t4 dna ligase reaction buffer  (New England Biolabs)


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    Structured Review

    New England Biolabs t4 dna ligase reaction buffer
    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with <t>T4</t> DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .
    T4 Dna Ligase Reaction Buffer, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Images

    1) Product Images from "YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops"

    Article Title: YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops

    Journal: Cell

    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.008

    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .
    Figure Legend Snippet: YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, DNA Ligation, Incubation

    2) Product Images from "Assessing Protein Dynamics on Low-Complexity Single-Stranded DNA Curtains"

    Article Title: Assessing Protein Dynamics on Low-Complexity Single-Stranded DNA Curtains

    Journal: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

    doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01812

    Assembly of low-complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and a biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low-complexity ssDNA composed solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low-complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end labeling. The 3′ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green)-coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5′-biotin tether.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assembly of low-complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and a biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low-complexity ssDNA composed solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low-complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end labeling. The 3′ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green)-coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5′-biotin tether.

    Techniques Used: Synthesized, End Labeling, Labeling, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification, Flow Cytometry

    3) Product Images from "Assessing protein dynamics on low complexity single-strand DNA curtains"

    Article Title: Assessing protein dynamics on low complexity single-strand DNA curtains

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/376798

    Assembly of low complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low complexity ssDNA comprised solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end-labeling. The 3’ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green) coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5’-biotin tether.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Assembly of low complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low complexity ssDNA comprised solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end-labeling. The 3’ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green) coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5’-biotin tether.

    Techniques Used: Synthesized, End Labeling, Labeling, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    4) Product Images from "Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases"

    Article Title: Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190062

    Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoresis, Produced, Ligation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Produced, Standard Deviation

    5) Product Images from "Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases"

    Article Title: Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190062

    Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoresis, Produced, Ligation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Produced, Standard Deviation

    6) Product Images from "YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops"

    Article Title: YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops

    Journal: Cell

    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.008

    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .
    Figure Legend Snippet: YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, DNA Ligation, Incubation

    7) Product Images from "Genomic Characterization of Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica-Infecting Podoviruses of Pig Origin"

    Article Title: Genomic Characterization of Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica-Infecting Podoviruses of Pig Origin

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v10040174

    The genomic map of fPS-7. The predicted genes are arranged in the direction of transcription shown by different colored arrows. Genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, recombination or repair are shown in green. Genes involved in morphogenesis and virion structures are depicted in brown. Genes involved in DNA packaging and lysis, are shown in blue and red, respectively. Genes coding for hypothetical proteins or conserved phage proteins of unknown function are shown in light grey. Homing endonucleases are shown in yellow. Direct terminal repeats (DTRs) are shown in black. On top of the genome, the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)-dependent promoters are shown with red double-arrows labelled with −35 and −10, and the phage RNAP-dependent promoters with black arrows labelled from P1 to P12. Terminators are shown along the genome as purple triangles and labelled from T1 to T4. The genetic map was created using the Geneious software.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The genomic map of fPS-7. The predicted genes are arranged in the direction of transcription shown by different colored arrows. Genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, recombination or repair are shown in green. Genes involved in morphogenesis and virion structures are depicted in brown. Genes involved in DNA packaging and lysis, are shown in blue and red, respectively. Genes coding for hypothetical proteins or conserved phage proteins of unknown function are shown in light grey. Homing endonucleases are shown in yellow. Direct terminal repeats (DTRs) are shown in black. On top of the genome, the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)-dependent promoters are shown with red double-arrows labelled with −35 and −10, and the phage RNAP-dependent promoters with black arrows labelled from P1 to P12. Terminators are shown along the genome as purple triangles and labelled from T1 to T4. The genetic map was created using the Geneious software.

    Techniques Used: Lysis, Software

    8) Product Images from "S1-seq assay for mapping processed DNA ends"

    Article Title: S1-seq assay for mapping processed DNA ends

    Journal: Methods in enzymology

    doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2017.11.031

    Schematic of the key steps employed in S1-seq: DNA from meiotic cells bearing processed Spo11 DSBs is embedded in agarose plugs to protect from shearing. Treatment with S1 nuclease and T4 DNA polymerase removes the 3′ overhang and prepares the ends for ligation with the 5′ biotinylated adaptor. Following extraction from the plugs and sonication, the biotinylated fragments are bound on streptavidin beads and the second adaptor is ligated. Low-cycle amplification by PCR creates the library that is submitted for next generation sequencing and eventually mapped to the reference genome.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of the key steps employed in S1-seq: DNA from meiotic cells bearing processed Spo11 DSBs is embedded in agarose plugs to protect from shearing. Treatment with S1 nuclease and T4 DNA polymerase removes the 3′ overhang and prepares the ends for ligation with the 5′ biotinylated adaptor. Following extraction from the plugs and sonication, the biotinylated fragments are bound on streptavidin beads and the second adaptor is ligated. Low-cycle amplification by PCR creates the library that is submitted for next generation sequencing and eventually mapped to the reference genome.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Sonication, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Next-Generation Sequencing

    9) Product Images from "Construction and characterization of mismatch-containing circular DNA molecules competent for assessment of nick-directed human mismatch repair in vitro"

    Article Title: Construction and characterization of mismatch-containing circular DNA molecules competent for assessment of nick-directed human mismatch repair in vitro

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi:

    Strategy for constructing nicked heteroduplexes. A mismatch-containing oligonucleotide duplex (Fig. 1) is ligated into a template plasmid molecule (1). Linearization of the plasmid (2) in the presence of the heteroduplex oligo, T4 ligase and restriction enzyme ( Bam HI) allows ligation of the small fragments onto each DNA end as a dead-end complex (3), because the Bam HI site is eliminated. Re-ligation of Bam HI-generated plasmid ends yields a molecule competent for a second digestion, returning them to the substrate pool. In the next step, digestion with Eco RI removes one ligation product and generates a ligation-competent DNA end (4). After removal of the smaller fragment, an intramolecular ligation reaction generates the nicked circular product (5). Unwanted linear molecules are removed by digestion with Exonuclease V (Materials and Methods).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Strategy for constructing nicked heteroduplexes. A mismatch-containing oligonucleotide duplex (Fig. 1) is ligated into a template plasmid molecule (1). Linearization of the plasmid (2) in the presence of the heteroduplex oligo, T4 ligase and restriction enzyme ( Bam HI) allows ligation of the small fragments onto each DNA end as a dead-end complex (3), because the Bam HI site is eliminated. Re-ligation of Bam HI-generated plasmid ends yields a molecule competent for a second digestion, returning them to the substrate pool. In the next step, digestion with Eco RI removes one ligation product and generates a ligation-competent DNA end (4). After removal of the smaller fragment, an intramolecular ligation reaction generates the nicked circular product (5). Unwanted linear molecules are removed by digestion with Exonuclease V (Materials and Methods).

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Ligation, Generated

    10) Product Images from "A high-throughput expression screening platform to optimize the production of antimicrobial peptides"

    Article Title: A high-throughput expression screening platform to optimize the production of antimicrobial peptides

    Journal: Microbial Cell Factories

    doi: 10.1186/s12934-017-0637-5

    Golden Gate assembly of the expression plasmid in a single reaction. Six donor plasmids and one acceptor plasmid were combined to form each expression plasmid by directional cloning in a restriction-ligation step using the endonuclease Bsa I and T4 DNA ligase. The overhangs produced by Bsa I are colored
    Figure Legend Snippet: Golden Gate assembly of the expression plasmid in a single reaction. Six donor plasmids and one acceptor plasmid were combined to form each expression plasmid by directional cloning in a restriction-ligation step using the endonuclease Bsa I and T4 DNA ligase. The overhangs produced by Bsa I are colored

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Clone Assay, Ligation, Produced

    11) Product Images from "Universal Loop assembly (uLoop): open, efficient, and species-agnostic DNA fabrication"

    Article Title: Universal Loop assembly (uLoop): open, efficient, and species-agnostic DNA fabrication

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/744854

    Large-scale DNA assembly. Four L3 parts were assembled in the absence of a receiver plasmid through a SapI-mediated Loop assembly reaction and products were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Lane headings: M, Midrange PFG marker. C, control reaction (L3 parts digested with SapI). Assembly reaction using 1x (10 U µL-1) or 2x (20 U µL-1) T4 DNA ligase. Image shown corresponds to an inverted photograph of the gel with adjusted contrast. The white arrow indicates the monomeric fragments, the blue arrow indicates the dimeric composites, the red arrow indicates the trimeric composites and the green arrow indicates the tetrameric full-length assembly.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Large-scale DNA assembly. Four L3 parts were assembled in the absence of a receiver plasmid through a SapI-mediated Loop assembly reaction and products were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Lane headings: M, Midrange PFG marker. C, control reaction (L3 parts digested with SapI). Assembly reaction using 1x (10 U µL-1) or 2x (20 U µL-1) T4 DNA ligase. Image shown corresponds to an inverted photograph of the gel with adjusted contrast. The white arrow indicates the monomeric fragments, the blue arrow indicates the dimeric composites, the red arrow indicates the trimeric composites and the green arrow indicates the tetrameric full-length assembly.

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Pulsed-Field Gel, Electrophoresis, Marker

    12) Product Images from "Tagsteady: a metabarcoding library preparation protocol to avoid false assignment of sequences to samples"

    Article Title: Tagsteady: a metabarcoding library preparation protocol to avoid false assignment of sequences to samples

    Journal: bioRxiv

    doi: 10.1101/2020.01.22.915009

    Average percentage of sequences carrying tag-jumps across amplicon pools built into Illumina libraries with four different library protocol treatments; +/+: T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and post-ligation PCR; −/+: no T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending, with post-ligation PCR; +/−: T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and no post-ligation PCR; −/−: no T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and no post-ligation PCR (Tagsteady protocol) (n=6 for +/+, −/+, +/−, −/−). To mimic the effect of large amounts of single-stranded DNA generated in the metabarcoding PCR, aliquots of four of the amplicon pools were denatured and subsequently re-hybridized to form double-stranded DNA. These were then built into libraries with the −/− and +/− protocols (n=4 for d+/− and d−/−. Asterisks (*) denotes statistical significant difference between treatments (unpaired t-test, α=0.05).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Average percentage of sequences carrying tag-jumps across amplicon pools built into Illumina libraries with four different library protocol treatments; +/+: T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and post-ligation PCR; −/+: no T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending, with post-ligation PCR; +/−: T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and no post-ligation PCR; −/−: no T4 DNA polymerase blunt-ending and no post-ligation PCR (Tagsteady protocol) (n=6 for +/+, −/+, +/−, −/−). To mimic the effect of large amounts of single-stranded DNA generated in the metabarcoding PCR, aliquots of four of the amplicon pools were denatured and subsequently re-hybridized to form double-stranded DNA. These were then built into libraries with the −/− and +/− protocols (n=4 for d+/− and d−/−. Asterisks (*) denotes statistical significant difference between treatments (unpaired t-test, α=0.05).

    Techniques Used: Amplification, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated

    Overview of metabarcoding and library preparation steps and formation of tag-jumps in a typical ‘shotgun’ Illumina library protocol and our presented Tagsteady library protocol. 1) Metabarcoding PCR with 5’ nucleotide tagged primers. To allow detection of tag-jumps, only unique twin-tag combinations is visualised. Following pooling of PCR reactions, differently tagged single-stranded amplicons can form heteroduplexes with non-complementary tag overhangs. 2) In a typical ‘shotgun’ Illumina library protocol (left), T4 DNA polymerase is used for blunt-ending, T4 PNK for 5’ phosphorylation and Taq polymerase for 3’ adenylation. In this type of end-repair, 3’ overhangs (in heteroduplexes) will become substrate for the 3’→5’ exonuclease activity of T4 DNA Polymerase. The opposite strand, the 5’ overhangs (i.e. the inherent tag), will then act as a template for extension, causing the tag to ‘jump’ from one strand to the other (asterisk) (see van Orsouw et al. 2007 ; Schnell, Bohmann, and Gilbert 2015 ). The Tagsteady end-repair (right) only contains T4 PNK and Klenow exo- (thus no exonuclease activity) and therefore tag-jumps cannot arise. 3) After end repair, T4 DNA Ligase is used to ligate Illumina sequencing adapters (here depicted as Illumina Y-shaped adapters). 4) Often post-ligation PCR is carried out, causing further tag-jumps as a result of incomplete primer extension. Post-ligation PCR is not necessary with the Tagsteady protocol as it uses PCR-free full length adapters. 5) Sequencing of libraries on an Illumina sequencing platform. 6) Following initial sequence read processing, sequences within each amplicon library are sorted according to primer and tag sequences to assess levels of sequences carrying new combinations of used tags (tag-jumps).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Overview of metabarcoding and library preparation steps and formation of tag-jumps in a typical ‘shotgun’ Illumina library protocol and our presented Tagsteady library protocol. 1) Metabarcoding PCR with 5’ nucleotide tagged primers. To allow detection of tag-jumps, only unique twin-tag combinations is visualised. Following pooling of PCR reactions, differently tagged single-stranded amplicons can form heteroduplexes with non-complementary tag overhangs. 2) In a typical ‘shotgun’ Illumina library protocol (left), T4 DNA polymerase is used for blunt-ending, T4 PNK for 5’ phosphorylation and Taq polymerase for 3’ adenylation. In this type of end-repair, 3’ overhangs (in heteroduplexes) will become substrate for the 3’→5’ exonuclease activity of T4 DNA Polymerase. The opposite strand, the 5’ overhangs (i.e. the inherent tag), will then act as a template for extension, causing the tag to ‘jump’ from one strand to the other (asterisk) (see van Orsouw et al. 2007 ; Schnell, Bohmann, and Gilbert 2015 ). The Tagsteady end-repair (right) only contains T4 PNK and Klenow exo- (thus no exonuclease activity) and therefore tag-jumps cannot arise. 3) After end repair, T4 DNA Ligase is used to ligate Illumina sequencing adapters (here depicted as Illumina Y-shaped adapters). 4) Often post-ligation PCR is carried out, causing further tag-jumps as a result of incomplete primer extension. Post-ligation PCR is not necessary with the Tagsteady protocol as it uses PCR-free full length adapters. 5) Sequencing of libraries on an Illumina sequencing platform. 6) Following initial sequence read processing, sequences within each amplicon library are sorted according to primer and tag sequences to assess levels of sequences carrying new combinations of used tags (tag-jumps).

    Techniques Used: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Activity Assay, Sequencing, Ligation, Amplification

    Experimental overview. 1A) Six pools of 5’ twin-tagged amplicons generated with three metabarcoding primer sets were used to assess the effect of blunt-ending and post-ligation PCR on tag-jumps. Each of the six amplicon pools were subjected to four different treatments. 1B) The four treatments represent combinations with and without T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending in the end-repair step and 1C) with and without post-ligation PCR. 1D) This resulted in 24 libraries for the 6 amplicon pools, representing four library preparation treatments for each amplicon pool. 2A) To further assess the effect of T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending on the prevalence of tag-jumps, we denatured and re-hybridised four amplicon pools (16sMam1/2 and 16sIns1/2). 2B) End-repair was carried out with and without T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending and with no post-ligation PCR (2C). 3) Finally, to validate the robustness and stability of the Tagsteady protocol, we applied it to 15 pools of twin-tagged amplicons.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Experimental overview. 1A) Six pools of 5’ twin-tagged amplicons generated with three metabarcoding primer sets were used to assess the effect of blunt-ending and post-ligation PCR on tag-jumps. Each of the six amplicon pools were subjected to four different treatments. 1B) The four treatments represent combinations with and without T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending in the end-repair step and 1C) with and without post-ligation PCR. 1D) This resulted in 24 libraries for the 6 amplicon pools, representing four library preparation treatments for each amplicon pool. 2A) To further assess the effect of T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending on the prevalence of tag-jumps, we denatured and re-hybridised four amplicon pools (16sMam1/2 and 16sIns1/2). 2B) End-repair was carried out with and without T4 DNA Polymerase blunt-ending and with no post-ligation PCR (2C). 3) Finally, to validate the robustness and stability of the Tagsteady protocol, we applied it to 15 pools of twin-tagged amplicons.

    Techniques Used: Generated, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification

    13) Product Images from "YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops"

    Article Title: YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops

    Journal: Cell

    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.008

    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .
    Figure Legend Snippet: YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .

    Techniques Used: In Vitro, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, DNA Ligation, Incubation

    14) Product Images from "Next-Generation DNA Curtains for Single-Molecule Studies of Homologous Recombination"

    Article Title: Next-Generation DNA Curtains for Single-Molecule Studies of Homologous Recombination

    Journal: Methods in enzymology

    doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2017.03.011

    Nucleoprotein filament dynamics on low sequence complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) Sequences of the two ssDNA oligonucleotides used for rolling circle replication. (B) Schematic of rolling circle replication (RCR) reaction. T4 DNA ligase ligates the template oligo to form a contiguous template strand. Next, phi29 DNA polymerase catalyzes the synthesis of long ssDNA molecules. (C) Agarose gel of several time points along the RCR synthesis reaction. The primer oligonucleotide was 32 P labeled on the 5 ′ -terminus phosphate ( gold star ). (D) Wide-field image of a microfabricated barrier set with double-tethered ssDNA curtains coated with RPA-TagRFP ( magenta ). Arrows and circles denote chromium barriers and pedestals, respectively. (E) Illustration and kymograph showing a single ssDNA molecule coated with ATTO488-RAD51(C319S) ( green ) replaced by RPA-TagRFP ( magenta ). Yellow dashed line denotes the injection of RPA–TagRFP into the flowcell. Buffer controls indicate when the buffer flow was toggled off and on to show that the florescent proteins retract to the Cr barriers simultaneously with the ssDNA molecule. This indicates that RAD51 and RPA are on the ssDNA molecule. Panel A: Adapted from Lee, K. S., Marciel, A. B., Kozlov, A. G., Schroeder, C. M., Lohman, T. M., Ha, T. (2014). Ultrafast redistribution of E. coli SSB along long single-stranded DNA via intersegment transfer. Journal of Molecular Biology, 426 , 2413 – 2421.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Nucleoprotein filament dynamics on low sequence complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) Sequences of the two ssDNA oligonucleotides used for rolling circle replication. (B) Schematic of rolling circle replication (RCR) reaction. T4 DNA ligase ligates the template oligo to form a contiguous template strand. Next, phi29 DNA polymerase catalyzes the synthesis of long ssDNA molecules. (C) Agarose gel of several time points along the RCR synthesis reaction. The primer oligonucleotide was 32 P labeled on the 5 ′ -terminus phosphate ( gold star ). (D) Wide-field image of a microfabricated barrier set with double-tethered ssDNA curtains coated with RPA-TagRFP ( magenta ). Arrows and circles denote chromium barriers and pedestals, respectively. (E) Illustration and kymograph showing a single ssDNA molecule coated with ATTO488-RAD51(C319S) ( green ) replaced by RPA-TagRFP ( magenta ). Yellow dashed line denotes the injection of RPA–TagRFP into the flowcell. Buffer controls indicate when the buffer flow was toggled off and on to show that the florescent proteins retract to the Cr barriers simultaneously with the ssDNA molecule. This indicates that RAD51 and RPA are on the ssDNA molecule. Panel A: Adapted from Lee, K. S., Marciel, A. B., Kozlov, A. G., Schroeder, C. M., Lohman, T. M., Ha, T. (2014). Ultrafast redistribution of E. coli SSB along long single-stranded DNA via intersegment transfer. Journal of Molecular Biology, 426 , 2413 – 2421.

    Techniques Used: Sequencing, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification, Injection, Flow Cytometry

    15) Product Images from "Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases"

    Article Title: Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190062

    Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoresis, Produced, Ligation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Produced, Standard Deviation

    16) Product Images from "Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins"

    Article Title: Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa270

    Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.

    Techniques Used: Modification, Derivative Assay, Fluorescence, Hybridization, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated, Amplification, Sequencing, Construct

    17) Product Images from "Biochemical Properties of a Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibitor of STAT3 Transcription Factor"

    Article Title: Biochemical Properties of a Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibitor of STAT3 Transcription Factor

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19061608

    Ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D) is unaffected by biotinylation. ( A ) Structures of parental and biotinylated STAT3 decoy (S3D) and CS3D. ( B ) CS3D and biotinylated CS3D were incubated with T4 DNA ligase overnight, followed by electrophoresis on a urea/polyacrylamide gel and staining with SYBR Gold.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D) is unaffected by biotinylation. ( A ) Structures of parental and biotinylated STAT3 decoy (S3D) and CS3D. ( B ) CS3D and biotinylated CS3D were incubated with T4 DNA ligase overnight, followed by electrophoresis on a urea/polyacrylamide gel and staining with SYBR Gold.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Incubation, Electrophoresis, Staining

    Efficient ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D). ( A ) Schematic representation of CS3D ligation with T4 DNA ligase. The complementary segments of the single-stranded decoy molecule spontaneously self-anneal. Enzymatic ligation with T4 DNA ligase was used to complete cyclization. ( B ) Incubations were performed in the absence or presence of T4 DNA ligase overnight. Multiple identical ligations ( n = 5) were simultaneously performed. Samples from each reaction were then electrophoresed on a urea/polyacrylamide gel, stained with SYBR Gold, and quantified by densitometry.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Efficient ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D). ( A ) Schematic representation of CS3D ligation with T4 DNA ligase. The complementary segments of the single-stranded decoy molecule spontaneously self-anneal. Enzymatic ligation with T4 DNA ligase was used to complete cyclization. ( B ) Incubations were performed in the absence or presence of T4 DNA ligase overnight. Multiple identical ligations ( n = 5) were simultaneously performed. Samples from each reaction were then electrophoresed on a urea/polyacrylamide gel, stained with SYBR Gold, and quantified by densitometry.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Staining

    18) Product Images from "Genomic Characterization of Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica-Infecting Podoviruses of Pig Origin"

    Article Title: Genomic Characterization of Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica-Infecting Podoviruses of Pig Origin

    Journal: Viruses

    doi: 10.3390/v10040174

    The genomic map of fPS-7. The predicted genes are arranged in the direction of transcription shown by different colored arrows. Genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, recombination or repair are shown in green. Genes involved in morphogenesis and virion structures are depicted in brown. Genes involved in DNA packaging and lysis, are shown in blue and red, respectively. Genes coding for hypothetical proteins or conserved phage proteins of unknown function are shown in light grey. Homing endonucleases are shown in yellow. Direct terminal repeats (DTRs) are shown in black. On top of the genome, the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)-dependent promoters are shown with red double-arrows labelled with −35 and −10, and the phage RNAP-dependent promoters with black arrows labelled from P1 to P12. Terminators are shown along the genome as purple triangles and labelled from T1 to T4. The genetic map was created using the Geneious software.
    Figure Legend Snippet: The genomic map of fPS-7. The predicted genes are arranged in the direction of transcription shown by different colored arrows. Genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, recombination or repair are shown in green. Genes involved in morphogenesis and virion structures are depicted in brown. Genes involved in DNA packaging and lysis, are shown in blue and red, respectively. Genes coding for hypothetical proteins or conserved phage proteins of unknown function are shown in light grey. Homing endonucleases are shown in yellow. Direct terminal repeats (DTRs) are shown in black. On top of the genome, the host RNA polymerase (RNAP)-dependent promoters are shown with red double-arrows labelled with −35 and −10, and the phage RNAP-dependent promoters with black arrows labelled from P1 to P12. Terminators are shown along the genome as purple triangles and labelled from T1 to T4. The genetic map was created using the Geneious software.

    Techniques Used: Lysis, Software

    19) Product Images from "Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases"

    Article Title: Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190062

    Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoresis, Produced, Ligation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Produced, Standard Deviation

    20) Product Images from "Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases"

    Article Title: Comparative analysis of the end-joining activity of several DNA ligases

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190062

    Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic representation of DNA ligase fusions. All DNA ligases contain a catalytic core NTase domain (blue) and an OBD (red), which are fairly well conserved. Many ligases also have additional domains, such as the N-terminal ZnF (yellow) and DBD (green) in Human Lig3 and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of T4 DNA ligase (purple). Wild type PBCV1 ligase, which contains only the core NTase and OBD domains, was chosen for fusion to other binding domains: Sso7d (white) at both the N- and C-termini, the hLig3 ZnF domain, and the T4 DNA ligase NTD.

    Techniques Used: Binding Assay

    Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase λ DNA digest ligation assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis of λ DNA cut by EcoRV (A/T Blunt, 1 ), NruI (G/C Blunt, 2 ), BstNI (5′ SBO, 3 ), Hpy188I (3′SBO, 4 ), NdeI (2 BO, 5 ) and BamHI (4 BO, 6 ), generating DNA fragments with ligatable ends. 0.5 ng of the cut DNA was ligated in the presence of T4 ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)) and 7 μM of the indicated DNA ligase for 1 hour at 25°C. Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and, hLig3 (D), respectively. E) Gel of restriction enzyme digested λ DNA samples as well as a schematic depiction of each substrate. The DNA fragments were visualized using ethidium bromide stain.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Wild type DNA ligase blunt/cohesive capillary electrophoresis assay. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with T4 DNA ligase (A), T3 DNA ligase (B), PBCV1 DNA ligase (C) and hLig3 (D), respectively Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Electrophoresis, Produced, Ligation, Standard Deviation

    Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Effect of DBD on blunt/cohesive end ligation. Bar graphs depict the fraction of either ligated DNA (product, blue) or abortive adenylylation (App, red) produced in a 20-minute sealing reaction with the indicated DNA substrate. Reactions included 1 μM of the DNA ligase, 100 nM of the substrate and reaction conditions consisting of either T4 DNA ligase reaction buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5 @ 25°C, 1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl 2 ) or NEBNext ® Quick Ligation reaction buffer (66 mM Tris pH 7.6 @ 25°C, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM DTT, 1 mM ATP, 6% Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)). Ligation assays performed with PBCV1-Nterm-Sso7d (A), PBCV1-Cterm-Sso7d terminus (B), PBCV1-Nterm-ZnF (C), PBCV1-Nterm-T4NTD (D). Experiments were performed in triplicate; the plotted value is the average and the error bars represent the standard deviation across replicates.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Produced, Standard Deviation

    21) Product Images from "S1-seq assay for mapping processed DNA ends"

    Article Title: S1-seq assay for mapping processed DNA ends

    Journal: Methods in enzymology

    doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2017.11.031

    Schematic of the key steps employed in S1-seq: DNA from meiotic cells bearing processed Spo11 DSBs is embedded in agarose plugs to protect from shearing. Treatment with S1 nuclease and T4 DNA polymerase removes the 3′ overhang and prepares the ends for ligation with the 5′ biotinylated adaptor. Following extraction from the plugs and sonication, the biotinylated fragments are bound on streptavidin beads and the second adaptor is ligated. Low-cycle amplification by PCR creates the library that is submitted for next generation sequencing and eventually mapped to the reference genome.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic of the key steps employed in S1-seq: DNA from meiotic cells bearing processed Spo11 DSBs is embedded in agarose plugs to protect from shearing. Treatment with S1 nuclease and T4 DNA polymerase removes the 3′ overhang and prepares the ends for ligation with the 5′ biotinylated adaptor. Following extraction from the plugs and sonication, the biotinylated fragments are bound on streptavidin beads and the second adaptor is ligated. Low-cycle amplification by PCR creates the library that is submitted for next generation sequencing and eventually mapped to the reference genome.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Sonication, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Next-Generation Sequencing

    22) Product Images from ""

    Article Title:

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.284992

    Reaction of T4 DNA ligase with substrate 1 ( A ) and adenylylated substrate 1A ( B ) under single turnover conditions. Each reaction was run with 500 n m ligase and 100 n m substrate in the standard ATP-free assay buffer. Ligase that was > 95% adenylylated was used for A , and
    Figure Legend Snippet: Reaction of T4 DNA ligase with substrate 1 ( A ) and adenylylated substrate 1A ( B ) under single turnover conditions. Each reaction was run with 500 n m ligase and 100 n m substrate in the standard ATP-free assay buffer. Ligase that was > 95% adenylylated was used for A , and

    Techniques Used:

    Pre-steady state reactions of 30 n m (♦) and 50 n m (■) T4 DNA ligase with 100 n m substrate 1. Reactions were run in the standard assay buffer. Each time point represents the average of three experiments, and the error bars represent one S.D. The dashed lines represent fits by simulation using the chemical rates determined from single turnover reaction of substrate 1 , literature values for Step 1 rates, and diffusion-limited binding of DNA and allowing the rate of product release ( k off ) and the amplitude ( a ) to vary. The best fit was obtained with a = 0.51 and k off = 0.58 s −1 .
    Figure Legend Snippet: Pre-steady state reactions of 30 n m (♦) and 50 n m (■) T4 DNA ligase with 100 n m substrate 1. Reactions were run in the standard assay buffer. Each time point represents the average of three experiments, and the error bars represent one S.D. The dashed lines represent fits by simulation using the chemical rates determined from single turnover reaction of substrate 1 , literature values for Step 1 rates, and diffusion-limited binding of DNA and allowing the rate of product release ( k off ) and the amplitude ( a ) to vary. The best fit was obtained with a = 0.51 and k off = 0.58 s −1 .

    Techniques Used: Diffusion-based Assay, Binding Assay

    Determination of k cat and k cat / K m for T4 DNA ligase and nicked substrates. Shown is reaction of 1 n m T4 DNA ligase with 1 n m (○), 2 n m (*), 5 n m (×), 10 n m (△), 20 n m (♢), and 50 n m (□) substrate 1 in standard assay buffer at 16 °C ( A ) and 1 n m T4 DNA ligase (
    Figure Legend Snippet: Determination of k cat and k cat / K m for T4 DNA ligase and nicked substrates. Shown is reaction of 1 n m T4 DNA ligase with 1 n m (○), 2 n m (*), 5 n m (×), 10 n m (△), 20 n m (♢), and 50 n m (□) substrate 1 in standard assay buffer at 16 °C ( A ) and 1 n m T4 DNA ligase (

    Techniques Used:

    23) Product Images from "Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins"

    Article Title: Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa270

    Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.

    Techniques Used: Modification, Derivative Assay, Fluorescence, Hybridization, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated, Amplification, Sequencing, Construct

    24) Product Images from "RE-SELEX: restriction enzyme-based evolution of structure-switching aptamer biosensors †"

    Article Title: RE-SELEX: restriction enzyme-based evolution of structure-switching aptamer biosensors †

    Journal: Chemical Science

    doi: 10.1039/d1sc02715h

    Homogenous EcoRI-HF SELEX to generate structure-switching aptamers. (a) FAM-labeled DNA library having an N 40 random region was hybridized to capture strand and the complex digested with EcoRI-HF. The cleaved product (70 nt) was gel purified and full-length product (90 nt) was recovered through split ligation by T4 DNA ligase. The re-ligated library members were hybridized to free capture strand and incubated with the target. Active biosensor sequences were enriched by EcoRI-HF digestion followed by PCR amplification. ssDNA library was purified by 10% denaturing PAGE and carried on to subsequent selection rounds. (b) Chemical structure of kanamycin A. (c) Progression of EcoRI-HF SELEX to generate structure-switching aptamers to kanamycin A. Following digestion, cleavage products were monitored by 10% denaturing PAGE. Band intensity was used to quantify percent uncleaved.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Homogenous EcoRI-HF SELEX to generate structure-switching aptamers. (a) FAM-labeled DNA library having an N 40 random region was hybridized to capture strand and the complex digested with EcoRI-HF. The cleaved product (70 nt) was gel purified and full-length product (90 nt) was recovered through split ligation by T4 DNA ligase. The re-ligated library members were hybridized to free capture strand and incubated with the target. Active biosensor sequences were enriched by EcoRI-HF digestion followed by PCR amplification. ssDNA library was purified by 10% denaturing PAGE and carried on to subsequent selection rounds. (b) Chemical structure of kanamycin A. (c) Progression of EcoRI-HF SELEX to generate structure-switching aptamers to kanamycin A. Following digestion, cleavage products were monitored by 10% denaturing PAGE. Band intensity was used to quantify percent uncleaved.

    Techniques Used: Labeling, Purification, Ligation, Incubation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Selection

    25) Product Images from "Position of Deltaproteobacteria Cas12e nuclease cleavage sites depends on spacer length of guide RNA"

    Article Title: Position of Deltaproteobacteria Cas12e nuclease cleavage sites depends on spacer length of guide RNA

    Journal: RNA Biology

    doi: 10.1080/15476286.2020.1777378

    A workflow of sample preparation for determination of positions of DNA cleavage sites produced by Cas nucleases in vitro. The cleaved DNA fragments generated by Cas nuclease during in vitro DNA cleavage reaction (Step I) are blunted using T4 PNK and T4 DNA polymerase (Step II). A-base is added to 3ʹ ends (Step III) for further ligation of Illumina NEBNext sequencing adaptors containing uridine (Step IV). Uridines are cleaved out using the NEB USER enzyme, which combines uracil DNA glycosylase and endonuclease VIII activity. Next, the samples are barcoded to produce DNA libraries ready for high throughput sequencing.
    Figure Legend Snippet: A workflow of sample preparation for determination of positions of DNA cleavage sites produced by Cas nucleases in vitro. The cleaved DNA fragments generated by Cas nuclease during in vitro DNA cleavage reaction (Step I) are blunted using T4 PNK and T4 DNA polymerase (Step II). A-base is added to 3ʹ ends (Step III) for further ligation of Illumina NEBNext sequencing adaptors containing uridine (Step IV). Uridines are cleaved out using the NEB USER enzyme, which combines uracil DNA glycosylase and endonuclease VIII activity. Next, the samples are barcoded to produce DNA libraries ready for high throughput sequencing.

    Techniques Used: Sample Prep, Produced, In Vitro, Generated, Ligation, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Next-Generation Sequencing

    26) Product Images from "Human RECQ1 Interacts with Ku70/80 and Modulates DNA End-Joining of Double-Strand Breaks"

    Article Title: Human RECQ1 Interacts with Ku70/80 and Modulates DNA End-Joining of Double-Strand Breaks

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062481

    RECQ1 modulates DNA end-joining. A. RECQ1 affects DNA end-joining by T4 ligase. Comparison of ligation products of 5′-cohesive (left panel) or blunt (right panel) ended linear DNA after incubation with T4 ligase alone, or after pre-incubation with the increasing amount of RECQ1 (0–260 ng) or Ku70/80 (0–400 ng) as described in materials and methods. IgG (1µg) was included as unrelated protein in a control reaction. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. O.C., open circular. DNA size marker is shown in leftmost lane. B. RECQ1 antibody interferes with cell free extract mediated end-joining in vitro . The effect of antibodies against human RECQ1 (1.5 and 3 µg) or Ku70/80 (1 and 2 µg) was tested in DNA end-joining reactions assembled with 5 µg HeLa cell free extract. Antibodies at the indicated amounts were incubated with cell free extract for 10 min at room temperature in NHEJ buffer without DNA and ATP. Subsequently, EcoRI-linearized pUC19 DNA and ATP were added to start the reaction followed by 2 h incubation at room temperature. Reaction products were purified and analyzed by SYBR Gold staining after resolution on agarose gel. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. C. Immunodepletion of RECQ1 or Ku70/80 from cell extracts results in similarly reduced end-joining. DNA end joining reactions were performed using HeLa extract depleted either with anti-RECQ1 polyclonal antibody (upper panel) or with the anti-Ku70/80 monoclonal antibody (lower panel) as described. Mock-depleted extracts used preimmune rabbit or mouse IgG as control for RECQ1 or Ku70/80 depletion, respectively. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. Inverted image of a typical gel is shown. ImageJ was used to quantitate dimer product in each case, and the average from at least three independent experiments are indicated including SD. Western blot of control un-depleted, mock-depleted and RECQ1 or Ku70/80 depleted extracts used in the end-joining reaction is shown along with a loading control (actin) (right).
    Figure Legend Snippet: RECQ1 modulates DNA end-joining. A. RECQ1 affects DNA end-joining by T4 ligase. Comparison of ligation products of 5′-cohesive (left panel) or blunt (right panel) ended linear DNA after incubation with T4 ligase alone, or after pre-incubation with the increasing amount of RECQ1 (0–260 ng) or Ku70/80 (0–400 ng) as described in materials and methods. IgG (1µg) was included as unrelated protein in a control reaction. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. O.C., open circular. DNA size marker is shown in leftmost lane. B. RECQ1 antibody interferes with cell free extract mediated end-joining in vitro . The effect of antibodies against human RECQ1 (1.5 and 3 µg) or Ku70/80 (1 and 2 µg) was tested in DNA end-joining reactions assembled with 5 µg HeLa cell free extract. Antibodies at the indicated amounts were incubated with cell free extract for 10 min at room temperature in NHEJ buffer without DNA and ATP. Subsequently, EcoRI-linearized pUC19 DNA and ATP were added to start the reaction followed by 2 h incubation at room temperature. Reaction products were purified and analyzed by SYBR Gold staining after resolution on agarose gel. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. C. Immunodepletion of RECQ1 or Ku70/80 from cell extracts results in similarly reduced end-joining. DNA end joining reactions were performed using HeLa extract depleted either with anti-RECQ1 polyclonal antibody (upper panel) or with the anti-Ku70/80 monoclonal antibody (lower panel) as described. Mock-depleted extracts used preimmune rabbit or mouse IgG as control for RECQ1 or Ku70/80 depletion, respectively. Linear substrate DNA is indicated as monomer, and the end-joined products corresponding to dimer and trimer are indicated. Inverted image of a typical gel is shown. ImageJ was used to quantitate dimer product in each case, and the average from at least three independent experiments are indicated including SD. Western blot of control un-depleted, mock-depleted and RECQ1 or Ku70/80 depleted extracts used in the end-joining reaction is shown along with a loading control (actin) (right).

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Incubation, Marker, In Vitro, Non-Homologous End Joining, Purification, Staining, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Western Blot

    27) Product Images from "Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins"

    Article Title: Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa270

    Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.

    Techniques Used: Modification, Derivative Assay, Fluorescence, Hybridization, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated, Amplification, Sequencing, Construct

    28) Product Images from "A simple and efficient cloning system for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in rice"

    Article Title: A simple and efficient cloning system for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in rice

    Journal: PeerJ

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.8491

    Workflow for constructing expression clone containing two target-sgRNA expression cassettes with Golden Gate clone. Primers containing adaptors for Golden Gate cloning (OJH307 and OJH308) were used in the amplification with PJG090 as the template. The reagents were recommended as following: one ul of PCR product, 50 ng of PJG112, one ul of Cutsmart Buffer (NEB), 0.4 ul of T4 ligase buffer (NEB), 5 U of Bsa I (NEB), 20 U of T4 DNA ligase (NEB) and add ddH 2 O to 10 ul. The reaction was incubated for 20–25 cycles (37 °C 2 min, 20 °C 5 min), followed by incubation at 50 °C and 80 °C for 5 min, respectively. Subsequently, one ul of the product was introduced into Trans T1 competent cells. Positive clones were identified by clone PCR and sequenced.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Workflow for constructing expression clone containing two target-sgRNA expression cassettes with Golden Gate clone. Primers containing adaptors for Golden Gate cloning (OJH307 and OJH308) were used in the amplification with PJG090 as the template. The reagents were recommended as following: one ul of PCR product, 50 ng of PJG112, one ul of Cutsmart Buffer (NEB), 0.4 ul of T4 ligase buffer (NEB), 5 U of Bsa I (NEB), 20 U of T4 DNA ligase (NEB) and add ddH 2 O to 10 ul. The reaction was incubated for 20–25 cycles (37 °C 2 min, 20 °C 5 min), followed by incubation at 50 °C and 80 °C for 5 min, respectively. Subsequently, one ul of the product was introduced into Trans T1 competent cells. Positive clones were identified by clone PCR and sequenced.

    Techniques Used: Expressing, Clone Assay, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Incubation

    29) Product Images from "Biochemical Properties of a Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibitor of STAT3 Transcription Factor"

    Article Title: Biochemical Properties of a Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibitor of STAT3 Transcription Factor

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19061608

    Ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D) is unaffected by biotinylation. ( A ) Structures of parental and biotinylated STAT3 decoy (S3D) and CS3D. ( B ) CS3D and biotinylated CS3D were incubated with T4 DNA ligase overnight, followed by electrophoresis on a urea/polyacrylamide gel and staining with SYBR Gold.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D) is unaffected by biotinylation. ( A ) Structures of parental and biotinylated STAT3 decoy (S3D) and CS3D. ( B ) CS3D and biotinylated CS3D were incubated with T4 DNA ligase overnight, followed by electrophoresis on a urea/polyacrylamide gel and staining with SYBR Gold.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Incubation, Electrophoresis, Staining

    Efficient ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D). ( A ) Schematic representation of CS3D ligation with T4 DNA ligase. The complementary segments of the single-stranded decoy molecule spontaneously self-anneal. Enzymatic ligation with T4 DNA ligase was used to complete cyclization. ( B ) Incubations were performed in the absence or presence of T4 DNA ligase overnight. Multiple identical ligations ( n = 5) were simultaneously performed. Samples from each reaction were then electrophoresed on a urea/polyacrylamide gel, stained with SYBR Gold, and quantified by densitometry.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Efficient ligation of cyclic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) decoy (CS3D). ( A ) Schematic representation of CS3D ligation with T4 DNA ligase. The complementary segments of the single-stranded decoy molecule spontaneously self-anneal. Enzymatic ligation with T4 DNA ligase was used to complete cyclization. ( B ) Incubations were performed in the absence or presence of T4 DNA ligase overnight. Multiple identical ligations ( n = 5) were simultaneously performed. Samples from each reaction were then electrophoresed on a urea/polyacrylamide gel, stained with SYBR Gold, and quantified by densitometry.

    Techniques Used: Ligation, Staining

    30) Product Images from "Construction and characterization of mismatch-containing circular DNA molecules competent for assessment of nick-directed human mismatch repair in vitro"

    Article Title: Construction and characterization of mismatch-containing circular DNA molecules competent for assessment of nick-directed human mismatch repair in vitro

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi:

    Strategy for constructing nicked heteroduplexes. A mismatch-containing oligonucleotide duplex (Fig. 1) is ligated into a template plasmid molecule (1). Linearization of the plasmid (2) in the presence of the heteroduplex oligo, T4 ligase and restriction enzyme ( Bam HI) allows ligation of the small fragments onto each DNA end as a dead-end complex (3), because the Bam HI site is eliminated. Re-ligation of Bam HI-generated plasmid ends yields a molecule competent for a second digestion, returning them to the substrate pool. In the next step, digestion with Eco RI removes one ligation product and generates a ligation-competent DNA end (4). After removal of the smaller fragment, an intramolecular ligation reaction generates the nicked circular product (5). Unwanted linear molecules are removed by digestion with Exonuclease V (Materials and Methods).
    Figure Legend Snippet: Strategy for constructing nicked heteroduplexes. A mismatch-containing oligonucleotide duplex (Fig. 1) is ligated into a template plasmid molecule (1). Linearization of the plasmid (2) in the presence of the heteroduplex oligo, T4 ligase and restriction enzyme ( Bam HI) allows ligation of the small fragments onto each DNA end as a dead-end complex (3), because the Bam HI site is eliminated. Re-ligation of Bam HI-generated plasmid ends yields a molecule competent for a second digestion, returning them to the substrate pool. In the next step, digestion with Eco RI removes one ligation product and generates a ligation-competent DNA end (4). After removal of the smaller fragment, an intramolecular ligation reaction generates the nicked circular product (5). Unwanted linear molecules are removed by digestion with Exonuclease V (Materials and Methods).

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Ligation, Generated

    31) Product Images from "Methylase-assisted subcloning for high throughput BioBrick assembly"

    Article Title: Methylase-assisted subcloning for high throughput BioBrick assembly

    Journal: PeerJ

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.9841

    4R/2M (PstI) BioBrick assembly. The EcoRI site of the recipient plasmid (1) and SpeI site of the insert (2) are methylated in vivo. The recipient plasmid (1) is digested with SpeI and PstI, so that it releases a short 18 bp stuffer (or “snippet”, 4). The donor plasmid (2) is separately digested with XbaI and PstI, producing the desired insert (5) and the undesired donor plasmid fragment (6). The restriction enzymes are heat-killed, the digestion products are mixed and reacted with T4 DNA ligase, forming three sets of ligation products: parental-plasmids (1-2), homodimers (7-9) and heterodimers (10-13). The 36 bp snippet homodimer is not shown, nor are trimer, tetramer and other higher order products. The homodimer products (7-9) are large perfect inverted repeats, which are not expected to replicate efficiently in vivo. Moreover, none of the undesired parental (1-2), homodimer (7-9) or heterodimers (10-11) are resistant to subsequent digestion with EcoRI and SpeI. Only the desired insert/recipient recombinant plasmid (13) retains its ability to transform E. coli .
    Figure Legend Snippet: 4R/2M (PstI) BioBrick assembly. The EcoRI site of the recipient plasmid (1) and SpeI site of the insert (2) are methylated in vivo. The recipient plasmid (1) is digested with SpeI and PstI, so that it releases a short 18 bp stuffer (or “snippet”, 4). The donor plasmid (2) is separately digested with XbaI and PstI, producing the desired insert (5) and the undesired donor plasmid fragment (6). The restriction enzymes are heat-killed, the digestion products are mixed and reacted with T4 DNA ligase, forming three sets of ligation products: parental-plasmids (1-2), homodimers (7-9) and heterodimers (10-13). The 36 bp snippet homodimer is not shown, nor are trimer, tetramer and other higher order products. The homodimer products (7-9) are large perfect inverted repeats, which are not expected to replicate efficiently in vivo. Moreover, none of the undesired parental (1-2), homodimer (7-9) or heterodimers (10-11) are resistant to subsequent digestion with EcoRI and SpeI. Only the desired insert/recipient recombinant plasmid (13) retains its ability to transform E. coli .

    Techniques Used: Plasmid Preparation, Methylation, In Vivo, Ligation, Recombinant

    2RM BioBrick assembly. The XbaI site of one cloned BioBrick part (1), and the SpeI site of another (2), are methylated in vivo. These methylated plasmids are mixed together with XbaI, SpeI and T4 DNA ligase. Each plasmid is digested by one restriction endonuclease and protected from the other. The linear digestion products (3-4) are self-ligated to form the parental plasmids (1-2), to another copy of the same molecule in one of two orientations to form a homodimer product (5-8) or to a copy of the other plasmid (again in one of two possible orientations) to form a heterodimer (9-10). The parental plasmids (1-2) and homodimers (5-8) are susceptible to re-digestion, so they are depleted over time while the heterodimers (9-10) accumulate. Both the desired (10) and undesired (9) heterodimers replicate in vivo so restriction mapping is required to differentiate between the two.
    Figure Legend Snippet: 2RM BioBrick assembly. The XbaI site of one cloned BioBrick part (1), and the SpeI site of another (2), are methylated in vivo. These methylated plasmids are mixed together with XbaI, SpeI and T4 DNA ligase. Each plasmid is digested by one restriction endonuclease and protected from the other. The linear digestion products (3-4) are self-ligated to form the parental plasmids (1-2), to another copy of the same molecule in one of two orientations to form a homodimer product (5-8) or to a copy of the other plasmid (again in one of two possible orientations) to form a heterodimer (9-10). The parental plasmids (1-2) and homodimers (5-8) are susceptible to re-digestion, so they are depleted over time while the heterodimers (9-10) accumulate. Both the desired (10) and undesired (9) heterodimers replicate in vivo so restriction mapping is required to differentiate between the two.

    Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Methylation, In Vivo, Plasmid Preparation

    32) Product Images from "Pyrite cloning: a single tube and programmed reaction cloning with restriction enzymes"

    Article Title: Pyrite cloning: a single tube and programmed reaction cloning with restriction enzymes

    Journal: Plant Methods

    doi: 10.1186/s13007-018-0359-7

    Schematic diagram of Pyrite cloning and results. Diagram of Pyrite cloning. An intact plasmid vector and a DNA fragment (purified PCR product) with compatible restriction enzyme sites (RES1 and RES2) are incubated in a single tube together with the restriction enzymes (RE1 and RE2) and T4 DNA ligase. After the Pyrite reaction (incubation condition shown in box), the reaction can be directly transformed into E. coli without purification. Colony PCR will then screen for those colonies containing vectors with inserts
    Figure Legend Snippet: Schematic diagram of Pyrite cloning and results. Diagram of Pyrite cloning. An intact plasmid vector and a DNA fragment (purified PCR product) with compatible restriction enzyme sites (RES1 and RES2) are incubated in a single tube together with the restriction enzymes (RE1 and RE2) and T4 DNA ligase. After the Pyrite reaction (incubation condition shown in box), the reaction can be directly transformed into E. coli without purification. Colony PCR will then screen for those colonies containing vectors with inserts

    Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Incubation, Transformation Assay

    33) Product Images from "Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins"

    Article Title: Split mix assembly of DNA libraries for ultrahigh throughput on-bead screening of functional proteins

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa270

    Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Design of bead surface and solid-phase manipulations of DNA. ( A ) Beads were designed to display both azide (labelled ‘N 3 ’) and SpyTag (labelled ‘ST’) moieties (surface modification described in Supplementary Figure S1 ). ( B ) Flow cytometric analysis of beads for fluorescein-derived fluorescence intensity before (grey) and after (black) immobilisation of fluorescein and DBCO-functionalised DNA (top histogram), after Esp3I treatment (2 hours at 37°C) of the DNA-coated beads (middle histogram) and after exposure of Esp3I-treated beads to a fluorescein-labelled DNA duplex that had a 5′-overhang complementary to the 5′-overhang of bead-immobilised DNA, in T4 DNA ligase buffer, with (black) or without (grey) T4 DNA ligase (bottom histogram). Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S4 . ( C ) Schematic overview of on-bead assembly allowing potential saturation of three codons in close proximity. The final, bead-attached DNA assembly is shown at the top of the panel, with the three DNA fragments used in the construction are shown below. Restriction sites are depicted in red, target codons in green and sequences used for hybridisation during ligation in blue. The first, PCR-generated amplicon (frag 3 ) was attached to bead ( via copper-free click chemistry) and digested by Esp3I. DNA on the bead was extended using an oligonucleotide duplex (frag 2 ) carrying a 5′-phosphorylated cohesive end; the sequence used to ensure stability of the duplex (stability stuffer) prior to ligation is indicated in a diagonal pattern. Once this duplex had been appended to the bead by ligation, a new cohesive end was generated (and stability stuffer removed) through BspQI digestion. Finally, another PCR amplicon (frag 1 ), separately prepared with a cohesive end (using BspQI) was ligated to the bead-immobilised DNA. Details of the DNA sequences used for the generation of this panel are set out in Supplementary Figure S5 . ( D ) Flow cytometric analysis of untreated beads (top trace), beads carrying full length starting template (i.e. with FAM at one end and DBCO at the other, middle trace) and beads having gone through the 3-codon SpliMLiB process described in C. ( E ) Sanger sequencing chromatogram (templated by a PCR amplicon obtained directly from beads) of the exemplary bead-surface assembled construct shown in panel C where codons to be mutated were designed to be in close proximity (bottom). As in panel C, the green coloring refers to mutated positions, while the blue coloring refers to sequences used for ligations.

    Techniques Used: Modification, Derivative Assay, Fluorescence, Hybridization, Ligation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated, Amplification, Sequencing, Construct

    34) Product Images from "CRISPR Toolbox for Genome Editing in Dictyostelium"

    Article Title: CRISPR Toolbox for Genome Editing in Dictyostelium

    Journal: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

    doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.721630

    Single cloning step of a dual sgRNA expression vector. Annealed oligonucleotides are ligated to the tRNA–sgRNA junctions via Golden Gate reaction. DNA sequences of BpiI sites are indicated in yellow box. As the BpiI site is non-palindromic, re-digestion/ligation is not possible. Red and blue letters show the overhangs for cloning and target sequences of sgRNAs, respectively. CRISPR vector, T4 DNA ligase and annealed oligonucleotides for the first and second targets are mixed in a single tube to integrate two targets.
    Figure Legend Snippet: Single cloning step of a dual sgRNA expression vector. Annealed oligonucleotides are ligated to the tRNA–sgRNA junctions via Golden Gate reaction. DNA sequences of BpiI sites are indicated in yellow box. As the BpiI site is non-palindromic, re-digestion/ligation is not possible. Red and blue letters show the overhangs for cloning and target sequences of sgRNAs, respectively. CRISPR vector, T4 DNA ligase and annealed oligonucleotides for the first and second targets are mixed in a single tube to integrate two targets.

    Techniques Used: Clone Assay, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Ligation, CRISPR

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    New England Biolabs t4 dna ligase reaction buffer
    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with <t>T4</t> DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .
    T4 Dna Ligase Reaction Buffer, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4 dna ligase reaction buffer/product/New England Biolabs
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    New England Biolabs t4 dna ligase buffer
    Schematic diagram of Pyrite cloning and results. Diagram of Pyrite cloning. An intact plasmid vector and a DNA fragment (purified PCR product) with compatible restriction enzyme sites (RES1 and RES2) are incubated in a single tube together with the restriction enzymes (RE1 and RE2) and <t>T4</t> DNA ligase. After the Pyrite reaction (incubation condition shown in box), the reaction can be directly transformed into E. coli without purification. Colony PCR will then screen for those colonies containing vectors with inserts
    T4 Dna Ligase Buffer, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4 dna ligase buffer/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t4 dna ligase buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2022-05
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

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    YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .

    Journal: Cell

    Article Title: YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops

    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.008

    Figure Lengend Snippet: YY1 Can Enhance DNA Interactions In Vitro (A and D) Models depicting the in vitro DNA circularization assays used to detect the ability of YY1 to enhance DNA looping interactions with no motif control (A) or competitor DNA control (D). (B and E) Results of the in vitro DNA circularization assay visualized by gel electrophoresis with no motif control (B) or competitor DNA control (E). The dominant lower band reflects the starting linear DNA template, while the upper band corresponds to the circularized DNA ligation product. (C and F) Quantifications of DNA template circularization as a function of incubation time with T4 DNA ligase for no motif control (C) or competitor DNA control (F). Values correspond to the percent of DNA template that is circularized and represents the mean and SD of four experiments. .

    Article Snippet: YY1: 0.25 nM DNA, 1× T4 DNA ligase buffer (NEB B0202S), H2 O 0.12 μg/μL of YY1.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis, DNA Ligation, Incubation

    Assembly of low-complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and a biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low-complexity ssDNA composed solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low-complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end labeling. The 3′ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green)-coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5′-biotin tether.

    Journal: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

    Article Title: Assessing Protein Dynamics on Low-Complexity Single-Stranded DNA Curtains

    doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01812

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assembly of low-complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and a biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low-complexity ssDNA composed solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low-complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end labeling. The 3′ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green)-coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5′-biotin tether.

    Article Snippet: PAGE-purified oligos were purchased from IDT. ssDNA circles were prepared by annealing 5 μ M phosphorylated template oligo (/5Phos/AG GAG AAA AAG AAA AAA AGA AAA GAA GG) and 4.5 μ M biotinylated primer oligo (5/Biosg/TC TCC TCC TTC T) in 1× T4 ligase reaction buffer (NEB B0202S)., Oligos were heated to 75 °C for 5 min and cooled to 4 °C at a rate of −1 °C min−1 .

    Techniques: Synthesized, End Labeling, Labeling, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification, Flow Cytometry

    Assembly of low complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low complexity ssDNA comprised solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end-labeling. The 3’ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green) coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5’-biotin tether.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Assessing protein dynamics on low complexity single-strand DNA curtains

    doi: 10.1101/376798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assembly of low complexity ssDNA curtains. (A) A phosphorylated template (black) and biotinylated primer (green) are annealed and treated with T4 DNA ligase to make minicircles. Low complexity ssDNA comprised solely of thymidine and cytidine is synthesized via rolling circle replication by phi29 DNAP. (B) Low complexity ssDNA curtains with fluorescent end-labeling. The 3’ end of the ssDNA was labeled with a fluorescent antibody. (C) RPA-GFP (green) coated ssDNA with fluorescent end labeling (magenta). (D) Kymograph of a representative ssDNA in panel (C) with buffer flow on and off, indicating that the ssDNA is anchored to the surface via the 5’-biotin tether.

    Article Snippet: Synthesis and assembly of low-complexity ssDNA curtains PAGE-purified oligos were purchased from IDT. ssDNA circles were prepared by annealing 5 μM phosphorylated template oligo (/5Phos/AG GAG AAA AAG AAA AAA AGA AAA GAA GG) and 4.5 μM biotinylated primer oligo (5/Biosg/TC TCC TCC TTC T) in 1x T4 Ligase Reaction Buffer (NEB B0202S)., Oligos were heated to 75°C for five minutes and cooled to 4°C at a rate of −1°C min−1 .

    Techniques: Synthesized, End Labeling, Labeling, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    Schematic diagram of Pyrite cloning and results. Diagram of Pyrite cloning. An intact plasmid vector and a DNA fragment (purified PCR product) with compatible restriction enzyme sites (RES1 and RES2) are incubated in a single tube together with the restriction enzymes (RE1 and RE2) and T4 DNA ligase. After the Pyrite reaction (incubation condition shown in box), the reaction can be directly transformed into E. coli without purification. Colony PCR will then screen for those colonies containing vectors with inserts

    Journal: Plant Methods

    Article Title: Pyrite cloning: a single tube and programmed reaction cloning with restriction enzymes

    doi: 10.1186/s13007-018-0359-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic diagram of Pyrite cloning and results. Diagram of Pyrite cloning. An intact plasmid vector and a DNA fragment (purified PCR product) with compatible restriction enzyme sites (RES1 and RES2) are incubated in a single tube together with the restriction enzymes (RE1 and RE2) and T4 DNA ligase. After the Pyrite reaction (incubation condition shown in box), the reaction can be directly transformed into E. coli without purification. Colony PCR will then screen for those colonies containing vectors with inserts

    Article Snippet: Any NEB restriction enzyme buffer may be used instead of T4 DNA ligase buffer in the Pyrite reaction so long as it is supplemented with 1 mM ATP.

    Techniques: Clone Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Incubation, Transformation Assay