a baumannii tnp gene  (Thermo Fisher)


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    Structured Review

    Thermo Fisher a baumannii tnp gene
    A. <t>baumannii</t> transposase targets in the nucleus of host cells via NLSs. COS-7 cells were transfected with the plasmid constructs of transposase gene cloned in the destination vector pcDNATM6.2/N-EmGFP-DEST and incubated for 24 h. The subcellular localization of transposase proteins fused with GFP was observed by confocal laser microscopy. Two A. baumannii transposase proteins with NLSs, <t>Tnp</t> 1–362 and Tnp 1–230 , were located in the nuclei of host cells, whereas transposase proteins without NLSs, Tnp 1–37 and Tnp 1–224 , were located in the cytoplasm.
    A Baumannii Tnp Gene, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3230 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "Nuclear Translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii Transposase Induces DNA Methylation of CpG Regions in the Promoters of E-cadherin Gene"

    Article Title: Nuclear Translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii Transposase Induces DNA Methylation of CpG Regions in the Promoters of E-cadherin Gene

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038974

    A. baumannii transposase targets in the nucleus of host cells via NLSs. COS-7 cells were transfected with the plasmid constructs of transposase gene cloned in the destination vector pcDNATM6.2/N-EmGFP-DEST and incubated for 24 h. The subcellular localization of transposase proteins fused with GFP was observed by confocal laser microscopy. Two A. baumannii transposase proteins with NLSs, Tnp 1–362 and Tnp 1–230 , were located in the nuclei of host cells, whereas transposase proteins without NLSs, Tnp 1–37 and Tnp 1–224 , were located in the cytoplasm.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A. baumannii transposase targets in the nucleus of host cells via NLSs. COS-7 cells were transfected with the plasmid constructs of transposase gene cloned in the destination vector pcDNATM6.2/N-EmGFP-DEST and incubated for 24 h. The subcellular localization of transposase proteins fused with GFP was observed by confocal laser microscopy. Two A. baumannii transposase proteins with NLSs, Tnp 1–362 and Tnp 1–230 , were located in the nuclei of host cells, whereas transposase proteins without NLSs, Tnp 1–37 and Tnp 1–224 , were located in the cytoplasm.

    Techniques Used: Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Clone Assay, Incubation, Microscopy

    Nuclear targeting of A. baumannii transposase specifically induces DNA methylation in CpG regions and down-regulates expression of E-cadherin gene. (A) A549 cells were transfected with A. baumannii transposase clones and incubated for 48 h. The genomic DNA was purified and methylation-specific PCR with methylated and unmethylated primers was performed as described in materials and methods . Lane 1, molecular size marker; 2, unmethylated DNA; 3, methylated DNA; 4, A549 cells; 5, A549 cells transfected with the destination vector pcDNA™6.2/N-EmGFP-DEST; 6, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–37 ; 7, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–224 ; 8, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–230 ; 9, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–362 . (B) A549 cells were transfected with A. baumannii transposase clones and incubated for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and qRT-PCR was performed as described in materials and methods . Data are presented as mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference between A549 cells transfected with the empty destination vector and plasmid constructs of A. baumannii transposase fused with GFP (student's t-test p
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nuclear targeting of A. baumannii transposase specifically induces DNA methylation in CpG regions and down-regulates expression of E-cadherin gene. (A) A549 cells were transfected with A. baumannii transposase clones and incubated for 48 h. The genomic DNA was purified and methylation-specific PCR with methylated and unmethylated primers was performed as described in materials and methods . Lane 1, molecular size marker; 2, unmethylated DNA; 3, methylated DNA; 4, A549 cells; 5, A549 cells transfected with the destination vector pcDNA™6.2/N-EmGFP-DEST; 6, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–37 ; 7, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–224 ; 8, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–230 ; 9, A549 cells transfected with plasmid constructs of Tnp 1–362 . (B) A549 cells were transfected with A. baumannii transposase clones and incubated for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and qRT-PCR was performed as described in materials and methods . Data are presented as mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference between A549 cells transfected with the empty destination vector and plasmid constructs of A. baumannii transposase fused with GFP (student's t-test p

    Techniques Used: DNA Methylation Assay, Expressing, Transfection, Clone Assay, Incubation, Purification, Methylation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker, Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Quantitative RT-PCR

    2) Product Images from "Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1"

    Article Title: Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    Journal: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

    doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2015.11.001

    A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree showing the relationships of bacterial strain KG1 and the type strains of closely related Bacillus species, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Bootstrap values (expressed as percentages of 1000 replications) greater than 50% are shown at the branch points. Bar, 0.02 nucleotide substitutions per site.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree showing the relationships of bacterial strain KG1 and the type strains of closely related Bacillus species, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Bootstrap values (expressed as percentages of 1000 replications) greater than 50% are shown at the branch points. Bar, 0.02 nucleotide substitutions per site.

    Techniques Used:

    3) Product Images from "Association between rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism within the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and Graves' disease: a case/control study combined with meta-analyses"

    Article Title: Association between rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism within the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and Graves' disease: a case/control study combined with meta-analyses

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22702

    Sequence diagrams of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 ( A ) Sequence diagrams of rs231775; ( B ) Sequence diagrams of rs3087243.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequence diagrams of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 ( A ) Sequence diagrams of rs231775; ( B ) Sequence diagrams of rs3087243.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Forest plot for the association of CTLA4 rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism with Graves' disease after ethnic stratification ( A ) dominant model for SNP rs3087243 [(GG + GA) vs. AA)], ( B ) recessive model for SNP rs231775 [GG vs. (GA + AA)].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Forest plot for the association of CTLA4 rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism with Graves' disease after ethnic stratification ( A ) dominant model for SNP rs3087243 [(GG + GA) vs. AA)], ( B ) recessive model for SNP rs231775 [GG vs. (GA + AA)].

    Techniques Used:

    Funnel plot analysis to detect publication bias Each point represents a separate study for the indicated association. ( A ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs3087243: [(GG+GA) vs. AA)]; ( B ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs231775: [GG vs. (GA+AA)].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Funnel plot analysis to detect publication bias Each point represents a separate study for the indicated association. ( A ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs3087243: [(GG+GA) vs. AA)]; ( B ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs231775: [GG vs. (GA+AA)].

    Techniques Used:

    4) Product Images from "Genotyping HLA‐B*5801 for Allopurinol‐Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: An Accurate and Prompt Method"

    Article Title: Genotyping HLA‐B*5801 for Allopurinol‐Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: An Accurate and Prompt Method

    Journal: Clinical and Translational Science

    doi: 10.1111/cts.12365

    The specific results of the PG5801 detection kit. (A) The melt curves of qPCR using the PG5801 detection kit in HLA‐B*5801 (+) patients. Note that 41 HLA‐B*5801 (+) allopurinol‐induced SCARs DNA samples plus one HLA‐B*5801
    Figure Legend Snippet: The specific results of the PG5801 detection kit. (A) The melt curves of qPCR using the PG5801 detection kit in HLA‐B*5801 (+) patients. Note that 41 HLA‐B*5801 (+) allopurinol‐induced SCARs DNA samples plus one HLA‐B*5801

    Techniques Used: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    5) Product Images from "Low prevalence of dihydro folate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) quadruple and quintuple mutant alleles associated with SP resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates of West Bengal, India"

    Article Title: Low prevalence of dihydro folate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) quadruple and quintuple mutant alleles associated with SP resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates of West Bengal, India

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1445-9

    Frequency (% percentage) of different pvdhfr and pvdhps genotype
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency (% percentage) of different pvdhfr and pvdhps genotype

    Techniques Used:

    Frequency (% percentage) of different pvdhfr – pvdhps haplotype sequences in KMC and Purulia
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequency (% percentage) of different pvdhfr – pvdhps haplotype sequences in KMC and Purulia

    Techniques Used:

    6) Product Images from "Exome sequencing reveals VCP mutations as a cause of familial ALS"

    Article Title: Exome sequencing reveals VCP mutations as a cause of familial ALS

    Journal: Neuron

    doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.11.036

    Distribution of VCP mutations detected in familial ALS patients. An ideogram of chromosome 9 is shown at the top. The 17 exons of VCP for location of mutations on VCP protein structure.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of VCP mutations detected in familial ALS patients. An ideogram of chromosome 9 is shown at the top. The 17 exons of VCP for location of mutations on VCP protein structure.

    Techniques Used:

    7) Product Images from "Clinical and Genetic Diversity of PMP22 Mutations in a Large Cohort of Chinese Patients With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease"

    Article Title: Clinical and Genetic Diversity of PMP22 Mutations in a Large Cohort of Chinese Patients With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Journal: Frontiers in Neurology

    doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00630

    Distribution of PMP22 mutation frequencies observed in a series of Chinese CMT centers on a Chinese map.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of PMP22 mutation frequencies observed in a series of Chinese CMT centers on a Chinese map.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Pedigree and electropherograms of patients with mutations in the PMP22 gene. (A) Family 1 (1409): An affected child was a compound heterozygote for recessive PMP22 point mutations: the R157W mutation and a 1.5 Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12. His parents were clinically normal. His father carried a heterozygous deletion of the PMP22 mutation, and her mother carried the heterozygous mutation R157W. (B) Family 2 (1903): An affected child was a compound heterozygote for the recessive PMP22 novel spicing mutations c.320-1G > A and a 1.5 Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12. His parents were clinically normal. Her father carried a heterozygous PMP22 deletion mutation, and her mother carried the heterozygous mutation c.320-1 G > A. (C) Family 3 (1700): The heterozygous mutations S79P in PMP22 and R94Q in MFN2 were simultaneously observed in proband 1700. The heterozygous R94P mutation in MFN2 was inherited his mother and the S79P mutation in PMP22 was a de novo mutation.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pedigree and electropherograms of patients with mutations in the PMP22 gene. (A) Family 1 (1409): An affected child was a compound heterozygote for recessive PMP22 point mutations: the R157W mutation and a 1.5 Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12. His parents were clinically normal. His father carried a heterozygous deletion of the PMP22 mutation, and her mother carried the heterozygous mutation R157W. (B) Family 2 (1903): An affected child was a compound heterozygote for the recessive PMP22 novel spicing mutations c.320-1G > A and a 1.5 Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12. His parents were clinically normal. Her father carried a heterozygous PMP22 deletion mutation, and her mother carried the heterozygous mutation c.320-1 G > A. (C) Family 3 (1700): The heterozygous mutations S79P in PMP22 and R94Q in MFN2 were simultaneously observed in proband 1700. The heterozygous R94P mutation in MFN2 was inherited his mother and the S79P mutation in PMP22 was a de novo mutation.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    8) Product Images from "Functional Identification of Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the CYP17A1 Gene Resulting in Combined 17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency"

    Article Title: Functional Identification of Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the CYP17A1 Gene Resulting in Combined 17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency

    Journal: Endocrinology and Metabolism

    doi: 10.3803/EnM.2018.33.3.413

    The compound cytochrome P450 17A1 ( CYP17A1 ) heterozygote. (A) Pedigree of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficient family. Individuals are represented as follows: male (square); females (circles). The black symbol represents the c.1148delA allele and the gray symbol represents the c.1118A > T allele. The arrow indicates the compound heterozygous proband. The proband inherited mutations c.1118A > T and c.1148delT from her mother and father, respectively. (B) Subcloning of the compound heterozygous CYP17A1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction products of RNA from the proband's leucocytes were subcloned and sequenced to confirm heterozygous mutations. The c.1148delA mutation was found to be in exon 7 and the c.1118A > T mutation in exon 6. WT, wild type; A/T, A and T.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The compound cytochrome P450 17A1 ( CYP17A1 ) heterozygote. (A) Pedigree of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficient family. Individuals are represented as follows: male (square); females (circles). The black symbol represents the c.1148delA allele and the gray symbol represents the c.1118A > T allele. The arrow indicates the compound heterozygous proband. The proband inherited mutations c.1118A > T and c.1148delT from her mother and father, respectively. (B) Subcloning of the compound heterozygous CYP17A1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction products of RNA from the proband's leucocytes were subcloned and sequenced to confirm heterozygous mutations. The c.1148delA mutation was found to be in exon 7 and the c.1118A > T mutation in exon 6. WT, wild type; A/T, A and T.

    Techniques Used: Subcloning, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutagenesis

    9) Product Images from "Association between rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism within the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and Graves' disease: a case/control study combined with meta-analyses"

    Article Title: Association between rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism within the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene and Graves' disease: a case/control study combined with meta-analyses

    Journal: Oncotarget

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22702

    Sequence diagrams of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 ( A ) Sequence diagrams of rs231775; ( B ) Sequence diagrams of rs3087243.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequence diagrams of SNP rs3087243 and rs231775 ( A ) Sequence diagrams of rs231775; ( B ) Sequence diagrams of rs3087243.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    Forest plot for the association of CTLA4 rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism with Graves' disease after ethnic stratification ( A ) dominant model for SNP rs3087243 [(GG + GA) vs. AA)], ( B ) recessive model for SNP rs231775 [GG vs. (GA + AA)].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Forest plot for the association of CTLA4 rs3087243 and rs231775 polymorphism with Graves' disease after ethnic stratification ( A ) dominant model for SNP rs3087243 [(GG + GA) vs. AA)], ( B ) recessive model for SNP rs231775 [GG vs. (GA + AA)].

    Techniques Used:

    Funnel plot analysis to detect publication bias Each point represents a separate study for the indicated association. ( A ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs3087243: [(GG+GA) vs. AA)]; ( B ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs231775: [GG vs. (GA+AA)].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Funnel plot analysis to detect publication bias Each point represents a separate study for the indicated association. ( A ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs3087243: [(GG+GA) vs. AA)]; ( B ) Begg's funnel of publication bias test for SNP rs231775: [GG vs. (GA+AA)].

    Techniques Used:

    10) Product Images from "JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms"

    Article Title: JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012165

    Source of RNA for detection of JAK2 Δexon14 transcript using RT-PCR with fragment length analysis. Similar results are obtained whether RNA is isolated from plasma or peripheral blood cells. Size marker is shown as red peaks and amplification products are shown in blue.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Source of RNA for detection of JAK2 Δexon14 transcript using RT-PCR with fragment length analysis. Similar results are obtained whether RNA is isolated from plasma or peripheral blood cells. Size marker is shown as red peaks and amplification products are shown in blue.

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Marker, Amplification

    Schematic presentation of JAK2 Δexon 14. Top, schematic diagram of the JAK2 protein showing JAK homology domains 1 through 7 (JH1-JH7) with the JH2 pseudokinase domain highlighted in black. The corresponding exon regions of the mRNA is shown with the exons 13, 14, and 15. Because exon 14 is consists of 88 bp, its deletion leads to frameshift and early termination of translation after coding for seven new amino acids and elimination of the V617 codon of JAK2 (lower panel). The resulting truncated JAK2 protein is shown on the bottom.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic presentation of JAK2 Δexon 14. Top, schematic diagram of the JAK2 protein showing JAK homology domains 1 through 7 (JH1-JH7) with the JH2 pseudokinase domain highlighted in black. The corresponding exon regions of the mRNA is shown with the exons 13, 14, and 15. Because exon 14 is consists of 88 bp, its deletion leads to frameshift and early termination of translation after coding for seven new amino acids and elimination of the V617 codon of JAK2 (lower panel). The resulting truncated JAK2 protein is shown on the bottom.

    Techniques Used:

    JAK2 Δexon14 transcript as detected using RT-PCR with fragment length analysis. Lower panel: the expected 273-bp, full-length amplification products; upper panel: the expected 273-bp, full-length wild-type peak in addition to a peak at 185 bp corresponding to the truncated Δexon14 transcript. Size marker is shown as red peaks and amplification products are shown in blue.
    Figure Legend Snippet: JAK2 Δexon14 transcript as detected using RT-PCR with fragment length analysis. Lower panel: the expected 273-bp, full-length amplification products; upper panel: the expected 273-bp, full-length wild-type peak in addition to a peak at 185 bp corresponding to the truncated Δexon14 transcript. Size marker is shown as red peaks and amplification products are shown in blue.

    Techniques Used: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Marker

    Truncated JAK2 protein resulting from JAK2 Δexon14 mutation in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Lysates were prepared from the indicated human CML K562 cell line (Lane1), a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (lane 2), and 5 patients with chronic MPNs (Lanes 3–7). Patient 1: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 V617F positive; Patient 2: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 V617F negative; Patient 3: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive; Patient 4: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive; Patient 5: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive. Top Panel: Probing with an anti-JAK2 N-terminal clone yielded a wild-type JAK2 band at 130 kDa in the K562 and other negative control lanes, and an additional band at 75 kDa only in patients with expression of Δexon14 transcript. Bottom Panel: An anti-JAK2 clone directed against the carboxyl-terminus of JAK2 yielded only a single band at 130 kDa.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Truncated JAK2 protein resulting from JAK2 Δexon14 mutation in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Lysates were prepared from the indicated human CML K562 cell line (Lane1), a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (lane 2), and 5 patients with chronic MPNs (Lanes 3–7). Patient 1: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 V617F positive; Patient 2: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 V617F negative; Patient 3: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive; Patient 4: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive; Patient 5: non-CML CMPD, JAK2 Δexon14 positive. Top Panel: Probing with an anti-JAK2 N-terminal clone yielded a wild-type JAK2 band at 130 kDa in the K562 and other negative control lanes, and an additional band at 75 kDa only in patients with expression of Δexon14 transcript. Bottom Panel: An anti-JAK2 clone directed against the carboxyl-terminus of JAK2 yielded only a single band at 130 kDa.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Negative Control, Expressing

    Detection of the JAK2 Δexon14 transcript with direct bi-directional sequencing. Upper panels: Detection of Δexon14 is relatively easy when the transcript is present at high levels (eg, 29% of total JAK2 transcript). Detection is more difficult when the Δexon14 transcript makes up a small proportion of total JAK2 transcript (eg, 6.9%). Normal control is shown on the bottom.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Detection of the JAK2 Δexon14 transcript with direct bi-directional sequencing. Upper panels: Detection of Δexon14 is relatively easy when the transcript is present at high levels (eg, 29% of total JAK2 transcript). Detection is more difficult when the Δexon14 transcript makes up a small proportion of total JAK2 transcript (eg, 6.9%). Normal control is shown on the bottom.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    11) Product Images from "Cytarabine-Resistant FLT3-ITD Leukemia Cells are Associated with TP53 Mutation and Multiple Pathway Alterations—Possible Therapeutic Efficacy of Cabozantinib"

    Article Title: Cytarabine-Resistant FLT3-ITD Leukemia Cells are Associated with TP53 Mutation and Multiple Pathway Alterations—Possible Therapeutic Efficacy of Cabozantinib

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms20051230

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication ( FLT3 -ITD) mutation and protein expression were detected in MV4-11-P and MV4-11-R cells. ( A ) GeneScan analysis showed the presence of the FLT3 -ITD mutation (162bps, red frame) instead of wildtype FLT3 (130bps) in both MV4-11-P and MV4-11-R cells. ( B ) FLT3 -ITD mRNA expression was revealed by qPCR. Data are representative of two independent experiments each performed in triplicate. ( C ) Total and phosphorylated FLT3 protein was observed in mature (160 kDa) and immature (130 kDa) forms. Representative Western blots of three independent experiments are shown.
    Figure Legend Snippet: FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication ( FLT3 -ITD) mutation and protein expression were detected in MV4-11-P and MV4-11-R cells. ( A ) GeneScan analysis showed the presence of the FLT3 -ITD mutation (162bps, red frame) instead of wildtype FLT3 (130bps) in both MV4-11-P and MV4-11-R cells. ( B ) FLT3 -ITD mRNA expression was revealed by qPCR. Data are representative of two independent experiments each performed in triplicate. ( C ) Total and phosphorylated FLT3 protein was observed in mature (160 kDa) and immature (130 kDa) forms. Representative Western blots of three independent experiments are shown.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    12) Product Images from "Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigens Derived from Multiple Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains for Detection of Scrub Typhus Infection"

    Article Title: Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigens Derived from Multiple Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains for Detection of Scrub Typhus Infection

    Journal: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

    doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0391

    Analysis of Escherichia coli expressing recombinant type-specific antigen (TSA) proteins. ( A ) Polymerase chain reaction–amplified products of the 56-kDa TSA from genomic DNA of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains, including TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, TW-22, Kato, Gilliam, and Karp (lane 1–7). Lane M, 1-Kb DNA ladder marker. ( B ) Purified TSA proteins were resolved by 12% Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie Blue. Lane 1–7, TSA of TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, TW-22, Kato, Gilliam, and Karp. Lane M, protein molecular weight marker. ( C .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Analysis of Escherichia coli expressing recombinant type-specific antigen (TSA) proteins. ( A ) Polymerase chain reaction–amplified products of the 56-kDa TSA from genomic DNA of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains, including TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, TW-22, Kato, Gilliam, and Karp (lane 1–7). Lane M, 1-Kb DNA ladder marker. ( B ) Purified TSA proteins were resolved by 12% Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie Blue. Lane 1–7, TSA of TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, TW-22, Kato, Gilliam, and Karp. Lane M, protein molecular weight marker. ( C .

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Recombinant, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Marker, Purification, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Molecular Weight

    A phylogenetic tree of Orientia tsutsugamushi . The phylogenetic tree is based on the complete 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) sequences of O. tsutsugamushi strains. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method and the maximum composite likelihood model. Bootstrap support values greater than 75 are shown. The Taiwanese TSA sequence types are designated in solid circles (●) and prototype TSA sequences are designated in solid triangles (▲). Type-specific antigen sequences were identified by using the nomenclature of OT ( Orientia tsutsugamushi )/country/strain/year of isolation/GenBank accession number/sequence type. The scale bar on the left indicates substitutions per site.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A phylogenetic tree of Orientia tsutsugamushi . The phylogenetic tree is based on the complete 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) sequences of O. tsutsugamushi strains. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method and the maximum composite likelihood model. Bootstrap support values greater than 75 are shown. The Taiwanese TSA sequence types are designated in solid circles (●) and prototype TSA sequences are designated in solid triangles (▲). Type-specific antigen sequences were identified by using the nomenclature of OT ( Orientia tsutsugamushi )/country/strain/year of isolation/GenBank accession number/sequence type. The scale bar on the left indicates substitutions per site.

    Techniques Used: Construct, Sequencing, Isolation

    13) Product Images from "A human–food web–animal interface on the prevalence of food-borne pathogens (Clostridia and Enterococcus) in mixed veterinary farms"

    Article Title: A human–food web–animal interface on the prevalence of food-borne pathogens (Clostridia and Enterococcus) in mixed veterinary farms

    Journal: Food Science and Biotechnology

    doi: 10.1007/s10068-019-00595-8

    Showing bands on an agarose gel for the PCR products of 16S rDNA genes from the genomic DNA of our bacterial isolates. (Lane M-100 bp Marker, Lane 1-PCP02, Lane 2-PCP03, Lane 3-PCP04, Lane 4-PCP06, Lane 5-PCP07, Lane 6-PCP08, Lane 7-PCP09, Lane 8-PCP10, Lane 9-PCP11, Lane 10-PCP12, Lane 11-PCP13)
    Figure Legend Snippet: Showing bands on an agarose gel for the PCR products of 16S rDNA genes from the genomic DNA of our bacterial isolates. (Lane M-100 bp Marker, Lane 1-PCP02, Lane 2-PCP03, Lane 3-PCP04, Lane 4-PCP06, Lane 5-PCP07, Lane 6-PCP08, Lane 7-PCP09, Lane 8-PCP10, Lane 9-PCP11, Lane 10-PCP12, Lane 11-PCP13)

    Techniques Used: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker

    14) Product Images from "Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA)"

    Article Title: Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-98

    Electropherogram showing peaks generated by MLPA . Template DNA from individual species is used in the reaction. The MLPA reaction included all the 3 probes designed, Rox 500 as internal molecular standerd. Fragment sizes (bp) correspond to: 198 = C.sinensis , 170 = O.felineus , 152 = O.viverrini
    Figure Legend Snippet: Electropherogram showing peaks generated by MLPA . Template DNA from individual species is used in the reaction. The MLPA reaction included all the 3 probes designed, Rox 500 as internal molecular standerd. Fragment sizes (bp) correspond to: 198 = C.sinensis , 170 = O.felineus , 152 = O.viverrini

    Techniques Used: Generated, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification

    15) Product Images from "Analysis of HBV Genomes Integrated into the Genomes of Human Hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells by HBV Sequence Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing"

    Article Title: Analysis of HBV Genomes Integrated into the Genomes of Human Hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells by HBV Sequence Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing

    Journal: Genes

    doi: 10.3390/genes11060661

    Automatic expression of proteins of HBV integrants from chromosomes 3 and 11. Representative images are shown (40×). Fluorescent immunostaining for HBsAg ( S ) and HBV polymerase ( P ) in PLC/PRF/5 cells ( A ), Huh7 cells transfected with the pCR-Blunt II-TOPO-HBV integrant from chromosome 3 ( B ), or Huh7 cells transfected with the pCR-Blunt II-TOPO-HBV integrant from chromosome 11 ( C ).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Automatic expression of proteins of HBV integrants from chromosomes 3 and 11. Representative images are shown (40×). Fluorescent immunostaining for HBsAg ( S ) and HBV polymerase ( P ) in PLC/PRF/5 cells ( A ), Huh7 cells transfected with the pCR-Blunt II-TOPO-HBV integrant from chromosome 3 ( B ), or Huh7 cells transfected with the pCR-Blunt II-TOPO-HBV integrant from chromosome 11 ( C ).

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Immunostaining, Planar Chromatography, Transfection, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    16) Product Images from "Angelman syndrome and isovaleric acidemia: What is the link?"

    Article Title: Angelman syndrome and isovaleric acidemia: What is the link?

    Journal: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports

    doi: 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2015.03.004

    Microsatellite analysis showing paternal isodisomy. The mother's electropherogram shows two peaks at 126 and 132 base pairs (bp) corresponding to her two alleles for marker D15S128. The father's profile shows 2 peaks, at 126 bp and 130 bp. The patient's profile presents only one peak at 130 bp corresponding to one of the paternal allele. None of the maternal alleles are present (126 or 132 bp) demonstrating the absence of maternal contribution. As MLPA ruled out a maternal deletion, the mechanism is paternal isodisomy.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Microsatellite analysis showing paternal isodisomy. The mother's electropherogram shows two peaks at 126 and 132 base pairs (bp) corresponding to her two alleles for marker D15S128. The father's profile shows 2 peaks, at 126 bp and 130 bp. The patient's profile presents only one peak at 130 bp corresponding to one of the paternal allele. None of the maternal alleles are present (126 or 132 bp) demonstrating the absence of maternal contribution. As MLPA ruled out a maternal deletion, the mechanism is paternal isodisomy.

    Techniques Used: Marker, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification

    17) Product Images from "Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America"

    Article Title: Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-392

    Allelic diversity at the MS m1501 (A) and m3502 (B) in P. vivax samples from South America (Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador) and Asia (India, Laos, Thailand, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). The MS alleles are divided into groups of increasing fragment size according to the number of repeats. In brackets are mentioned the number of samples included from each continent.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allelic diversity at the MS m1501 (A) and m3502 (B) in P. vivax samples from South America (Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador) and Asia (India, Laos, Thailand, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). The MS alleles are divided into groups of increasing fragment size according to the number of repeats. In brackets are mentioned the number of samples included from each continent.

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    18) Product Images from "Donnai-Barrow Syndrome (DBS/FOAR) in a Child With a Homozygous LRP2 Mutation Due to Complete Chromosome 2 Paternal Isodisomy"

    Article Title: Donnai-Barrow Syndrome (DBS/FOAR) in a Child With a Homozygous LRP2 Mutation Due to Complete Chromosome 2 Paternal Isodisomy

    Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A

    doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32381

    Idiogram of chromosome 2 showing genotype analyses of family members using 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers from chromosome 2. Proband was homozygous for all markers as well as the LRP2 mutation (encircled in bold) which originated only from the carrier father. A total of 14 informative markers indicated paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2. The healthy sister showed normal bi-parental inheritance on chromosome 2; note possible recombination between paternal markers D2S2330 and LRP2 .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Idiogram of chromosome 2 showing genotype analyses of family members using 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers from chromosome 2. Proband was homozygous for all markers as well as the LRP2 mutation (encircled in bold) which originated only from the carrier father. A total of 14 informative markers indicated paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2. The healthy sister showed normal bi-parental inheritance on chromosome 2; note possible recombination between paternal markers D2S2330 and LRP2 .

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    The family pedigree and sequencing chromatograms of the LRP2 gene showing a homozygous 4-bp deletion (c.11469_11472delTTTG, exon 60) in the proband (indicated by the small bar), a heterozygous deletion in the father and the sister (indicated by the long dashed bar). The mother does not carry the mutation (indicated by the solid bar); appearance of her chromatogram is comparable to that of a normal control. Wt, wild-type.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The family pedigree and sequencing chromatograms of the LRP2 gene showing a homozygous 4-bp deletion (c.11469_11472delTTTG, exon 60) in the proband (indicated by the small bar), a heterozygous deletion in the father and the sister (indicated by the long dashed bar). The mother does not carry the mutation (indicated by the solid bar); appearance of her chromatogram is comparable to that of a normal control. Wt, wild-type.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Mutagenesis

    19) Product Images from "FUNCTIONAL AND ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS OF FRIZZLED 1 (FZD1) PROMOTER HAPLOTYPES WITH FEMORAL NECK GEOMETRY"

    Article Title: FUNCTIONAL AND ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS OF FRIZZLED 1 (FZD1) PROMOTER HAPLOTYPES WITH FEMORAL NECK GEOMETRY

    Journal: Bone

    doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.12.026

    Association of the FZD1 Promoter Haplotypes with Femoral Neck Geometry
    Figure Legend Snippet: Association of the FZD1 Promoter Haplotypes with Femoral Neck Geometry

    Techniques Used:

    a) Schematic of the FZD1 5′ UTR region. The relative locations of rs2232157 and rs 2232158 are shown. b) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FZD1. Relative expression level (ΔCt) was calculated using ΔCt of GAPDH as a reference. c).
    Figure Legend Snippet: a) Schematic of the FZD1 5′ UTR region. The relative locations of rs2232157 and rs 2232158 are shown. b) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FZD1. Relative expression level (ΔCt) was calculated using ΔCt of GAPDH as a reference. c).

    Techniques Used: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    Association of the FZD1 Promoter Variants with Femoral Neck Geometry
    Figure Legend Snippet: Association of the FZD1 Promoter Variants with Femoral Neck Geometry

    Techniques Used:

    20) Product Images from "Identification of Two Novel NPM1 Mutations in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia"

    Article Title: Identification of Two Novel NPM1 Mutations in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Journal: Annals of Laboratory Medicine

    doi: 10.3343/alm.2013.33.1.60

    Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 2 novel NPM1 mutations. Wild type, type A (c.860_863dupTCTG), and type B mutations (c.863_864insCATG) are presented here. Tryptophans 288 and 290 (yellow background) are replaced by another amino acid in mutations A and B, whereas tryptophan 288 is retained in the 2 novel mutations identified in this study. The latter part of hydrophobic residue-rich NES motif (green background) is common to all types of mutation. Abbreviations: NES, nuclear export signal; NLS, nucleolar localization signal.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 2 novel NPM1 mutations. Wild type, type A (c.860_863dupTCTG), and type B mutations (c.863_864insCATG) are presented here. Tryptophans 288 and 290 (yellow background) are replaced by another amino acid in mutations A and B, whereas tryptophan 288 is retained in the 2 novel mutations identified in this study. The latter part of hydrophobic residue-rich NES motif (green background) is common to all types of mutation. Abbreviations: NES, nuclear export signal; NLS, nucleolar localization signal.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Sequence analysis of the 2 novel NPM1 mutations. (A) c.867_868insAAAC, (B) c.869_873indelCTTTAGCCC, and (C) the wild-type NPM1 sequence.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sequence analysis of the 2 novel NPM1 mutations. (A) c.867_868insAAAC, (B) c.869_873indelCTTTAGCCC, and (C) the wild-type NPM1 sequence.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    21) Product Images from "Biallelic expansion of an intronic repeat in RFC1 is a common cause of late-onset ataxia"

    Article Title: Biallelic expansion of an intronic repeat in RFC1 is a common cause of late-onset ataxia

    Journal: Nature genetics

    doi: 10.1038/s41588-019-0372-4

    Recessive expansion of a mutated AAGGG repeated unit in intron 2 of RFC1 causes CANVAS and late-onset ataxia in familial and sporadic cases. a , A reduced read depth of WGS is observed in CANVAS patients ( n = 6) in a region corresponding to a short tandem AAAAG repeat in intron 2 of RFC1. b , Visualization on IGV of reads aligned to the short repeat and flanking region shows in patients ( n = 6) the presence of a mutated AAGGG repeat unit (representative image). Reads from both sides are interrupted and are unable to cover the entire length of the microsatellite region. Note that, per IGV default setting, AAGGG repeated units that do not map to the (AAAAG) 11 reference sequence are soft-clipped and do not contribute to the coverage of the STR in a , which is virtually absent. However, ≥20 reads containing the AAGGG repeated unit could be observed in each patient if soft-clipped reads were shown. c , RP-PCR targeting the mutated AAGGG repeated unit. Fluorescein amidite-labeled PCR products were separated on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Electropherograms were visualized on GeneMapper at 2,000 relative fluorescence units. The representative plots from a patient carrying the AAGGG repeat expansion and one non-carrier are shown. RP-PCR experiments were repeated independently twice with similar results. d , Sanger sequencing of long-range PCR reactions confirms the AAAAG to AAGGG nucleotide change of the repeated unit in patients.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Recessive expansion of a mutated AAGGG repeated unit in intron 2 of RFC1 causes CANVAS and late-onset ataxia in familial and sporadic cases. a , A reduced read depth of WGS is observed in CANVAS patients ( n = 6) in a region corresponding to a short tandem AAAAG repeat in intron 2 of RFC1. b , Visualization on IGV of reads aligned to the short repeat and flanking region shows in patients ( n = 6) the presence of a mutated AAGGG repeat unit (representative image). Reads from both sides are interrupted and are unable to cover the entire length of the microsatellite region. Note that, per IGV default setting, AAGGG repeated units that do not map to the (AAAAG) 11 reference sequence are soft-clipped and do not contribute to the coverage of the STR in a , which is virtually absent. However, ≥20 reads containing the AAGGG repeated unit could be observed in each patient if soft-clipped reads were shown. c , RP-PCR targeting the mutated AAGGG repeated unit. Fluorescein amidite-labeled PCR products were separated on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Electropherograms were visualized on GeneMapper at 2,000 relative fluorescence units. The representative plots from a patient carrying the AAGGG repeat expansion and one non-carrier are shown. RP-PCR experiments were repeated independently twice with similar results. d , Sanger sequencing of long-range PCR reactions confirms the AAAAG to AAGGG nucleotide change of the repeated unit in patients.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Labeling, Fluorescence

    22) Product Images from "Identification of Pathogenic Variants in the CHM Gene in Two Korean Patients With Choroideremia"

    Article Title: Identification of Pathogenic Variants in the CHM Gene in Two Korean Patients With Choroideremia

    Journal: Annals of Laboratory Medicine

    doi: 10.3343/alm.2017.37.5.438

    CHM variants identified in the probands of family A and family B. (A) Chromatogram of c.184_189+3delTACCAGGTA (p.Tyr62_Gln-63del) detected in the proband of family A. (B) PCR products of exon 9. Exon 9 deletion was detected in the proband of family B.
    Figure Legend Snippet: CHM variants identified in the probands of family A and family B. (A) Chromatogram of c.184_189+3delTACCAGGTA (p.Tyr62_Gln-63del) detected in the proband of family A. (B) PCR products of exon 9. Exon 9 deletion was detected in the proband of family B.

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    23) Product Images from "Zic2 hypomorphic mutant mice as a schizophrenia model and ZIC2 mutations identified in schizophrenia patients"

    Article Title: Zic2 hypomorphic mutant mice as a schizophrenia model and ZIC2 mutations identified in schizophrenia patients

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    doi: 10.1038/srep00016

    Social behavior abnormalities in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Resident-intruder test. (left) Total time spent in the indicated behaviors. (right) The number of attacking events. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Social behavior abnormalities in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Resident-intruder test. (left) Total time spent in the indicated behaviors. (right) The number of attacking events. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Cognitive function deficits in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Morris water maze test. (top) Mean latency to reach the platform during the training session (days 1–4) and reverse test session (day 6). Values indicate the mean of all six trials on the day. (middle left) Moving speed in the training session. (middle right) No movement time in the training session. (bottom) The results of the probe test (day 5) as indicated by the period of time (s) in the indicated quadrant within the 60 s testing period. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cognitive function deficits in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Morris water maze test. (top) Mean latency to reach the platform during the training session (days 1–4) and reverse test session (day 6). Values indicate the mean of all six trials on the day. (middle left) Moving speed in the training session. (middle right) No movement time in the training session. (bottom) The results of the probe test (day 5) as indicated by the period of time (s) in the indicated quadrant within the 60 s testing period. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

    Decreased number of cholinergic neurons in the brains of Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A,B) Immunostaining of the brains of Zic2 +/+ (+/+) (A) and Zic2 kd/+ (kd/+) (B) mice with anti-ChAT antibody. Coronal sections through the septum and diagonal bands derived from adult male mice were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining. Scale bar, 1 mm. (C) Number of the ChAT + neurons in the sections. Mean numbers of ChAT + neurons in 20 sections from the Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ mice brains are indicated. (D) PV-positive cell numbers. The measurements were taken in comparable regions to those subjected to ChAT-immunostaining. (E) The numbers of ChAT- and Zic-immunoreactive neurons in early postnatal (P5-7) Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ brains. Double labeling was performed with the anti-ChAT antibody and anti-pan Zic antibody. CC, cerebral cortex; CP, caudoputamen; DB, diagonal band; LV, lateral ventricle; LS, lateral septum; MS, medial septum; MY, Mynert nucleus; SI, substantia innominata; STR, striatum. (C–E) Data is presented as means ± SEM. The number of mice in each group is given in parentheses. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Decreased number of cholinergic neurons in the brains of Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A,B) Immunostaining of the brains of Zic2 +/+ (+/+) (A) and Zic2 kd/+ (kd/+) (B) mice with anti-ChAT antibody. Coronal sections through the septum and diagonal bands derived from adult male mice were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining. Scale bar, 1 mm. (C) Number of the ChAT + neurons in the sections. Mean numbers of ChAT + neurons in 20 sections from the Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ mice brains are indicated. (D) PV-positive cell numbers. The measurements were taken in comparable regions to those subjected to ChAT-immunostaining. (E) The numbers of ChAT- and Zic-immunoreactive neurons in early postnatal (P5-7) Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ brains. Double labeling was performed with the anti-ChAT antibody and anti-pan Zic antibody. CC, cerebral cortex; CP, caudoputamen; DB, diagonal band; LV, lateral ventricle; LS, lateral septum; MS, medial septum; MY, Mynert nucleus; SI, substantia innominata; STR, striatum. (C–E) Data is presented as means ± SEM. The number of mice in each group is given in parentheses. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Immunostaining, Derivative Assay, Immunoperoxidase Staining, Labeling, Mass Spectrometry

    Morphological features of the brains from Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Volumetric analysis of the entire brain, lateral ventricle (LV), and hippocampus (HPC). The values for tissue volumes in Zic2 kd/+ mice are indicated as percentages of the corresponding wild-type values. The values for ratio of volumes in LV/whole brain and HPC/whole brain are also indicated as percentages of the corresponding wild-type values. A total of 15 pairs of Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ mice were subjected to in vivo MRI imaging. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Morphological features of the brains from Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Volumetric analysis of the entire brain, lateral ventricle (LV), and hippocampus (HPC). The values for tissue volumes in Zic2 kd/+ mice are indicated as percentages of the corresponding wild-type values. The values for ratio of volumes in LV/whole brain and HPC/whole brain are also indicated as percentages of the corresponding wild-type values. A total of 15 pairs of Zic2 +/+ and Zic2 kd/+ mice were subjected to in vivo MRI imaging. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, In Vivo, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Imaging

    Properties of ZIC2 variants found in schizophrenia patients. (A) Structure of the ZIC2 protein. Gray boxes with numbers indicate C2H2 motifs in the zinc finger domain of ZIC2. The positions of the A95T, R409P, and S444R mutations are indicated. Multiple alignments of the flanking regions of three mutations are indicated along with the reference sequences. Shaded characters show conserved cysteine and histidine residues in the C2H2 zinc fingers. Black box indicates an evolutionary conserved domain (ZOC, Zic-Opa-Conserved) domain. Gray characters indicate the mutated residues and the corresponding residues in other species (Hs, Homo sapiens [human]; Mm, Mus musculus [mouse]; Dr, Danio rerio [zebrafish]; Lb, Loligo breekeri [squid]; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster (fly); Nv, Nematostella vectensis [sea anemone]). (B) Immunoblotting of mouse wild-type Zic2 and Zic2 variants. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with the FLAG-tag expression plasmids. The Zic2 proteins were detected by the anti-FLAG antibody. Arrow indicates the fast migrating component in FLAG-Zic2-S444R. (C) NIH3T3 cells were transfected with a Zic2-responsive luciferase reporter vector together with a vector expressing wild-type FLAG-Zic2 (WT), or the FLAG-Zic2-A95T, -R409P, -S444R mutant proteins. All luciferase activities were normalized to the activities of the co-transfected elongation factor 1 promoter-driven Renilla luciferase. The means ± SEM of three independent experiments of three samples each are shown. (D) Gel mobility shift assay. IRD-labeled target DNAs were incubated with partially purified FLAG-Zic2-WT or FLAG-Zic2-R409P proteins expressed in 293T cells. The probes and the amount are indicated at the top. (E) Quantification of the gel shift assay result. Data are presented as means ± SEM. There were statistically significant differences between the FLAG-Zic2-WT and FLAG-Zic2-R409P-bound DNA probes at each dose (50 fmol, P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Properties of ZIC2 variants found in schizophrenia patients. (A) Structure of the ZIC2 protein. Gray boxes with numbers indicate C2H2 motifs in the zinc finger domain of ZIC2. The positions of the A95T, R409P, and S444R mutations are indicated. Multiple alignments of the flanking regions of three mutations are indicated along with the reference sequences. Shaded characters show conserved cysteine and histidine residues in the C2H2 zinc fingers. Black box indicates an evolutionary conserved domain (ZOC, Zic-Opa-Conserved) domain. Gray characters indicate the mutated residues and the corresponding residues in other species (Hs, Homo sapiens [human]; Mm, Mus musculus [mouse]; Dr, Danio rerio [zebrafish]; Lb, Loligo breekeri [squid]; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster (fly); Nv, Nematostella vectensis [sea anemone]). (B) Immunoblotting of mouse wild-type Zic2 and Zic2 variants. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with the FLAG-tag expression plasmids. The Zic2 proteins were detected by the anti-FLAG antibody. Arrow indicates the fast migrating component in FLAG-Zic2-S444R. (C) NIH3T3 cells were transfected with a Zic2-responsive luciferase reporter vector together with a vector expressing wild-type FLAG-Zic2 (WT), or the FLAG-Zic2-A95T, -R409P, -S444R mutant proteins. All luciferase activities were normalized to the activities of the co-transfected elongation factor 1 promoter-driven Renilla luciferase. The means ± SEM of three independent experiments of three samples each are shown. (D) Gel mobility shift assay. IRD-labeled target DNAs were incubated with partially purified FLAG-Zic2-WT or FLAG-Zic2-R409P proteins expressed in 293T cells. The probes and the amount are indicated at the top. (E) Quantification of the gel shift assay result. Data are presented as means ± SEM. There were statistically significant differences between the FLAG-Zic2-WT and FLAG-Zic2-R409P-bound DNA probes at each dose (50 fmol, P

    Techniques Used: Zinc-Fingers, Transfection, FLAG-tag, Expressing, Luciferase, Plasmid Preparation, Mutagenesis, Mobility Shift, Labeling, Incubation, Purification, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay

    Spontaneous motor performance abnormalities in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Home cage activity was measured for 13 days. On day 1 the mice were put into a new home cage. Mean activities per day are indicated. Activity counts represent the number of time bins (approximately 0.20–0.25 s each) in which spontaneous activity including locomotor activity, rearing, and other activities such as stereotypic movements, were detected. * P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Spontaneous motor performance abnormalities in Zic2 kd/+ mice. (A) Home cage activity was measured for 13 days. On day 1 the mice were put into a new home cage. Mean activities per day are indicated. Activity counts represent the number of time bins (approximately 0.20–0.25 s each) in which spontaneous activity including locomotor activity, rearing, and other activities such as stereotypic movements, were detected. * P

    Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Activity Assay

    24) Product Images from "Differences in genetic and epigenetic alterations between von Hippel–Lindau disease–related and sporadic hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system"

    Article Title: Differences in genetic and epigenetic alterations between von Hippel–Lindau disease–related and sporadic hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system

    Journal: Neuro-Oncology

    doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nox034

    Representative results of MLPA analysis. Each probe is represented on each x -axis. On the right side of each x -axis, the probes for VHL sites and adjacent regions (eg, FANCD , IRAK2 ], which target sites expected to be present in 2 copies, are located on the left side of each x -axis. Each y -axis represents the estimated copy number. (A) A representative sample with a deletion in exon 3 of VHL . (B) A representative sample that had an ambiguous lesion, including a possible deletion within VHL .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Representative results of MLPA analysis. Each probe is represented on each x -axis. On the right side of each x -axis, the probes for VHL sites and adjacent regions (eg, FANCD , IRAK2 ], which target sites expected to be present in 2 copies, are located on the left side of each x -axis. Each y -axis represents the estimated copy number. (A) A representative sample with a deletion in exon 3 of VHL . (B) A representative sample that had an ambiguous lesion, including a possible deletion within VHL .

    Techniques Used: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification

    25) Product Images from "FUS mutations in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis"

    Article Title: FUS mutations in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Journal: Neurobiology of aging

    doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.020

    Distribution of FUS mutations detected in sporadic ALS patients* *Fifteen exons of FUS are numbered. Novel mutations are indicated in red, whereas previously described mutations are in black. RRM, RNA-recognition motif; ZNF-RBZ, zinc finger-RNA binding zone.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of FUS mutations detected in sporadic ALS patients* *Fifteen exons of FUS are numbered. Novel mutations are indicated in red, whereas previously described mutations are in black. RRM, RNA-recognition motif; ZNF-RBZ, zinc finger-RNA binding zone.

    Techniques Used: RNA Binding Assay

    26) Product Images from "Long-term impacts of disturbance on nitrogen-cycling bacteria in a New England salt marsh"

    Article Title: Long-term impacts of disturbance on nitrogen-cycling bacteria in a New England salt marsh

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00046

    Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) plot of TRFLP profiles for nir S genes in surface (A) and deep (B) sediments. Percent variability explained by each axis is shown parenthetically on the axis labels. In both panels, triangles represent restored (R) marshes (Impoundments 1–4); circles represent undisturbed (U) marshes from Barn Island (BI) or Cottrell (CO) marshes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) plot of TRFLP profiles for nir S genes in surface (A) and deep (B) sediments. Percent variability explained by each axis is shown parenthetically on the axis labels. In both panels, triangles represent restored (R) marshes (Impoundments 1–4); circles represent undisturbed (U) marshes from Barn Island (BI) or Cottrell (CO) marshes.

    Techniques Used: Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Mean (±SE) abundance of nir S (A), archaeal amo A (B), and betaproteobacterial amo A (C) genes in sediment from restored and undisturbed marshes. Asterisks (*) indicate significantly different values ( P ≤ 0.05) between means ( n = 4) from restored and undisturbed marshes. Numbers above bars are the mean ratio of functional gene abundance to Bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Significantly different ratios between restored and undisturbed sites are indicated by different letters.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mean (±SE) abundance of nir S (A), archaeal amo A (B), and betaproteobacterial amo A (C) genes in sediment from restored and undisturbed marshes. Asterisks (*) indicate significantly different values ( P ≤ 0.05) between means ( n = 4) from restored and undisturbed marshes. Numbers above bars are the mean ratio of functional gene abundance to Bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Significantly different ratios between restored and undisturbed sites are indicated by different letters.

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    Mean relative abundance of individual TRFs from surface and deep sediments for nir S (A) , archaeal amo A (B) , and betaproteobacterial amo A (C) genes. Asterisks next to TRF bars indicate significantly different values ( P ≤ 0.05) of that TRF between restored (R) and undisturbed (U) marshes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Mean relative abundance of individual TRFs from surface and deep sediments for nir S (A) , archaeal amo A (B) , and betaproteobacterial amo A (C) genes. Asterisks next to TRF bars indicate significantly different values ( P ≤ 0.05) of that TRF between restored (R) and undisturbed (U) marshes.

    Techniques Used:

    27) Product Images from "Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America"

    Article Title: Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-392

    Allelic diversity at the MS m1501 (A) and m3502 (B) in P. vivax samples from South America (Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador) and Asia (India, Laos, Thailand, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). The MS alleles are divided into groups of increasing fragment size according to the number of repeats. In brackets are mentioned the number of samples included from each continent.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Allelic diversity at the MS m1501 (A) and m3502 (B) in P. vivax samples from South America (Columbia, Venezuela and Ecuador) and Asia (India, Laos, Thailand, Korea, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). The MS alleles are divided into groups of increasing fragment size according to the number of repeats. In brackets are mentioned the number of samples included from each continent.

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry

    28) Product Images from "High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men"

    Article Title: High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000890

    NJ trees and Highlighter plots of HIV-1 diversity in 5′ and 3′ half genomes in subject AD17. Sequences in ( A ) and ( B ) were derived from overlapping 5′ and 3′ SGA amplicons spanning the complete viral genome. Blue symbols represent sequences from day 14 and green symbols day 17 as depicted in Fig. 3 . Solid ovals represent sequences derived from plasma vRNA and solid triangles represent sequences derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA.
    Figure Legend Snippet: NJ trees and Highlighter plots of HIV-1 diversity in 5′ and 3′ half genomes in subject AD17. Sequences in ( A ) and ( B ) were derived from overlapping 5′ and 3′ SGA amplicons spanning the complete viral genome. Blue symbols represent sequences from day 14 and green symbols day 17 as depicted in Fig. 3 . Solid ovals represent sequences derived from plasma vRNA and solid triangles represent sequences derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA.

    Techniques Used: Derivative Assay

    29) Product Images from "Combined Targeted DNA Sequencing in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Using UNCseq and NGScopy, and RNA Sequencing Using UNCqeR for the Detection of Genetic Aberrations in NSCLC"

    Article Title: Combined Targeted DNA Sequencing in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Using UNCseq and NGScopy, and RNA Sequencing Using UNCqeR for the Detection of Genetic Aberrations in NSCLC

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129280

    DNA Copy Number Analysis Using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 Microarray (Panel A) and UNCseq (Panel B, C) or Both (Panel D) of Lung Cancer Samples. (A) Copy number gains (red) and losses (blue) are plotted along the normal genome per each chromosome for each of the 60 completed tumor samples in relation to tumor histology and tumor purity. (SqCC: Squamous Cell Carcinoma; SmCC: Small Cell Carcinoma; ADC/BAC: Adenocarcinoma or Bronchio-alveolar Carcinoma; LCC: Large Cell Carcinoma; AD-SqC: Adenosquamous Carcinoma or Combined/Mixed; Carcinoid/NSmCC: Carcinoid-Atypical, Carcinoid-Typical, or Non-small cell carcinoma) (B) Examples of chromosome-level CNV in various chromosomes (6, 14, and 19) using UNCseq in two tumor samples (27 and 90). Black dots represent the per nucleotide relative copy number ratios (CNRs) in log 2 . Segmentation-derived regions of equal copy number are indicated in red lines. A red triangle at 10.6 Kbp position of chromosome 19 in the sample (ID: 90) indicates the zoomed regions in panel C. (C) Example of small (gene-level) structural variations across exons (from 5’ to 3’) of the KEAP1 gene (RefGene ID: NM_203500 ) for all (black) but one (red) tumor samples. Markers from the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 corresponding to the chromosome area where KEAP1 gene is located are highlighted in red triangles. (D) Boxplot analysis illustrating the SNP array signals at these two markers in C. Signals of tumor sample 90 are in red.
    Figure Legend Snippet: DNA Copy Number Analysis Using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 Microarray (Panel A) and UNCseq (Panel B, C) or Both (Panel D) of Lung Cancer Samples. (A) Copy number gains (red) and losses (blue) are plotted along the normal genome per each chromosome for each of the 60 completed tumor samples in relation to tumor histology and tumor purity. (SqCC: Squamous Cell Carcinoma; SmCC: Small Cell Carcinoma; ADC/BAC: Adenocarcinoma or Bronchio-alveolar Carcinoma; LCC: Large Cell Carcinoma; AD-SqC: Adenosquamous Carcinoma or Combined/Mixed; Carcinoid/NSmCC: Carcinoid-Atypical, Carcinoid-Typical, or Non-small cell carcinoma) (B) Examples of chromosome-level CNV in various chromosomes (6, 14, and 19) using UNCseq in two tumor samples (27 and 90). Black dots represent the per nucleotide relative copy number ratios (CNRs) in log 2 . Segmentation-derived regions of equal copy number are indicated in red lines. A red triangle at 10.6 Kbp position of chromosome 19 in the sample (ID: 90) indicates the zoomed regions in panel C. (C) Example of small (gene-level) structural variations across exons (from 5’ to 3’) of the KEAP1 gene (RefGene ID: NM_203500 ) for all (black) but one (red) tumor samples. Markers from the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 corresponding to the chromosome area where KEAP1 gene is located are highlighted in red triangles. (D) Boxplot analysis illustrating the SNP array signals at these two markers in C. Signals of tumor sample 90 are in red.

    Techniques Used: Microarray, BAC Assay, Derivative Assay, Genome Wide

    30) Product Images from "Novel missense mutation in the RSPO4 gene in congenital hyponychia and evidence for a polymorphic initiation codon (p.M1I)"

    Article Title: Novel missense mutation in the RSPO4 gene in congenital hyponychia and evidence for a polymorphic initiation codon (p.M1I)

    Journal: BMC Medical Genetics

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-120

    Schematic illustration of the R-spondin 4 (RSPO4) structure with functional domains (boxed) and the relative positions of the 17 mutations known to date in anonychia/hyponychia [2–7 and this study]. The predicted effects of 13 coding mutations on RSPO4 are indicated. Four additional variants involve non-coding regions, i.e. one deletion and three splice site mutations, and the genomic positions for these variants are given arbitrary. The five protein domains are encoded by five corresponding exons in the RSPO4 gene. Three missense variants identified in this study (p.M1I, p.R60W and p.C118Y) are all positioned in functional domains of which p.M1I should be considered a polymorphism. The degree of conservation across various species is shown for regions around the residues p.M1, p.R60 and p.C118 indicated by shaded areas, respectively (bottom). Notably, the signal peptide domain is less conserved than the furin-like repeats.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic illustration of the R-spondin 4 (RSPO4) structure with functional domains (boxed) and the relative positions of the 17 mutations known to date in anonychia/hyponychia [2–7 and this study]. The predicted effects of 13 coding mutations on RSPO4 are indicated. Four additional variants involve non-coding regions, i.e. one deletion and three splice site mutations, and the genomic positions for these variants are given arbitrary. The five protein domains are encoded by five corresponding exons in the RSPO4 gene. Three missense variants identified in this study (p.M1I, p.R60W and p.C118Y) are all positioned in functional domains of which p.M1I should be considered a polymorphism. The degree of conservation across various species is shown for regions around the residues p.M1, p.R60 and p.C118 indicated by shaded areas, respectively (bottom). Notably, the signal peptide domain is less conserved than the furin-like repeats.

    Techniques Used: Functional Assay

    Pedigrees, RSPO4 genotypes and phenotypes from three families segregating hyponychia. Haplotypes of chromosome 20p13 markers are shown in the pedigrees below each symbol with the relative position of the RSPO4 missense variants, respectively. ( a ) Family 1 comprises five affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the novel missense mutation c.178C > T (p.R60W). Right: Hands and feet of individual V:3. ( b ) Family 2 with six affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the missense mutation c.353G > A (p.C118Y). Right: Hands and feet of individual IV:4. ( c ) Family 3 comprises five affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the missense variant c.3G > A (p.M1I). Right: Hands and feet of individual IV:3.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pedigrees, RSPO4 genotypes and phenotypes from three families segregating hyponychia. Haplotypes of chromosome 20p13 markers are shown in the pedigrees below each symbol with the relative position of the RSPO4 missense variants, respectively. ( a ) Family 1 comprises five affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the novel missense mutation c.178C > T (p.R60W). Right: Hands and feet of individual V:3. ( b ) Family 2 with six affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the missense mutation c.353G > A (p.C118Y). Right: Hands and feet of individual IV:4. ( c ) Family 3 comprises five affected individuals. Middle: Electropherogram showing the missense variant c.3G > A (p.M1I). Right: Hands and feet of individual IV:3.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis, Variant Assay

    31) Product Images from "Drug Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-negative Bacilli Isolates"

    Article Title: Drug Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-negative Bacilli Isolates

    Journal: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases

    doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_74_17

    Phylogenetic analysis of NDM-1 strains
    Figure Legend Snippet: Phylogenetic analysis of NDM-1 strains

    Techniques Used:

    Two percent agarose gel electrophoresis showing results of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of bla NDM-1 gene
    Figure Legend Snippet: Two percent agarose gel electrophoresis showing results of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of bla NDM-1 gene

    Techniques Used: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    32) Product Images from "JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms"

    Article Title: JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012165

    Schematic presentation of  JAK2  Δexon 14. Top, schematic diagram of the JAK2 protein showing JAK homology domains 1 through 7 (JH1-JH7) with the JH2 pseudokinase domain highlighted in black. The corresponding exon regions of the mRNA is shown with the exons 13, 14, and 15. Because exon 14 is consists of 88 bp, its deletion leads to frameshift and early termination of translation after coding for seven new amino acids and elimination of the V617 codon of  JAK2  (lower panel). The resulting truncated JAK2 protein is shown on the bottom.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic presentation of JAK2 Δexon 14. Top, schematic diagram of the JAK2 protein showing JAK homology domains 1 through 7 (JH1-JH7) with the JH2 pseudokinase domain highlighted in black. The corresponding exon regions of the mRNA is shown with the exons 13, 14, and 15. Because exon 14 is consists of 88 bp, its deletion leads to frameshift and early termination of translation after coding for seven new amino acids and elimination of the V617 codon of JAK2 (lower panel). The resulting truncated JAK2 protein is shown on the bottom.

    Techniques Used:

    33) Product Images from "Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece"

    Article Title: Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-463

    The combined Pvmsp-3α , microsatellite (MS) m1501- m3502 haplotypes derived from the cases in Laconia during 2011. The number of cases as a function of month of sampling are shown where each P. vivax isolate is combined into Pvmsp-3α MS m1501-m3502 haplotypes. #: denote unknown genotype at one or more of the markers.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The combined Pvmsp-3α , microsatellite (MS) m1501- m3502 haplotypes derived from the cases in Laconia during 2011. The number of cases as a function of month of sampling are shown where each P. vivax isolate is combined into Pvmsp-3α MS m1501-m3502 haplotypes. #: denote unknown genotype at one or more of the markers.

    Techniques Used: Mass Spectrometry, Derivative Assay, Sampling

    34) Product Images from "Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Novel Isoform of EG95 (EG95-5G1) From Echinococcus granulosus in BALB/C Mice"

    Article Title: Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Novel Isoform of EG95 (EG95-5G1) From Echinococcus granulosus in BALB/C Mice

    Journal: Iranian Journal of Parasitology

    doi:

    Expression of rEg95 pET32 in E. coli BL21 (DE3) 1: molecular weight marker; 2: Non-induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 3: 1-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 4: 2-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 5: 3-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 6: 4-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 7: Purified rEG95 pET32 ; 8: Purified rEG95 pET32 detected by polyclonal mouse CHD antiserum
    Figure Legend Snippet: Expression of rEg95 pET32 in E. coli BL21 (DE3) 1: molecular weight marker; 2: Non-induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 3: 1-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 4: 2-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 5: 3-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 6: 4-hour induced BL21 pET32- EG95 ; 7: Purified rEG95 pET32 ; 8: Purified rEG95 pET32 detected by polyclonal mouse CHD antiserum

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Molecular Weight, Marker, Purification

    Cytokine assay results Mean ± SD the OD (540 nm) of MTT lymphocyte proliferation assay of spleen cells stimulated with EG95 and Trx by MTT method in group of immunized mice. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ IL-12, TNF-α IL-4, IL-10) in splee n lymphocyte culture experiments groups were evaluated by ELISA. In each experiment, data from each group was compared with other groups by LSD test via one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). P -values less than 0.05 were recognized as significant. Freund’s/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with FA and stimulated with the same protein. Freund’s /Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with FA and stimulated with Trx. Alum/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with alum and stimulated with the same protein. Alum /Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with alum and stimulated with Trx. Trx/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with Trx and stimulated with rEG95. Trx/Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with Trx and stimulated with the same protein. PBS/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from PBS immunized mice stimulated with rEG95. PBS/Trx : spleen lymphocytes from PBS immunized mice stimulated with Trx. *: significant difference with PBS (negative control) groups ( P
    Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokine assay results Mean ± SD the OD (540 nm) of MTT lymphocyte proliferation assay of spleen cells stimulated with EG95 and Trx by MTT method in group of immunized mice. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ IL-12, TNF-α IL-4, IL-10) in splee n lymphocyte culture experiments groups were evaluated by ELISA. In each experiment, data from each group was compared with other groups by LSD test via one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). P -values less than 0.05 were recognized as significant. Freund’s/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with FA and stimulated with the same protein. Freund’s /Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with FA and stimulated with Trx. Alum/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with alum and stimulated with the same protein. Alum /Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with rEG95 formulated with alum and stimulated with Trx. Trx/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with Trx and stimulated with rEG95. Trx/Trx : spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with Trx and stimulated with the same protein. PBS/EG95 : spleen lymphocytes from PBS immunized mice stimulated with rEG95. PBS/Trx : spleen lymphocytes from PBS immunized mice stimulated with Trx. *: significant difference with PBS (negative control) groups ( P

    Techniques Used: Cytokine Assay, MTT Assay, Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Negative Control

    35) Product Images from "Patterns of missplicing due to somatic U2AF1 mutations in myeloid neoplasms"

    Article Title: Patterns of missplicing due to somatic U2AF1 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    Journal: Blood

    doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-01-480970

    Differences of exon usage frequencies in genes that were identified. Exon skipping frequencies were based on RNAseq data, averaged and presented as bar graphs. (A) Bars in dark blue represent U2AF1 mutants; dark brown bars represent WT. The order of genes
    Figure Legend Snippet: Differences of exon usage frequencies in genes that were identified. Exon skipping frequencies were based on RNAseq data, averaged and presented as bar graphs. (A) Bars in dark blue represent U2AF1 mutants; dark brown bars represent WT. The order of genes

    Techniques Used:

    Distribution and frequency of U2AF1 mutations across gene domains and different hematological malignancies. (A) Three isoforms of U2AF1 are shown with the 2 zinc finger domains (ZNF) and the RNA recognition motif (RRM) highlighted. Almost all identified
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution and frequency of U2AF1 mutations across gene domains and different hematological malignancies. (A) Three isoforms of U2AF1 are shown with the 2 zinc finger domains (ZNF) and the RNA recognition motif (RRM) highlighted. Almost all identified

    Techniques Used:

    Transcriptional analysis of patients with splicing factor mutations. (A) Comparison of levels of U2AF1 mRNA between U2AF1 mutants, WT cases, and WT cases with low expression of U2AF1 (red, blue, and green colors, respectively). The mean expression level
    Figure Legend Snippet: Transcriptional analysis of patients with splicing factor mutations. (A) Comparison of levels of U2AF1 mRNA between U2AF1 mutants, WT cases, and WT cases with low expression of U2AF1 (red, blue, and green colors, respectively). The mean expression level

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    Frequencies of nucleotides surrounding 39 and 59 splice sites adjacent to exons affected by U2AF1 mutations. Exons that were more often skipped (A) or more often retained (B) in U2AF1 mutants were combined into 2 groups, and the splice site consensus
    Figure Legend Snippet: Frequencies of nucleotides surrounding 39 and 59 splice sites adjacent to exons affected by U2AF1 mutations. Exons that were more often skipped (A) or more often retained (B) in U2AF1 mutants were combined into 2 groups, and the splice site consensus

    Techniques Used:

    36) Product Images from "Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran"

    Article Title: Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran

    Journal: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology

    doi: 10.5812/jjm.14813

    PCR Amplification A) glyRS gene of M. catarrhalis strains. Lanes 2-8, isolated strains; lane 9, negative control; lanes 10-11, standard strains; lanes 1 and 12; 50 bp DNA marker. B) pdhC gene of N. lactamica strains. Lane 2, standard strain; lanes 3-6, isolated strains; lanes 7-8, negative controls; lanes 1 and 9, 50 bp DNA marker
    Figure Legend Snippet: PCR Amplification A) glyRS gene of M. catarrhalis strains. Lanes 2-8, isolated strains; lane 9, negative control; lanes 10-11, standard strains; lanes 1 and 12; 50 bp DNA marker. B) pdhC gene of N. lactamica strains. Lane 2, standard strain; lanes 3-6, isolated strains; lanes 7-8, negative controls; lanes 1 and 9, 50 bp DNA marker

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Isolation, Negative Control, Marker

    37) Product Images from "Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers"

    Article Title: Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

    Journal: BMC Plant Biology

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-64

    The gene organization from rpoB to psbZ in analyzed ferns . The arrows correlate with the location, size and transcription direction of the corresponding genes. Dashed lines indicate direction of transcription does not change; solid lines mark putative local inversions. The complete version of the tree including statistical supports and branch lengths is shown in Additional file 1 . *, the plastomes have been sequenced. The symbols of ycf66 : green, complete gene; grey, pseudogene. Abbreviations: Z , psbZ ; G : trnG -GCC; E : trnE -UUC; Y : trnY -GUA; D , trnD -GUC; M , psbM ; N , petN ; C , trnC -GCA; B : rpoB ; Equisetum a , Equisetum arvense ; Equisetum r , Equisetum ramosissimum .
    Figure Legend Snippet: The gene organization from rpoB to psbZ in analyzed ferns . The arrows correlate with the location, size and transcription direction of the corresponding genes. Dashed lines indicate direction of transcription does not change; solid lines mark putative local inversions. The complete version of the tree including statistical supports and branch lengths is shown in Additional file 1 . *, the plastomes have been sequenced. The symbols of ycf66 : green, complete gene; grey, pseudogene. Abbreviations: Z , psbZ ; G : trnG -GCC; E : trnE -UUC; Y : trnY -GUA; D , trnD -GUC; M , psbM ; N , petN ; C , trnC -GCA; B : rpoB ; Equisetum a , Equisetum arvense ; Equisetum r , Equisetum ramosissimum .

    Techniques Used:

    Schematic diagrams of the fern plastid gene orders from psbC to rpoB (a) and sequencing strategies (b) . Each colored gene segment shows the same gene order region among the published fern plastomes. The gene orders of
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic diagrams of the fern plastid gene orders from psbC to rpoB (a) and sequencing strategies (b) . Each colored gene segment shows the same gene order region among the published fern plastomes. The gene orders of "Putative intermediate A" and "Putative intermediate B" are according to Roper et al. [ 28 ].

    Techniques Used: Sequencing

    38) Product Images from "Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of lineages I, II, and III strains of Listeria monocytogenes"

    Article Title: Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of lineages I, II, and III strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Journal: BMC Genomics

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-144

    Murine infection studies with three different Listeria serotypes and two chromosomal deletion mutants of ∆ lmaB and ∆ lmaD of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e Mice were infected i.v. with 2000 cfu of L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a EGD-e (filled circles), 4b F2365 (open circles), 4b CLIP80459 (filled triangles), and 4a L99 (open triangles). On days 1, 3, 5, and 8 after infection, the numbers of viable bacteria in spleens (A) and livers (B) of three animals per group were determined ( P ≤0,05 and P ≤0,001 of 4b CLIP80459 vs. 1/2a EGD-e and 4b F2365 vs. 1/2a EGD-e in spleen and liver respectively). Bacterial load in mice organs were also determined following i.v. infection with 2000 cfu of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e wild type strain (filled circles) as well as its isogenic mutants ∆ lmaB (open circles), and ∆ lmaD (filled triangles). On days 1, 3, and 5 after infection, the numbers of viable bacteria in spleens (C) and livers (D) of three animals per group were determined ( P ≤0,05 and P ≤0,01 of 1/2a EGD-e versus ∆ lmaB and ∆ lmaD in spleen and liver respectively). Data presented are representative of three independent experiments. An asterisk indicates means that are significantly different from the wild type. Significance analysis was performed with student t -test.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Murine infection studies with three different Listeria serotypes and two chromosomal deletion mutants of ∆ lmaB and ∆ lmaD of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e Mice were infected i.v. with 2000 cfu of L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a EGD-e (filled circles), 4b F2365 (open circles), 4b CLIP80459 (filled triangles), and 4a L99 (open triangles). On days 1, 3, 5, and 8 after infection, the numbers of viable bacteria in spleens (A) and livers (B) of three animals per group were determined ( P ≤0,05 and P ≤0,001 of 4b CLIP80459 vs. 1/2a EGD-e and 4b F2365 vs. 1/2a EGD-e in spleen and liver respectively). Bacterial load in mice organs were also determined following i.v. infection with 2000 cfu of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e wild type strain (filled circles) as well as its isogenic mutants ∆ lmaB (open circles), and ∆ lmaD (filled triangles). On days 1, 3, and 5 after infection, the numbers of viable bacteria in spleens (C) and livers (D) of three animals per group were determined ( P ≤0,05 and P ≤0,01 of 1/2a EGD-e versus ∆ lmaB and ∆ lmaD in spleen and liver respectively). Data presented are representative of three independent experiments. An asterisk indicates means that are significantly different from the wild type. Significance analysis was performed with student t -test.

    Techniques Used: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Comparative SNP analysis of five listerial strains From outside to inside: genome of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e colored according to COG categories (two strands shown separately). Number of SNPs normalized by gene length in the comparison of 1/2a EGD-e and L. innocua 6a CLIP11262, 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99, 1/2a EGD-e and 4b CLIP80459, 1/2a EGD-e and 4b F2365, and the two 4b strains (4b F2365 and 4b CLIP80459). The innermost circle shows the location of phage genes (blue) and virulence genes (black) in the 1/2a EGD-e genome. Line graphs indicate the number of SNPs/gene length reflecting loci in the genome having a disproportionate number of SNPs. However, if a gene is specific to a certain genome, this will also be shown as a peak indicating a region of divergence within the two genomes under comparison. This analysis was performed using the MUMmer package [ 25 ] and SNPs were mapped to coding regions using PERL scripts. Data were visualized by GenomeViz [ 26 ]. For each pairwise comparison of strains, percentage of SNPs per gene length of surface- and non-surface-associated genes, as well as the ratio of these values is given in the table. The latter was named “nucleotide divergence ratio” and denotes the relative amount of difference between those two classes of genes, in order to identify more (positive value) or less (negative value) abundant mutation in surface-associated than in non-surface-associated genes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative SNP analysis of five listerial strains From outside to inside: genome of L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e colored according to COG categories (two strands shown separately). Number of SNPs normalized by gene length in the comparison of 1/2a EGD-e and L. innocua 6a CLIP11262, 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99, 1/2a EGD-e and 4b CLIP80459, 1/2a EGD-e and 4b F2365, and the two 4b strains (4b F2365 and 4b CLIP80459). The innermost circle shows the location of phage genes (blue) and virulence genes (black) in the 1/2a EGD-e genome. Line graphs indicate the number of SNPs/gene length reflecting loci in the genome having a disproportionate number of SNPs. However, if a gene is specific to a certain genome, this will also be shown as a peak indicating a region of divergence within the two genomes under comparison. This analysis was performed using the MUMmer package [ 25 ] and SNPs were mapped to coding regions using PERL scripts. Data were visualized by GenomeViz [ 26 ]. For each pairwise comparison of strains, percentage of SNPs per gene length of surface- and non-surface-associated genes, as well as the ratio of these values is given in the table. The latter was named “nucleotide divergence ratio” and denotes the relative amount of difference between those two classes of genes, in order to identify more (positive value) or less (negative value) abundant mutation in surface-associated than in non-surface-associated genes.

    Techniques Used: Mutagenesis

    Overview of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) loci in L monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e, L. monocytogenes 4a L99, L. monocytogenes 4a HCC23, L. monocytogenes 4a M7, L. monocytogenes 4c FSL J2-071, L. monocytogenes 4b CLIP80459, L. monocytogenes 4b F2365 and L. innocua 6a CLIP11262 . (A): CRISPR locus I is shown for all five listeriae, black boxes indicate complete CRISPR repeats, red boxes represent incomplete or truncated (*) CRISPR repeats. No cas genes were found to be associated with this locus. Flanking genes are conserved in 1/2a EGD-e and both 4b genomes. Comparison of the intergenic sequences with the 4a L99 genome revealed a sequence footprint of decaying repeat elements (2 repeat copies in both 4b genomes, and 1 copy in L. innocua 6a CLIP11262), indicating loss of the CRISPR repeats. (B): Locus II shows 29 copies of repeats and is associated with several cas genes ( cas2 , cas3 , cas5 and cas6 . cas1 is partially detectable, but seems to be truncated. (C): L. innocua 6a CLIP11262 harbours the CRISPR locus III at position 2.77 Mb in the genome, which is neighboured by a single cas2 gene. No other CRISPR repeats nor any cas gene homologs were found in the 4b genomes.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) loci in L monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e, L. monocytogenes 4a L99, L. monocytogenes 4a HCC23, L. monocytogenes 4a M7, L. monocytogenes 4c FSL J2-071, L. monocytogenes 4b CLIP80459, L. monocytogenes 4b F2365 and L. innocua 6a CLIP11262 . (A): CRISPR locus I is shown for all five listeriae, black boxes indicate complete CRISPR repeats, red boxes represent incomplete or truncated (*) CRISPR repeats. No cas genes were found to be associated with this locus. Flanking genes are conserved in 1/2a EGD-e and both 4b genomes. Comparison of the intergenic sequences with the 4a L99 genome revealed a sequence footprint of decaying repeat elements (2 repeat copies in both 4b genomes, and 1 copy in L. innocua 6a CLIP11262), indicating loss of the CRISPR repeats. (B): Locus II shows 29 copies of repeats and is associated with several cas genes ( cas2 , cas3 , cas5 and cas6 . cas1 is partially detectable, but seems to be truncated. (C): L. innocua 6a CLIP11262 harbours the CRISPR locus III at position 2.77 Mb in the genome, which is neighboured by a single cas2 gene. No other CRISPR repeats nor any cas gene homologs were found in the 4b genomes.

    Techniques Used: CRISPR, Sequencing

    Comparative transcriptomics of four L. monocytogenes genomes : L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e, L. monocytogenes 4a L99, L. monocytogenes 4b CLIP80459, L. monocytogenes 4b F2365 (from outside to inside). There are two tracks per strain: the first one shows the coding sequences (gray), phage genes (blue) and virulence genes (black). The second one visualizes increase (red) or decrease (green) of intracellular gene expression (log fold changes). Phage and virulence genes are clearly upregulated intracellularly. Data were illustrated using GenomeViz [ 26 ].
    Figure Legend Snippet: Comparative transcriptomics of four L. monocytogenes genomes : L. monocytogenes 1/2a EGD-e, L. monocytogenes 4a L99, L. monocytogenes 4b CLIP80459, L. monocytogenes 4b F2365 (from outside to inside). There are two tracks per strain: the first one shows the coding sequences (gray), phage genes (blue) and virulence genes (black). The second one visualizes increase (red) or decrease (green) of intracellular gene expression (log fold changes). Phage and virulence genes are clearly upregulated intracellularly. Data were illustrated using GenomeViz [ 26 ].

    Techniques Used: Expressing

    39) Product Images from "FUS mutations in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis"

    Article Title: FUS mutations in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Journal: Neurobiology of aging

    doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.020

    Distribution of FUS mutations detected in sporadic ALS patients* *Fifteen exons of FUS are numbered. Novel mutations are indicated in red, whereas previously described mutations are in black. RRM, RNA-recognition motif; ZNF-RBZ, zinc finger-RNA binding zone.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Distribution of FUS mutations detected in sporadic ALS patients* *Fifteen exons of FUS are numbered. Novel mutations are indicated in red, whereas previously described mutations are in black. RRM, RNA-recognition motif; ZNF-RBZ, zinc finger-RNA binding zone.

    Techniques Used: RNA Binding Assay

    40) Product Images from "Delayed diagnosis of Townes-Brocks syndrome with multicystic kidneys and renal failure caused by a novel SALL1 nonsense mutation: A case report"

    Article Title: Delayed diagnosis of Townes-Brocks syndrome with multicystic kidneys and renal failure caused by a novel SALL1 nonsense mutation: A case report

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2016.3035

    Sanger sequencing electropherograms showed that (A) the proband has the SALL1 heterozygous mutation (c.874C > T, p.Q292X), (B) which was not detected in 100 healthy Chinese controls.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Sanger sequencing electropherograms showed that (A) the proband has the SALL1 heterozygous mutation (c.874C > T, p.Q292X), (B) which was not detected in 100 healthy Chinese controls.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Mutagenesis

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    Electrophoresis:

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    Marker:

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    Incubation:

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    Migration:

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    Polymerase Chain Reaction:

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    Injection:

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