylcellulose (Sigma) was added, and plates were incubated further at 37 °C for 7 days. .. The cells were fixed with 4 % (v /v ) formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % (w /v ) crystal violet.

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