Structured Review

Millipore β lg
Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or <t>β-LG</t> (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P
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1) Product Images from "Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance"

Article Title: Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance

Journal: PLoS ONE

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022320

Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or β-LG (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or β-LG (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Tolerogenic effect of anti-CD4 treatment is antigen-specific and effective in sensitized animals. (A) BALB/c mice sensitized with OVA-alum or HDM-alum were tolerized to the same antigens on days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigens. (B) Sensitized mice subsequently treated with OVA or HDM under the cover of anti-CD4 showed protection from AHR (n = 8 for OVA, n = 6 to HDM). Data are representative of two independent experiments. (C) Mice were initially sensitized with OVA-alum or β-LG-alum, and tolerized to the same or a different antigen on days 50 and 64. All mice were challenged i.n. with the same antigen used for initial sensitization. (D) Mice treated with a different antigen together with anti-CD4 did not show reduced BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tβ-LG and β-LG > tOVA) while treatment with anti-CD4 and the same antigen used for sensitization showed a significant reduction of BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tOVA and β-LG > tβ-LG; n = 6, *** P
Figure Legend Snippet: Tolerogenic effect of anti-CD4 treatment is antigen-specific and effective in sensitized animals. (A) BALB/c mice sensitized with OVA-alum or HDM-alum were tolerized to the same antigens on days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigens. (B) Sensitized mice subsequently treated with OVA or HDM under the cover of anti-CD4 showed protection from AHR (n = 8 for OVA, n = 6 to HDM). Data are representative of two independent experiments. (C) Mice were initially sensitized with OVA-alum or β-LG-alum, and tolerized to the same or a different antigen on days 50 and 64. All mice were challenged i.n. with the same antigen used for initial sensitization. (D) Mice treated with a different antigen together with anti-CD4 did not show reduced BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tβ-LG and β-LG > tOVA) while treatment with anti-CD4 and the same antigen used for sensitization showed a significant reduction of BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tOVA and β-LG > tβ-LG; n = 6, *** P

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

2) Product Images from "Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies"

Article Title: Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Journal: Nutrients

doi: 10.3390/nu12113390

Immunoreactivity of whey proteins present in milk and in yogurt drinks fermented with different bacterial sets—ELISA results with anti-α-lactalbumin (anti-α-LA; graphs: A – C ) and anti-β-lactoglobulin (anti-β-LG) antibodies (graphs: D – F ). Strain names: TKM3, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus TKM3; DB3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DB3; IB, Lactobacillus plantarum IB; W42, L. plantarum W42; Bi30, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30; J38, B. lactis J38; MK-10, S. thermophilus MK-10; 151, L. bulgaricus 151; 2K, S. thermophilus 2K, BK, L. bulgaricus BK. For the detail explanation of strain compositions, see Table 1 . The results are expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. * The means in the single graph are different from milk fermented with basic starter set (column “alone”) at p ≤ 0.05. # The means in the single graph without this superscript differ from unfermented milk (column “milk”) at p ≤ 0.05. The means marked with a buckle are different at p ≤ 0.05 (the comparison was performed only for the results which were significantly lower from the basic starter (column “alone”). The means for the same combination of added bacteria but different basic starter cultures used for milk fermentation (compared results are shown in three graphs in the horizontal row, i.e., A – C or D – F ) marked with a letter or different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoreactivity of whey proteins present in milk and in yogurt drinks fermented with different bacterial sets—ELISA results with anti-α-lactalbumin (anti-α-LA; graphs: A – C ) and anti-β-lactoglobulin (anti-β-LG) antibodies (graphs: D – F ). Strain names: TKM3, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus TKM3; DB3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DB3; IB, Lactobacillus plantarum IB; W42, L. plantarum W42; Bi30, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30; J38, B. lactis J38; MK-10, S. thermophilus MK-10; 151, L. bulgaricus 151; 2K, S. thermophilus 2K, BK, L. bulgaricus BK. For the detail explanation of strain compositions, see Table 1 . The results are expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. * The means in the single graph are different from milk fermented with basic starter set (column “alone”) at p ≤ 0.05. # The means in the single graph without this superscript differ from unfermented milk (column “milk”) at p ≤ 0.05. The means marked with a buckle are different at p ≤ 0.05 (the comparison was performed only for the results which were significantly lower from the basic starter (column “alone”). The means for the same combination of added bacteria but different basic starter cultures used for milk fermentation (compared results are shown in three graphs in the horizontal row, i.e., A – C or D – F ) marked with a letter or different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Humoral immune response of sensitized mice after four-week of experimental feeding. ELISA results: ( A ) total IgE in serum; ( B ) IgG 1 specific to α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) in serum, terminal specific antibodies endpoint titer (EpT); ( C ) total IgA in serum; ( D ) total IgA in feces. ELISpot results: ( E ) total IgA antibody-forming cells (AFC) in splenocytes; ( F , G ) total IgA AFC specific to milk and α-CN + β-LG, respectively (in splenocytes); ( H ) total IgG AFC in splenocytes. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with the YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with the post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with a buckle are different: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Humoral immune response of sensitized mice after four-week of experimental feeding. ELISA results: ( A ) total IgE in serum; ( B ) IgG 1 specific to α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) in serum, terminal specific antibodies endpoint titer (EpT); ( C ) total IgA in serum; ( D ) total IgA in feces. ELISpot results: ( E ) total IgA antibody-forming cells (AFC) in splenocytes; ( F , G ) total IgA AFC specific to milk and α-CN + β-LG, respectively (in splenocytes); ( H ) total IgG AFC in splenocytes. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with the YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with the post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with a buckle are different: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot

The body weight ( A ) and food intake ( B ) of the mice throughout the study. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented with B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Food intake was measured per cage and calculated per mouse (n = 3 per group). Differences were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA follow by Tukey post-hoc test ( A ) or a Kruskal–Wallis test ( B ). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.
Figure Legend Snippet: The body weight ( A ) and food intake ( B ) of the mice throughout the study. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented with B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Food intake was measured per cage and calculated per mouse (n = 3 per group). Differences were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA follow by Tukey post-hoc test ( A ) or a Kruskal–Wallis test ( B ). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Profile of gut microbiota of the tested mice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns obtained with universal ( A ) and Lactobacillus -specific ( B ) primers. The comparison based on profile similarities calculated using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, dendrogram constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 vol / vol ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Results of identification of the sequenced bands of lactobacilli: (band 1, 3)— Lactobacillus reuteri (98–100% sequence similarity), (band 2, 5, 6)— Lactobacillus gasseri (98%), (band 4)— lactobacillus murinus (98%), (band 7)— Lactobacillus bulgaricus (98).
Figure Legend Snippet: Profile of gut microbiota of the tested mice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns obtained with universal ( A ) and Lactobacillus -specific ( B ) primers. The comparison based on profile similarities calculated using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, dendrogram constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 vol / vol ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Results of identification of the sequenced bands of lactobacilli: (band 1, 3)— Lactobacillus reuteri (98–100% sequence similarity), (band 2, 5, 6)— Lactobacillus gasseri (98%), (band 4)— lactobacillus murinus (98%), (band 7)— Lactobacillus bulgaricus (98).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, Construct, Sequencing

Scheme of the in vivo experiment—mice model. Mice groups: S-YM, mice sensitized via four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG; 200 μg/100 μL) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 ( vol / vol ), which were given intragastric (o.) increasing doses of yogurt drink YM fermented by S. thermophilus 2K and L. bulgaricus BK; S-YM-LB, sensitized mice, which were given yogurt drink YM-LB fermented by S. thermophilus 2K, L. bulgaricus BK, B. lactis Bi30 and L. plantarum W42; S-M, sensitized mice given milk; S-PBS, sensitized mice given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).
Figure Legend Snippet: Scheme of the in vivo experiment—mice model. Mice groups: S-YM, mice sensitized via four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG; 200 μg/100 μL) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 ( vol / vol ), which were given intragastric (o.) increasing doses of yogurt drink YM fermented by S. thermophilus 2K and L. bulgaricus BK; S-YM-LB, sensitized mice, which were given yogurt drink YM-LB fermented by S. thermophilus 2K, L. bulgaricus BK, B. lactis Bi30 and L. plantarum W42; S-M, sensitized mice given milk; S-PBS, sensitized mice given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).

Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Injection

Cytokines secreted by lymphocytes isolated from the tested mice and co-cultured in vitro with α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) or milk. ( A , D , G , J ) lymphocytes isolated from Peyer’s patches (PPs) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( B , E , H , K ) lymphocytes isolated from spleens (SPL) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( C , F , I , L ) lymphocytes isolated from SPL co-cultured with milk. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG—200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines secreted by lymphocytes isolated from the tested mice and co-cultured in vitro with α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) or milk. ( A , D , G , J ) lymphocytes isolated from Peyer’s patches (PPs) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( B , E , H , K ) lymphocytes isolated from spleens (SPL) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( C , F , I , L ) lymphocytes isolated from SPL co-cultured with milk. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG—200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used: Isolation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, In Vitro

3) Product Images from "Data for β-lactoglobulin conformational analysis after (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and metal ions binding"

Article Title: Data for β-lactoglobulin conformational analysis after (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and metal ions binding

Journal: Data in Brief

doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2016.12.021

(A) CD spectra of  β -Lg-EGCg system. a, (25 µM  β -Lg), b (25 µM EGCg); (B) CD spectra of  β -Lg-Cu system. a, (25 µM  β -Lg),  c (Cu 2+ ): a (0), b (100 µM), c (200 µM), d (300 µM), e (400 µM), f (500 µM); (C) CD spectra of  β -Lg-Al system. a (25 µM  β -Lg),  c (Al 3+ ): a (0), b (100 µM), c (200 µM), d (300 µM), e (400 µM).
Figure Legend Snippet: (A) CD spectra of β -Lg-EGCg system. a, (25 µM β -Lg), b (25 µM EGCg); (B) CD spectra of β -Lg-Cu system. a, (25 µM β -Lg), c (Cu 2+ ): a (0), b (100 µM), c (200 µM), d (300 µM), e (400 µM), f (500 µM); (C) CD spectra of β -Lg-Al system. a (25 µM β -Lg), c (Al 3+ ): a (0), b (100 µM), c (200 µM), d (300 µM), e (400 µM).

Techniques Used:

4) Product Images from "Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies"

Article Title: Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Journal: Nutrients

doi: 10.3390/nu12113390

Immunoreactivity of whey proteins present in milk and in yogurt drinks fermented with different bacterial sets—ELISA results with anti-α-lactalbumin (anti-α-LA; graphs: A – C ) and anti-β-lactoglobulin (anti-β-LG) antibodies (graphs: D – F ). Strain names: TKM3, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus TKM3; DB3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DB3; IB, Lactobacillus plantarum IB; W42, L. plantarum W42; Bi30, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30; J38, B. lactis J38; MK-10, S. thermophilus MK-10; 151, L. bulgaricus 151; 2K, S. thermophilus 2K, BK, L. bulgaricus BK. For the detail explanation of strain compositions, see Table 1 . The results are expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. * The means in the single graph are different from milk fermented with basic starter set (column “alone”) at p ≤ 0.05. # The means in the single graph without this superscript differ from unfermented milk (column “milk”) at p ≤ 0.05. The means marked with a buckle are different at p ≤ 0.05 (the comparison was performed only for the results which were significantly lower from the basic starter (column “alone”). The means for the same combination of added bacteria but different basic starter cultures used for milk fermentation (compared results are shown in three graphs in the horizontal row, i.e., A – C or D – F ) marked with a letter or different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Immunoreactivity of whey proteins present in milk and in yogurt drinks fermented with different bacterial sets—ELISA results with anti-α-lactalbumin (anti-α-LA; graphs: A – C ) and anti-β-lactoglobulin (anti-β-LG) antibodies (graphs: D – F ). Strain names: TKM3, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus TKM3; DB3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DB3; IB, Lactobacillus plantarum IB; W42, L. plantarum W42; Bi30, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30; J38, B. lactis J38; MK-10, S. thermophilus MK-10; 151, L. bulgaricus 151; 2K, S. thermophilus 2K, BK, L. bulgaricus BK. For the detail explanation of strain compositions, see Table 1 . The results are expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by t test. * The means in the single graph are different from milk fermented with basic starter set (column “alone”) at p ≤ 0.05. # The means in the single graph without this superscript differ from unfermented milk (column “milk”) at p ≤ 0.05. The means marked with a buckle are different at p ≤ 0.05 (the comparison was performed only for the results which were significantly lower from the basic starter (column “alone”). The means for the same combination of added bacteria but different basic starter cultures used for milk fermentation (compared results are shown in three graphs in the horizontal row, i.e., A – C or D – F ) marked with a letter or different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

Humoral immune response of sensitized mice after four-week of experimental feeding. ELISA results: ( A ) total IgE in serum; ( B ) IgG 1 specific to α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) in serum, terminal specific antibodies endpoint titer (EpT); ( C ) total IgA in serum; ( D ) total IgA in feces. ELISpot results: ( E ) total IgA antibody-forming cells (AFC) in splenocytes; ( F , G ) total IgA AFC specific to milk and α-CN + β-LG, respectively (in splenocytes); ( H ) total IgG AFC in splenocytes. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with the YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with the post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with a buckle are different: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001.
Figure Legend Snippet: Humoral immune response of sensitized mice after four-week of experimental feeding. ELISA results: ( A ) total IgE in serum; ( B ) IgG 1 specific to α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) in serum, terminal specific antibodies endpoint titer (EpT); ( C ) total IgA in serum; ( D ) total IgA in feces. ELISpot results: ( E ) total IgA antibody-forming cells (AFC) in splenocytes; ( F , G ) total IgA AFC specific to milk and α-CN + β-LG, respectively (in splenocytes); ( H ) total IgG AFC in splenocytes. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with the YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with the post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with a buckle are different: * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunospot

The body weight ( A ) and food intake ( B ) of the mice throughout the study. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented with B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Food intake was measured per cage and calculated per mouse (n = 3 per group). Differences were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA follow by Tukey post-hoc test ( A ) or a Kruskal–Wallis test ( B ). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.
Figure Legend Snippet: The body weight ( A ) and food intake ( B ) of the mice throughout the study. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented with B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Food intake was measured per cage and calculated per mouse (n = 3 per group). Differences were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA follow by Tukey post-hoc test ( A ) or a Kruskal–Wallis test ( B ). Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay

Profile of gut microbiota of the tested mice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns obtained with universal ( A ) and Lactobacillus -specific ( B ) primers. The comparison based on profile similarities calculated using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, dendrogram constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 vol / vol ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Results of identification of the sequenced bands of lactobacilli: (band 1, 3)— Lactobacillus reuteri (98–100% sequence similarity), (band 2, 5, 6)— Lactobacillus gasseri (98%), (band 4)— lactobacillus murinus (98%), (band 7)— Lactobacillus bulgaricus (98).
Figure Legend Snippet: Profile of gut microbiota of the tested mice. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns obtained with universal ( A ) and Lactobacillus -specific ( B ) primers. The comparison based on profile similarities calculated using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient, dendrogram constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG −200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 vol / vol ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Results of identification of the sequenced bands of lactobacilli: (band 1, 3)— Lactobacillus reuteri (98–100% sequence similarity), (band 2, 5, 6)— Lactobacillus gasseri (98%), (band 4)— lactobacillus murinus (98%), (band 7)— Lactobacillus bulgaricus (98).

Techniques Used: Mouse Assay, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, Construct, Sequencing

Scheme of the in vivo experiment—mice model. Mice groups: S-YM, mice sensitized via four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG; 200 μg/100 μL) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 ( vol / vol ), which were given intragastric (o.) increasing doses of yogurt drink YM fermented by S. thermophilus 2K and L. bulgaricus BK; S-YM-LB, sensitized mice, which were given yogurt drink YM-LB fermented by S. thermophilus 2K, L. bulgaricus BK, B. lactis Bi30 and L. plantarum W42; S-M, sensitized mice given milk; S-PBS, sensitized mice given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).
Figure Legend Snippet: Scheme of the in vivo experiment—mice model. Mice groups: S-YM, mice sensitized via four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of a mixture of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG; 200 μg/100 μL) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 ( vol / vol ), which were given intragastric (o.) increasing doses of yogurt drink YM fermented by S. thermophilus 2K and L. bulgaricus BK; S-YM-LB, sensitized mice, which were given yogurt drink YM-LB fermented by S. thermophilus 2K, L. bulgaricus BK, B. lactis Bi30 and L. plantarum W42; S-M, sensitized mice given milk; S-PBS, sensitized mice given phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).

Techniques Used: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Injection

Cytokines secreted by lymphocytes isolated from the tested mice and co-cultured in vitro with α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) or milk. ( A , D , G , J ) lymphocytes isolated from Peyer’s patches (PPs) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( B , E , H , K ) lymphocytes isolated from spleens (SPL) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( C , F , I , L ) lymphocytes isolated from SPL co-cultured with milk. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG—200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.
Figure Legend Snippet: Cytokines secreted by lymphocytes isolated from the tested mice and co-cultured in vitro with α-casein + β-lactoglobulin (α-CN + β-LG) or milk. ( A , D , G , J ) lymphocytes isolated from Peyer’s patches (PPs) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( B , E , H , K ) lymphocytes isolated from spleens (SPL) co-cultured with α-CN + β-LG; ( C , F , I , L ) lymphocytes isolated from SPL co-cultured with milk. Mice groups: S-PBS—sensitized with milk allergens (α-CN + β-LG—200 μg of protein/100 μL of mixture) with aluminum adjuvant (1:1 v / v ) and treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), S-M—sensitized and treated with milk, S-YM—sensitized and treated with YM yogurt drink fermented with S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK starter set, S-YM-LB—sensitized and treated with YM-LB yogurt drink fermented B. lactis Bi30 + L. plantarum W42 + S. thermophilus 2K + L. bulgaricus BK bacterial set. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. The means marked with different letters differ at p ≤ 0.05.

Techniques Used: Isolation, Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, In Vitro

5) Product Images from "Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients' sera"

Article Title: Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients' sera

Journal: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications

doi: 10.2147/NSA.S12926

GCC flocculation can be avoided by increasing the amount of GCC solution, which was incubated with pc-antiperoxidase Ab to produce GCC-labeled Ab. A ) GCC flocculation can be avoided by addition of protein G to the GCC solution before incubation with the Ab. B ) No color reaction was observed by dotted β-LG protein (negative control). Abbreviation: β-LG, β-lactoglobulin.
Figure Legend Snippet: GCC flocculation can be avoided by increasing the amount of GCC solution, which was incubated with pc-antiperoxidase Ab to produce GCC-labeled Ab. A ) GCC flocculation can be avoided by addition of protein G to the GCC solution before incubation with the Ab. B ) No color reaction was observed by dotted β-LG protein (negative control). Abbreviation: β-LG, β-lactoglobulin.

Techniques Used: Flocculation, Incubation, Labeling, Negative Control

Positive signal of detected β-LG using the GCC labeling method on NC membranes.
Figure Legend Snippet: Positive signal of detected β-LG using the GCC labeling method on NC membranes.

Techniques Used: Labeling

6) Product Images from "Safety evaluation of the antimicrobial peptide bovicin HC5 orally administered to a murine model"

Article Title: Safety evaluation of the antimicrobial peptide bovicin HC5 orally administered to a murine model

Journal: BMC Microbiology

doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-69

Concentration of β-lactoglobulin in animal sera from treatment groups. Upon an intragastrically dose of β-LG, blood was collected at the indicated time points and the levels of β-LG in mice sera were determined by FPLC. The results are shown as the average of β-LG concentration detected in a pool of animal’s sera from each experimental group (N = 8 mice per group), in two independent experiments. (NC) negative control group; (Bov) mice treated with bovicin HC5; (PC) positive control group.
Figure Legend Snippet: Concentration of β-lactoglobulin in animal sera from treatment groups. Upon an intragastrically dose of β-LG, blood was collected at the indicated time points and the levels of β-LG in mice sera were determined by FPLC. The results are shown as the average of β-LG concentration detected in a pool of animal’s sera from each experimental group (N = 8 mice per group), in two independent experiments. (NC) negative control group; (Bov) mice treated with bovicin HC5; (PC) positive control group.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay, Mouse Assay, Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, Negative Control, Positive Control

7) Product Images from "An Electrochemical Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensor for Rapid β-Lactoglobulin Detection"

Article Title: An Electrochemical Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensor for Rapid β-Lactoglobulin Detection

Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

doi: 10.3390/s21248240

Characterization of the modified electrode. ( A ) CV curves (a: After washed; b: After incubation with β-Lg; c: Before washed); ( B ) EIS curves.
Figure Legend Snippet: Characterization of the modified electrode. ( A ) CV curves (a: After washed; b: After incubation with β-Lg; c: Before washed); ( B ) EIS curves.

Techniques Used: Modification, Incubation, Impedance Spectroscopy

Analytical performance of the electrochemical sensor ( A ): DPV responses of the electrochemical sensor after incubation with different concentrations of β-Lg; ( B ): The calibration curve of the electrochemical sensor.
Figure Legend Snippet: Analytical performance of the electrochemical sensor ( A ): DPV responses of the electrochemical sensor after incubation with different concentrations of β-Lg; ( B ): The calibration curve of the electrochemical sensor.

Techniques Used: Incubation

The influence of different factors on the performance of electrochemical sensor to detect β-Lg: ( A ): Template dosage; ( B ): Elution time; ( C ): Material concentration.
Figure Legend Snippet: The influence of different factors on the performance of electrochemical sensor to detect β-Lg: ( A ): Template dosage; ( B ): Elution time; ( C ): Material concentration.

Techniques Used: Concentration Assay

8) Product Images from "An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold-Nanocluster-Modified Graphene Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of β-Lactoglobulin in Milk"

Article Title: An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold-Nanocluster-Modified Graphene Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Detection of β-Lactoglobulin in Milk

Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

doi: 10.3390/s20143956

Optimization conditions for β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) detection using the electrochemical assay: ( A , B ) the titration volume (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 μL) of PEI-rGO-AuNCs used to modify the electrode; ( C , D ) the incubation time (10, 15, 25, 35, 45, or 55 min) of the PEI-rGO-AuNCs electrode with β-Lg standards (0.025 ng/mL).
Figure Legend Snippet: Optimization conditions for β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) detection using the electrochemical assay: ( A , B ) the titration volume (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 μL) of PEI-rGO-AuNCs used to modify the electrode; ( C , D ) the incubation time (10, 15, 25, 35, 45, or 55 min) of the PEI-rGO-AuNCs electrode with β-Lg standards (0.025 ng/mL).

Techniques Used: Titration, Incubation

Results of ( A ) reproducibility, ( B ) specificity (0.025 ng/mL β-Lg, ovalbumin, BSA, casein, lysozyme), and ( C ) stability study on the electrochemical sensor.
Figure Legend Snippet: Results of ( A ) reproducibility, ( B ) specificity (0.025 ng/mL β-Lg, ovalbumin, BSA, casein, lysozyme), and ( C ) stability study on the electrochemical sensor.

Techniques Used:

( A ) Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) responses of the proposed electrochemical sensors after incubation with different concentrations of β-Lg (b0 = 0 ng/mL, b1 = 0.01 ng/mL, b2 = 0.1 ng/mL, b3 = 1 ng/mL, b4 = 10 ng/mL, and b5 = 100 ng/mL). ( B ) The calibration curve of the developed electrochemical sensors for β-Lg.
Figure Legend Snippet: ( A ) Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) responses of the proposed electrochemical sensors after incubation with different concentrations of β-Lg (b0 = 0 ng/mL, b1 = 0.01 ng/mL, b2 = 0.1 ng/mL, b3 = 1 ng/mL, b4 = 10 ng/mL, and b5 = 100 ng/mL). ( B ) The calibration curve of the developed electrochemical sensors for β-Lg.

Techniques Used: Incubation

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    Millipore β lg
    Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or <t>β-LG</t> (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P
    β Lg, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) <t>lovastatin</t> group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.
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    Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or β-LG (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mice treated with anti-CD4 are competent to respond to unrelated antigens. (A) Mice initially tolerized to OVA or β-LG (as described in previous figures) were sensitized i.p. with a different antigen at days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigen used at day 50. (B) Only animals tolerized to the same antigen used for sensitization at day 50 were protected from BAL eosinophilia (n = 6, *** P

    Article Snippet: Animals were sensitized, at the times described in the text, by i.p. injection of 20 µg in 2.0 mg of endotoxin-free aluminum hydroxide (Alu-gel-S, Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) of OVA or β-LG (Sigma, St Louis, USA) previously run through a DetoxyGel column (Pierce, Rockford, USA), or HDM extract (Greer, Lenoir, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Tolerogenic effect of anti-CD4 treatment is antigen-specific and effective in sensitized animals. (A) BALB/c mice sensitized with OVA-alum or HDM-alum were tolerized to the same antigens on days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigens. (B) Sensitized mice subsequently treated with OVA or HDM under the cover of anti-CD4 showed protection from AHR (n = 8 for OVA, n = 6 to HDM). Data are representative of two independent experiments. (C) Mice were initially sensitized with OVA-alum or β-LG-alum, and tolerized to the same or a different antigen on days 50 and 64. All mice were challenged i.n. with the same antigen used for initial sensitization. (D) Mice treated with a different antigen together with anti-CD4 did not show reduced BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tβ-LG and β-LG > tOVA) while treatment with anti-CD4 and the same antigen used for sensitization showed a significant reduction of BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tOVA and β-LG > tβ-LG; n = 6, *** P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022320

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tolerogenic effect of anti-CD4 treatment is antigen-specific and effective in sensitized animals. (A) BALB/c mice sensitized with OVA-alum or HDM-alum were tolerized to the same antigens on days 50 and 64, and challenged i.n. with the same antigens. (B) Sensitized mice subsequently treated with OVA or HDM under the cover of anti-CD4 showed protection from AHR (n = 8 for OVA, n = 6 to HDM). Data are representative of two independent experiments. (C) Mice were initially sensitized with OVA-alum or β-LG-alum, and tolerized to the same or a different antigen on days 50 and 64. All mice were challenged i.n. with the same antigen used for initial sensitization. (D) Mice treated with a different antigen together with anti-CD4 did not show reduced BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tβ-LG and β-LG > tOVA) while treatment with anti-CD4 and the same antigen used for sensitization showed a significant reduction of BAL eosinophilia (OVA > tOVA and β-LG > tβ-LG; n = 6, *** P

    Article Snippet: Animals were sensitized, at the times described in the text, by i.p. injection of 20 µg in 2.0 mg of endotoxin-free aluminum hydroxide (Alu-gel-S, Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) of OVA or β-LG (Sigma, St Louis, USA) previously run through a DetoxyGel column (Pierce, Rockford, USA), or HDM extract (Greer, Lenoir, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of emulsifier types on emulsification at 60 °C with microchannel plate type A (MC-A, see Section 3.2 .) using ( a ) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ( b ) hexaglycerin monolaulate (HGML), ( c,d ) Tween 80, ( e ) sodium caseinate (SC), ( f ) β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and ( g ) skimmed milk powder. The concentration of each emulsifier was 3 wt%.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Protein-Stabilized Palm-Oil-in-Water Emulsification Using Microchannel Array Devices under Controlled Temperature

    doi: 10.3390/molecules25204805

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of emulsifier types on emulsification at 60 °C with microchannel plate type A (MC-A, see Section 3.2 .) using ( a ) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ( b ) hexaglycerin monolaulate (HGML), ( c,d ) Tween 80, ( e ) sodium caseinate (SC), ( f ) β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and ( g ) skimmed milk powder. The concentration of each emulsifier was 3 wt%.

    Article Snippet: ChemicalsPalm oil (refined, analytical standard grade), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from bovine milk (≧85%, lyophilized powder), and calcein were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Results obtained by chemometric analysis of the bidimensional QCL-IR data set of case study II. (A) Spectral and (B) time-dependent concentration profiles retrieved by chemometric analysis. The obtained concentration profiles (thin) were smoothed by a Savitzky–Golay filter (thick). (C) Reference laser-based IR spectra of HRP, β-LG, α-CT, and Myo. (D) Protein concentrations obtained by in-line QCL-IR analysis (lines) and off-line reference HPLC analytics (bars).

    Journal: Analytical Chemistry

    Article Title: Application of Quantum Cascade Laser-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for In-Line Discrimination of Coeluting Proteins from Preparative Size Exclusion Chromatography

    doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.2c01542

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Results obtained by chemometric analysis of the bidimensional QCL-IR data set of case study II. (A) Spectral and (B) time-dependent concentration profiles retrieved by chemometric analysis. The obtained concentration profiles (thin) were smoothed by a Savitzky–Golay filter (thick). (C) Reference laser-based IR spectra of HRP, β-LG, α-CT, and Myo. (D) Protein concentrations obtained by in-line QCL-IR analysis (lines) and off-line reference HPLC analytics (bars).

    Article Snippet: Ovalbumin (Ova, ≥90%), α-chymotrypsinogen A (α-CT) from bovine pancreas, myoglobin (Myo) from equine skeletal muscle (≥95%), horseradish peroxidase type VI-A (HRP), and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from bovine milk (≥90%) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques:

    Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques:

    Endothelin-1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ g roup; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endothelin-1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ g roup; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques:

    Optical microscopy morphological observation of the carotid artery (magnification, ×400). (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Optical microscopy morphological observation of the carotid artery (magnification, ×400). (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques: Microscopy

    Morphological observation of the carotid artery with the naked eye. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphological observation of the carotid artery with the naked eye. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques:

    Na + /H + exchanger-1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2774

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Na + /H + exchanger-1 content in the vascular tissue. (A) Normal control group; (B) vehicle group; (C) model group; (D) lovastatin group; (E) Zhibituo group; (F) low-dose XMJ group; (G) medium-dose XMJ group; (H) high-dose XMJ group. XMJ, Xin Mai Jia. Magnification, ×400.

    Article Snippet: The Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6): i) Normal control (NC); ii) vehicle control (VC; oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ); iii) model group (MG); iv) lovastatin group (LG) [oral administration of 2.4 mg/kg/day lovastatin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA)]; v) Zhibituo group (ZG) [oral administration of 0.3125 g/kg/day Zhibituo (Diao Jiuhong Pharmaceutical Industry, Chengdu, China); positive control]; vi) low-dose XMJ group (LXG) (oral administration of 0.2184 g/kg/day XMJ); vii) medium-dose XMJ group (MXG) (oral administration of 0.69 g/kg/day XMJ) and viii) high-dose XMJ group (HXG) (oral administration of 2.1804 g/kg/day XMJ).

    Techniques: