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Agilent technologies rosuvastatin
Mean plasma concentration-time profiles for ( A ) fimasartan (n=78), and ( B ) <t>rosuvastatin</t> (n=75), following administration of a single dose of fimasartan/rosuvastatin 120 mg/20 mg FDC tablet (◦), and single doses of 120 mg fimasartan and 20 mg rosuvastatin individually co-administered (•) in healthy subjects. Abbreviation: FDC, fixed-dose combination.
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1) Product Images from "Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects"

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects

Journal: Drug Design, Development and Therapy

doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S161917

Mean plasma concentration-time profiles for ( A ) fimasartan (n=78), and ( B ) rosuvastatin (n=75), following administration of a single dose of fimasartan/rosuvastatin 120 mg/20 mg FDC tablet (◦), and single doses of 120 mg fimasartan and 20 mg rosuvastatin individually co-administered (•) in healthy subjects. Abbreviation: FDC, fixed-dose combination.
Figure Legend Snippet: Mean plasma concentration-time profiles for ( A ) fimasartan (n=78), and ( B ) rosuvastatin (n=75), following administration of a single dose of fimasartan/rosuvastatin 120 mg/20 mg FDC tablet (◦), and single doses of 120 mg fimasartan and 20 mg rosuvastatin individually co-administered (•) in healthy subjects. Abbreviation: FDC, fixed-dose combination.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

2) Product Images from "Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract"

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030090

Pharmacokinetic profile of ( a ) standardized water extract (SWE) of E. longifolia and ( b ) eurycomanone compound, respectively, in rats. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route).
Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profile of ( a ) standardized water extract (SWE) of E. longifolia and ( b ) eurycomanone compound, respectively, in rats. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route).

Techniques Used:

Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Solubility, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).

Techniques Used: Protein Binding, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed low permeability as compared to propranolol and carbamazepine when assayed using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). Line over bars indicates no significant difference between atenolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed low permeability as compared to propranolol and carbamazepine when assayed using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). Line over bars indicates no significant difference between atenolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Permeability, PAMPA Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Pharmacokinetic profile of eurycomanone when administered as its pure compound in mice. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route)
Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profile of eurycomanone when administered as its pure compound in mice. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route)

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

3) Product Images from "The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats"

Article Title: The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats

Journal: Drug testing and analysis

doi: 10.1002/dta.2468

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

4) Product Images from "The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats"

Article Title: The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats

Journal: Drug testing and analysis

doi: 10.1002/dta.2468

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

5) Product Images from "Analytical Bias in the Measurement of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Impairs Assessment of Vitamin D Status in Clinical and Research Settings"

Article Title: Analytical Bias in the Measurement of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Impairs Assessment of Vitamin D Status in Clinical and Research Settings

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135478

Estimates of vitamin D deficiency based on results reported by the certified laboratory and laboratories A-C. Total deficiency
Figure Legend Snippet: Estimates of vitamin D deficiency based on results reported by the certified laboratory and laboratories A-C. Total deficiency

Techniques Used:

6) Product Images from "Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) 4 Attenuates Benzo[a]Pyrene-Mediated DNA-adduct Formation in Human Bronchoalveolar H358 Cells"

Article Title: Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) 4 Attenuates Benzo[a]Pyrene-Mediated DNA-adduct Formation in Human Bronchoalveolar H358 Cells

Journal: Toxicology Letters

doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.11.021

Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after shMRP4 with (±)-B[ a ]PDE treatment (A) H358 WT and H358 cells transduced with scramble vector were treated with 2 μM (±)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE. There was no difference in DNA-adduct formation. (B) H358 WT and H358 cells transduced with shMRP4 were also treated with 2 μM (±)-B[ a ]PDE with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were quantified by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviations, (*) indicates p=0.014 compared to control and (**) indicates p=0.14 compared to control; n = 3 for each treatment.
Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after shMRP4 with (±)-B[ a ]PDE treatment (A) H358 WT and H358 cells transduced with scramble vector were treated with 2 μM (±)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE. There was no difference in DNA-adduct formation. (B) H358 WT and H358 cells transduced with shMRP4 were also treated with 2 μM (±)-B[ a ]PDE with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were quantified by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviations, (*) indicates p=0.014 compared to control and (**) indicates p=0.14 compared to control; n = 3 for each treatment.

Techniques Used: Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Mass Spectrometry

Pathway of B[ a ]P Adduct Formation Metabolism of the proximate carcinogen (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol to the ultimate carcinogen (+)- anti -B[ a ]PDE by CYP1A1/1B1 and to B[ a ]P-7,8-catechol by aldo-keto reductases of the 1C family. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE is able to enter the nucleus and form the DNA-adduct (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo. Alternatively, (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE can be detoxified through GST-mediated GSH adduct formation. B[ a ]P-7,8-catechol can redox cycle to B[ a ]P-7,8-dione, which generates reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative DNA damage.
Figure Legend Snippet: Pathway of B[ a ]P Adduct Formation Metabolism of the proximate carcinogen (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol to the ultimate carcinogen (+)- anti -B[ a ]PDE by CYP1A1/1B1 and to B[ a ]P-7,8-catechol by aldo-keto reductases of the 1C family. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE is able to enter the nucleus and form the DNA-adduct (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo. Alternatively, (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE can be detoxified through GST-mediated GSH adduct formation. B[ a ]P-7,8-catechol can redox cycle to B[ a ]P-7,8-dione, which generates reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative DNA damage.

Techniques Used:

Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after chemical inhibition H358 cells were treated with 2 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h with or without 1 mM probenecid for 24 h and/or 10 nM TCDD for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were measured by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviation, (*) indicates p=0.001 compared to control and (**) indicates p=0.013 compared to control; n = 3 for each treatment.
Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after chemical inhibition H358 cells were treated with 2 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h with or without 1 mM probenecid for 24 h and/or 10 nM TCDD for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were measured by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviation, (*) indicates p=0.001 compared to control and (**) indicates p=0.013 compared to control; n = 3 for each treatment.

Techniques Used: Inhibition, Mass Spectrometry, Standard Deviation

Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after shMRP4 (A) There was no difference in the level of DNA-adduct formation in H358 WT cells and H358 cells transduced with the scramble vector. (B) The levels of DNA-adducts formed after H358 cells were treated with 2 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h with or without 10 nM TCDD for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were quantified by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviations, (*) indicates p=0.031 and (**) indicates p=0.38 compared with control; n = 3 for each treatment.
Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo in H358 cells after shMRP4 (A) There was no difference in the level of DNA-adduct formation in H358 WT cells and H358 cells transduced with the scramble vector. (B) The levels of DNA-adducts formed after H358 cells were treated with 2 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h with or without 10 nM TCDD for 24 h. (+)- anti - trans -B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adducts were quantified by LC-SRM/MS and normalized by total DNA. Plots show means and standard deviations, (*) indicates p=0.031 and (**) indicates p=0.38 compared with control; n = 3 for each treatment.

Techniques Used: Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Mass Spectrometry

7) Product Images from "Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide"

Article Title: Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms19010305

The plasma concentration-time curves of wilforlide A in rats.
Figure Legend Snippet: The plasma concentration-time curves of wilforlide A in rats.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Chemical structure of triptolide and wilforlide A.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structure of triptolide and wilforlide A.

Techniques Used:

Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of  Tripterygium wilfordii  (TW).
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW).

Techniques Used:

8) Product Images from "The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats"

Article Title: The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats

Journal: Drug testing and analysis

doi: 10.1002/dta.2468

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

9) Product Images from "Pharmacogenomics of poor drug metabolism in Greyhounds: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B11 genetic variation, breed distribution, and functional characterization"

Article Title: Pharmacogenomics of poor drug metabolism in Greyhounds: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B11 genetic variation, breed distribution, and functional characterization

Journal: Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56660-z

Reaction phenotyping using a panel of recombinant canine CYP enzymes. The rates of propofol 4-hydroxylation ( a,b ) bupropion 6-hydroxylation ( c,d ) and omeprazole sulfonation ( e,f ) were determined using a panel of 11 recombinant canine CYP enzymes. Results are shown after normalization to incubation time and recombinant CYP concentration in each reaction ( a,c,e ) as well as after extrapolation of activities to microsomes using the reported average molar concentration of each CYP in canine liver microsomes ( b,d,f ). Details are provided in Materials and Methods section. Activities for pooled dog liver microsomes (pDLMs) normalized to microsomal protein content are also shown for comparison. Bars represent the mean and standard deviation of 3 independent replicate experiments.
Figure Legend Snippet: Reaction phenotyping using a panel of recombinant canine CYP enzymes. The rates of propofol 4-hydroxylation ( a,b ) bupropion 6-hydroxylation ( c,d ) and omeprazole sulfonation ( e,f ) were determined using a panel of 11 recombinant canine CYP enzymes. Results are shown after normalization to incubation time and recombinant CYP concentration in each reaction ( a,c,e ) as well as after extrapolation of activities to microsomes using the reported average molar concentration of each CYP in canine liver microsomes ( b,d,f ). Details are provided in Materials and Methods section. Activities for pooled dog liver microsomes (pDLMs) normalized to microsomal protein content are also shown for comparison. Bars represent the mean and standard deviation of 3 independent replicate experiments.

Techniques Used: Recombinant, Incubation, Concentration Assay, Standard Deviation

10) Product Images from "Newborn screening and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses"

Article Title: Newborn screening and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses

Journal: Molecular genetics and metabolism

doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.06.007

Frequency distribution of A) ΔDiHS-NS, B) ΔDi-4S, and C) ΔDiHS-0S for DBS from 326 controls to 6 MPS cases. Values for 6 cases are marked with arrows. Bars represent controls with frequency. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.
Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency distribution of A) ΔDiHS-NS, B) ΔDi-4S, and C) ΔDiHS-0S for DBS from 326 controls to 6 MPS cases. Values for 6 cases are marked with arrows. Bars represent controls with frequency. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.

Techniques Used:

Age-dependent KS in MPS IVA patients. White square; controls, red rhombus; MPS IVA patients with a severe form, green circle; MPS IVA patients with an attenuated form. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.
Figure Legend Snippet: Age-dependent KS in MPS IVA patients. White square; controls, red rhombus; MPS IVA patients with a severe form, green circle; MPS IVA patients with an attenuated form. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.

Techniques Used:

Chromatograms of extracts from control (left) and MPS II (right) blood spots. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000. The arrows show the peaks of each disaccharide. KS has two peaks: mono-sulfated KS [Galβ1-4GlcNAc(6S)] (a major peak) and di-sulfated
Figure Legend Snippet: Chromatograms of extracts from control (left) and MPS II (right) blood spots. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000. The arrows show the peaks of each disaccharide. KS has two peaks: mono-sulfated KS [Galβ1-4GlcNAc(6S)] (a major peak) and di-sulfated

Techniques Used:

Total DS and HS levels in blood of MPS patients. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.
Figure Legend Snippet: Total DS and HS levels in blood of MPS patients. Equipment; HP1100 system/API-4000.

Techniques Used:

11) Product Images from "Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide"

Article Title: Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms19010305

Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW).
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW).

Techniques Used:

12) Product Images from "The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats"

Article Title: The Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Following Intramuscular Injection to F344 Rats

Journal: Drug testing and analysis

doi: 10.1002/dta.2468

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following repeated dosing at 7.5 mg/kg. Data is expressed as AVG ± SD

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.
Figure Legend Snippet: Ketamine and norketamine concentration vs. time curves in rat plasma following a single administration of ketamine. Group 1 received ketamine (7.5 mg/kg) only. Group 2 received Standard of Care (SOC) consisting of atropine, 2-PAM, midazolam, and ketamine (7.5 mg/kg). Group 3 received SOC and ketamine (30 mg/kg). Data is expressed as AVG ± SD.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

13) Product Images from "Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide"

Article Title: Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ijms19010305

Chemical structure of triptolide and wilforlide A.
Figure Legend Snippet: Chemical structure of triptolide and wilforlide A.

Techniques Used:

Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW).
Figure Legend Snippet: Representative chromatograms of: ( A 1 –A 3 ) rat blank plasma; ( B 1 – B3 ) rat plasma spiked with fenofibrate, triptolide and wilforlide A; and ( C 1 – C3 ) rat plasma sample after administration of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW).

Techniques Used:

The plasma concentration-time curves of triptolide in rats.
Figure Legend Snippet: The plasma concentration-time curves of triptolide in rats.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

14) Product Images from "Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract"

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030090

Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Solubility, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).

Techniques Used: Protein Binding, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

15) Product Images from "Monitoring the Intracellular Tacrolimus Concentration in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Stable Graft Function"

Article Title: Monitoring the Intracellular Tacrolimus Concentration in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Stable Graft Function

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153491

Change in the tacrolimus ratio between measurements taken one year apart. * P
Figure Legend Snippet: Change in the tacrolimus ratio between measurements taken one year apart. * P

Techniques Used:

Fitted curves between the tacrolimus ratio and the hematocrit (A) or transplant duration (B). The range area indicates the 95% confidence interval.
Figure Legend Snippet: Fitted curves between the tacrolimus ratio and the hematocrit (A) or transplant duration (B). The range area indicates the 95% confidence interval.

Techniques Used:

Activation of CD4 + (B and D) and CD8 + (C and E) T cells according to tertiles of intracellular tacrolimus concentrations. (A), Example of the dot plot gating strategy used to calculate the proportion of interferon-γ-producing CD3 + CD8 + T cells. (B) and (C), Flow cytometry to identify T cells producing interferon-γ. (D) and (E), Flow cytometry to identify T cells producing interleukin-2. IFN-γ, interferon-γ; IL-2, interleukin-2.
Figure Legend Snippet: Activation of CD4 + (B and D) and CD8 + (C and E) T cells according to tertiles of intracellular tacrolimus concentrations. (A), Example of the dot plot gating strategy used to calculate the proportion of interferon-γ-producing CD3 + CD8 + T cells. (B) and (C), Flow cytometry to identify T cells producing interferon-γ. (D) and (E), Flow cytometry to identify T cells producing interleukin-2. IFN-γ, interferon-γ; IL-2, interleukin-2.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

Scatter plot illustrating blood and intracellular tacrolimus concentrations. Blue and red lines represent linear and non-linear relationships between two variables, respectively. Circled dots indicate representative cases with high tacrolimus ratio; and squared dots indicate representative cases with low tacrolimus ratio. IC-TAC, intracellular concentration of tacrolimus; WB-TAC, whole blood concentration of tacrolimus.
Figure Legend Snippet: Scatter plot illustrating blood and intracellular tacrolimus concentrations. Blue and red lines represent linear and non-linear relationships between two variables, respectively. Circled dots indicate representative cases with high tacrolimus ratio; and squared dots indicate representative cases with low tacrolimus ratio. IC-TAC, intracellular concentration of tacrolimus; WB-TAC, whole blood concentration of tacrolimus.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Western Blot

Dependence of the changes of IC-TAC (red line) and WB-TAC (blue line) on the transplant duration. The table below indicates the changes of tacrolimus parameters and graft function.
Figure Legend Snippet: Dependence of the changes of IC-TAC (red line) and WB-TAC (blue line) on the transplant duration. The table below indicates the changes of tacrolimus parameters and graft function.

Techniques Used: Western Blot

16) Product Images from "CM93, a novel covalent small molecule inhibitor targeting lung cancer with mutant EGFR"

Article Title: CM93, a novel covalent small molecule inhibitor targeting lung cancer with mutant EGFR

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.03.09.984500

CM93 targets the brain more effectively in a mouse model of H1975 NSCLC brain metastases. Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in SCID mice bearing EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases (H1975-luc). (A) Imaging of CM93 treated mice with EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases in comparison with AZD9291; (B) survival curves of brain metastases mice after treatment of CM93 and AZD9291; (C) Body weight (BW) loss in tumor-bearing mice treated with AZD9291 (25mpk) or CM93 (25 and 50 mpk). (D-F) Brain and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7 days) in male (D) and female (E) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 targets the brain more effectively in a mouse model of H1975 NSCLC brain metastases. Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in SCID mice bearing EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases (H1975-luc). (A) Imaging of CM93 treated mice with EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases in comparison with AZD9291; (B) survival curves of brain metastases mice after treatment of CM93 and AZD9291; (C) Body weight (BW) loss in tumor-bearing mice treated with AZD9291 (25mpk) or CM93 (25 and 50 mpk). (D-F) Brain and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7 days) in male (D) and female (E) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Imaging, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

CM93 has little effect on mouse skin. Skin lesions and hair loss were observed in AZD9291-treated but not CM93-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 has little effect on mouse skin. Skin lesions and hair loss were observed in AZD9291-treated but not CM93-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

CM93 demonstrates promising antitumor efficacy in orthotopic models of NSCLC. (A-D) Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in orthotopic murine models of NSCLC. 2×10 6 H1975-luciferase or PC9-luciferase cells were injected into NSG mice via tail vein. (A) 12 days pos-injection, CM93 and AZD9291 were administered at 10mg/kg p.o., qd x5 weeks. (B) Established large tumors were comfirmed by imaging prior to treatment. CM93 and AZD9291 were dosed at 25mg/kg p.o., qd.x 5 weeks. (C) Tail vein injection of PC-9-luciferase cells (2×10 6 ), dosing as indicated, po., qd x21days. (D) Tumor imaging results of CM93-treated mice dosed at 25mg/kg for 5 weeks. The tumor (H1975-luc) reduced upon CM93 treatment. (E-G) Lung and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7days) in male (E) and female (F) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 demonstrates promising antitumor efficacy in orthotopic models of NSCLC. (A-D) Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in orthotopic murine models of NSCLC. 2×10 6 H1975-luciferase or PC9-luciferase cells were injected into NSG mice via tail vein. (A) 12 days pos-injection, CM93 and AZD9291 were administered at 10mg/kg p.o., qd x5 weeks. (B) Established large tumors were comfirmed by imaging prior to treatment. CM93 and AZD9291 were dosed at 25mg/kg p.o., qd.x 5 weeks. (C) Tail vein injection of PC-9-luciferase cells (2×10 6 ), dosing as indicated, po., qd x21days. (D) Tumor imaging results of CM93-treated mice dosed at 25mg/kg for 5 weeks. The tumor (H1975-luc) reduced upon CM93 treatment. (E-G) Lung and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7days) in male (E) and female (F) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.

Techniques Used: Luciferase, Injection, Mouse Assay, Imaging, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Evaluation of CM93 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and wild-type (WT) EGFR-expressing Ba/F3 cells. (A-C) The viability of PC9GR4 (Exon19Del/T790M) and H1975 (L858R/T790M) cells was analyzed by CellTiter Glo following 48 hours treatment with AZD9291 or CM93. (D) CM93 demonstrated minimal inhibitory effects on parental Ba/F3 cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Evaluation of CM93 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and wild-type (WT) EGFR-expressing Ba/F3 cells. (A-C) The viability of PC9GR4 (Exon19Del/T790M) and H1975 (L858R/T790M) cells was analyzed by CellTiter Glo following 48 hours treatment with AZD9291 or CM93. (D) CM93 demonstrated minimal inhibitory effects on parental Ba/F3 cells.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Expressing

17) Product Images from "Regulation of Benzo[a]pyrene-Mediated DNA- and Glutathione-Adduct Formation by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Human Lung Cells"

Article Title: Regulation of Benzo[a]pyrene-Mediated DNA- and Glutathione-Adduct Formation by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Human Lung Cells

Journal: Chemical Research in Toxicology

doi: 10.1021/tx100297z

Activation of B[ a ]P and Detoxification of the Resulting B[ a ]PDE in Human Lung Cells TCDD induces P450s 1A1 and 1B1, which activate B[ a ]P to the reactive intermediate (+)-B[ a ]PDE in the lung. This either reacts with dGuo in DNA to form the (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adduct and initiates mutagenesis or is detoxified by GST to the (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct. TCDD induces P450s 1A1 and 1B1 through the AhR to increase the activation of B[ a ]P. It is proposed that there is another AhR-mediated interaction, which results in the increased expression of GSTs that can detoxify (+)-B[ a ]PDE with high enantioselectivity. A balance between the activation and detoxification pathways would then determine the amount of DNA damage that occurs.
Figure Legend Snippet: Activation of B[ a ]P and Detoxification of the Resulting B[ a ]PDE in Human Lung Cells TCDD induces P450s 1A1 and 1B1, which activate B[ a ]P to the reactive intermediate (+)-B[ a ]PDE in the lung. This either reacts with dGuo in DNA to form the (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo adduct and initiates mutagenesis or is detoxified by GST to the (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct. TCDD induces P450s 1A1 and 1B1 through the AhR to increase the activation of B[ a ]P. It is proposed that there is another AhR-mediated interaction, which results in the increased expression of GSTs that can detoxify (+)-B[ a ]PDE with high enantioselectivity. A balance between the activation and detoxification pathways would then determine the amount of DNA damage that occurs.

Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Mutagenesis, Expressing

B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 and HepG2 cells and media with no TCDD induction. H358 and HepG2 cells were treated with (±)-B[ a ]PDE for 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h without TCDD pretreatment for 24 h and GSH-adduct formation quantified by LC-MS. (A) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cells. (B) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cells. (C) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cell media. (D) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts HepG2 cell media. Analyses were conducted in duplicate, and the mean values are shown. (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid triangle); (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid square).
Figure Legend Snippet: B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 and HepG2 cells and media with no TCDD induction. H358 and HepG2 cells were treated with (±)-B[ a ]PDE for 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h without TCDD pretreatment for 24 h and GSH-adduct formation quantified by LC-MS. (A) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cells. (B) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cells. (C) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cell media. (D) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts HepG2 cell media. Analyses were conducted in duplicate, and the mean values are shown. (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid triangle); (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid square).

Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy

LC-MRM/MS analysis of B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in (±)-B[ a ]PDE-treated H358 and HepG2 cells with 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. (A) Intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in TCDD-induced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. (B) Product ion spectrum of the (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in HepG2-induced cells (MH + , m / z 610). (C) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in TCDD-induced HepG2 cells after a 4 h incubation.
Figure Legend Snippet: LC-MRM/MS analysis of B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in (±)-B[ a ]PDE-treated H358 and HepG2 cells with 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. (A) Intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in TCDD-induced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. (B) Product ion spectrum of the (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in HepG2-induced cells (MH + , m / z 610). (C) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in TCDD-induced HepG2 cells after a 4 h incubation.

Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry, Incubation

B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 and HepG2 cells and media after TCDD induction. H358 and HepG2 cells were treated with (±)-B[ a ]PDE for 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h with 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h and GSH-adducts quantified by LC-MS. (A) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cells. (B) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cells. (C) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cell media. (D) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cell media. Analyses were conducted in duplicate, and the mean values are shown. (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid triangle); (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid square).
Figure Legend Snippet: B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 and HepG2 cells and media after TCDD induction. H358 and HepG2 cells were treated with (±)-B[ a ]PDE for 30 min, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h with 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h and GSH-adducts quantified by LC-MS. (A) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cells. (B) Intracellular (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cells. (C) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in H358 cell media. (D) (±)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in HepG2 cell media. Analyses were conducted in duplicate, and the mean values are shown. (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid triangle); (+)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (solid square).

Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy

TCDD concentration dependence. H358 cells were pretreated with TCDD (0, 1.0, and 10 nM) for 24 h and treated with 1.0 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and the values are expressed as the means ± SEM. As the concentration of TCDD increased, the level of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo decreased significantly ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: TCDD concentration dependence. H358 cells were pretreated with TCDD (0, 1.0, and 10 nM) for 24 h and treated with 1.0 μM (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol for 24 h. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and the values are expressed as the means ± SEM. As the concentration of TCDD increased, the level of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo decreased significantly ( p

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

LC-MS/MS analysis of B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in (±)-B[ a ]PDE-treated H358 cells. (A) LC-MS/MS chromatogram of the intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in TCDD-induced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. (B) Product ion spectrum of the (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (MH + , m / z 610) in TCDD-induced H358 cells. (C) LC-MS/MS chromatogram of the intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in noninduced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. H358 cells pretreated with 10 nM TCDD for 24 h had increased levels of (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts.
Figure Legend Snippet: LC-MS/MS analysis of B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts in (±)-B[ a ]PDE-treated H358 cells. (A) LC-MS/MS chromatogram of the intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in TCDD-induced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. (B) Product ion spectrum of the (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct (MH + , m / z 610) in TCDD-induced H358 cells. (C) LC-MS/MS chromatogram of the intracellular (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adduct in noninduced H358 cells after a 4 h incubation. H358 cells pretreated with 10 nM TCDD for 24 h had increased levels of (−)-B[ a ]PDE-GSH-adducts.

Techniques Used: Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Incubation

(−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol concentration dependence. The levels of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo DNA-adducts formed in H358 cells with increasing concentrations of (−)-B[a]P-7,8-diol (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μM) in 24 h with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and the values are expressed as the means ± SEM. B[ a ]PDE-dGuo levels were significantly higher ( p
Figure Legend Snippet: (−)-B[ a ]P-7,8-dihydrodiol concentration dependence. The levels of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo DNA-adducts formed in H358 cells with increasing concentrations of (−)-B[a]P-7,8-diol (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μM) in 24 h with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment for 24 h. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and the values are expressed as the means ± SEM. B[ a ]PDE-dGuo levels were significantly higher ( p

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

Measurement of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo H358 cells treated with 2 μM (±)-B[ a ]PDE with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment. (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo formation with TCDD-induced cells was decreased compared with that of the noninduced cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Measurement of (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo H358 cells treated with 2 μM (±)-B[ a ]PDE with and without 10 nM TCDD pretreatment. (+)-B[ a ]PDE-dGuo formation with TCDD-induced cells was decreased compared with that of the noninduced cells.

Techniques Used:

18) Product Images from "Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract"

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030090

Pharmacokinetic profile of ( a ) standardized water extract (SWE) of E. longifolia and ( b ) eurycomanone compound, respectively, in rats. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route).
Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profile of ( a ) standardized water extract (SWE) of E. longifolia and ( b ) eurycomanone compound, respectively, in rats. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route).

Techniques Used:

Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Solubility, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).

Techniques Used: Protein Binding, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed low permeability as compared to propranolol and carbamazepine when assayed using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). Line over bars indicates no significant difference between atenolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed low permeability as compared to propranolol and carbamazepine when assayed using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). Line over bars indicates no significant difference between atenolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Permeability, PAMPA Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Pharmacokinetic profile of eurycomanone when administered as its pure compound in mice. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route)
Figure Legend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profile of eurycomanone when administered as its pure compound in mice. (IV = intravenous route, PO = oral route)

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

19) Product Images from "CM93, a novel covalent small molecule inhibitor targeting lung cancer with mutant EGFR"

Article Title: CM93, a novel covalent small molecule inhibitor targeting lung cancer with mutant EGFR

Journal: bioRxiv

doi: 10.1101/2020.03.09.984500

CM93 targets the brain more effectively in a mouse model of H1975 NSCLC brain metastases. Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in SCID mice bearing EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases (H1975-luc). (A) Imaging of CM93 treated mice with EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases in comparison with AZD9291; (B) survival curves of brain metastases mice after treatment of CM93 and AZD9291; (C) Body weight (BW) loss in tumor-bearing mice treated with AZD9291 (25mpk) or CM93 (25 and 50 mpk). (D-F) Brain and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7 days) in male (D) and female (E) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 targets the brain more effectively in a mouse model of H1975 NSCLC brain metastases. Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in SCID mice bearing EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases (H1975-luc). (A) Imaging of CM93 treated mice with EGFR-mutant NSCLC brain metastases in comparison with AZD9291; (B) survival curves of brain metastases mice after treatment of CM93 and AZD9291; (C) Body weight (BW) loss in tumor-bearing mice treated with AZD9291 (25mpk) or CM93 (25 and 50 mpk). (D-F) Brain and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7 days) in male (D) and female (E) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Imaging, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

CM93 has little effect on mouse skin. Skin lesions and hair loss were observed in AZD9291-treated but not CM93-treated mice.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 has little effect on mouse skin. Skin lesions and hair loss were observed in AZD9291-treated but not CM93-treated mice.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

CM93 demonstrates promising antitumor efficacy in orthotopic models of NSCLC. (A-D) Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in orthotopic murine models of NSCLC. 2×10 6 H1975-luciferase or PC9-luciferase cells were injected into NSG mice via tail vein. (A) 12 days pos-injection, CM93 and AZD9291 were administered at 10mg/kg p.o., qd x5 weeks. (B) Established large tumors were comfirmed by imaging prior to treatment. CM93 and AZD9291 were dosed at 25mg/kg p.o., qd.x 5 weeks. (C) Tail vein injection of PC-9-luciferase cells (2×10 6 ), dosing as indicated, po., qd x21days. (D) Tumor imaging results of CM93-treated mice dosed at 25mg/kg for 5 weeks. The tumor (H1975-luc) reduced upon CM93 treatment. (E-G) Lung and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7days) in male (E) and female (F) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.
Figure Legend Snippet: CM93 demonstrates promising antitumor efficacy in orthotopic models of NSCLC. (A-D) Evaluation of CM93 and AZD9291 in orthotopic murine models of NSCLC. 2×10 6 H1975-luciferase or PC9-luciferase cells were injected into NSG mice via tail vein. (A) 12 days pos-injection, CM93 and AZD9291 were administered at 10mg/kg p.o., qd x5 weeks. (B) Established large tumors were comfirmed by imaging prior to treatment. CM93 and AZD9291 were dosed at 25mg/kg p.o., qd.x 5 weeks. (C) Tail vein injection of PC-9-luciferase cells (2×10 6 ), dosing as indicated, po., qd x21days. (D) Tumor imaging results of CM93-treated mice dosed at 25mg/kg for 5 weeks. The tumor (H1975-luc) reduced upon CM93 treatment. (E-G) Lung and plasma distributions of CM93 and AZD9291 (50mg/kg po., qd x 7days) in male (E) and female (F) rats. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC.

Techniques Used: Luciferase, Injection, Mouse Assay, Imaging, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Evaluation of CM93 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and wild-type (WT) EGFR-expressing Ba/F3 cells. (A-C) The viability of PC9GR4 (Exon19Del/T790M) and H1975 (L858R/T790M) cells was analyzed by CellTiter Glo following 48 hours treatment with AZD9291 or CM93. (D) CM93 demonstrated minimal inhibitory effects on parental Ba/F3 cells.
Figure Legend Snippet: Evaluation of CM93 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and wild-type (WT) EGFR-expressing Ba/F3 cells. (A-C) The viability of PC9GR4 (Exon19Del/T790M) and H1975 (L858R/T790M) cells was analyzed by CellTiter Glo following 48 hours treatment with AZD9291 or CM93. (D) CM93 demonstrated minimal inhibitory effects on parental Ba/F3 cells.

Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Expressing

20) Product Images from "Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract"

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract

Journal: Pharmaceutics

doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030090

Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Aqueous solubility of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, and tamoxifen at pH 7.4 and pH 5.4. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) at the two pH values. * denotes significance difference between propranolol and eurycomanone at pH 5.4 ( p ≤ 0.05). Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Solubility, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone plasma protein binding in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. ** and * denote significant difference when compared to across species ( p ≤ 0.01) and ( p ≤ 0.05) respectively. No significant difference was found between the rest of the species tested ( p ≥ 0.05) (not indicated on graph).

Techniques Used: Protein Binding, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone showed high stability at pH 2, pH 5, and pH 6.5 and is comparable to the stability of propranolol. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. There were no significant differences between propranolol and eurycomanone at all the pH levels tested. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Lipophilicity properties of eurycomanone, propranolol, estriol, metoprolol, and diesthylstilbestrol. The distribution coefficient (log D) value for eurycomanone was −0.35. All standards showed acceptable log D values, respectively. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001). The log D value of eurycomanone is comparable to that of metoprolol. Line over bars indicates no significant difference between metoprolol and eurycomanone ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Standard Deviation

Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).
Figure Legend Snippet: Eurycomanone’s stability in rat, monkey, mice, human, and dog plasma as compared to propantheline bromide and enalapril. The values were plotted based on the mean ± standard deviation. **** denotes significant difference when compared to eurycomanone ( p ≤ 0.0001) in the five species tested. *** denotes significance difference ( p ≤ 0.001) in eurycomanone’s stability between species monkey and human. Line over bars indicates no significant difference when compared to eurycomanone in species monkey and dog for enalapril ( p ≥ 0.05).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

21) Product Images from "Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Microbiome-Related Metabolites and Bile Acids in Rat Plasma"

Article Title: Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Microbiome-Related Metabolites and Bile Acids in Rat Plasma

Journal: Metabolites

doi: 10.3390/metabo10060242

Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of plasma metabolic profiles of antibiotic-treated male Crl/Wi(Han) rats compared to vehicle control animals. Animals were orally or parenterally dosed with roxithromycin, streptomycin or vancomycin for 28 days daily. Plasma samples were drawn on days 7, 14 and 28 (indicated by 7d, 14d, 28d). Coloring is based on the t-values. Input values are normalized against the respective vehicle control, and depicted in the axis label as antibiotic_vs_vehicle control_study day. rox, roxithromycin; str, streptomycin; van, vancomycin; con_po, per os vehicle control; con_ip, intraperitoneal vehicle control; con_sc, subcutaneous vehicle control. * additional: phosphatidylcholine (C18:2,C18:2).
Figure Legend Snippet: Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of plasma metabolic profiles of antibiotic-treated male Crl/Wi(Han) rats compared to vehicle control animals. Animals were orally or parenterally dosed with roxithromycin, streptomycin or vancomycin for 28 days daily. Plasma samples were drawn on days 7, 14 and 28 (indicated by 7d, 14d, 28d). Coloring is based on the t-values. Input values are normalized against the respective vehicle control, and depicted in the axis label as antibiotic_vs_vehicle control_study day. rox, roxithromycin; str, streptomycin; van, vancomycin; con_po, per os vehicle control; con_ip, intraperitoneal vehicle control; con_sc, subcutaneous vehicle control. * additional: phosphatidylcholine (C18:2,C18:2).

Techniques Used: High Content Screening

Related Articles

High Performance Liquid Chromatography:

Article Title: Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat
Article Snippet: .. Determination of morphine, M3G, M6G, normorphine, ketamine and norketamine The measurements were carried out as previously described (Zheng et al ., ), with some modifications using an Agilent 1100 series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) coupled to an API 3000 tandem mass spectrometry (AB Sciex, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and the chosen method was validated also for the analysis of ketamine and norketamine (data not shown). .. The chromatographic separation of morphine, M3G, M6G, normorphine, ketamine and norketamine was achieved on Atlantis HILIC Silica column (3 μm particle size, 2.1 × 100 mm I.D.) (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using a gradient elution of mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mmol·L–1 ammonium acetate (pH 3.0, adjusted with formic acid).

Article Title: Structural Elucidation of Irish Organic Farmed Salmon (Salmo salar) Polar Lipids with Antithrombotic Activities
Article Snippet: .. Polar lipid and free fatty acid profiles were obtained in a HPLC (Agilent 1260 series) equipped with a Q-TOF mass spectrometer (Agilent 6520) and the source type was ESI. .. The column used for separations was an Agilent C18 Poroshell 120 column (2.7 µm, 3.0 × 150 mm).

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects
Article Snippet: .. The plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were determined by an Agilent 1200 series HPLC system coupled to an API-4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with some modifications of a validated method. .. Chromatographic separations were performed on a Halo-C18 column (2.1×100 mm internal diameter, 2.7 µm particle size), at a flow rate of 200 µL/min.

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract
Article Snippet: .. LC-MS/MS Analysis Eurycomanone detection in the pure eurycomanone experiments was done via the LC-MS/MS system consisting of an Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC system and an AB SCIEX API 4000™ Triple-Quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with TurboIonSpray® probe and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) (AB Sciex LLC, Framingham, MA, USA). ..

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects
Article Snippet: .. Analysis of the plasma concentrations of fimasartan and rosuvastatin The plasma concentrations of fimasartan were determined by an Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) coupled to an MDS SCIEX API-4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), with some modifications of a validated method. .. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Luna HILIC column (2.1×50 mm internal diameter, 2.6 µm particle size; Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA), at a flow rate of 200 µL/min.

Article Title: Identification of a dioxin-responsive oxylipin signature in roots of date palm: involvement of a 9-hydroperoxide fatty acid reductase, caleosin/peroxygenase PdPXG2
Article Snippet: .. Hydroperoxides (-OOH) fatty acids and their respective hydroxides (-OH) were analysed using a Jasco LC-2000 plus series HPLC system (Jasco, USA) with a UV-detector (RF-10Axl, Shimadzu) (234 nm) and a C18 column (Eclipse XDB-C18 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; Agilent, USA). .. The analysis was performed using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (50/50/0.1, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min−1 .

other:

Article Title: Identification of Degradation Products and a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Flupirtine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Article Snippet: Method Development and Optimization of the Chromatographic Conditions In preliminary experiments, the drug was subjected to the reversed-phase mode using a C18 column (Agilent, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5μ) and mobile phases consisting of water (pH 3.0 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) and methanol by varying the % aqueous phase from 10% to 30%.

Mass Spectrometry:

Article Title: Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat
Article Snippet: .. Determination of morphine, M3G, M6G, normorphine, ketamine and norketamine The measurements were carried out as previously described (Zheng et al ., ), with some modifications using an Agilent 1100 series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) coupled to an API 3000 tandem mass spectrometry (AB Sciex, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and the chosen method was validated also for the analysis of ketamine and norketamine (data not shown). .. The chromatographic separation of morphine, M3G, M6G, normorphine, ketamine and norketamine was achieved on Atlantis HILIC Silica column (3 μm particle size, 2.1 × 100 mm I.D.) (Waters, Milford, MA, USA) using a gradient elution of mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mmol·L–1 ammonium acetate (pH 3.0, adjusted with formic acid).

Article Title: Structural Elucidation of Irish Organic Farmed Salmon (Salmo salar) Polar Lipids with Antithrombotic Activities
Article Snippet: .. Polar lipid and free fatty acid profiles were obtained in a HPLC (Agilent 1260 series) equipped with a Q-TOF mass spectrometer (Agilent 6520) and the source type was ESI. .. The column used for separations was an Agilent C18 Poroshell 120 column (2.7 µm, 3.0 × 150 mm).

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects
Article Snippet: .. The plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were determined by an Agilent 1200 series HPLC system coupled to an API-4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with some modifications of a validated method. .. Chromatographic separations were performed on a Halo-C18 column (2.1×100 mm internal diameter, 2.7 µm particle size), at a flow rate of 200 µL/min.

Article Title: Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract
Article Snippet: .. LC-MS/MS Analysis Eurycomanone detection in the pure eurycomanone experiments was done via the LC-MS/MS system consisting of an Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC system and an AB SCIEX API 4000™ Triple-Quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with TurboIonSpray® probe and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) (AB Sciex LLC, Framingham, MA, USA). ..

Article Title: Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study comparing a fimasartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination with the concomitant administration of fimasartan and rosuvastatin in healthy subjects
Article Snippet: .. Analysis of the plasma concentrations of fimasartan and rosuvastatin The plasma concentrations of fimasartan were determined by an Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) coupled to an MDS SCIEX API-4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), with some modifications of a validated method. .. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Luna HILIC column (2.1×50 mm internal diameter, 2.6 µm particle size; Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA), at a flow rate of 200 µL/min.

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