Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Article Title: Streptococcus gordonii programs epithelial cells to resist ZEB2 induction by Porphyromonas gingivalis
Figure Lengend Snippet: ZEB2 responses to P. gingivalis are controlled by β-catenin and FOXO1 pathways. ( A ) TIGK cells were transiently transfected with siRNA to β-catenin or scrambled siRNA (siControl) and infected with P. gingivalis 33277 for 24 h at the MOI indicated. ZEB2 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Data were normalized to GAPDH mRNA and are expressed relative to noninfected (NI) controls. ( B ) TIGK cells were transiently transfected with plasmid expressing full-length β-catenin, a Δ151 truncation derivative, or with empty vector. Cells were challenged with P. gingivalis and ZEB2 mRNA measured as described in A . ( C ) TIGK cells were challenged with P. gingivalis strains for 24 h at the MOI indicated. WT, P. gingivalis 33277; ΔrgpA/B, deletion mutant of the rgpA and rgpB arginine gingipain genes; Δkgp, deletion mutant of the kgp lysine gingipain gene; ΔrgpAB Δkgp, triple gingipain deletion mutant; TLCK, WT preincubated with the protease inhibitor TLCK (100 µM, 2 h). ZEB2 mRNA was measured as described in A . ( D and E ) TIGK cells were transiently transfected with siRNA to TCF7L2/TCF7L3/TCF7, or TCF7L1 ( D ), FOXO1 or FOXO3 ( E ), or control scrambled siRNA. Cells were challenged with P. gingivalis , and ZEB2 mRNA was measured as described in A . ( F ) TIGK cells were transiently transfected with siRNA to FOXO1 or control scrambled siRNA. Cells were challenged with P. gingivalis 33277 and/or S. gordonii at MOI:50 for each strain for 24 h. Quantitative analysis of TIGK migration through matrigel-coated transwells is presented as the mean number of migrated cells. ( G ) TIGK cells were challenged with P. gingivalis 33277 MOI:100 for 24 h, or left uninfected (NI), and subjected to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using anti-FOXO1 IgG, anti-TCF7L1 IgG, or preimmune IgG. The precipitated DNA was subsequently analyzed by end point PCR and by qPCR with primers to the ZEB2 promoter region or the GAPDH promoter as a control. qPCR was expressed relative to the input DNA. ( H ) Luciferase assay for ZEB2 promoter activity in TIGKs challenged with P. gingivalis 33277 MOI:100 for 30 min, or left uninfected (NI). Cells were transiently transfected with a ZEB2 promoter–luciferase reporter plasmid, or a constitutively expressing Renilla luciferase reporter. Derivatives of the ZEB2 promoter included serial deletions and site-specific mutations (denoted X) in the FOXO1 binding sites. FOXO luciferase activity was normalized to the level of Renilla luciferase. Quantitative data represent three independent experiments with three replicates. Error bars represent the SEM. * P > 0.05, ** P
Article Snippet: A series of ZEB2 promoter fragments containing mutations were generated by PCR mutagenesis (Q5 Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit from NEB).
Techniques: Transfection, Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR, Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Mutagenesis, Protease Inhibitor, Migration, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Luciferase, Activity Assay, Binding Assay