antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs antibody against trpv1
    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( <t>Trpv1</t> −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.
    Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain"

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.

    Techniques Used:

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.

    Techniques Used:

    antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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  • 97

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs antibody against trpv1
    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( <t>Trpv1</t> −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.
    Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain"

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.

    Techniques Used:

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.
    Figure Legend Snippet: (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.

    Techniques Used:

    antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


    Bioz Verified Symbol Alomone Labs is a verified supplier
    Bioz Manufacturer Symbol Alomone Labs manufactures this product  
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  • 97

    Structured Review

    Alomone Labs antibody against trpv1
    Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in each group of mice. Normal saline injection (Con group, n = 8), CIP (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain), 2 Hz EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with 2 Hz EA), sham EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with sham EA), and <t>TRPV1</t> −/− (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain in TRPV1 −/− mice). ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CIP group.
    Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibody against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice"

    Article Title: Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    doi: 10.1155/2017/5068347

    Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in each group of mice. Normal saline injection (Con group, n = 8), CIP (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain), 2 Hz EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with 2 Hz EA), sham EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with sham EA), and TRPV1 −/− (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain in TRPV1 −/− mice). ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CIP group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in each group of mice. Normal saline injection (Con group, n = 8), CIP (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain), 2 Hz EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with 2 Hz EA), sham EA (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain with sham EA), and TRPV1 −/− (CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain in TRPV1 −/− mice). ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CIP group.

    Techniques Used: Injection

    Expression levels of TRPV1-associated signaling pathway in mice DRG. (a) TRPV1, pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC. (b) pERK, pp38, pJNK, and pAkt. (c) pmTOR, pCREB, pNF κ B, and Nav1.7. (d) Nav1.8, GFAP, S100B, and RAGE expression levels in tissues from Con, CIP, 2 Hz EA, sham EA, and TRPV1 −/− groups (from left to right). Con: control; CIP: chronic inflammatory pain; EA: electroacupuncture; sham EA: sham electroacupuncture; KO: TRPV1 knockout mice. ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CUP group. The western blot bands at the top show the target protein. The lower bands are internal controls ( β -actin or α -tubulin).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression levels of TRPV1-associated signaling pathway in mice DRG. (a) TRPV1, pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC. (b) pERK, pp38, pJNK, and pAkt. (c) pmTOR, pCREB, pNF κ B, and Nav1.7. (d) Nav1.8, GFAP, S100B, and RAGE expression levels in tissues from Con, CIP, 2 Hz EA, sham EA, and TRPV1 −/− groups (from left to right). Con: control; CIP: chronic inflammatory pain; EA: electroacupuncture; sham EA: sham electroacupuncture; KO: TRPV1 knockout mice. ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CUP group. The western blot bands at the top show the target protein. The lower bands are internal controls ( β -actin or α -tubulin).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Knock-Out, Western Blot

    Expression levels of TRPV1-associated signaling pathway in mice SC. (a) TRPV1, pPKA, pPI3 K, and pPKC. (b) pERK, pp38, pJNK, and pAkt. (c) pmTOR, pCREB, pNF κ B, and Nav1.7. (d) Nav1.8, GFAP, S100B, and RAGE expression levels in tissues from Con, CIP, 2 Hz EA, sham EA, and TRPV1 −/− groups (from left to right). Con: control; CIP: chronic inflammatory pain; EA: electroacupuncture; sham EA: sham electroacupuncture; KO: TRPV1 knockout mice. ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CUP group. The western blot bands at the top show the target protein. The lower bands are internal controls ( β -actin or α -tubulin).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression levels of TRPV1-associated signaling pathway in mice SC. (a) TRPV1, pPKA, pPI3 K, and pPKC. (b) pERK, pp38, pJNK, and pAkt. (c) pmTOR, pCREB, pNF κ B, and Nav1.7. (d) Nav1.8, GFAP, S100B, and RAGE expression levels in tissues from Con, CIP, 2 Hz EA, sham EA, and TRPV1 −/− groups (from left to right). Con: control; CIP: chronic inflammatory pain; EA: electroacupuncture; sham EA: sham electroacupuncture; KO: TRPV1 knockout mice. ∗ p < 0.05 versus Con. # p < 0.05 versus CUP group. The western blot bands at the top show the target protein. The lower bands are internal controls ( β -actin or α -tubulin).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Knock-Out, Western Blot

    Schematic illustration of possible mechanisms of TRPV1 in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain in mice model. We showed that TRPV1 is an important receptor in mice chronic inflammatory pain model. The activation of TRPV1 increases the expression of pPKA, pPI3K, pPKC, pAkt, and pmTOR. Furthermore, pERK, pp38, pJNK, pNF κ B, and pCREB are also increased. Moreover, nociceptive Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 are increased for pain conduction in both peripheral DRG and central SC. Inflammatory factors such as GFAP, S100B, and RAGE are also involved in this process.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of possible mechanisms of TRPV1 in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain in mice model. We showed that TRPV1 is an important receptor in mice chronic inflammatory pain model. The activation of TRPV1 increases the expression of pPKA, pPI3K, pPKC, pAkt, and pmTOR. Furthermore, pERK, pp38, pJNK, pNF κ B, and pCREB are also increased. Moreover, nociceptive Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 are increased for pain conduction in both peripheral DRG and central SC. Inflammatory factors such as GFAP, S100B, and RAGE are also involved in this process.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing

    antibodies against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibodies against trpv1
    The effect of <t>TRPV1</t> activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.
    Antibodies Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibodies against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibodies against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction"

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    The effect of TRPV1 activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The effect of TRPV1 activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Cell Culture, Staining

    TRPV1 activation ameliorates high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in a UCP2-dependent manner. A : Representative immunofluorescence images showing the co-expression of TRPV1, PKA and UCP2 in the aortas from wild type mice, particularly in the endothelium (Bar denotes 50 μm). B and C : Acetylcholine (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, pre-incubated with normal-glucose for 12 hours (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L); **P<0.01 versus NG group; # #P<0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P<0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6. D and E : Nitroglycerin (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L) -induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, after cultured for 12 hours with NG, HG, HG+Cap. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n =6. F and G : Representative data that Acetylcholine- and nitroglycerin-induced relaxation in the presence or absence of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μmol/L) in isolated aortic arteries rings from UCP2 -/- mice and wild type (WT) mice under high-glucose condition(HG). **P<0.01 HG + Cap versus HG group of WT, #P<0.05 HG group of WT versus HG group of UCP2 -/- . Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 activation ameliorates high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in a UCP2-dependent manner. A : Representative immunofluorescence images showing the co-expression of TRPV1, PKA and UCP2 in the aortas from wild type mice, particularly in the endothelium (Bar denotes 50 μm). B and C : Acetylcholine (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, pre-incubated with normal-glucose for 12 hours (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L); **P<0.01 versus NG group; # #P<0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P<0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6. D and E : Nitroglycerin (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L) -induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, after cultured for 12 hours with NG, HG, HG+Cap. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n =6. F and G : Representative data that Acetylcholine- and nitroglycerin-induced relaxation in the presence or absence of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μmol/L) in isolated aortic arteries rings from UCP2 -/- mice and wild type (WT) mice under high-glucose condition(HG). **P<0.01 HG + Cap versus HG group of WT, #P<0.05 HG group of WT versus HG group of UCP2 -/- . Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Immunofluorescence, Expressing, Isolation, Incubation, Cell Culture

    TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes endothelial PKA phosphorylation and increases UCP2 levels in diabetic mice. Representative protein expression of TRPV1 ( A and B ), p-PKA/PKA ( C and D ) and UCP2 ( E ) levels in aorta or mesenteric arteries from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and the lean littermate control C57BL/KsJ mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. ## P <0.01, # P <0.05 versus WT Cont group; *P <0.05 versus db/db Cont group.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes endothelial PKA phosphorylation and increases UCP2 levels in diabetic mice. Representative protein expression of TRPV1 ( A and B ), p-PKA/PKA ( C and D ) and UCP2 ( E ) levels in aorta or mesenteric arteries from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and the lean littermate control C57BL/KsJ mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. ## P <0.01, # P <0.05 versus WT Cont group; *P <0.05 versus db/db Cont group.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Expressing

    TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin attenuates endothelial oxidative stress and increases the level of NO in diabetic mice. A and B : Representative protein expressions of p22 phox ( A ) and p-eNOS ( B ) in aortas from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and wild type mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). ## P<0.01 versus the WT Cont group; * P<0.05 versus the db/db Cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C and D : Representative images and summary data detected by DHE ( C ) and DAF-2 DA ( D ) in mesenteric arteries from wild type and db/db mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont and db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (WT Cap and db/db Cap). #P<0.05 versus WT Cont group; ** P<0.01 versus WT Cap group; ΔΔP<0.01 versus db/db cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 4. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin attenuates endothelial oxidative stress and increases the level of NO in diabetic mice. A and B : Representative protein expressions of p22 phox ( A ) and p-eNOS ( B ) in aortas from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and wild type mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). ## P<0.01 versus the WT Cont group; * P<0.05 versus the db/db Cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C and D : Representative images and summary data detected by DHE ( C ) and DAF-2 DA ( D ) in mesenteric arteries from wild type and db/db mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont and db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (WT Cap and db/db Cap). #P<0.05 versus WT Cont group; ** P<0.01 versus WT Cap group; ΔΔP<0.01 versus db/db cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 4. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay

    Upregulation of UCP2 by TRPV1 activation attenuates hyperglycemia-induced ROS production in ECs. The increased metabolism of glucose due to intracellular hyperglycemia leads to the overproduction of NADH, a critical component of the superoxide-generating mechanism in endothelial cells. Upregulation of mitochondrial UCP2 in response to elevated superoxide levels plays an active role in the feedback regulation of reactive oxygen species production that is associated with chronic oxidative stress. Activation of the endothelial TRPV1 channel in endothelial cells by dietary capsaicin mediates the phosphorylation of PKA and upregulates UCP2, thus inhibiting the activity of NADPH and decreasing ROS production in ECs.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Upregulation of UCP2 by TRPV1 activation attenuates hyperglycemia-induced ROS production in ECs. The increased metabolism of glucose due to intracellular hyperglycemia leads to the overproduction of NADH, a critical component of the superoxide-generating mechanism in endothelial cells. Upregulation of mitochondrial UCP2 in response to elevated superoxide levels plays an active role in the feedback regulation of reactive oxygen species production that is associated with chronic oxidative stress. Activation of the endothelial TRPV1 channel in endothelial cells by dietary capsaicin mediates the phosphorylation of PKA and upregulates UCP2, thus inhibiting the activity of NADPH and decreasing ROS production in ECs.

    Techniques Used: Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    antibodies against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibodies against trpv1
    Plasmids.
    Antibodies Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibodies against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    antibodies against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    86/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Signaling Is Independent on Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation of Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning Protein"

    Article Title: Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Signaling Is Independent on Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation of Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning Protein

    Journal: Medical Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/medsci10040063

    Plasmids.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Plasmids.

    Techniques Used:

    Co-immunoprecipitation of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. Histogram of TRPV1/ARMS response in %. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant, p < 0.05 (*), p < 0.01 (**), p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. Interaction ratio was calculated and plotted: TRPV1 divided by ARMS (MFI). BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-immunoprecipitation of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. Histogram of TRPV1/ARMS response in %. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant, p < 0.05 (*), p < 0.01 (**), p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. Interaction ratio was calculated and plotted: TRPV1 divided by ARMS (MFI). BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.

    Techniques Used: Immunoprecipitation, Transfection, Inhibition

    Histogram of the phosphorylation status in single and double TRPV1/ARMS transfected HEK293 via phosphor-PKA substrate antibody in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Histogram of the phosphorylation status in single and double TRPV1/ARMS transfected HEK293 via phosphor-PKA substrate antibody in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Inhibition

    Co-immunoprecipitation of ARMS/AKAP79 in TRPV1/ARMS transfected and PKA stimulated HEK293 via anti-TRPV1, anti-ARMS, anti-AKAP79, and phosphor-PKA substrate antibody in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant. n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: TRPV1, DARK GREY: ARMS, GREY: pPKA, WHITE: AKAP79.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Co-immunoprecipitation of ARMS/AKAP79 in TRPV1/ARMS transfected and PKA stimulated HEK293 via anti-TRPV1, anti-ARMS, anti-AKAP79, and phosphor-PKA substrate antibody in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant. n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: TRPV1, DARK GREY: ARMS, GREY: pPKA, WHITE: AKAP79.

    Techniques Used: Immunoprecipitation, Transfection

    Western blot analysis of TRPV1/ARMS/AKAP79 in TRPV1/ARMS transfected and PKA stimulated HEK293 via anti-TRPV1, anti-ARMS, and anti-AKAP79. BANDS at ~79 kDa: AKAP79, BANDS at ~120 kDa: TRPV1, BANDS at ~220 kDa: ARMS.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Western blot analysis of TRPV1/ARMS/AKAP79 in TRPV1/ARMS transfected and PKA stimulated HEK293 via anti-TRPV1, anti-ARMS, and anti-AKAP79. BANDS at ~79 kDa: AKAP79, BANDS at ~120 kDa: TRPV1, BANDS at ~220 kDa: ARMS.

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Transfection

    Calcium flux dose response curves of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. MFI Data was plotted against capsaicin concentration and is presented as means ± SEM. Dose–response curves were fitted with the Hill equation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Calcium flux dose response curves of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. MFI Data was plotted against capsaicin concentration and is presented as means ± SEM. Dose–response curves were fitted with the Hill equation.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Concentration Assay

    EC 50 histogram of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.
    Figure Legend Snippet: EC 50 histogram of TRPV1/ARMS in transfected HEK293. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation or inhibition, DARK GREY: PKA stimulated with forskolin and IBMX, GREY: PKA inhibited with H89, WHITE: PKD inhibited with BPKDi.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Inhibition

    Capsaicin-induced (50 nM) TRPV1 current (in pA) of HEK cells expressing TRPV1. TRPV1 (black column, n = 31 cells), TRPV1 and wild type ARMS (red, n = 34 cells), TRPV1 and ARMS T903 (orange, n = 14 cells), TRPV1 and ARMS S1251/52 (light grey, n = 16 cells) and TRPV1 ARMS S1526/27 (dark grey, n = 20 cells). Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’ multiple comparing test. *, **, **** indicates TRPV1 as comparison control group, ## indicates TRPV1ARMS as the comparison control group in the post-test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Capsaicin-induced (50 nM) TRPV1 current (in pA) of HEK cells expressing TRPV1. TRPV1 (black column, n = 31 cells), TRPV1 and wild type ARMS (red, n = 34 cells), TRPV1 and ARMS T903 (orange, n = 14 cells), TRPV1 and ARMS S1251/52 (light grey, n = 16 cells) and TRPV1 ARMS S1526/27 (dark grey, n = 20 cells). Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’ multiple comparing test. *, **, **** indicates TRPV1 as comparison control group, ## indicates TRPV1ARMS as the comparison control group in the post-test.

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Immunoprecipitation of ARMS and TRPV1 in transfected HEK293. Histogram of ARMS and TRPV1 response in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: ARMS, GREY: TRPV1.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoprecipitation of ARMS and TRPV1 in transfected HEK293. Histogram of ARMS and TRPV1 response in MFI. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: ARMS, GREY: TRPV1.

    Techniques Used: Immunoprecipitation, Transfection

    EC50 histogram of TRPV1/ARMS in shRNA transfected HEK293. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: EC50 histogram of TRPV1/ARMS in shRNA transfected HEK293. Data are presented as means ± SEM. Statistical significance is denoted as ns = not significant and p < 0.0001 (****). n = 3, biological replicates. BLACK: without stimulation.

    Techniques Used: shRNA, Transfection

    polyclonal rabbit against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs polyclonal rabbit against trpv1
    Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)
    Polyclonal Rabbit Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polyclonal rabbit against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    polyclonal rabbit against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Motoneuronal inflammasome activation triggers excessive neuroinflammation and impedes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury"

    Article Title: Motoneuronal inflammasome activation triggers excessive neuroinflammation and impedes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-022-02427-9

    Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Plasmid Preparation, Recombinant

    room temperature antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs room temperature antibody against trpv1
    Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and <t>Trpv1</t> −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups
    Room Temperature Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/room temperature antibody against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
    Average 97 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    room temperature antibody against trpv1 - by Bioz Stars, 2023-01
    97/100 stars

    Images

    1) Product Images from "Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice"

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups

    Techniques Used:

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice hypothalamus. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice hypothalamus. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice PAG. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice PAG. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVI. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVI. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVII. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVII. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Western Blot, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice hypothalamus. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice hypothalamus region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice hypothalamus. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice hypothalamus region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice ventrolateral PAG. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice vlPAG region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice ventrolateral PAG. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice vlPAG region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VI. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VI region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VI. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VI region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VII. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VII region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups
    Figure Legend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VII. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VII region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Techniques Used: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    TRPV1 and related molecular pathways in the mouse brain
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 and related molecular pathways in the mouse brain

    Techniques Used:

    antibodies against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibodies against trpv1
    Antibodies Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    room temperature antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs room temperature antibody against trpv1
    Room Temperature Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    antibody against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibody against trpv1
    Expression of <t>TRPV1</t> receptors in the smooth muscle of the rat aorta. ( A ) TRPV1 receptors labeled with FITC (Green). The scale bar corresponds to 50 μm. ( B ) Aortic ring labeled with anti-smooth muscle α-actin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 568 (Red). ( C ) Overlay showing the high co-localization (Yellow) of TRPV1 receptors in smooth muscle. The arrows indicate the arterial layers. The adventitia is marked with red, the tunica media with yellow and the tunica intima with blue. ( D ) Aortic smooth muscle cell labeled with anti-TRPV1 (Green) and stained with DAPI (Blue). The scale bar corresponds to 10 μm.
    Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/antibody against trpv1/product/Alomone Labs
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    1) Product Images from "Capsaicin Causes Vasorelaxation of Rat Aorta through Blocking of L-type Ca 2+ Channels and Activation of CB 1 Receptors"

    Article Title: Capsaicin Causes Vasorelaxation of Rat Aorta through Blocking of L-type Ca 2+ Channels and Activation of CB 1 Receptors

    Journal: Molecules

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25173957

    Expression of TRPV1 receptors in the smooth muscle of the rat aorta. ( A ) TRPV1 receptors labeled with FITC (Green). The scale bar corresponds to 50 μm. ( B ) Aortic ring labeled with anti-smooth muscle α-actin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 568 (Red). ( C ) Overlay showing the high co-localization (Yellow) of TRPV1 receptors in smooth muscle. The arrows indicate the arterial layers. The adventitia is marked with red, the tunica media with yellow and the tunica intima with blue. ( D ) Aortic smooth muscle cell labeled with anti-TRPV1 (Green) and stained with DAPI (Blue). The scale bar corresponds to 10 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of TRPV1 receptors in the smooth muscle of the rat aorta. ( A ) TRPV1 receptors labeled with FITC (Green). The scale bar corresponds to 50 μm. ( B ) Aortic ring labeled with anti-smooth muscle α-actin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 568 (Red). ( C ) Overlay showing the high co-localization (Yellow) of TRPV1 receptors in smooth muscle. The arrows indicate the arterial layers. The adventitia is marked with red, the tunica media with yellow and the tunica intima with blue. ( D ) Aortic smooth muscle cell labeled with anti-TRPV1 (Green) and stained with DAPI (Blue). The scale bar corresponds to 10 μm.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling, Staining

    Expression of TRPV1 receptors in rat aorta endothelium. ( A ) TRPV1 was detected by a specific antibody and a FITC-conjugated secondary antibody (Green). The scale bar corresponds to 5 μm. ( B ). The tissue was co-labeled with an endothelium-specific antibody and a secondary antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 568; the cells are located along the inner layer, indicated by a blue arrow. ( C ) The superimposition of the images highlights the co-localization of the receptor in the endothelial cells (Arrowheads). Nuclei were stained using Prolong Gold antifade with DAPI.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of TRPV1 receptors in rat aorta endothelium. ( A ) TRPV1 was detected by a specific antibody and a FITC-conjugated secondary antibody (Green). The scale bar corresponds to 5 μm. ( B ). The tissue was co-labeled with an endothelium-specific antibody and a secondary antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 568; the cells are located along the inner layer, indicated by a blue arrow. ( C ) The superimposition of the images highlights the co-localization of the receptor in the endothelial cells (Arrowheads). Nuclei were stained using Prolong Gold antifade with DAPI.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Labeling, Staining

    Vasorelaxant effect induced by Capsaicin 10 µM. ( A ) Typical recording showing the vasorelaxant response to Capsaicin in a pre-contracted rat aortic ring with endothelium. Black arrows indicate the addition of Capsaicin. The TRPV1 agonist Capsaicin 10 µM causes a vasorelaxant effect of 28.33 ± 5.41% (relative to Phe pre-contraction; p < 0.01; n = 20 rings, 10 rats). ( B ) Representative trace showing that Capsazepine 10 μM does not antagonize the vasorelaxant effect observed with Capsaicin (35.63 ± 6.32%; p < 0.01; n = 9 rings, 7 rats). The red line indicates the addition of Capsazepine. ( C ) Summary of the effect induced by Capsaicin under different experimental conditions. * indicates a significant change in tension compared to Phe pre-contraction. ** indicates a significant change compared to the effect of Capsaicin alone.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Vasorelaxant effect induced by Capsaicin 10 µM. ( A ) Typical recording showing the vasorelaxant response to Capsaicin in a pre-contracted rat aortic ring with endothelium. Black arrows indicate the addition of Capsaicin. The TRPV1 agonist Capsaicin 10 µM causes a vasorelaxant effect of 28.33 ± 5.41% (relative to Phe pre-contraction; p < 0.01; n = 20 rings, 10 rats). ( B ) Representative trace showing that Capsazepine 10 μM does not antagonize the vasorelaxant effect observed with Capsaicin (35.63 ± 6.32%; p < 0.01; n = 9 rings, 7 rats). The red line indicates the addition of Capsazepine. ( C ) Summary of the effect induced by Capsaicin under different experimental conditions. * indicates a significant change in tension compared to Phe pre-contraction. ** indicates a significant change compared to the effect of Capsaicin alone.

    Techniques Used:

    antibodies against trpv1  (Alomone Labs)


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    Alomone Labs antibodies against trpv1
    <t>TRPV1</t> in sensory afferents and nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A: TRPV1 is localized in normoxic (NORM) sensory afferents of the nodose-petrosal ganglia (NPG; green) and colocalizes with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; red). Arrowheads indicate TRPV1 fibers in NPG; arrows indicate the TRPV1 and TH co-labeled neuron. B: relative expression of TRPV1 mRNA in NPG from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 3 each), as determined by the 2ΔΔCT method. Trpv1 was normalized to the housekeeping gene B2M. CIH did not alter Trpv1 mRNA. C: immunoblot analysis of TRPV1 protein from NPG tissue from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 2–3). TRPV1 was normalized to tubulin. CIH elevated TRPV1 protein in NPG. *P < 0.05, t-test. D: expression of TRPV1 in the nTS of NORM and CIH-exposed rats. Note the expression of TRPV1 in the afferent-containing tractus solitarii (TS) and the tendency for increased immunofluorescence in CIH rats. Measurements were taken from 100 × 100-mm box adjacent to the TS. Bregma level ~14.04 mm. AP, area postrema; DMnX, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Scale bars, 100 μm.
    Antibodies Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    1) Product Images from "TRPV1 channels contribute to spontaneous glutamate release in nucleus tractus solitarii following chronic intermittent hypoxia"

    Article Title: TRPV1 channels contribute to spontaneous glutamate release in nucleus tractus solitarii following chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Journal: Journal of Neurophysiology

    doi: 10.1152/jn.00536.2018

    TRPV1 in sensory afferents and nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A: TRPV1 is localized in normoxic (NORM) sensory afferents of the nodose-petrosal ganglia (NPG; green) and colocalizes with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; red). Arrowheads indicate TRPV1 fibers in NPG; arrows indicate the TRPV1 and TH co-labeled neuron. B: relative expression of TRPV1 mRNA in NPG from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 3 each), as determined by the 2ΔΔCT method. Trpv1 was normalized to the housekeeping gene B2M. CIH did not alter Trpv1 mRNA. C: immunoblot analysis of TRPV1 protein from NPG tissue from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 2–3). TRPV1 was normalized to tubulin. CIH elevated TRPV1 protein in NPG. *P < 0.05, t-test. D: expression of TRPV1 in the nTS of NORM and CIH-exposed rats. Note the expression of TRPV1 in the afferent-containing tractus solitarii (TS) and the tendency for increased immunofluorescence in CIH rats. Measurements were taken from 100 × 100-mm box adjacent to the TS. Bregma level ~14.04 mm. AP, area postrema; DMnX, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Scale bars, 100 μm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 in sensory afferents and nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A: TRPV1 is localized in normoxic (NORM) sensory afferents of the nodose-petrosal ganglia (NPG; green) and colocalizes with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; red). Arrowheads indicate TRPV1 fibers in NPG; arrows indicate the TRPV1 and TH co-labeled neuron. B: relative expression of TRPV1 mRNA in NPG from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 3 each), as determined by the 2ΔΔCT method. Trpv1 was normalized to the housekeeping gene B2M. CIH did not alter Trpv1 mRNA. C: immunoblot analysis of TRPV1 protein from NPG tissue from NORM and CIH-exposed rats (n = 2–3). TRPV1 was normalized to tubulin. CIH elevated TRPV1 protein in NPG. *P < 0.05, t-test. D: expression of TRPV1 in the nTS of NORM and CIH-exposed rats. Note the expression of TRPV1 in the afferent-containing tractus solitarii (TS) and the tendency for increased immunofluorescence in CIH rats. Measurements were taken from 100 × 100-mm box adjacent to the TS. Bregma level ~14.04 mm. AP, area postrema; DMnX, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Scale bars, 100 μm.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence

    TRPV1 inhibitors do not alter tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-EPSCs) in normoxic (NORM) and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). A and B: example of TS-EPSCs in a NORM (A) and CIH-exposed (B) nTS neuron in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) baseline and in the presence of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine (CZP). Arrows depict time of TS stimulation. Note the minimal decrease in TS-EPSC with TRPV1 inhibition. Examples are overlay of 10 events each. C and D: group data demonstrating the TRPV1 inhibitors CPZ (C) and SB-366791 (SB; D) minimally altered TS-EPSCs compared with aCSF (2-way RM ANOVA, CPZ exposure: drug, P = 0.06; hypoxia, P = 0.27; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.33; SB exposure: drug, P = 0.01; hypoxia, P = 0.36; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.21). *P < 0.05 vs. aCSF with Bonferroni post hoc (CPZ: NORM and CIH, n = 4 each; SB: NORM, n = 9, CIH, n = 8).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 inhibitors do not alter tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-EPSCs) in normoxic (NORM) and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). A and B: example of TS-EPSCs in a NORM (A) and CIH-exposed (B) nTS neuron in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) baseline and in the presence of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine (CZP). Arrows depict time of TS stimulation. Note the minimal decrease in TS-EPSC with TRPV1 inhibition. Examples are overlay of 10 events each. C and D: group data demonstrating the TRPV1 inhibitors CPZ (C) and SB-366791 (SB; D) minimally altered TS-EPSCs compared with aCSF (2-way RM ANOVA, CPZ exposure: drug, P = 0.06; hypoxia, P = 0.27; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.33; SB exposure: drug, P = 0.01; hypoxia, P = 0.36; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.21). *P < 0.05 vs. aCSF with Bonferroni post hoc (CPZ: NORM and CIH, n = 4 each; SB: NORM, n = 9, CIH, n = 8).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine (CPZ) reduces the increase in spontaneous activity in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed rats. A: example of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) from normoxic (NORM) rats during artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) control (top) and following TRPV1 inhibition (bottom) with CPZ (10 µM). Note the decrease in asynchronous EPSC events after TRPV1 inhibition. Horizontal bars depict time of 20-Hz tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. B: diary of events of NORM cell in A before and after response to TS stimulation. C: group data for NORM (n = 4) shows CPZ depression of peak and average events compared with aCSF control following stimulation (2-way RM ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.009; drug, P = 0.02; EPSC × drug, P = 0.08). D: EPSCs from CIH-exposed rat during aCSF control (top) and following TRPV1 inhibition (bottom) with CZP. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. E: diary of events of CIH cell in D. F: group data for CIH-exposed cells (n = 6), showing TRPV1 inhibition with CPZ attenuated baseline, peak, and average events (2-way RM ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.0005; drug, P = 0.01; EPSC × drug, P = 0.03). In B and E, events before TS stimulation are fit with a linear regression, whereas events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve; data are plotted as events per 100 ms. In C and F, dashed lines indicates aCSF baseline events. Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, peak or average vs. baseline (pre TS-stimulation) with Bonferroni multiple comparison. $P < 0.05; $$P < 0.01; $$$$P < 0.0001, CPZ vs. aCSF control with Bonferroni multiple comparison.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine (CPZ) reduces the increase in spontaneous activity in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed rats. A: example of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) from normoxic (NORM) rats during artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) control (top) and following TRPV1 inhibition (bottom) with CPZ (10 µM). Note the decrease in asynchronous EPSC events after TRPV1 inhibition. Horizontal bars depict time of 20-Hz tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. B: diary of events of NORM cell in A before and after response to TS stimulation. C: group data for NORM (n = 4) shows CPZ depression of peak and average events compared with aCSF control following stimulation (2-way RM ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.009; drug, P = 0.02; EPSC × drug, P = 0.08). D: EPSCs from CIH-exposed rat during aCSF control (top) and following TRPV1 inhibition (bottom) with CZP. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. E: diary of events of CIH cell in D. F: group data for CIH-exposed cells (n = 6), showing TRPV1 inhibition with CPZ attenuated baseline, peak, and average events (2-way RM ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.0005; drug, P = 0.01; EPSC × drug, P = 0.03). In B and E, events before TS stimulation are fit with a linear regression, whereas events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve; data are plotted as events per 100 ms. In C and F, dashed lines indicates aCSF baseline events. Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, peak or average vs. baseline (pre TS-stimulation) with Bonferroni multiple comparison. $P < 0.05; $$P < 0.01; $$$$P < 0.0001, CPZ vs. aCSF control with Bonferroni multiple comparison.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    TRPV1 inhibitor SB-36679 (SB) reduces the increase in spontaneous and asynchronous activity in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed rats. A and C: diary of events for individual normoxic (NORM; A) and CIH-exposed (C) cells before and after TRPV1 inhibition with SB (10 µM). Note the decrease in asynchronous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) after TRPV1 inhibition. Events before tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation are fit with a linear regression. Events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve (aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluid) or linear regression (SB). Data are plotted as events per 100 ms. B and D: grouped data for NORM (B) and CIH (D) show depression of baseline, peak, and average events following stimulation [2-way RM ANOVA, NORM (n = 5): EPSC, P = 0.003; drug, P = 0.02; EPSC × drug, P = 0.05; CIH (n = 5): EPSC, P = 0.007; drug, P = 0.08; EPSC × drug, P = 0.01]. Dashed line in indicates aCSF baseline events. Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001 vs. baseline (pre TS-stimulation) with Bonferroni multiple comparison. $P < 0.05; $$P < 0.01; $$$P < 0.001; $$$$P < 0.0001, SB vs. aCSF control with Bonferroni multiple comparison.
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 inhibitor SB-36679 (SB) reduces the increase in spontaneous and asynchronous activity in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-exposed rats. A and C: diary of events for individual normoxic (NORM; A) and CIH-exposed (C) cells before and after TRPV1 inhibition with SB (10 µM). Note the decrease in asynchronous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) after TRPV1 inhibition. Events before tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation are fit with a linear regression. Events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve (aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluid) or linear regression (SB). Data are plotted as events per 100 ms. B and D: grouped data for NORM (B) and CIH (D) show depression of baseline, peak, and average events following stimulation [2-way RM ANOVA, NORM (n = 5): EPSC, P = 0.003; drug, P = 0.02; EPSC × drug, P = 0.05; CIH (n = 5): EPSC, P = 0.007; drug, P = 0.08; EPSC × drug, P = 0.01]. Dashed line in indicates aCSF baseline events. Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001 vs. baseline (pre TS-stimulation) with Bonferroni multiple comparison. $P < 0.05; $$P < 0.01; $$$P < 0.001; $$$$P < 0.0001, SB vs. aCSF control with Bonferroni multiple comparison.

    Techniques Used: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    TRPV1 inhibitors attenuate the elevated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: examples of reduction in mEPSC events after TRPV1 inhibition with capsazepine (CPZ) in normoxic (NORM; A) and CIH-exposed (B) cells. Examples shown are a single trace. aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluid. C and D: mean mEPSC frequency data demonstrating CPZ (C) and SB-36679 (SB; D) tended to attenuate mEPSCs from aCSF control (C) in NORM neurons. Following CIH, CPZ and SB significantly decreased mEPSCs and returned their frequency to near NORM levels (2-way RM ANOVA, CPZ application: drug, P = 0.002; hypoxia, P = 0.24; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.11; SB application: drug, P = 0.0003; hypoxia, P = 0.06; drug × hypoxia × drug, P = 0.06). *P < 0.05, CPZ or SB vs. aCSF baseline with Bonferroni multiple comparison (CPZ: NORM, n = 6; CIH, n = 8; SB: NORM, n = 5; CIH, n = 7).
    Figure Legend Snippet: TRPV1 inhibitors attenuate the elevated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: examples of reduction in mEPSC events after TRPV1 inhibition with capsazepine (CPZ) in normoxic (NORM; A) and CIH-exposed (B) cells. Examples shown are a single trace. aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluid. C and D: mean mEPSC frequency data demonstrating CPZ (C) and SB-36679 (SB; D) tended to attenuate mEPSCs from aCSF control (C) in NORM neurons. Following CIH, CPZ and SB significantly decreased mEPSCs and returned their frequency to near NORM levels (2-way RM ANOVA, CPZ application: drug, P = 0.002; hypoxia, P = 0.24; drug × hypoxia, P = 0.11; SB application: drug, P = 0.0003; hypoxia, P = 0.06; drug × hypoxia × drug, P = 0.06). *P < 0.05, CPZ or SB vs. aCSF baseline with Bonferroni multiple comparison (CPZ: NORM, n = 6; CIH, n = 8; SB: NORM, n = 5; CIH, n = 7).

    Techniques Used: Inhibition

    Tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-EPSCs) of TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− neurons of nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) are similar under normoxia (NORM) and both decrease following chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: TS-EPSCs in NORM were similar in TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− mice. However, in both mice, the amplitude of the evoked response is reduced by CIH exposure. Examples are overlays of 20 traces each. C: mean data of TS-EPSCs in TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− mice in NORM (N) and following CIH. As shown in our example, CIH decreased TS-EPSC amplitude to a comparable amplitude (2-way ANOVA: hypoxia, P = 0.004; mouse, P = 0.53; hypoxia × mouse, P = 0.96). *P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 10; CIH, n = 18; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 11; CIH, n = 12).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-EPSCs) of TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− neurons of nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) are similar under normoxia (NORM) and both decrease following chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: TS-EPSCs in NORM were similar in TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− mice. However, in both mice, the amplitude of the evoked response is reduced by CIH exposure. Examples are overlays of 20 traces each. C: mean data of TS-EPSCs in TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1−/− mice in NORM (N) and following CIH. As shown in our example, CIH decreased TS-EPSC amplitude to a comparable amplitude (2-way ANOVA: hypoxia, P = 0.004; mouse, P = 0.53; hypoxia × mouse, P = 0.96). *P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 10; CIH, n = 18; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 11; CIH, n = 12).

    Techniques Used:

    Asynchronous excitatory postsynaptic current (aEPSC) events do not increase in TRPV1−/− mice after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). CIH increases aEPSC in TRPV1+/+ (A) but not TRPV1−/− (D) mice. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. B and E: diary plots of the events shown in representative examples (events/100 ms). Events before tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation are fit with a linear regression, whereas events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve. C and F: TRPV1+/+ mice increased peak and average aEPSC events after CIH (2-way ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.001; hypoxia, P = 0.09; EPSC × hypoxia, P = 0.61). In NORM TRPV1−/− mutant mice, TS stimulation (20 Hz) increased peak events, which were eliminated after CIH (2-way ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.001; hypoxia, P = 0.04; EPSC × hypoxia, P = 0.02). Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ****P < 0.0001 vs. baseline within NORM or CIH group with Bonferroni post hoc. $P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 9; CIH, n = 12; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 14; CIH, n = 15).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Asynchronous excitatory postsynaptic current (aEPSC) events do not increase in TRPV1−/− mice after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). CIH increases aEPSC in TRPV1+/+ (A) but not TRPV1−/− (D) mice. Examples are overlays of 2 traces each. Insets are zoomed images of peak events. B and E: diary plots of the events shown in representative examples (events/100 ms). Events before tractus solitarii (TS) stimulation are fit with a linear regression, whereas events following TS stimulation are fit via nonlinear curve. C and F: TRPV1+/+ mice increased peak and average aEPSC events after CIH (2-way ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.001; hypoxia, P = 0.09; EPSC × hypoxia, P = 0.61). In NORM TRPV1−/− mutant mice, TS stimulation (20 Hz) increased peak events, which were eliminated after CIH (2-way ANOVA: EPSC, P = 0.001; hypoxia, P = 0.04; EPSC × hypoxia, P = 0.02). Ave, average; Bsl, baseline. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ****P < 0.0001 vs. baseline within NORM or CIH group with Bonferroni post hoc. $P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 9; CIH, n = 12; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 14; CIH, n = 15).

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    The increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) is eliminated in TRPV1−/− mice after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: examples of mEPSCs under normoxia (NORM) and CIH in TRPV1+/+ (A) and TRPV1−/− (B) mice. Note the increase in mEPSCs after CIH in TRPV1+/+ mice but not TRPV1−/− mice. Examples are from a single trace. C: compared with NORM (N), mEPSCs increased in TRPV1+/+ mice after CIH. On the other hand, mEPSCs did not increase in TRPV1−/− mice after CIH (2-way ANOVA: mouse, P = 0.34; hypoxia, P = 0.29; mouse × hypoxia, P = 0.11). *P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 10; CIH, n = 17; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 8; CIH, n = 4).
    Figure Legend Snippet: The increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) is eliminated in TRPV1−/− mice after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). A and B: examples of mEPSCs under normoxia (NORM) and CIH in TRPV1+/+ (A) and TRPV1−/− (B) mice. Note the increase in mEPSCs after CIH in TRPV1+/+ mice but not TRPV1−/− mice. Examples are from a single trace. C: compared with NORM (N), mEPSCs increased in TRPV1+/+ mice after CIH. On the other hand, mEPSCs did not increase in TRPV1−/− mice after CIH (2-way ANOVA: mouse, P = 0.34; hypoxia, P = 0.29; mouse × hypoxia, P = 0.11). *P < 0.05, CIH vs. NORM with Bonferroni post hoc (TRPV1+/+: NORM, n = 10; CIH, n = 17; TRPV1−/−: NORM, n = 8; CIH, n = 4).

    Techniques Used:

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    Alomone Labs antibody against trpv1
    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( <t>Trpv1</t> −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.
    Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs antibodies against trpv1
    The effect of <t>TRPV1</t> activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.
    Antibodies Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs polyclonal rabbit against trpv1
    Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)
    Polyclonal Rabbit Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Alomone Labs room temperature antibody against trpv1
    Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and <t>Trpv1</t> −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups
    Room Temperature Antibody Against Trpv1, supplied by Alomone Labs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparative graph showing the hind paw withdrawal threshold and latency. Black: control group, red: ICS group, blue: ICS + electroacupuncture (EA) group, green: transient receptor vanilloid member one deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) group. ∗ indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the control group. # indicates statistical significance with p < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (a) Mechanical hyperalgesia measured by the von Frey test in the four groups. (b) Thermal hyperalgesia assessed by the Hargreaves test in the four groups. (c) Schematic illustration showing the ICS procedure. Control mice stayed in a 24°C environment day and night for five days. Mice subjected to ICS were kept in a 4°C environment for 17.5 hours (from 4:30 p.m. to 10:00 a.m.) from Day 0 to 3. Between 10:00 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (total duration: 6.5 hours), they were placed in a room at 24°C. In this 6.5-hour period, the mice were subjected to intermittent environment temperature change (24°C and 4°C) for 30 min each time. The procedure was terminated on Day 3 at 10:00 a.m., and fibromyalgia-like pain was assessed.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques:

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse PFC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse PFC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse SSC. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates P < 0.05 statistical significance when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse SSC. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Expression of extracellular neurotransmitters (A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors (C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4) and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules (F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse thalamus. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA) and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared to the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse thalamus. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) The expression of extracellular neurotransmitters ((A) HMGB1, (B) S100B), receptors ((C) RAGE, (D) TLR2, (E) TLR4), and cytoplasmic inflammation signal molecules ((F) pPI3K, (G) pAkt, (H) pmTOR, (I) pERK, (J) pp38, (K) pJNK, (L) pNF- κ B) in the mouse amygdala. The four lanes on the immunoblots correspond to the protein bands of, in order, control (Con), ICS-induced fibromyalgia (ICS), electroacupuncture (EA), and Trpv1 −/− groups. ∗ indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the Con group. # indicates statistical significance with P < 0.05 when compared with the ICS group. (b) Immunofluorescence staining of TLR2 and pNF- κ B in the mouse amygdala. Immunopositive signals (light green, indicated by a red arrow) were detected for TLR2 and pNF- κ B. Scale bar: 100 μ m.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Staining

    Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture Reduces Fibromyalgia Pain by Attenuating the HMGB1, S100B, and TRPV1 Signalling Pathways in the Mouse Brain

    doi: 10.1155/2022/2242074

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic illustration of neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms underlying EA-mediated analgesic effect on ICS-induced fibromyalgia pain. The summary diagram shows the importance of and mechanisms involving glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and TRPV1 in fibromyalgia pain. EA inhibits HMGB1 and S100B release from non-neuronal cells or directly inhibits TRPV1 on the plasma membrane. Mice with a TRPV1 gene deletion ( Trpv1 −/− ) have the same phenotype than mice treated with EA.

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween-20) and then incubated with a primary antibody against TRPV1 (∼95 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼28 kDa, 1 : 1000; Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼10 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼35 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼125 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼60 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼60 kDa, 1 : 500; Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼42–44 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼42 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA), and pNF- κ B (∼65 kDa, 1 : 1000; Millipore, USA) in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques:

    The effect of TRPV1 activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of TRPV1 activation on the production of ROS and NO through the PKA/UCP2 pathway. A and B : Representative western blot images ( A ) and summary data ( B ) showing P22 phox protein level in endothelial cells cultured with normal-glucose (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+5’-iodo-resiniferatoxin (HG+Cap+iRTX, iRTX 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L), HG+Cap+Genipin (10 μmol/L). ## P <0.01 versus NG group; ** P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group; Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C - F : Representative endothelial cells stained by DHE ( C and E ) and DAF-2 DA ( D and F ) cultured with NG, HG, HG+Cap, HG+Cap+iRTX, HG+Cap+KT5720, HG+Cap+Genipin. ##P <0.01 versus NG group; **P <0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P <0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM from 4 independent experiments. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: The vessels were incubated with antibodies against TRPV1 (Alomone Labs, Israel), PKA or UCP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) overnight at 4°C and incubated with fluorescent dye-labeled secondary antibodies (ZSGB-BIO, China) at room temperature for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Cell Culture, Staining

    TRPV1 activation ameliorates high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in a UCP2-dependent manner. A : Representative immunofluorescence images showing the co-expression of TRPV1, PKA and UCP2 in the aortas from wild type mice, particularly in the endothelium (Bar denotes 50 μm). B and C : Acetylcholine (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, pre-incubated with normal-glucose for 12 hours (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L); **P<0.01 versus NG group; # #P<0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P<0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6. D and E : Nitroglycerin (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L) -induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, after cultured for 12 hours with NG, HG, HG+Cap. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n =6. F and G : Representative data that Acetylcholine- and nitroglycerin-induced relaxation in the presence or absence of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μmol/L) in isolated aortic arteries rings from UCP2 -/- mice and wild type (WT) mice under high-glucose condition(HG). **P<0.01 HG + Cap versus HG group of WT, #P<0.05 HG group of WT versus HG group of UCP2 -/- . Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6.

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRPV1 activation ameliorates high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in a UCP2-dependent manner. A : Representative immunofluorescence images showing the co-expression of TRPV1, PKA and UCP2 in the aortas from wild type mice, particularly in the endothelium (Bar denotes 50 μm). B and C : Acetylcholine (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, pre-incubated with normal-glucose for 12 hours (NG, glucose 5.5 mmol/L), high-glucose (HG, glucose 30 mmol/L), HG+capsaicin (HG+Cap, Cap 1 μmol/L), HG+Cap+KT5720 (2 μmol/L); **P<0.01 versus NG group; # #P<0.01 versus HG group; ΔΔ P<0.01 versus HG+Cap group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6. D and E : Nitroglycerin (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L) -induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated aortic artery rings from wild type and TRPV1 -/- mice, after cultured for 12 hours with NG, HG, HG+Cap. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n =6. F and G : Representative data that Acetylcholine- and nitroglycerin-induced relaxation in the presence or absence of capsaicin (Cap, 1 μmol/L) in isolated aortic arteries rings from UCP2 -/- mice and wild type (WT) mice under high-glucose condition(HG). **P<0.01 HG + Cap versus HG group of WT, #P<0.05 HG group of WT versus HG group of UCP2 -/- . Data are mean ± SEM. Each n=6.

    Article Snippet: The vessels were incubated with antibodies against TRPV1 (Alomone Labs, Israel), PKA or UCP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) overnight at 4°C and incubated with fluorescent dye-labeled secondary antibodies (ZSGB-BIO, China) at room temperature for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Immunofluorescence, Expressing, Isolation, Incubation, Cell Culture

    TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes endothelial PKA phosphorylation and increases UCP2 levels in diabetic mice. Representative protein expression of TRPV1 ( A and B ), p-PKA/PKA ( C and D ) and UCP2 ( E ) levels in aorta or mesenteric arteries from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and the lean littermate control C57BL/KsJ mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. ## P <0.01, # P <0.05 versus WT Cont group; *P <0.05 versus db/db Cont group.

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes endothelial PKA phosphorylation and increases UCP2 levels in diabetic mice. Representative protein expression of TRPV1 ( A and B ), p-PKA/PKA ( C and D ) and UCP2 ( E ) levels in aorta or mesenteric arteries from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and the lean littermate control C57BL/KsJ mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. ## P <0.01, # P <0.05 versus WT Cont group; *P <0.05 versus db/db Cont group.

    Article Snippet: The vessels were incubated with antibodies against TRPV1 (Alomone Labs, Israel), PKA or UCP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) overnight at 4°C and incubated with fluorescent dye-labeled secondary antibodies (ZSGB-BIO, China) at room temperature for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing

    TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin attenuates endothelial oxidative stress and increases the level of NO in diabetic mice. A and B : Representative protein expressions of p22 phox ( A ) and p-eNOS ( B ) in aortas from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and wild type mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). ## P<0.01 versus the WT Cont group; * P<0.05 versus the db/db Cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C and D : Representative images and summary data detected by DHE ( C ) and DAF-2 DA ( D ) in mesenteric arteries from wild type and db/db mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont and db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (WT Cap and db/db Cap). #P<0.05 versus WT Cont group; ** P<0.01 versus WT Cap group; ΔΔP<0.01 versus db/db cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 4. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin attenuates endothelial oxidative stress and increases the level of NO in diabetic mice. A and B : Representative protein expressions of p22 phox ( A ) and p-eNOS ( B ) in aortas from db/db mice treated with normal diet (db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (db/db Cap) and wild type mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont). ## P<0.01 versus the WT Cont group; * P<0.05 versus the db/db Cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 3. C and D : Representative images and summary data detected by DHE ( C ) and DAF-2 DA ( D ) in mesenteric arteries from wild type and db/db mice treated with normal diet (WT Cont and db/db Cont) or normal diet plus 0.01% capsaicin (WT Cap and db/db Cap). #P<0.05 versus WT Cont group; ** P<0.01 versus WT Cap group; ΔΔP<0.01 versus db/db cont group. Data are mean ± SEM. Each n = 4. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.

    Article Snippet: The vessels were incubated with antibodies against TRPV1 (Alomone Labs, Israel), PKA or UCP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) overnight at 4°C and incubated with fluorescent dye-labeled secondary antibodies (ZSGB-BIO, China) at room temperature for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Upregulation of UCP2 by TRPV1 activation attenuates hyperglycemia-induced ROS production in ECs. The increased metabolism of glucose due to intracellular hyperglycemia leads to the overproduction of NADH, a critical component of the superoxide-generating mechanism in endothelial cells. Upregulation of mitochondrial UCP2 in response to elevated superoxide levels plays an active role in the feedback regulation of reactive oxygen species production that is associated with chronic oxidative stress. Activation of the endothelial TRPV1 channel in endothelial cells by dietary capsaicin mediates the phosphorylation of PKA and upregulates UCP2, thus inhibiting the activity of NADPH and decreasing ROS production in ECs.

    Journal: Cardiovascular Diabetology

    Article Title: TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-69

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Upregulation of UCP2 by TRPV1 activation attenuates hyperglycemia-induced ROS production in ECs. The increased metabolism of glucose due to intracellular hyperglycemia leads to the overproduction of NADH, a critical component of the superoxide-generating mechanism in endothelial cells. Upregulation of mitochondrial UCP2 in response to elevated superoxide levels plays an active role in the feedback regulation of reactive oxygen species production that is associated with chronic oxidative stress. Activation of the endothelial TRPV1 channel in endothelial cells by dietary capsaicin mediates the phosphorylation of PKA and upregulates UCP2, thus inhibiting the activity of NADPH and decreasing ROS production in ECs.

    Article Snippet: The vessels were incubated with antibodies against TRPV1 (Alomone Labs, Israel), PKA or UCP2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) overnight at 4°C and incubated with fluorescent dye-labeled secondary antibodies (ZSGB-BIO, China) at room temperature for 30 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Motoneuronal inflammasome activation triggers excessive neuroinflammation and impedes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    doi: 10.1186/s12974-022-02427-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Primary and secondary antibodies used for western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)

    Article Snippet: TRPV1 (IF) , Polyclonal rabbit against TRPV1, 1:500 (Cat# ACC-030, RRID:AB_2313819, Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel) , Alexa Fluor® 488 AffiniPure donkey anti-rabbit IgG (H + L), 1:500 (Cat# 711-545-152, RRID:AB_2313584, Jackson ImmunoResearch).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Plasmid Preparation, Recombinant

    Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanical withdrawal, thermal latency, and experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. A Mechanical threshold from the von Frey tests. B Thermal latency from the Hargreaves’ test. C Experimental flow in normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− mice. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP groups. n = 10 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques:

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice hypothalamus. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice hypothalamus. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice PAG. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice PAG. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVI. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVI. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVII. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Levels of TRPV1 and related molecules in the mice cerebellum CVII. The western blot bands contain four lanes of protein expression corresponding to the Normal, CSP, EA, and Trpv1 −/− groups. A TRPV1, B HMGB1, C S100B, D TLR4, E RAGE, F pPI3K, G pAkt, H pmTOR, I pERK, J pp38, K pJNK, and L pNFκB protein levels. *Indicates statistical significance when compared with the normal group. # Indicates statistical significance when compared with the CSP group. n = 6 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice hypothalamus. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice hypothalamus region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice hypothalamus. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice hypothalamus region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice ventrolateral PAG. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice vlPAG region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice ventrolateral PAG. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice vlPAG region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VI. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VI region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VI. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VI region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VII. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VII region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunofluorescence staining of TRPV1, Iba1, and double staining protein expression in the mice cerebellar lobule VII. A TRPV1, B Iba1, and C TRPV1/Iba1 double staining, immuno-positive (green, red, or yellow) signals in the mice cerebellar lobule VII region. Scale bar: 100 μm. n = 4 in all groups

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Staining, Double Staining, Expressing

    TRPV1 and related molecular pathways in the mouse brain

    Journal: Chinese Medicine

    Article Title: Electroacupuncture reduces cold stress-induced pain through microglial inactivation and transient receptor potential V1 in mice

    doi: 10.1186/s13020-021-00451-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TRPV1 and related molecular pathways in the mouse brain

    Article Snippet: The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBS-T buffer (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with a primary antibody in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 1 h at room temperature antibody against TRPV1 (∼ 95 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), HMGB1 (∼ 28 kDa, 1:1000, Alomone, Israel), S100B (∼ 10 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), TLR4 (∼ 35 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), RAGE (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pPI3K (∼ 125 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pERK1/2 (∼ 42–44 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pp38 (∼ 41 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pJNK (∼ 42 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pAkt (∼ 60 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), pmTOR (∼ 60 kDa, 1:500, Millipore, USA), and pNFB (∼ 65 kDa, 1:1000, Millipore, USA), in TBS-T with 1% bovine serum albumin.

    Techniques: