carboxymethylcellulose  (Millipore)


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    Name:
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium
    Description:
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a viscous polysaccharide that belongs to a high molecular weight category It has mucoadhesive property and is used during eye surgery Carboxymethylcellulose sodium promotes re epithelialization of the epithelial cells in corneal wounds It is useful for the study of attached cell and three dimensional tissue culture models
    Catalog Number:
    c9481
    Price:
    None
    Applications:
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been used as a vehicle for tamoxifen citrate, sorafenib, and savolitinib. It has also been used as a component of serum-free medium (SFM) for the suspension of human umbilical vein endothelial spheroids.
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    Structured Review

    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a viscous polysaccharide that belongs to a high molecular weight category It has mucoadhesive property and is used during eye surgery Carboxymethylcellulose sodium promotes re epithelialization of the epithelial cells in corneal wounds It is useful for the study of attached cell and three dimensional tissue culture models
    https://www.bioz.com/result/carboxymethylcellulose/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 132 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    carboxymethylcellulose - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing"

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing

    Journal: mSphere

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00089-17

    Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay

    2) Product Images from "Mucin glycans attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in infection"

    Article Title: Mucin glycans attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in infection

    Journal: Nature microbiology

    doi: 10.1038/s41564-019-0581-8

    The virulence systems suppressed by mucin are downstream of multiple, distinct regulatory cascades, and regulation of these systems is independent of bacterial motility and aggregation. (a) Mucin promotes a motile, non-aggregated phenotype and suppresses virulence in P. aeruginosa PAO1. To determine whether changes to virulence are caused by a shift in motility or aggregation, we monitored the virulence phenotype of non-motile ( ΔmotABCD ) and non-aggregative ( Δpslpel) mutants after mucin exposure. (b) Downregulation of virulence gene expression by mucin does not require a shift in motility or aggregation, indicating that it is a parallel effect of mucin. Data are log2-transformed qPCR measurements of relative gene expression ± standard error, n = 3 biologically independent replicates. Significance was assessed by multiple two-tailed t test, followed by Holm-Sidak correction for multiple comparisons, no significant difference in log2(fold change) between the WT and mutants. (c) Mucin’s virulence regulon is downstream of multiple, interconnected regulatory cascades. (d) Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) does not differentially regulate virulence genes. Data are log2-transformed qPCR measurements of relative gene expression ± standard error, n = 3 biologically independent replicates. Significance was assessed by one sample two-tailed t test, followed by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, no significant difference in log2(fold change) between CMC and medium alone.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The virulence systems suppressed by mucin are downstream of multiple, distinct regulatory cascades, and regulation of these systems is independent of bacterial motility and aggregation. (a) Mucin promotes a motile, non-aggregated phenotype and suppresses virulence in P. aeruginosa PAO1. To determine whether changes to virulence are caused by a shift in motility or aggregation, we monitored the virulence phenotype of non-motile ( ΔmotABCD ) and non-aggregative ( Δpslpel) mutants after mucin exposure. (b) Downregulation of virulence gene expression by mucin does not require a shift in motility or aggregation, indicating that it is a parallel effect of mucin. Data are log2-transformed qPCR measurements of relative gene expression ± standard error, n = 3 biologically independent replicates. Significance was assessed by multiple two-tailed t test, followed by Holm-Sidak correction for multiple comparisons, no significant difference in log2(fold change) between the WT and mutants. (c) Mucin’s virulence regulon is downstream of multiple, interconnected regulatory cascades. (d) Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) does not differentially regulate virulence genes. Data are log2-transformed qPCR measurements of relative gene expression ± standard error, n = 3 biologically independent replicates. Significance was assessed by one sample two-tailed t test, followed by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, no significant difference in log2(fold change) between CMC and medium alone.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Transformation Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Two Tailed Test

    3) Product Images from "Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose"

    Article Title: Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01789-12

    A premature cellulose production that has taken place as a consequence of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the cell is responsible for motility inhibition. (A) Endoglucanase activity of BcsZ was confirmed by assessing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-degrading
    Figure Legend Snippet: A premature cellulose production that has taken place as a consequence of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the cell is responsible for motility inhibition. (A) Endoglucanase activity of BcsZ was confirmed by assessing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-degrading

    Techniques Used: Inhibition, Activity Assay

    4) Product Images from "Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)"

    Article Title: Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms13032563

    Screening of cellulolytic bacteria by covering the petri dishes with congo red dye. A zone of clearance surrounding a colony is indicative of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis by secreted CMCase.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Screening of cellulolytic bacteria by covering the petri dishes with congo red dye. A zone of clearance surrounding a colony is indicative of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis by secreted CMCase.

    Techniques Used:

    5) Product Images from "Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles"

    Article Title: Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14651

    IOP increase due to injection of 50 μL of HBSS into the intravitreal space (IVT) and 10 μL and 50 μL of 2% carboxymethylcellulose placebo formulation (CMC) into the supraciliary space (SCS).
    Figure Legend Snippet: IOP increase due to injection of 50 μL of HBSS into the intravitreal space (IVT) and 10 μL and 50 μL of 2% carboxymethylcellulose placebo formulation (CMC) into the supraciliary space (SCS).

    Techniques Used: Injection

    6) Product Images from "High-Throughput Protein Expression Using a Combination of Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC) and Infrared Fluorescent Protein (IFP) Detection"

    Article Title: High-Throughput Protein Expression Using a Combination of Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC) and Infrared Fluorescent Protein (IFP) Detection

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018900

    Enzymatic activity assays using glucanase- and xylanase-IFP fusion proteins expressed in E. coli . LIC-pDEST-LC1-/LC2 vectors encoding 6xHis-IFP-TEV-endo-β-1,4-glucanase/-xylanase and endo-β-1,4-glucanase-/xylanase-TEV-IFP-6xHis fusion proteins were transformed into the E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) pLysS (‘pLysS’), BL21 Star (DE3) pRARE (‘Star’), BL21 (DE3) CodonPlus-RIL (‘Codon’) and Rosetta (DE3) pRARE (‘Rosetta’). Enzymatic activity was tested by Congo Red staining and destaining with 1 M NaCl on carboxymethylcellulose- (left panel) or xylan- (right panel) containing agar plates after transferring 2 µL of the respective expression strains and over-night incubation at 37°C. Glucanase activity leads to the formation of a white halo around the colonies, whereas xylanase activity leads to the formation of a black halo [31] . E. coli cells expressing IFP-6xHis fusion protein were used as negative control, and cell-free supernatant of Pichia pastoris expression cultures containing secreted endo-β-1,4-glucanase-myc-6xHis or endo-β-1,4-xylanase-myc-6xHis fusion proteins were used as positive controls (P).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Enzymatic activity assays using glucanase- and xylanase-IFP fusion proteins expressed in E. coli . LIC-pDEST-LC1-/LC2 vectors encoding 6xHis-IFP-TEV-endo-β-1,4-glucanase/-xylanase and endo-β-1,4-glucanase-/xylanase-TEV-IFP-6xHis fusion proteins were transformed into the E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) pLysS (‘pLysS’), BL21 Star (DE3) pRARE (‘Star’), BL21 (DE3) CodonPlus-RIL (‘Codon’) and Rosetta (DE3) pRARE (‘Rosetta’). Enzymatic activity was tested by Congo Red staining and destaining with 1 M NaCl on carboxymethylcellulose- (left panel) or xylan- (right panel) containing agar plates after transferring 2 µL of the respective expression strains and over-night incubation at 37°C. Glucanase activity leads to the formation of a white halo around the colonies, whereas xylanase activity leads to the formation of a black halo [31] . E. coli cells expressing IFP-6xHis fusion protein were used as negative control, and cell-free supernatant of Pichia pastoris expression cultures containing secreted endo-β-1,4-glucanase-myc-6xHis or endo-β-1,4-xylanase-myc-6xHis fusion proteins were used as positive controls (P).

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Transformation Assay, Staining, Transferring, Expressing, Incubation, Negative Control

    7) Product Images from "β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system"

    Article Title: β-Eudesmol, an oxygenized sesquiterpene, stimulates appetite via TRPA1 and the autonomic nervous system

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16150-6

    Effects of the β-eudesmol administration route on GVNA. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by oral administration (p.o.). ( B , C ) Effects of oral administration (p.o.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). ( D ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by intraduodenal administration (d.u.). ( E , F ) Effects intraduodenal administration (d.u.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effects of the β-eudesmol administration route on GVNA. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by oral administration (p.o.). ( B , C ) Effects of oral administration (p.o.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). ( D ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by intraduodenal administration (d.u.). ( E , F ) Effects intraduodenal administration (d.u.) of β-eudesmol in pylorus ligated rats (n = 5). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    β-eudesmol increased food intake and plasma ghrelin. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 20). Food intake in the control group given 0.5% CMC containing water is shown by the open bar in the graph (n = 20). ( B ) Mean food intake during the experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake of rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. The control is shown by the white bar in the graph. ( D ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-eudesmol increased food intake and plasma ghrelin. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 20). Food intake in the control group given 0.5% CMC containing water is shown by the open bar in the graph (n = 20). ( B ) Mean food intake during the experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake of rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. The control is shown by the white bar in the graph. ( D ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    The effects of β-eudesmol on food intake and octanoyl ghrelin in TRPA1 knockout rats. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 17). Food intake in the control, 0.5% CMC water, is shown by a white bar in the graph (n = 19). ( B ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing water. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( B ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CTL, control; β -EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effects of β-eudesmol on food intake and octanoyl ghrelin in TRPA1 knockout rats. ( A ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) water (n = 17). Food intake in the control, 0.5% CMC water, is shown by a white bar in the graph (n = 19). ( B ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( C ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol (0.14 ppb) containing water. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( B ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Plasma octanoyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. ( F ) Plasma desacyl ghrelin levels in β-eudesmol administered rats. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CTL, control; β -EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.

    Techniques Used: Knock-Out, MANN-WHITNEY, CTL Assay

    β-Eudesmol modulated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA). ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. ( B , C ) Effect of β-eudesmol administration on GVNA (n = 9). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: β-Eudesmol modulated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA). ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water. ( B , C ) Effect of β-eudesmol administration on GVNA (n = 9). Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    The effect of subcutaneous administration of β-eudesmol on GVNA, food and water intake. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by subcutaneous administration (s.c.). ( B ) Effects of subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of β-eudesmol on GVNA in rats (n = 5). ( C ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (n = 10). Food intake in the control group is shown by an open bar in the graph (n = 10). ( D ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( F ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. *p
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of subcutaneous administration of β-eudesmol on GVNA, food and water intake. ( A ) Representative recordings of GVNA in pylorus ligated rats administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or β-eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water by subcutaneous administration (s.c.). ( B ) Effects of subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of β-eudesmol on GVNA in rats (n = 5). ( C ) Food intake in rats given β-eudesmol (n = 10). Food intake in the control group is shown by an open bar in the graph (n = 10). ( D ) Mean food intake during experimental periods. ( E ) Water intake in rats given β-eudesmol. The control is shown by a white bar in the graph. ( F ) Mean water intake during experimental periods. Values are means ± SEM. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. *p

    Techniques Used: MANN-WHITNEY

    A two-bottle selection test for β-eudesmol in rats. ( A ) Structure of β-eudesmol. ( B ) Result of a two-bottle selection test. In the control experiment, water plus 0.5% CMC (control water) was supplied to both bottles (left). β-Eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water and control water were used in the next test (right). Values are means ± SEM (n = 15). Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; β-EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A two-bottle selection test for β-eudesmol in rats. ( A ) Structure of β-eudesmol. ( B ) Result of a two-bottle selection test. In the control experiment, water plus 0.5% CMC (control water) was supplied to both bottles (left). β-Eudesmol (5 ppb) containing 0.5% CMC water and control water were used in the next test (right). Values are means ± SEM (n = 15). Statistical differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; β-EUD, β-eudesmol; n. s., not significant.

    Techniques Used: Selection, MANN-WHITNEY

    8) Product Images from "Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection"

    Article Title: Replacement of pr gene with Japanese encephalitis virus pr using reverse genetics reduces antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus 2 infection

    Journal: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1007/s00253-015-6819-3

    Characterization of RecDENV2. a IFA of RecDENV2, DENV2, or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2). b Plaque morphology of RecDENV2 and DENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 in BHK-21 and C6/36 cells. Monolayers of BHK-21 and C6/36 cells were infected with RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each point, the media were collected and virus titers were determined on BHK-21 cells by a plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the RecDENV2, parental virus DENV2, or PBS in suckling Km mice
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of RecDENV2. a IFA of RecDENV2, DENV2, or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2). b Plaque morphology of RecDENV2 and DENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 in BHK-21 and C6/36 cells. Monolayers of BHK-21 and C6/36 cells were infected with RecDENV2 and parental virus DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each point, the media were collected and virus titers were determined on BHK-21 cells by a plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the RecDENV2, parental virus DENV2, or PBS in suckling Km mice

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Infection, Serial Dilution, Incubation, Staining, Mouse Assay

    Characterization of JEVpr/DENV2. a IFA of JEVpr/DENV2- or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2). Cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At 48 h post-infection, normal cells and viruses were detected with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2), respectively. b Plaque morphology of JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 in C6/36 cells. Monolayers of C6/36 cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 or RecDENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each time point, the media were collected and virus titers in cell culture were determined on BHK-21 cells by plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2, RecDENV2, and PBS in suckling Km mice
    Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of JEVpr/DENV2. a IFA of JEVpr/DENV2- or mock-infected BHK-21 and C6/36 cells with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2). Cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At 48 h post-infection, normal cells and viruses were detected with specific anti-E antibodies (4G2) and anti-prM antibodies (2H2), respectively. b Plaque morphology of JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 on BHK-21 cells grown in 24-well plates were infected with a 10-fold serial dilution of the virus. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Supernatant was removed and cells were overlaid with 1.2 % carboxymethylcellulose in DMEM containing 2 % FBS. After further incubation in 37 °C for 7 days, the cells were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde and the plaques were visualized by staining with 0.8 % crystal violet. c Growth curves of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 and RecDENV2 in C6/36 cells. Monolayers of C6/36 cells were infected with the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2 or RecDENV2 at an MOI of 0.01. At each time point, the media were collected and virus titers in cell culture were determined on BHK-21 cells by plaque-forming assay. The means and standard errors of the means for virus titers were determined from three separate experiments. d Neurovirulence of the chimeric JEVpr/DENV2, RecDENV2, and PBS in suckling Km mice

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Infection, Serial Dilution, Incubation, Staining, Cell Culture, Mouse Assay

    9) Product Images from "Cellulose-binding activity of a 21-kDa endo-ß-1,4-glucanase lacking cellulose-binding domain and its synergy with other cellulases in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai"

    Article Title: Cellulose-binding activity of a 21-kDa endo-ß-1,4-glucanase lacking cellulose-binding domain and its synergy with other cellulases in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205915

    Interaction of AkEG21 with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). (A) CMC was incubated with AkEG21, reaction products were separated by gel filtration and total hexose in the eluate was determined as described in Materials and Methods. (B) The eluate (0.1 mL) was mixed with 20 μL of 6 x loading buffer and treated at 95°C for 5 min. The sample (20 μL) was separated by 12% SDS-PAGE and AkEG21 was detected by silver staining. Elution profiles of AkEG21 incubated at 37°C for 30 min or 24 h in the absence of CMC were also analyzed as controls.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interaction of AkEG21 with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). (A) CMC was incubated with AkEG21, reaction products were separated by gel filtration and total hexose in the eluate was determined as described in Materials and Methods. (B) The eluate (0.1 mL) was mixed with 20 μL of 6 x loading buffer and treated at 95°C for 5 min. The sample (20 μL) was separated by 12% SDS-PAGE and AkEG21 was detected by silver staining. Elution profiles of AkEG21 incubated at 37°C for 30 min or 24 h in the absence of CMC were also analyzed as controls.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Filtration, SDS Page, Silver Staining

    10) Product Images from "Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing"

    Article Title: Analysis of Light- and Carbon-Specific Transcriptomes Implicates a Class of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cellulose Sensing

    Journal: mSphere

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00089-17

    Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of GPCR deletion strains. (A) Growth of GPCR deletion mutants on rich medium versus minimal medium with cellulose as the carbon source. Strains were grown on 3% (wt/vol) malt extract agar plates (MEX) or Mandels-Andreotti agar plates with 1% (wt/vol) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days at room temperature in daylight (LD) or constant darkness (DD). Inoculation was done at the edge of the plates to allow several days of measurement. A picture representative of results from 3 biological replicates is shown. (B) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 , Δ csg2 , Δ37525, and Δ55561 mutants were determined by quantitative RT-PCR after growth on cellulose in constant darkness after 48, 72, and 96 h and are shown relative to wild-type (WT) QM6a results (*, P ≤ 0.01). (C) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on cellulose for 72 or 96 h in constant darkness. Activity data are given relative to that of the wild-type QM6a strain (*, P ≤ 0.01; **, P ≤ 0.001). (D) cbh1 transcript levels of the Δ csg1 and Δ csg2 mutants after growth on lactose in constant darkness after 40 h are shown relative to the wild-type results. (E) Specific cellulase activity in culture filtrates after growth on lactose for 40 h in constant darkness. Activity is given relative to the wild-type results.

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Activity Assay

    11) Product Images from "Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis"

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00785

    Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

    12) Product Images from "Myceliophthora thermophila M77 utilizes hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms to deconstruct biomass"

    Article Title: Myceliophthora thermophila M77 utilizes hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms to deconstruct biomass

    Journal: AMB Express

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0276-y

    Biomass secretomes. M. thermophila M77 secretomes produced on cellulose ( left panel ), a mixture of 0,5% avicel and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, or hemicellulose ( right panel ), a mixture of 0.2% of each of three types of xylan, arabinan and arabinoxylan (see “ Materials and methods ” section) were analyzed by LC–MS/MS and protein abundance reported as normalized spectral counts. A detailed list of annotated protein names along with spectral and quantitative measurement data can be found in Additional file 1 : Table S1
    Figure Legend Snippet: Biomass secretomes. M. thermophila M77 secretomes produced on cellulose ( left panel ), a mixture of 0,5% avicel and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, or hemicellulose ( right panel ), a mixture of 0.2% of each of three types of xylan, arabinan and arabinoxylan (see “ Materials and methods ” section) were analyzed by LC–MS/MS and protein abundance reported as normalized spectral counts. A detailed list of annotated protein names along with spectral and quantitative measurement data can be found in Additional file 1 : Table S1

    Techniques Used: Produced, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry

    Myceliophthora thermophila M77 secretome composition. M. thermophila M77 secretomes developed on a variety of carbon sources; sugar cane bagasse (SCB) in natura (SCBIN), delignified (SCBDL) and steam-exploded (SCBSE) as well as purified cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) were determined through LC–MS/MS from SDS-PAGE separated proteins. 172 proteins were identified with positive matching of 21,766 unique peptides (4019 SCBIN, 3661 SCBDL, 4269 SCBSE 3466 celluloses and 4716 hemicelluloses). CEL, purified cellulose mixture containing 0.5% of avicel and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose; HCEL, purified hemicellulose mixture containing 0.2% of each; birchwood-, beechwood-, oat spelt-xylan, arabinan and arabinoxylan; SCBIN, milled “in natura” sugar cane bagasse; SCBDL, steam exploded and delignified with sodium hydroxide milled sugar cane bagasse and SCBSE, steam exploded milled sugar cane bagasse. +LIG, lignin present; -LIG, lignin absent; M.W., molecular weight markers shown in kDa
    Figure Legend Snippet: Myceliophthora thermophila M77 secretome composition. M. thermophila M77 secretomes developed on a variety of carbon sources; sugar cane bagasse (SCB) in natura (SCBIN), delignified (SCBDL) and steam-exploded (SCBSE) as well as purified cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) were determined through LC–MS/MS from SDS-PAGE separated proteins. 172 proteins were identified with positive matching of 21,766 unique peptides (4019 SCBIN, 3661 SCBDL, 4269 SCBSE 3466 celluloses and 4716 hemicelluloses). CEL, purified cellulose mixture containing 0.5% of avicel and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose; HCEL, purified hemicellulose mixture containing 0.2% of each; birchwood-, beechwood-, oat spelt-xylan, arabinan and arabinoxylan; SCBIN, milled “in natura” sugar cane bagasse; SCBDL, steam exploded and delignified with sodium hydroxide milled sugar cane bagasse and SCBSE, steam exploded milled sugar cane bagasse. +LIG, lignin present; -LIG, lignin absent; M.W., molecular weight markers shown in kDa

    Techniques Used: In Natura, Serial Time-encoded Amplified Microscopy, Purification, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, SDS Page, Molecular Weight

    13) Product Images from "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis"

    Article Title: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist fenofibrate regulates IL-12 family cytokine expression in the CNS: relevance to multiple sclerosis

    Journal: Journal of neurochemistry

    doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04875.x

    Oral administration of fenofibrate inhibits IL-12 family subunit mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed fenofibrate daily by gavage. Vehicle-treated mice were fed water containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose by gavage daily. Spinal cords were harvested on day 18 post-immunization, and total RNA was isolated. IL-12p40 (a), IL-12p35 (b), IL-23p19 (c), IL-27EBI3 (d), and IL-27p28 (e) mRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results are expressed as fold-changes relative to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice in vehicle group and all values are normalized against GAPDH. Values are mean ± SEM from five independent experiments, and duplicate reactions were performed on each sample in each experiment. * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Oral administration of fenofibrate inhibits IL-12 family subunit mRNA expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed fenofibrate daily by gavage. Vehicle-treated mice were fed water containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose by gavage daily. Spinal cords were harvested on day 18 post-immunization, and total RNA was isolated. IL-12p40 (a), IL-12p35 (b), IL-23p19 (c), IL-27EBI3 (d), and IL-27p28 (e) mRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results are expressed as fold-changes relative to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice in vehicle group and all values are normalized against GAPDH. Values are mean ± SEM from five independent experiments, and duplicate reactions were performed on each sample in each experiment. * p

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Isolation, Quantitative RT-PCR

    14) Product Images from "Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Nanofibers by Means of Enzyme Immobilized-Alginate Beads and Microparticles"

    Article Title: Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Nanofibers by Means of Enzyme Immobilized-Alginate Beads and Microparticles

    Journal: Polymers

    doi: 10.3390/polym12071522

    Relative activity of cellulase encapsulated in alginate beads prepared by using 2% (w/v) alginate formulations (F1–F8, Table 1 ) in comparison to that of the free enzyme, showing the degradation of carboxymethylcellulose at: ( a ) different temperatures after 1 h at pH 4.8; ( b ) different pH after 1 h at 60 °C; ( c ) different times at pH 4.8 and 60 °C.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Relative activity of cellulase encapsulated in alginate beads prepared by using 2% (w/v) alginate formulations (F1–F8, Table 1 ) in comparison to that of the free enzyme, showing the degradation of carboxymethylcellulose at: ( a ) different temperatures after 1 h at pH 4.8; ( b ) different pH after 1 h at 60 °C; ( c ) different times at pH 4.8 and 60 °C.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay

    15) Product Images from "Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica"

    Article Title: Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00860

    Enzymatic agar plate assay . Representative negative, positive, and double positive isolates for each substrate are shown. (A) CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; (B) Bagasse, powdered sugarcane bagasse; (C) MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside; (D) MUC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside; (E) pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside; (F) pNPC, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside; and (G) MUX, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. For bagasse and CMC, the enzyme detection was based on the appearance of negative halo after Congo red stain. For the fluorescent MUC, MUG, and MUX, the plates were UV-irradiated. For the colorimetric substrates pNPC and pNPG, the enzymatic activity was proportional to the development of yellow color. Legends: (−), no detectable hydrolysis; (+), hydrolysis; (++), high hydrolysis. Strains were designated C to indicate isolated from crop; I, from intestine; R, from rectum. Scale bar, 1.0 cm. Note that scale bar applies to all three panels in a series. Also note that strain IDs are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Enzymatic agar plate assay . Representative negative, positive, and double positive isolates for each substrate are shown. (A) CMC, carboxymethylcellulose; (B) Bagasse, powdered sugarcane bagasse; (C) MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside; (D) MUC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside; (E) pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside; (F) pNPC, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside; and (G) MUX, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. For bagasse and CMC, the enzyme detection was based on the appearance of negative halo after Congo red stain. For the fluorescent MUC, MUG, and MUX, the plates were UV-irradiated. For the colorimetric substrates pNPC and pNPG, the enzymatic activity was proportional to the development of yellow color. Legends: (−), no detectable hydrolysis; (+), hydrolysis; (++), high hydrolysis. Strains were designated C to indicate isolated from crop; I, from intestine; R, from rectum. Scale bar, 1.0 cm. Note that scale bar applies to all three panels in a series. Also note that strain IDs are shown.

    Techniques Used: Staining, Irradiation, Activity Assay, Isolation

    16) Product Images from "Oligo-guanosine nucleotide induces neuropilin-1 internalization in endothelial cells and inhibits angiogenesis"

    Article Title: Oligo-guanosine nucleotide induces neuropilin-1 internalization in endothelial cells and inhibits angiogenesis

    Journal: Blood

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-01-265801

    Modulation of cell-surface NRP1 by polysaccharides and poly- and oligonucleotides . HUVECs were incubated at 37°C for 1 hour with the indicated compounds (each tested at 0, 1, 8, 64 μg/mL); after incubation, NRP1 was detected by flow cytometry. Compounds tested in (A) dextran, 500-kDa dextran sulfate (DS500), alginic acid (alginic a.), carboxymethylcellulose (carbo. cell), pectin, mannan, inulin, cellulose sulfate (cell. sul), carrageenan λ IV (car. λ IV), poly-l-Glu acid (p-lGlu), and poly-d-Glu acid (p-dGlu); in (B) polyribonucleotides poly A, poly G, and poly C; oligodeoxyribonucleotides T18, G18, C18, G6; phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides sA18, sT18, sG18, sC18, and dGMT. Results reflect the relative mean fluorescence intensities with and without compounds.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Modulation of cell-surface NRP1 by polysaccharides and poly- and oligonucleotides . HUVECs were incubated at 37°C for 1 hour with the indicated compounds (each tested at 0, 1, 8, 64 μg/mL); after incubation, NRP1 was detected by flow cytometry. Compounds tested in (A) dextran, 500-kDa dextran sulfate (DS500), alginic acid (alginic a.), carboxymethylcellulose (carbo. cell), pectin, mannan, inulin, cellulose sulfate (cell. sul), carrageenan λ IV (car. λ IV), poly-l-Glu acid (p-lGlu), and poly-d-Glu acid (p-dGlu); in (B) polyribonucleotides poly A, poly G, and poly C; oligodeoxyribonucleotides T18, G18, C18, G6; phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides sA18, sT18, sG18, sC18, and dGMT. Results reflect the relative mean fluorescence intensities with and without compounds.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Fluorescence

    17) Product Images from "Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines"

    Article Title: Concatenated Multitype L2 Fusion Proteins as Candidate Prophylactic Pan-Human Papillomavirus Vaccines

    Journal: JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute

    doi: 10.1093/jnci/djp106

    In vivo HPV-16 pseudovirus challenge of mice 4 months after vaccination with L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvant combinations. Mice (five per group, the same mice as in Figure 2 ) were vaccinated three times at 2-week intervals with PBS, 10 μg of L1 VLPs, or 25 μg of L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvants or adjuvant alone. Individual groups are as listed below from left to right: PBS alone, 11-200 × 3 alone, alum alone (1.3 mg), 11-200 × 3 + alum (1.3 mg), 1018 ISS alone (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + 1018 ISS (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + alum + 1018 (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (200 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse) + Tween-40 (1 mg/mouse). Approximately 4 months after the vaccination, a patch on the belly of each anesthetized BALB/c mouse was shaved with an electric razor without traumatizing the epithelium. Mice were then challenged with 3 × 10 9 HPV-16 pseudovirions (100 ng) in 10 μL of 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose carrying a luciferase reporter construct. Three days later, the mice were anesthetized and injected with luciferin. Images were acquired for 10 minutes with a Xenogen IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system. Equal-sized areas encompassing the site of inoculation were analyzed using Living Image 2.20 software, and the luminescence units were plotted using levels in mice vaccinated with HPV-16 L1 VLP before challenge as baseline. Individual data points and means ( horizontal lines ) are shown. HPV = human papillomavirus; ISS = immunostimulatory sequence; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; VLP = virus-like particle.
    Figure Legend Snippet: In vivo HPV-16 pseudovirus challenge of mice 4 months after vaccination with L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvant combinations. Mice (five per group, the same mice as in Figure 2 ) were vaccinated three times at 2-week intervals with PBS, 10 μg of L1 VLPs, or 25 μg of L2 11-200 × 3 in different adjuvants or adjuvant alone. Individual groups are as listed below from left to right: PBS alone, 11-200 × 3 alone, alum alone (1.3 mg), 11-200 × 3 + alum (1.3 mg), 1018 ISS alone (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + 1018 ISS (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + alum + 1018 (10 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (200 μg/mouse), 11-200 × 3 + GPI-0100 (50 μg/mouse) + Tween-40 (1 mg/mouse). Approximately 4 months after the vaccination, a patch on the belly of each anesthetized BALB/c mouse was shaved with an electric razor without traumatizing the epithelium. Mice were then challenged with 3 × 10 9 HPV-16 pseudovirions (100 ng) in 10 μL of 0.6% carboxymethylcellulose carrying a luciferase reporter construct. Three days later, the mice were anesthetized and injected with luciferin. Images were acquired for 10 minutes with a Xenogen IVIS 200 bioluminescence imaging system. Equal-sized areas encompassing the site of inoculation were analyzed using Living Image 2.20 software, and the luminescence units were plotted using levels in mice vaccinated with HPV-16 L1 VLP before challenge as baseline. Individual data points and means ( horizontal lines ) are shown. HPV = human papillomavirus; ISS = immunostimulatory sequence; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; VLP = virus-like particle.

    Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Luciferase, Construct, Injection, Imaging, Software, Sequencing

    18) Product Images from "Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt"

    Article Title: Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2014/639548

    Effect of Morus alba leaves extracts (MAE) on thrombus formation in rats. The procedures for the AV-shunt model are described in the Section 2 . Thrombus weight in an arteriovenous shunt was measured at 2 h after administration of 3-day treatment with 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose solution (control), ethanol extract of Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, and positive control (rivaroxaban, RVX) 5 mg/kg/day. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of Morus alba leaves extracts (MAE) on thrombus formation in rats. The procedures for the AV-shunt model are described in the Section 2 . Thrombus weight in an arteriovenous shunt was measured at 2 h after administration of 3-day treatment with 0.25% carboxymethylcellulose solution (control), ethanol extract of Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, and positive control (rivaroxaban, RVX) 5 mg/kg/day. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. * P

    Techniques Used: Positive Control

    19) Product Images from "Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury"

    Article Title: Curcumin inhibits fibrosis-related effects in IPF fibroblasts and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Journal: American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00002.2009

    Orally administered curcumin fails to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung injury or improve survival. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with saline (Ctrl), carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle; Veh), or curcumin (300 mg/kg) by oral gavage (o.g.). After 72 h ( day 0 ),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Orally administered curcumin fails to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung injury or improve survival. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with saline (Ctrl), carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle; Veh), or curcumin (300 mg/kg) by oral gavage (o.g.). After 72 h ( day 0 ),

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    20) Product Images from "Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe"

    Article Title: Proteome-wide systems analysis of a cellulosic biofuel-producing microbe

    Journal: Molecular Systems Biology

    doi: 10.1038/msb.2010.116

    Carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) expression and activities in glucose, hemicellulose, and cellulose cultures. ( A ) Secreted and cellular cellulolytic enzyme activities. Protein lysates from cultures grown on glucose (purple), hemicellulose (turquoise), or cellulose (orange) prepared from the cellular fraction (C), supernatant (S), or whole-culture lystates (L). Proteins were incubated with hemicellulose (hemicellulase assay) or carboxymethylcellulose substrate (cellulase assay), reducing sugars were assayed using dinitrosalicyclic acid, and were normalized to protein concentration. ( B ) CAZy expression changes (MS1 peak area ratio, MPA ratio) on hemicellulose and cellulose versus glucose showing differentially expressed proteins ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) expression and activities in glucose, hemicellulose, and cellulose cultures. ( A ) Secreted and cellular cellulolytic enzyme activities. Protein lysates from cultures grown on glucose (purple), hemicellulose (turquoise), or cellulose (orange) prepared from the cellular fraction (C), supernatant (S), or whole-culture lystates (L). Proteins were incubated with hemicellulose (hemicellulase assay) or carboxymethylcellulose substrate (cellulase assay), reducing sugars were assayed using dinitrosalicyclic acid, and were normalized to protein concentration. ( B ) CAZy expression changes (MS1 peak area ratio, MPA ratio) on hemicellulose and cellulose versus glucose showing differentially expressed proteins ( P

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Incubation, Protein Concentration

    21) Product Images from "Prophylactic treatment with a novel bioadhesive gel formulation containing aciclovir and tenofovir protects from HSV-2 infection"

    Article Title: Prophylactic treatment with a novel bioadhesive gel formulation containing aciclovir and tenofovir protects from HSV-2 infection

    Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1093/jac/dku318

    Semi-quantitative histopathology analysis in a rabbit vaginal irritation safety model. NZW rabbits were dosed intravaginally once daily with 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; vehicle), 8% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in 2% CMC, 2% benzalkonium chloride (BZK) or SR-2P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Semi-quantitative histopathology analysis in a rabbit vaginal irritation safety model. NZW rabbits were dosed intravaginally once daily with 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; vehicle), 8% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in 2% CMC, 2% benzalkonium chloride (BZK) or SR-2P

    Techniques Used: Histopathology

    Semi-quantitative histopathology analysis in a rat vaginal irritation safety model. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed intravaginally once daily with 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) vehicle ( n = 11), 8% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in 2% CMC ( n = 12),
    Figure Legend Snippet: Semi-quantitative histopathology analysis in a rat vaginal irritation safety model. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed intravaginally once daily with 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) vehicle ( n = 11), 8% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in 2% CMC ( n = 12),

    Techniques Used: Histopathology

    22) Product Images from "Cellulose-binding activity of a 21-kDa endo-ß-1,4-glucanase lacking cellulose-binding domain and its synergy with other cellulases in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai"

    Article Title: Cellulose-binding activity of a 21-kDa endo-ß-1,4-glucanase lacking cellulose-binding domain and its synergy with other cellulases in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205915

    Interaction of AkEG21 with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). (A) CMC was incubated with AkEG21, reaction products were separated by gel filtration and total hexose in the eluate was determined as described in Materials and Methods. (B) The eluate (0.1 mL) was mixed with 20 μL of 6 x loading buffer and treated at 95°C for 5 min. The sample (20 μL) was separated by 12% SDS-PAGE and AkEG21 was detected by silver staining. Elution profiles of AkEG21 incubated at 37°C for 30 min or 24 h in the absence of CMC were also analyzed as controls.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Interaction of AkEG21 with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). (A) CMC was incubated with AkEG21, reaction products were separated by gel filtration and total hexose in the eluate was determined as described in Materials and Methods. (B) The eluate (0.1 mL) was mixed with 20 μL of 6 x loading buffer and treated at 95°C for 5 min. The sample (20 μL) was separated by 12% SDS-PAGE and AkEG21 was detected by silver staining. Elution profiles of AkEG21 incubated at 37°C for 30 min or 24 h in the absence of CMC were also analyzed as controls.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Filtration, SDS Page, Silver Staining

    23) Product Images from "Antiviral Activity of Benzavir-2 against Emerging Flaviviruses"

    Article Title: Antiviral Activity of Benzavir-2 against Emerging Flaviviruses

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v12030351

    Antiviral activity of benzavir-2 and ribavirin against wild-type Zika virus (wt ZIKV) infection by plaque inhibition assay. Vero B4 cells were seeded in 12-well plates (2 × 10 5 cells per well) and viruses (300 PFUs), together with benzavir-2 or ribavirin in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) with 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), was added. The cells were incubated for 4 days. Next, cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with 1% crystal violet solution. ( A ) Dose-dependent plaque-forming assay of the benzavir-2 effect against the Asian wt ZIKV lineage (BeH819015, Brazil strain). The assay was performed with 2-fold serial diluted benzavir-2 (from 20 to 0.62 µM) or 2-fold serial diluted ribavirin (200 to 6.25 µM). ( B ) Plaque forming assay at one benzavir-2 concentration (2.5 µM) for two wt ZIKV lineages (Asian BeH819015, Brazil strain and the African lineage MR766, Uganda strain). The results were visualized after crystal violet staining. ( C ). Quantification of the number of plaques in B. For all experiments, quantification data were analyzed by combining three independent experiments. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s multiple-comparisons test. *** p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Antiviral activity of benzavir-2 and ribavirin against wild-type Zika virus (wt ZIKV) infection by plaque inhibition assay. Vero B4 cells were seeded in 12-well plates (2 × 10 5 cells per well) and viruses (300 PFUs), together with benzavir-2 or ribavirin in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) with 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), was added. The cells were incubated for 4 days. Next, cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with 1% crystal violet solution. ( A ) Dose-dependent plaque-forming assay of the benzavir-2 effect against the Asian wt ZIKV lineage (BeH819015, Brazil strain). The assay was performed with 2-fold serial diluted benzavir-2 (from 20 to 0.62 µM) or 2-fold serial diluted ribavirin (200 to 6.25 µM). ( B ) Plaque forming assay at one benzavir-2 concentration (2.5 µM) for two wt ZIKV lineages (Asian BeH819015, Brazil strain and the African lineage MR766, Uganda strain). The results were visualized after crystal violet staining. ( C ). Quantification of the number of plaques in B. For all experiments, quantification data were analyzed by combining three independent experiments. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s multiple-comparisons test. *** p

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Infection, Inhibition, Modification, Incubation, Staining, Concentration Assay

    24) Product Images from "Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases"

    Article Title: Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases

    Journal: FEBS Open Bio

    doi: 10.1016/j.fob.2014.06.002

    Seasonal changes in the glucose-producing activities from starch and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai . (A) Gastric digestive fluid was collected from ten A. kurodai on March 9 and 30; April 13, 20 and 28; May 11 and 18; and June 30 in 2013. Digestive fluids from three to four sea hare were combined and the enzyme activities in the three groups of digestive fluid were assayed. The digestive fluid (5 μl) was incubated in 0.2 ml of 1% starch or 1% CMC in 50 mM acetate buffer, pH 5.5, at 37 °C for 10 min. The reaction was terminated by heat treatment (95 °C, 5 °min), and glucose liberated from starch and CMC was determined by the Glucose CII Test Wako kit using glucose oxidase. Glucose-producing activity and ratio of activity towards starch and CMC were calculated from at least three separate experiments. Comparison of the glucose-producing activities from starch, CMC, filter paper (B), and maltose, cellobiose, and isomaltose (C) in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai collected on March 23. One percent starch, CMC, maltose, cellobiose, and isomaltose (0.2 ml in 50-mM acetate buffer at pH 5.5) were incubated with 2 μl of the digestive fluid (collected on Apr 13), and liberated glucose was determined. Filter paper (50 mg) was incubated with 2 μl of the same digestive fluid. Enzyme activity (mean ± S.D.) was calculated from at least three separate determinations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Seasonal changes in the glucose-producing activities from starch and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in the digestive fluid of Aplysia kurodai . (A) Gastric digestive fluid was collected from ten A. kurodai on March 9 and 30; April 13, 20 and 28; May 11 and 18; and June 30 in 2013. Digestive fluids from three to four sea hare were combined and the enzyme activities in the three groups of digestive fluid were assayed. The digestive fluid (5 μl) was incubated in 0.2 ml of 1% starch or 1% CMC in 50 mM acetate buffer, pH 5.5, at 37 °C for 10 min. The reaction was terminated by heat treatment (95 °C, 5 °min), and glucose liberated from starch and CMC was determined by the Glucose CII Test Wako kit using glucose oxidase. Glucose-producing activity and ratio of activity towards starch and CMC were calculated from at least three separate experiments. Comparison of the glucose-producing activities from starch, CMC, filter paper (B), and maltose, cellobiose, and isomaltose (C) in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai collected on March 23. One percent starch, CMC, maltose, cellobiose, and isomaltose (0.2 ml in 50-mM acetate buffer at pH 5.5) were incubated with 2 μl of the digestive fluid (collected on Apr 13), and liberated glucose was determined. Filter paper (50 mg) was incubated with 2 μl of the same digestive fluid. Enzyme activity (mean ± S.D.) was calculated from at least three separate determinations.

    Techniques Used: Incubation, Activity Assay

    25) Product Images from "Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis"

    Article Title: Silymarin Reduces Profibrogenic Cytokines and Reverses Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01936-13

    Silymarin reduced mortality and liver morbidity in chronic S. mansoni infection. Mice were left untreated (I) or treated with carboxymethylcellulose (I+Veh 80D) or silymarin (10 mg kg −1 ) for 10 days (I+SIL 10D), 50 days (I+SIL 50D), or 80 days
    Figure Legend Snippet: Silymarin reduced mortality and liver morbidity in chronic S. mansoni infection. Mice were left untreated (I) or treated with carboxymethylcellulose (I+Veh 80D) or silymarin (10 mg kg −1 ) for 10 days (I+SIL 10D), 50 days (I+SIL 50D), or 80 days

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    26) Product Images from "Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis"

    Article Title: Resolvin D2 Restrains Th1 Immunity and Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Murine Periodontitis

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00785

    Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Resolvin D2 prevents alveolar bone loss by shifting the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. (A) Schematic presentation demonstrating the experimental system. Briefly, mice were treated with antibiotic (ATB) in the drinking water ad libitum for 10 days, followed by 3 days of antibiotic-free period. The mice were then infected via oral gavage with 10 9 colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis in 2% carboxymethylcellulose either with or without RvD2 0.5 µg (i.p.) for the first week and three injections per week with 0.1 µg of RvD2 (i.p.) during the following 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. (B) Representative μCT sections of the second upper molar demonstrating the impact of RvD2 treatment on the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest. (C) 3D quantification of the residual alveolar bone volume 6 weeks after infection. Significant lower residual bone volume was measured in the P. gingivalis- infected group compared to the other groups. Data are presented as the residual volume of alveolar bone in the buccal plate and represent the means of eight mice per group ± SEM. Results are representative of three independent experiments, * p

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Infection

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    Article Title: Structural Changes of Gut Microbiota during Berberine-Mediated Prevention of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats
    Article Snippet: Drug and diet Berberine chloride (BBR) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, USA and suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na, Sigma-Aldrich) before use.

    Article Title: Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
    Article Snippet: [ ], with some modifications, as follows: Medium I: peptone, 5 g/L; yeast extract, 0.1 g/L; K2 HPO4 , 1 g/L; MgSO4 ·7H2 O, 0.2 g/L; carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 10 g/L (sodium salt, low viscosity, Sigma); Na2 CO3 , 10 g/L (sterilized separately); pH 10.3.

    Article Title: Preparation and Evaluation of Resveratrol-Loaded Composite Nanoparticles Using a Supercritical Fluid Technology for Enhanced Oral and Skin Delivery
    Article Snippet: Polyethylene glycol 6000, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd. (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Activity Assay:

    Article Title: The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193
    Article Snippet: .. For assaying cellulase activity, carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the substrate, while polygalacturonic acid sodium salt (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the substrate for pectinase activity. .. A swimming motility assay was performed with P. wasabiae strains using 0.3% agar in M9 minimal medium plates containing 10 mM sucrose or 0.2% PGA as the carbon source.

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    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose sodium
    Increased PMP levels in the plasma of diabetic rats accelerate endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or 15 mg/kg aspirin (DM+Aspirin). a Plasma PMP levels were measured by flow cytometry as CD61 + AnnexinV + particles
    Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 142 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/carboxymethylcellulose sodium/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 142 article reviews
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    carboxymethylcellulose sodium - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
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    91
    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt
    Increased PMP levels in the plasma of diabetic rats accelerate endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or 15 mg/kg aspirin (DM+Aspirin). a Plasma PMP levels were measured by flow cytometry as CD61 + AnnexinV + particles
    Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Salt, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 91 stars, based on 19 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
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    92
    Millipore carboxymethylcellulose milliporesigma overlay
    Increased PMP levels in the plasma of diabetic rats accelerate endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of <t>carboxymethylcellulose</t> sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or 15 mg/kg aspirin (DM+Aspirin). a Plasma PMP levels were measured by flow cytometry as CD61 + AnnexinV + particles
    Carboxymethylcellulose Milliporesigma Overlay, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/carboxymethylcellulose milliporesigma overlay/product/Millipore
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    carboxymethylcellulose milliporesigma overlay - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
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    Increased PMP levels in the plasma of diabetic rats accelerate endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or 15 mg/kg aspirin (DM+Aspirin). a Plasma PMP levels were measured by flow cytometry as CD61 + AnnexinV + particles

    Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

    Article Title: Platelet microparticles contribute to aortic vascular endothelial injury in diabetes via the mTORC1 pathway

    doi: 10.1038/s41401-018-0186-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased PMP levels in the plasma of diabetic rats accelerate endothelial dysfunction in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or 15 mg/kg aspirin (DM+Aspirin). a Plasma PMP levels were measured by flow cytometry as CD61 + AnnexinV + particles

    Article Snippet: Nondiabetic rats ( n = 30) given a daily intragastric dose of carboxymethylcellulose sodium were assigned as the control group.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Flow Cytometry

    PMPs activate the mTORC1 pathway in the endothelium in vivo and in vitro. a , c Activation of the mTORC1 pathway in aortas of diabetic rats in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg rapamycin (DM+Rapa). a Representative pictures of immunofluorescence staining of p-S6K1 (green) in the rat aortic endothelium (scale bar = 50 μm). c Protein expression levels of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-4EBP1, 4EBP1, S6K1, and p-S6K1 in the aortas were measured by Western blotting. Quantification of the ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-4EBP1/4EBP1, and p-S6K1/S6K1 in each group, and the results represent the mean values ± SEM ( n = 5). * P

    Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

    Article Title: Platelet microparticles contribute to aortic vascular endothelial injury in diabetes via the mTORC1 pathway

    doi: 10.1038/s41401-018-0186-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PMPs activate the mTORC1 pathway in the endothelium in vivo and in vitro. a , c Activation of the mTORC1 pathway in aortas of diabetic rats in vivo. Normal SD rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Control). Diabetic rats were given a daily intragastric infusion of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (DM) or an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg rapamycin (DM+Rapa). a Representative pictures of immunofluorescence staining of p-S6K1 (green) in the rat aortic endothelium (scale bar = 50 μm). c Protein expression levels of p-mTOR, mTOR, p-4EBP1, 4EBP1, S6K1, and p-S6K1 in the aortas were measured by Western blotting. Quantification of the ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-4EBP1/4EBP1, and p-S6K1/S6K1 in each group, and the results represent the mean values ± SEM ( n = 5). * P

    Article Snippet: Nondiabetic rats ( n = 30) given a daily intragastric dose of carboxymethylcellulose sodium were assigned as the control group.

    Techniques: In Vivo, In Vitro, Activation Assay, Injection, Immunofluorescence, Staining, Expressing, Western Blot