benzenethiol  (Millipore)


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  • 94
    Name:
    Benzenethiol
    Description:
    Benzenethiol is a volatile sulfur compound that is reported to contribute to meat flavor
    Catalog Number:
    w361607
    Price:
    None
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    Structured Review

    Millipore benzenethiol
    Benzenethiol
    Benzenethiol is a volatile sulfur compound that is reported to contribute to meat flavor
    https://www.bioz.com/result/benzenethiol/product/Millipore
    Average 94 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    benzenethiol - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Optical Antenna Arrays on a Fiber Facet for In Situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection"

    Article Title: Optical Antenna Arrays on a Fiber Facet for In Situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection

    Journal:

    doi: 10.1021/nl803668u

    (a) Raman spectra recorded from a SERS probe (red: offset upwards by 5000 counts) and a bare reference fiber (black) after soaking the fibers in a benzenethiol solution and subsequently submerging them in a 4-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine solution.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Raman spectra recorded from a SERS probe (red: offset upwards by 5000 counts) and a bare reference fiber (black) after soaking the fibers in a benzenethiol solution and subsequently submerging them in a 4-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine solution.

    Techniques Used:

    2) Product Images from "SERS-Enhanced Piezoplasmonic Graphene Composite for Biological and Structural Strain Mapping"

    Article Title: SERS-Enhanced Piezoplasmonic Graphene Composite for Biological and Structural Strain Mapping

    Journal: Nanoscale

    doi: 10.1039/c6nr09005b

    Polarization response of nanoislands under strain. (a) SERS spectra of gold nanoislands under 0.074% strain with incident laser light polarized parallel and perpendicular to strain. The peak of interest in chemisorbed benzenethiol is highlighted between the dashed lines (999 cm −1 peak). Radial plots of gold (b) and silver (c) nanoislands, which reveal the polarization response of the SERS signal with the graphene-nanoisland film under strain. The radial plots are normalized to maximum SERS intensity of the peak indicated in panel (a).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Polarization response of nanoislands under strain. (a) SERS spectra of gold nanoislands under 0.074% strain with incident laser light polarized parallel and perpendicular to strain. The peak of interest in chemisorbed benzenethiol is highlighted between the dashed lines (999 cm −1 peak). Radial plots of gold (b) and silver (c) nanoislands, which reveal the polarization response of the SERS signal with the graphene-nanoisland film under strain. The radial plots are normalized to maximum SERS intensity of the peak indicated in panel (a).

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Large-Area, Highly Sensitive SERS Substrates with Silver Nanowire Thin Films Coated by Microliter-Scale Solution Process"

    Article Title: Large-Area, Highly Sensitive SERS Substrates with Silver Nanowire Thin Films Coated by Microliter-Scale Solution Process

    Journal: Nanoscale Research Letters

    doi: 10.1186/s11671-017-2351-y

    Raman spectra of benzenethiol on a the cross-AgNW films and b the drop-casted AgNW films coated on the Au surface. c Relative Raman intensities of the benzenethiol peak at 1071 cm −1 as a function of AgNW surface density
    Figure Legend Snippet: Raman spectra of benzenethiol on a the cross-AgNW films and b the drop-casted AgNW films coated on the Au surface. c Relative Raman intensities of the benzenethiol peak at 1071 cm −1 as a function of AgNW surface density

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications"

    Article Title: A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications

    Journal: Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research

    doi: 10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.01.001

    (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the electroplated gold micro-cavities on the membrane. The scale bar is 2 μm. (b) Helium ion microscope (HIM) image of a single micro-cavity with a nanopore. The scale bar is 100 nm. (c) Raman spectroscopy of the three-dimensional gold film with three 50 nm square nanopores ~ 2.4 μm apart, after treatment with thiophenol (633 nm excitation wavelength, × 100 magnification) the overlay is a map of the Raman signal intensity (scale black to white) in the area scanned is provided as an overlapping plot over the bright field image of the gold microcavity film with a TEM grid. (d) Plot of the Raman counts (integrated over the whole spectrum measured) with distance for the points indicated by the white line shown in Fig. (c). The arrows on the plot indicate the location along the line where there are the centres of microcavities with no pores.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the electroplated gold micro-cavities on the membrane. The scale bar is 2 μm. (b) Helium ion microscope (HIM) image of a single micro-cavity with a nanopore. The scale bar is 100 nm. (c) Raman spectroscopy of the three-dimensional gold film with three 50 nm square nanopores ~ 2.4 μm apart, after treatment with thiophenol (633 nm excitation wavelength, × 100 magnification) the overlay is a map of the Raman signal intensity (scale black to white) in the area scanned is provided as an overlapping plot over the bright field image of the gold microcavity film with a TEM grid. (d) Plot of the Raman counts (integrated over the whole spectrum measured) with distance for the points indicated by the white line shown in Fig. (c). The arrows on the plot indicate the location along the line where there are the centres of microcavities with no pores.

    Techniques Used: Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy

    5) Product Images from "Shielded Silver Nanorods for Bioapplications"

    Article Title: Shielded Silver Nanorods for Bioapplications

    Journal: Chemistry of Materials

    doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c01995

    (a) TEM images of negatively stained Ag@RaR@PMA NRs, functionalized with five different RaR molecules. From top to bottom: benzenethiol (BT), 4-methylbenzenethiol (4MBT), biphenyl-4-thiol (4BPT), 1-naphthalenethiol (1NaT), and 2-naphthalenethiol (2NaT). (b) Corresponding SERS spectra for all five samples dispersed in water, at a particle concentration of (1.8 ± 0.4) × 10 11 NP/mL. All spectra were collected in the expanded scan mode, with an integration time of 10 s, using a 785 nm laser and a 10× objective (NA = 0.35) for excitation. The laser power was 3.43 mW for Ag@BT@PMA NR and 13.26 mW for the other samples. Insets show the molecular structures of the corresponding RaR molecules.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) TEM images of negatively stained Ag@RaR@PMA NRs, functionalized with five different RaR molecules. From top to bottom: benzenethiol (BT), 4-methylbenzenethiol (4MBT), biphenyl-4-thiol (4BPT), 1-naphthalenethiol (1NaT), and 2-naphthalenethiol (2NaT). (b) Corresponding SERS spectra for all five samples dispersed in water, at a particle concentration of (1.8 ± 0.4) × 10 11 NP/mL. All spectra were collected in the expanded scan mode, with an integration time of 10 s, using a 785 nm laser and a 10× objective (NA = 0.35) for excitation. The laser power was 3.43 mW for Ag@BT@PMA NR and 13.26 mW for the other samples. Insets show the molecular structures of the corresponding RaR molecules.

    Techniques Used: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Staining, Concentration Assay

    Related Articles

    Modification:

    Article Title: Optical Antenna Arrays on a Fiber Facet for In Situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection
    Article Snippet: .. To test the ability of the SERS probe to (i) detect multiple analytes simultaneously and (ii) perform measurements in situ , we submerged the facet of the SERS probe modified with benzenethiol and the facet of the reference fiber in a solution of 3mM 4-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine solution (‘BPE’; Sigma Aldrich) in methanol and measured the spectra transmitted through the fibers. shows the spectrum measured from the probe (in red, shifted up by 5000 counts) and the spectrum of the bare reference fiber (in black). ..

    other:

    Article Title: SERS-Enhanced Piezoplasmonic Graphene Composite for Biological and Structural Strain Mapping
    Article Snippet: Benzenethiol (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as our SERS analyte.

    Article Title: Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Comparison of Three Different Molecules on Single-Crystal Nanocubes and Nanospheres of Silver
    Article Snippet: Silver nitrate (AgNO3 , 99%), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP, Mn ≈ 55,000), 4-methyl benzenethiol (4-MBT, 98%), and 1-pentanethiol (1-PT, 98%) were all obtained from Sigma-Aldrich and used as received.

    In Situ:

    Article Title: Optical Antenna Arrays on a Fiber Facet for In Situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection
    Article Snippet: .. To test the ability of the SERS probe to (i) detect multiple analytes simultaneously and (ii) perform measurements in situ , we submerged the facet of the SERS probe modified with benzenethiol and the facet of the reference fiber in a solution of 3mM 4-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine solution (‘BPE’; Sigma Aldrich) in methanol and measured the spectra transmitted through the fibers. shows the spectrum measured from the probe (in red, shifted up by 5000 counts) and the spectrum of the bare reference fiber (in black). ..

    Transmission Electron Microscopy:

    Article Title: A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications
    Article Snippet: .. 2.3 ‘Proof of concept’ Raman spectroscopy evaluation of the nanoporous gold membrane The microcavity containing milled nanopores located relative to identifiers in the TEM grid was coated with a drop of 5 mM benzenethiol (Sigma Aldrich (assay ≥ 99%) in absolute ethanol for 24 h. The sample was thoroughly rinsed in absolute ethanol and dried. .. Raman measurement was carried out using a Renishaw InVia Raman Spectrometer system at 633 nm excitation wavelength, 0.5 mW power using 100 times magnification with numerical aperture 0.8.

    Raman Spectroscopy:

    Article Title: A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications
    Article Snippet: .. 2.3 ‘Proof of concept’ Raman spectroscopy evaluation of the nanoporous gold membrane The microcavity containing milled nanopores located relative to identifiers in the TEM grid was coated with a drop of 5 mM benzenethiol (Sigma Aldrich (assay ≥ 99%) in absolute ethanol for 24 h. The sample was thoroughly rinsed in absolute ethanol and dried. .. Raman measurement was carried out using a Renishaw InVia Raman Spectrometer system at 633 nm excitation wavelength, 0.5 mW power using 100 times magnification with numerical aperture 0.8.

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  • 96
    Millipore ikk 2 inhibitor
    Pressure activates the IKK–IkB–NF‐kB signaling cascade in a Cav3.3‐dependent manner. (5A) SW620 cells were exposed to 40 mmHg for 24 h before Western blotting with phospho‐IkB antibodies. Densitometric results were normalized to actin. (5B) SW620 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control siRNA for 48 h and then incubated under ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h. Western blots with phospho‐IkB antibodies were analyzed and normalized to GAPDH. (5C) Lysate from SW620 cells incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was immunoprecipitated with antiNF‐kB antibodies and the resulting immunoprecipitates were immunoblotted with IkB antibodies to identify IkB associated with NF‐kB. (5D) Nuclear fractions from SW620 cells that had been incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h were immunoblotted with antibodies against the p65 and p50 subunits of NF‐kB. Histone H1 served as a loading control. (5E) Lysate from SW620 cells transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control for 48 h and then incubated at ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was then used to quantify NF‐kB p65 and p50 subunit activity by ELISA. (5F) SW620 cells were treated with NF‐kB lentiviral reporter particles expressing firefly luciferase and incubated under ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h in the presence of an <t>IKK‐2</t> inhibitor ([5‐(p‐fluorophenyl)‐2‐ureido]‐thiophene‐3‐carboxamide, 10 mM), an IKK‐3 inhibitor ([5‐(5,6‐dimethoxybenzinidazol‐1‐yl)‐3‐(2‐methanesulfonyl‐benzyloxy)‐thiophene‐2‐carbonitrile] 40 nM), or an IKK inhibitor that blocks IkB phosphorylation (N(6‐chloro‐9H‐β‐carbolin‐8‐yl)‐nicotinamide 90 nM). (*p
    Ikk 2 Inhibitor, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/ikk 2 inhibitor/product/Millipore
    Average 96 stars, based on 25 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    ikk 2 inhibitor - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    96/100 stars
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    95
    Millipore cse tlr3 antagonist r 2 3 chloro 6 fluorobenzo b thiophene 2 carboxamido 3 phenylpropanoic acid
    Induction of NKG2D ligands by TLR ligands on mouse pulmonary epithelial cells. (A) MLE-15 cells were treated with synthetic RNA (50 µg/ml poly(I:C)), DNA CpG (1 µM ODN1826) or PBS for 24 h. Cell surface Raet1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Histograms are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantification of Raet1 induction on MLE-15 cells. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. * Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. (C) <t>CSE-induces</t> Raet1 expression on MLE-15 cells which can be inhibited with <t>TLR3</t> antagonists <t>[(R)-2-(3-Chloro-6-fluorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamido)-3-phenylpropanoic</t> acid] and the TLR9 antagonist (50 nM of ODN 2088), and degradation of nucleic acids using an endonuclease (50 U/mL Benzonase). Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. # Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. * Significantly different than 20% CSE-treated cells as determined by Student t test.
    Cse Tlr3 Antagonist R 2 3 Chloro 6 Fluorobenzo B Thiophene 2 Carboxamido 3 Phenylpropanoic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cse tlr3 antagonist r 2 3 chloro 6 fluorobenzo b thiophene 2 carboxamido 3 phenylpropanoic acid/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cse tlr3 antagonist r 2 3 chloro 6 fluorobenzo b thiophene 2 carboxamido 3 phenylpropanoic acid - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    95/100 stars
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    Pressure activates the IKK–IkB–NF‐kB signaling cascade in a Cav3.3‐dependent manner. (5A) SW620 cells were exposed to 40 mmHg for 24 h before Western blotting with phospho‐IkB antibodies. Densitometric results were normalized to actin. (5B) SW620 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control siRNA for 48 h and then incubated under ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h. Western blots with phospho‐IkB antibodies were analyzed and normalized to GAPDH. (5C) Lysate from SW620 cells incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was immunoprecipitated with antiNF‐kB antibodies and the resulting immunoprecipitates were immunoblotted with IkB antibodies to identify IkB associated with NF‐kB. (5D) Nuclear fractions from SW620 cells that had been incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h were immunoblotted with antibodies against the p65 and p50 subunits of NF‐kB. Histone H1 served as a loading control. (5E) Lysate from SW620 cells transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control for 48 h and then incubated at ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was then used to quantify NF‐kB p65 and p50 subunit activity by ELISA. (5F) SW620 cells were treated with NF‐kB lentiviral reporter particles expressing firefly luciferase and incubated under ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h in the presence of an IKK‐2 inhibitor ([5‐(p‐fluorophenyl)‐2‐ureido]‐thiophene‐3‐carboxamide, 10 mM), an IKK‐3 inhibitor ([5‐(5,6‐dimethoxybenzinidazol‐1‐yl)‐3‐(2‐methanesulfonyl‐benzyloxy)‐thiophene‐2‐carbonitrile] 40 nM), or an IKK inhibitor that blocks IkB phosphorylation (N(6‐chloro‐9H‐β‐carbolin‐8‐yl)‐nicotinamide 90 nM). (*p

    Journal: Molecular Oncology

    Article Title: Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β

    doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2014.10.008

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pressure activates the IKK–IkB–NF‐kB signaling cascade in a Cav3.3‐dependent manner. (5A) SW620 cells were exposed to 40 mmHg for 24 h before Western blotting with phospho‐IkB antibodies. Densitometric results were normalized to actin. (5B) SW620 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control siRNA for 48 h and then incubated under ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h. Western blots with phospho‐IkB antibodies were analyzed and normalized to GAPDH. (5C) Lysate from SW620 cells incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was immunoprecipitated with antiNF‐kB antibodies and the resulting immunoprecipitates were immunoblotted with IkB antibodies to identify IkB associated with NF‐kB. (5D) Nuclear fractions from SW620 cells that had been incubated at ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h were immunoblotted with antibodies against the p65 and p50 subunits of NF‐kB. Histone H1 served as a loading control. (5E) Lysate from SW620 cells transfected with siRNA targeting Cav3.3 or with a non‐targeting control for 48 h and then incubated at ambient or 15 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h was then used to quantify NF‐kB p65 and p50 subunit activity by ELISA. (5F) SW620 cells were treated with NF‐kB lentiviral reporter particles expressing firefly luciferase and incubated under ambient or 40 mmHg increased pressure for 24 h in the presence of an IKK‐2 inhibitor ([5‐(p‐fluorophenyl)‐2‐ureido]‐thiophene‐3‐carboxamide, 10 mM), an IKK‐3 inhibitor ([5‐(5,6‐dimethoxybenzinidazol‐1‐yl)‐3‐(2‐methanesulfonyl‐benzyloxy)‐thiophene‐2‐carbonitrile] 40 nM), or an IKK inhibitor that blocks IkB phosphorylation (N(6‐chloro‐9H‐β‐carbolin‐8‐yl)‐nicotinamide 90 nM). (*p

    Article Snippet: 10 mM IKK‐2 inhibitor [5‐(p‐fluorophenyl)‐2‐ureido]‐thiophene‐3‐carboxamide, 40 nM IKK‐3 inhibitor [5‐(5,6‐dimethoxybenzinidazol‐1‐yl)‐3‐(2‐methanesulfonyl‐benzyloxy)‐thiophene‐2‐carbonitrile], and a 90 nM IKK inhibitor N(6‐chloro‐9H‐β‐carbolin‐8‐yl)‐nicotinamide, that blocks IkB phosphorylation, were used per manufacturer's protocol separately and in combination (EMD Chemicals).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Transfection, Incubation, Immunoprecipitation, Activity Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Expressing, Luciferase

    Schematic model for IL-1β-induced upregulation of Rgs4 expression in colonic smooth muscle cells via canonical IKK2/IκBα/NFκB signaling differentially modulated by MAPK pathways. IL-1β induces NFκB activation involving phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p65/p50 leading to upregulation of Rgs4 mRNA expression. IL-1β also activates three MAPKs. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance while JNK inhibits IL-1β-induced Rgs4 upregulation. The effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IκBα/p65 pathway of NFκB activation and p38 MAPK may target at the chromatin level. The p38 may also inhibit JNK activity. Activation of the MEKK1-MKK4-JNK pathway down-regulates Rgs4 expression through transcriptional repression at the chromatin level (via AP1 binding) and also signal inhibition of NFκB activation at the level of IKK2. The intricate interactions across various transcription factors and chromatin remodeling need further investigation. The solid arrows indicate the activation while the spotted arrows represent the inhibition.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 Pathway Negatively Regulates Rgs4 Expression in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035646

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic model for IL-1β-induced upregulation of Rgs4 expression in colonic smooth muscle cells via canonical IKK2/IκBα/NFκB signaling differentially modulated by MAPK pathways. IL-1β induces NFκB activation involving phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p65/p50 leading to upregulation of Rgs4 mRNA expression. IL-1β also activates three MAPKs. ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance while JNK inhibits IL-1β-induced Rgs4 upregulation. The effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IκBα/p65 pathway of NFκB activation and p38 MAPK may target at the chromatin level. The p38 may also inhibit JNK activity. Activation of the MEKK1-MKK4-JNK pathway down-regulates Rgs4 expression through transcriptional repression at the chromatin level (via AP1 binding) and also signal inhibition of NFκB activation at the level of IKK2. The intricate interactions across various transcription factors and chromatin remodeling need further investigation. The solid arrows indicate the activation while the spotted arrows represent the inhibition.

    Article Snippet: SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one, 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), PD98059 (2′-Amino-3′-methoxyflavone), SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole), and IKK2-IV (IKK2 inhibitor IV, [5-(p-Fluorophenyl)-2-ureido]thiophene-3-carboxamide) were obtained from EMD Chemicals (San Diego, CA) and dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Techniques: Expressing, Activation Assay, Translocation Assay, Activity Assay, Binding Assay, Inhibition

    JNK pathway interacts with NFκB and p38 MAPK pathways. A. SP600125 enhances IL-1β-induced activation of canonical IKK2/IκBα/NFκB signaling. Cultured muscle cells after serum starvation for 24 h were pretreated with vehicle DMSO or JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 µM) for 1 h before treatment with or without IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 15 min. Activation of NFκB signaling was determined by Western blot analysis using indicated specific antibodies. B. IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) is blocked by SP600125, enhanced by p38 MAPK inhibitor but not affected by MEK1 inhibitor. Cultured and serum-starved muscle cells were pretreated with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (1 µM) or MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 (20 µM) or JNK inhibitor SP600125 for 1 h before exposure to IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 15 min. Activation of JNK pathway was determined by Western blot analysis using anti-phospho JNK antibody. The antibodies against GAPDH and β-actin were used for the loading control.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 Pathway Negatively Regulates Rgs4 Expression in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035646

    Figure Lengend Snippet: JNK pathway interacts with NFκB and p38 MAPK pathways. A. SP600125 enhances IL-1β-induced activation of canonical IKK2/IκBα/NFκB signaling. Cultured muscle cells after serum starvation for 24 h were pretreated with vehicle DMSO or JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 µM) for 1 h before treatment with or without IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 15 min. Activation of NFκB signaling was determined by Western blot analysis using indicated specific antibodies. B. IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) is blocked by SP600125, enhanced by p38 MAPK inhibitor but not affected by MEK1 inhibitor. Cultured and serum-starved muscle cells were pretreated with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (1 µM) or MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 (20 µM) or JNK inhibitor SP600125 for 1 h before exposure to IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 15 min. Activation of JNK pathway was determined by Western blot analysis using anti-phospho JNK antibody. The antibodies against GAPDH and β-actin were used for the loading control.

    Article Snippet: SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one, 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), PD98059 (2′-Amino-3′-methoxyflavone), SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole), and IKK2-IV (IKK2 inhibitor IV, [5-(p-Fluorophenyl)-2-ureido]thiophene-3-carboxamide) were obtained from EMD Chemicals (San Diego, CA) and dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Cell Culture, Western Blot

    IL-11-dependent STAT3 activation in CD11b + CD14 + MDSCs. ( a ) PBMCs from blood of healthy donors were stimulated with IL-11 (10 ng/mL) for 10, 30, and 60 min. Total STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), and alpha-tubulin proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. The representative data from three independent experiments are indicated. ( b ) PBMCs were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-11 for 7 days and CD11b + CD14 + cells were isolated by cell sorting. Total STAT3, pSTAT3, and alpha-tubulin were analysed by immunoblotting. The representative data from three independent experiments are indicated. c, PBMCs were cultured in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor (6-nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxide, 10 μM) or DMSO with IL-11 and/or GM-CSF for 7 days. Percentages of the induced CD11b + CD14 + cells were determined by flow cytometry. The means and SDs of the data from three independent experiments are shown. * p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: IL-11 induces differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells through activation of STAT3 signalling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep13650

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IL-11-dependent STAT3 activation in CD11b + CD14 + MDSCs. ( a ) PBMCs from blood of healthy donors were stimulated with IL-11 (10 ng/mL) for 10, 30, and 60 min. Total STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), and alpha-tubulin proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. The representative data from three independent experiments are indicated. ( b ) PBMCs were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-11 for 7 days and CD11b + CD14 + cells were isolated by cell sorting. Total STAT3, pSTAT3, and alpha-tubulin were analysed by immunoblotting. The representative data from three independent experiments are indicated. c, PBMCs were cultured in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor (6-nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxide, 10 μM) or DMSO with IL-11 and/or GM-CSF for 7 days. Percentages of the induced CD11b + CD14 + cells were determined by flow cytometry. The means and SDs of the data from three independent experiments are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: PBMCs were cultured with IL-11 (10 ng/ml) and/or GM-CSF (50 ng/ml) for 7 days, in the presence or absence of STAT3 inhibitor (6-nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxide, 10 μM, Calbiochem).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Cell Culture, Isolation, FACS, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    IL-11 and phosphorylated STAT3 expression in tumour microenvironments of colorectal cancer patients. ( a ) Normal and tumour tissues were collected from the specimens of seven colorectal cancer patients. Gene expression levels of IL-11 and GAPDH in normal and tumour tissues were determined by quantitative PCR. IL-11 gene expression in each sample was normalized to levels of GAPDH. Relative IL-11 gene expression levels of tumour tissues against normal tissues were calculated. The means and SDs of the data from three independent experiments are shown. * p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: IL-11 induces differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells through activation of STAT3 signalling pathway

    doi: 10.1038/srep13650

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IL-11 and phosphorylated STAT3 expression in tumour microenvironments of colorectal cancer patients. ( a ) Normal and tumour tissues were collected from the specimens of seven colorectal cancer patients. Gene expression levels of IL-11 and GAPDH in normal and tumour tissues were determined by quantitative PCR. IL-11 gene expression in each sample was normalized to levels of GAPDH. Relative IL-11 gene expression levels of tumour tissues against normal tissues were calculated. The means and SDs of the data from three independent experiments are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: PBMCs were cultured with IL-11 (10 ng/ml) and/or GM-CSF (50 ng/ml) for 7 days, in the presence or absence of STAT3 inhibitor (6-nitrobenzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxide, 10 μM, Calbiochem).

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Induction of NKG2D ligands by TLR ligands on mouse pulmonary epithelial cells. (A) MLE-15 cells were treated with synthetic RNA (50 µg/ml poly(I:C)), DNA CpG (1 µM ODN1826) or PBS for 24 h. Cell surface Raet1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Histograms are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantification of Raet1 induction on MLE-15 cells. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. * Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. (C) CSE-induces Raet1 expression on MLE-15 cells which can be inhibited with TLR3 antagonists [(R)-2-(3-Chloro-6-fluorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamido)-3-phenylpropanoic acid] and the TLR9 antagonist (50 nM of ODN 2088), and degradation of nucleic acids using an endonuclease (50 U/mL Benzonase). Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. # Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. * Significantly different than 20% CSE-treated cells as determined by Student t test.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: TLR and NKG2D Signaling Pathways Mediate CS-Induced Pulmonary Pathologies

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078735

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of NKG2D ligands by TLR ligands on mouse pulmonary epithelial cells. (A) MLE-15 cells were treated with synthetic RNA (50 µg/ml poly(I:C)), DNA CpG (1 µM ODN1826) or PBS for 24 h. Cell surface Raet1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Histograms are representative of three independent experiments. (B) Quantification of Raet1 induction on MLE-15 cells. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. * Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. (C) CSE-induces Raet1 expression on MLE-15 cells which can be inhibited with TLR3 antagonists [(R)-2-(3-Chloro-6-fluorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamido)-3-phenylpropanoic acid] and the TLR9 antagonist (50 nM of ODN 2088), and degradation of nucleic acids using an endonuclease (50 U/mL Benzonase). Data are shown as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. # Significantly different than PBS-treated cells as determined by Student t test. * Significantly different than 20% CSE-treated cells as determined by Student t test.

    Article Snippet: To examine the contribution of individual TLR receptors in CSE-induced Raet1 induction, we exposed MLE-15 cells to 20% CSE, 20% CSE + TLR3 antagonist [(R)-2-(3-Chloro-6-fluorobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamido)-3-phenylpropanoic acid] (Calbiochem) and the TLR9 antagonist ODN 2088 (Invivogen) or PBS for 24hrs and cells were stained with anti-Raet1 antibody and analyzed by flow cytometry as described above.

    Techniques: Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry